Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 622

Search results for: bulk heterojunction

622 Photovoltaic Performance of AgInSe2-Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Systems

Authors: Dinesh Pathaka, Tomas Wagnera, J. M. Nunzib

Abstract:

We investigated blends of MdPVV.PCBM.AIS for photovoltaic application. AgInSe2 powder was synthesized by sealing and heating the stoichiometric constituents in evacuated quartz tube ampule. Fine grinded AIS powder was dispersed in MD-MOPVV and PCBM with and without surfactant. Different concentrations of these particles were suspended in the polymer solutions and spin casted onto ITO glass. Morphological studies have been performed by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. The blend layers were also investigated by various techniques like XRD, UV-VIS optical spectroscopy, AFM, PL, after a series of various optimizations with polymers/concentration/deposition/ suspension/surfactants etc. XRD investigation of blend layers shows clear evidence of AIS dispersion in polymers. Diode behavior and cell parameters also revealed it. Bulk heterojunction hybrid photovoltaic device Ag/MoO3/MdPVV.PCBM.AIS/ZnO/ITO was fabricated and tested with standard solar simulator and device characterization system. The best performance and photovoltaic parameters we obtained was an open-circuit voltage of about Voc 0.54 V and a photocurrent of Isc 117 micro A and an efficiency of 0.2 percent using a white light illumination intensity of 23 mW/cm2. Our results are encouraging for further research on the fourth generation inorganic organic hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaics for energy. More optimization with spinning rate/thickness/solvents/deposition rates for active layers etc. need to be explored for improved photovoltaic response of these bulk heterojunction devices.

Keywords: thin films, photovoltaic, hybrid systems, heterojunction

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621 Different Cathode Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Radia Kamel

Abstract:

Considerable progress has been made in the development of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of p-type and n-type organic semiconductors. To optimize the interfacial properties between the active layer and the electrode, a cathode buffer layer (CBL) is introduced. This layer can reduce the leakage current, increasing the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor while improving the OSC stability. In this work, the performance of PM6:Y6 OSC with 1-Chloronaphthalene as an additive is examined. To accomplish this, three CBLs PNDIT-F3N-Br, ZrAcac, and PDINO, are compared using the conventional configuration. The device with PNDIT-F3N-Br as CBL exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.04%. The results demonstrate that modifying the cathode buffer layer is crucial for achieving high-performance OSCs.

Keywords: bulk heterojunction, cathode buffer layer, efficiency, organic solar cells

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620 Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells Using Metallic Nanoparticles

Authors: Sankara Rao Gollu, Ramakant Sharma, G. Srinivas, Souvik Kundu, Dipti Gupta

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In recent years, bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) based on polymer–fullerene attracted a large research attention due to their numerous advantages such as light weight, easy processability, eco-friendly, low-cost, and capability for large area roll-to-roll manufacturing. BHJ OSCs usually suffer from insufficient light absorption due to restriction on keeping thin ( < 150 nm) photoactive layer because of small exciton diffusion length ( ~ 10 nm) and low charge carrier mobilities. It is thus highly desirable that light absorption as well as charge transport properties are enhanced by alternative methods so as to improve the device efficiency. In this work, therefore, we have focused on the strategy of incorporating metallic nanostructures in the active layer or charge transport layer to enhance the absorption and improve the charge transport.

Keywords: organic solar cell, efficiency, bulk heterojunction, polymer-fullerene

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619 Low Temperature Solution Processed Solar Cell Based on ITO/PbS/PbS:Bi3+ Heterojunction

Authors: M. Chavez, H. Juarez, M. Pacio, O. Portillo

Abstract:

PbS chemical bath heterojunction sollar cells have shown significant improvements in performance. Here we demonstrate a solar cell based on the heterojunction formed between PbS layer and PbS:Bi3+ thin films that are deposited via solution process at 40°C. The device achieve an current density of 4 mA/cm2. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: PbS doped, Bismuth, solar cell, thin films

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618 Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Monishka Narayan, Jai Singh

Abstract:

One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.

Keywords: charge carrier density, open-circuit voltage, organic solar cells, temperature

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617 Simulation and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics Using Physics Based Tool

Authors: T. A. Shahul Hameed, P. Predeep, Anju Iqbal, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

Research and development in organic photovoltaic cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes have gained wider acceptance due to the advent of many advanced techniques to enhance the efficiency and operational hours. Here we report our work on design, simulation and characterizationracterize the bulk heterojunction organic photo cell and polymer light emitting diodes in different layer configurations using ATLAS, a licensed device simulation tool. Bulk heterojuction and multilayer devices were simulated for comparing their performance parameters.

Keywords: HOMO, LUMO, PLED, OPV

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616 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Some Selected Dye-Functionalized P and N-Type Nanoparticles in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Arifa Batool, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Syed Mujtaba Shah

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Inorganic n-type (TiO2, CdO) and p-type (NiO, CuO) metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method at room temperature. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD analysis, UV/Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. All semiconducting nanoparticles were photosensitized with Ru (II) based Z907 dye in ethanol solvent by grafting. Grafting of dye on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV/Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. The synthesized photo-active nanohybrid was thoroughly blended with P3HT, a solid electrolyte and I-V measurements under solar stimulated radiations 1000 W/m2 (AM 1.5) were recorded. Maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 0.9% was achieved with dye functionalized Z907-TiO2 hybrid, IPCE of 0.72% was achieved with bulk-heterojunction of TiO2-Z907-CuO and IPCE of 0.68% was attained with nanocomposite of TiO2-CdO. TiO2 based Solar cells have maximum Jscvalue i.e.4.63 mA/cm2. Dye-functionalized TiO2-based photovoltaic devices were found more efficient than the reference device but the morphology of the device was a major check in progress.

Keywords: solar cell, bulk heterojunction, nanocomposites, photosensitization, dye sensitized solar cell

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615 Sun-Light Driven Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline Antibiotics Employing Hydrothermally Synthesized sno₂/mnv₂o₆ Heterojunction

Authors: Sandeep Kaushal

Abstract:

Tetracycline (TC) is a widespread antibiotic that is utilised in a multitude of countries, particularly China, India, and the United States of America, due to its low cost and potency in boosting livestock production. Unfortunately, certain antibiotics can be hazardous to living beings due to metal complexation and aggregation, which can lead to teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. Heterojunction photocatalysts are promising for the effective removal of pollutants like antibiotics. Herein, a simple, economical, and pollution-less hydrothermal technique was used to construct SnO₂/MnV₂O₆heterojunction with varying amounts of tin dioxide (SO₂). Various sophisticated techniques like XRD, FTIR, XPS, FESEM, HRTEM, and PLand Raman spectroscopy demonstrated the successful synthesis of SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction photocatalysts.BET surface area analysis revealed that the as-synthesized heterojunction has a favorable surface area and surface properties for efficacious degradation of tetracycline. Under the direct sunlight exposure, the SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction possessed superior photodegradation activity toward TC than the pristine SnO₂ and MnV2O6owing to their excellent adsorption abilities suitable band positions, large surface areas along with the effective charge-transfer ability of the heterojunction. The SnO₂/MnV₂O₆ heterojunction possessed extraordinary efficiency for the photocatalytic degradation of TC antibiotic (98% in 60 min) with an apparent rate constant of 0.092 min–1. In the degradation experiments, photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized heterojunction were studied by varying different factors such as time contact, catalyst dose, and solution pH. The role of reactive species in antibiotics was validated by radical scavenging studies, which indicated that.OH, radical has a critical role in photocatalytic degradation. Moreover, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) investigations were employed to anticipate a plausible mechanism for TC degradation.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, tetracycline, heterojunction, LC-MS

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614 Influence of Photophysical Parameters of Photoactive Materials on Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Douglas Yeboah, Jai Singh

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It has been experimentally demonstrated that exciton diffusion length in organic solids can be improved by fine-tuning the material parameters that govern exciton transfer. Here, a theoretical study is carried out to support this finding. We have therefore derived expressions for the exciton diffusion length and diffusion coefficient of singlet and triplet excitons using Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms and are plotted as a function of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield, spectral overlap integral, refractive index and dipole moment of the photoactive material. We found that singlet exciton diffusion length increases with PL quantum yield and spectral overlap integral, and decreases with increase in refractive index. Likewise, the triplet exciton diffusion length increases when PL quantum yield increases and dipole moment decreases. The calculated diffusion lengths in different organic materials are compared with existing experimental values and found to be in reasonable agreement. The results are expected to provide insight in developing new organic materials for fabricating bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) with better photoconversion efficiency.

Keywords: Dexter carrier transfer, diffusion coefficient, exciton diffusion length, Föster resonance energy transfer, photoactive materials, photophysical parameters

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613 Theoretical Analysis of Graded Interface CdS/CIGS Solar Cell

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Dennai Benmoussa, Abderrachid Helmaoui

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We have theoretically calculated the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a graded interface CdS/CIGS solar cell, which can be experimentally fabricated. Because the conduction band discontinuity or spike in an abrupt heterojunction CdS/CIGS solar cell can hinder the separation of hole-electron by electric field, a graded interface layer is uses to eliminate the spike and reduces recombination in space charge region. This paper describes the role of the graded band gap interface layer in decreasing the performance of the heterojunction cell. By optimizing the thickness of the graded region, an improvement of conversion efficiency has been observed in comparison to the conventional CIGS system.

Keywords: heterojunction, solar cell, graded interface, CIGS

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612 Temperature Dependent Current-Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of CuO-ZnO Nanorods Based Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Venkatesan Annadurai, Kannan Ethirajalu, Anu Roshini Ramakrishnan

Abstract:

Copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) based coaxial (CuO-ZnO nanorods) heterojunction has been the interest of various research communities for solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors applications. Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type material with the band gap of 1.5 eV and it is considered to be an attractive absorber material in solar cells applications due to its high absorption coefficient and long minority carrier diffusion length. Similarly, n-type ZnO nanorods possess many attractive advantages over thin films such as, the light trapping ability and photosensitivity owing to the presence of oxygen related hole-traps at the surface. Moreover, the abundant availability, non-toxicity, and inexpensiveness of these materials make them suitable for potentially cheap, large area, and stable photovoltaic applications. However, the efficiency of the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction based devices is greatly affected by interface defects which generally lead to the poor performance. In spite of having much potential, not much work has been carried out to understand the interface quality and transport mechanism involved across the CuO-ZnO nanorods heterojunction. Therefore, a detailed investigation of CuO-ZnO heterojunction is needed to understand the interface which affects its photovoltaic performance. Herein, we have fabricated the CuO-ZnO nanorods based heterojunction by simple hydrothermal and electrodeposition technique and investigated its interface quality by carrying out temperature (300 –10 K) dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements under dark and illumination of visible light. Activation energies extracted from the temperature dependent I-V characteristics reveals that recombination and tunneling mechanism across the interfacial barrier plays a significant role in the current flow.

Keywords: heterojunction, electrical transport, nanorods, solar cells

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611 Mott Transition in the VO2/LSCO Heterojunction

Authors: Yi Hu, Chun-Chi Lin, Shau-En Yeh, Shin Lee

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In this study, p–n heterojunctions with La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (LSCO) and W-doped VO2 thin films were fabricated by the radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering technique and sol-gel process, respectively. The thickness of VO2 and LSCO thin films are about 40 nm and 400 nm, respectively. Good crystalline match between LSCO and VO2 films was observed from the SEM. The built-in voltages for the junction are about 1.1 V and 2.3 V for the sample in the metallic and insulating state, respectively. The sample can undergo the current induced MIT during applying field when the sample was heated at 40 and 50ºC. This is in agreement with the value obtained from the difference in the work functions of LSCO and VO2. The band structure of the heterojunction was proposed based on the results of analysis.

Keywords: hetrojection, Mott transition, switching , VO2

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610 Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Photocatalytic Degradation Using Heterojunction Semiconductors

Authors: Ksenija Milošević, Davor Lončarević, Tihana Mudrinić, Jasmina Dostanić

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Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes have gained growing interest as an efficient method to generate hydrogen by using clean energy sources and degrading various organic pollutants. The main obstacles that restrict efficient photoactivity are narrow light-response range and high rates of charge carrier recombination. The formation of heterojunction by combining a semiconductor with low VB and a semiconductor with high CB and a suitable band gap was found to be an efficient method to prepare more sensible materials with improved charge separation, appropriate oxidation and reduction ability, and enhanced visible-light harvesting. In our research, various binary heterojunction systems based on the wide-band gap (TiO₂) and narrow bandgap (g-C₃N₄, CuO, and Co₂O₃) photocatalyst were studied. The morphology, optical, and electrochemical properties of the photocatalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), N₂ physisorption, diffuse reflectance measurements (DRS), and Mott-Schottky analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized catalysts was tested in single and simultaneous systems. The synthesized photocatalysts displayed good adsorption capacity and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. The mutual interactions of pollutants on their adsorption and degradation efficiency were investigated. The interfacial connection between photocatalyst constituents and the mechanism of the transport pathway of photogenerated charge species was discussed. A radical scavenger study revealed the interaction mechanisms of the photocatalyst constituents in single and multiple pollutant systems under solar and visible light irradiation, indicating the type of heterojunction system (Z scheme or type II).

Keywords: bandgap alignment, heterojunction, photocatalysis, reaction mechanism

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609 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel

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In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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608 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

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Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film

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607 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

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This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco

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606 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan

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The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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605 Comparison of Depth of Cure and Degree of Conversion between Opus Bulk Fill and X-Tra Fill Bulk Fill Composites

Authors: Yasaman Samani, Ali Golmohammadi

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Introduction: The degree of conversion and depth of cure affects the clinical success of resin composite restorations directly. One of the main challenges in achieving a successful composite restoration is the achievement of sufficient depth of cure. The insufficient polymerization may lead to a decrease in the physical/mechanical and biological properties of resin composites and, as a result of that, unsuccessful composite restoration. Thus, because of the importance of studying and evaluating the depth of cure and degree of conversion in bulk-fill composites, we decided to evaluate and compare the degree of conversion and depth of cure in two bulk-fill composites; x-tra fill (Voco, Germany) and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil). Materials and Methods: Composite resin specimens (n=10) per group were prepared as cylinder blocks (4×8 mm) with bulk-fill composites, x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) designated as Group A, and Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) designated as Group B. Depth of cure was determined according to “ISO 4049; Depth of Cure” method, In which each specimen were cured (iLED, Woodpecker, China) 40 seconds and FTIR spectroscopy method was used to estimate the degree of conversion of both the bulk-fill composites. The degree of conversion of monomer to polymer was estimated individually in the coronal half (Group A1 and B1) and pulpal half (Group A2 and Group B2) by dividing each specimen into two halves. The data were analyzed using a Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. Results: The mean depth of cure in x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) was 3.99 (±0.16), and for Opus Bulk fill, APS (FGM, Brazil) was 2.14 (±0.3). The degree of conversion percentage in Group A1 was 82.7 (±6.1), in group A2 was 73.4 (±5.2), in group B1 was 63.3 (±4.7) and in Group B2 was 56.5 (±7.7). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the depth of cure between the two bulk-fill composites with x-tra fil (Voco, Germany) higher than Opus Bulk fill APS (FGM, Brazil) (P<0.001). The degree of conversion percentage also showed a significant difference, Group A1 being higher than A2 (P=0.0085), B1, and B2 (P<0.001). Group A2 was also higher than B1 (P=0.003) and B2 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between B1 and B2 (P=0.072). Conclusion: The results indicate that x-tra fill has more depth of cure and a higher percentage of the degree of conversion than Opus Bulk fill APS. The coronal half of x-tra fil had the highest depth of cure percentage (82.66%), and the pulpal half of Opus Bulk fill APS had the lowest percentage (56.45%). Even though both bulk-fill composite materials had an acceptable degree of conversion (55% and higher), x-tra fill has shown better results.

Keywords: depth of cure, degree of conversion, bulk-fill composite, FTIR

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604 Multifunctional 1D α-Fe2O3/ZnO Core/Shell Semiconductor Nano-Heterostructures: Heterojunction Engineering

Authors: Gobinda Gopal Khan, Ashutosh K. Singh, Debasish Sarkar

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This study reports the facile fabrication of 1D ZnO/α-Fe2O3 semiconductor nano-heterostructures (SNHs), and we investigate the strong interfacial interactions at the heterojunction, resulting in novel multifunctionality in the hybrid structure. ZnO-coated α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) have been prepared by combining electrodeposition and wet chemical methods. Significant improvement in electrical conductivity, photoluminescence, and room temperature magnetic properties have been observed for the ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs over the pristine α-Fe2O3 NWs because of the contribution of the ZnO nanolayer. The increase in electrical conductivity in ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs is because of the increase in free electrons in the conduction band of the SNHs due to the formation of type-II n-n band configuration at the heterojunction. The SNHs are found to exhibit enhanced visible green photoluminescence along with the UV emission at room temperature. The band-gap emission of the α-Fe2O3 NWs coupled to the defect emissions of the ZnO in SNHs can be attributed to the profound enhancement of the visible green luminescence. Ferromagnetism of the SNHs is found to be increased nearly five times in magnitude over the primeval α-Fe2O3 NWs, which can be ascribed to the exchange coupling of the interfacial spin at ZnO/α-Fe2O3 interface, the surface spin of ZnO nanolayer, along with the structural defects like the cation vacancies (VZn) and the singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo•) present in SNHs.

Keywords: nano-heterostructures, photoluminescence, electrical property, magnetism

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603 Effects of the Ambient Temperature and the Defect Density on the Performance the Solar Cell (HIT)

Authors: Bouzaki Mohammed Moustafa, Benyoucef Boumediene, Benouaz Tayeb, Benhamou Amina

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The ambient temperature and the defects density in the Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layers solar cells (HIT) strongly influence their performances. In first part, we presented the bands diagram on the front/back simulated solar cell based on a-Si: H / c-Si (p)/a-Si:h. In another part, we modeled the following layers structure: ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p)/Ag where we studied the effect of the ambient temperature and the defects density in the gap of the crystalline silicon layer on the performance of the heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic layer (HIT).

Keywords: heterojunction solar cell, solar cell performance, bands diagram, ambient temperature, defect density

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602 Soil Compaction by a Forwarder in Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Erianto I. Putra, Iis Diatin, Muhammad Mujahid, Qi Adlan

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Industrial plantation forest is the producer of logs in Indonesia. Several companies of industrial plantation forest have been successfully planted with fast-growing species, and it entered their annual harvesting period. Heavy machines such as forwarders are used in timber harvesting to extract logs from stump to landing site. The negative impact of using such machines are loss of topsoil and soil compaction. Compacted soil is considered unfavorable for plant growth. The research objectives were to analyze the soil bulk density, rut, and cone index of the soil caused by a forwarder passes, to analyze the relation between several times of forwarder passes to the increase of soil bulk density. A Valmet forwarder was used in this research. Soil bulk density at soil surface and cone index from the soil surface to the 50 cm depth of soil were measured at the harvested area. The result showed that soil bulk density increase with the increase of the Valmet forwarder passes. Maximum soil bulk density occurred after 5 times forwarder Valmet passed. The cone index tended to increase from the surface until 50 cm depth of soil. Rut formed and high soil bulk density indicated the soil compaction occurred by the forwarder operation.

Keywords: bulk density, forwarder Valmet, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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601 Residual Stress Around Embedded Particles in Bulk YBa2Cu3Oy Samples

Authors: Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, Michael R. Koblischka

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To increase the flux pinning performance of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO or Y-123) superconductors, it is common to employ secondary phase particles, either Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles created during the growth of the samples or additionally added (nano)particles of various types, embedded in the superconducting Y-123 matrix. As the crystallographic parameters of all the particles indicate a misfit to Y-123, there will be residual strain within the Y-123 matrix around such particles. With a dedicated analysis of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data obtained on various bulk, Y-123 superconductor samples, the strain distribution around such embedded secondary phase particles can be revealed. The results obtained are presented in form of Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM) mappings. Around large Y-211 particles, the strain can be so large that YBCO subgrains are formed. Therefore, it is essential to properly control the particle size as well as their distribution within the bulk sample to obtain the best performance. The impact of the strain distribution on the flux pinning properties is discussed.

Keywords: Bulk superconductors, EBSD, Strain, YBa2Cu3Oy

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600 Highly Responsive p-NiO/n-rGO Heterojunction Based Self-Powered UV Photodetectors

Authors: P. Joshna, Souvik Kundu

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Detection of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is very important as it has exhibited a profound influence on humankind and other existences, including military equipment. In this work, a self-powered UV photodetector was reported based on oxides heterojunctions. The thin films of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) and n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used for the formation of p-n heterojunction. Low-Cost and low-temperature chemical synthesis was utilized to prepare the oxides, and the spin coating technique was employed to deposit those onto indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The top electrode platinum was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. NiO offers strong UV absorption with high hole mobility, and rGO prevents the recombination rate by separating electrons out from the photogenerated carriers. Several structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope were used to study the materials crystallinity, microstructures, and surface roughness. On one side, the oxides were found to be polycrystalline in nature, and no secondary phases were present. On the other side, surface roughness was found to be low with no pit holes, which depicts the formation of high-quality oxides thin films. Whereas, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical compositions and oxidation structures. The electrical characterizations such as current-voltage and current response were also performed on the device to determine the responsivity, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency under dark and UV illumination. This p-n heterojunction device offered faster photoresponse and high on-off ratio under 365 nm UV light illumination of zero bias. The device based on the proposed architecture shows the efficacy of the oxides heterojunction for efficient UV photodetection under zero bias, which opens up a new path towards the development of self-powered photodetector for environment and health monitoring sector.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, oxides, photodetectors, spin coating

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599 Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time Dependent Gravitational Constant and Cosmological Constant in General Relativity

Authors: Reena Behal, D. P. Shukla

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In this paper, we investigate Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model with Time dependent gravitational constant and cosmological constant in general Relativity by assuming ξ(t)=ξ_(0 ) p^m where ξ_(0 ) and m are constants. We also assume a variation law for Hubble parameter as H(R) = a (R^(-n)+1), where a>0, n>1 being constant. Two universe models were obtained, and their physical behavior has been discussed. When n=1 the Universe starts from singular state whereas when n=0 the cosmology follows a no singular state. The presence of bulk viscosity increase matter density’s value.

Keywords: Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model, hubble constants, gravitational constant, cosmological constants

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598 Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Based Planar Hetero-Junction Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Khursheed Ahmad, Shaikh M. Mobin

Abstract:

In this work, we have developed a highly stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a architecture (ITO/GO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PCBM/Carbon tape). The PSCs was fabricated under air using GO/PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer while the carbon tape used as a back contact to complete the device. The fabricated PSCs device exhibited good stability and performance in terms of power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. The PSCs devices were exposed to ambient condition for 4 days which shows excellent stability confirmed by XRD analysis. We believed that the stability of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell may be due the presence of GO which inhibits the direct contact between PEDOT:PSS and MAPbI3.

Keywords: graphene oxide, perovskite solar cells, hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS

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597 Generalized Chaplygin Gas and Varying Bulk Viscosity in Lyra Geometry

Authors: A. K. Sethi, R. N. Patra, B. Nayak

Abstract:

In this paper, we have considered Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric with generalized Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in the context of Lyra geometry. The viscosity is considered in two different ways (i.e. zero viscosity, non-constant r (rho)-dependent bulk viscosity) using constant deceleration parameter which concluded that, for a special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas reduces to modified Chaplygin gas. The represented model indicates on the presence of Chaplygin gas in the Universe. Observational constraints are applied and discussed on the physical and geometrical nature of the Universe.

Keywords: bulk viscosity, lyra geometry, generalized chaplygin gas, cosmology

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596 Discrete-Time Bulk Queue with Service Capacity Depending on Previous Service Time

Authors: Yutae Lee

Abstract:

This paper considers a discrete-time bulk-arrival bulkservice queueing system, where service capacity varies depending on the previous service time. By using the generating function technique and the supplementary variable method, we compute the distributions of the queue length at an arbitrary slot boundary and a departure time.

Keywords: discrete-time queue, bulk queue, variable service capacity, queue length distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
595 Clinical Effectiveness of Bulk-fill Resin Composite: A Review

Authors: Taraneh Estedlal

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to review in-vivo and in-vitro studies to compare the effectiveness of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with regard to marginal adaptation, polymerization shrinkage, and other mechanical properties.PubMed and Scopus databases was investigated for in-vitro studies and randomized clinical trials comparing incidence of fractures, color stability, marginal adaptation, pain and discomfort, recurrent caries, occlusion, pulpal reaction, and proper proximal contacts of restorations made with conventional and bulk resins. The failure rate of conventional and flowable bulk-fill resin composites was not significantly different to sculptable bulk-fill resin composites. The objective of this study was to review in-vivo and in-vitro studies to compare the effectiveness of bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with regard to marginal adaptation, polymerization shrinkage, and other mechanical properties. PubMed and Scopus databases was investigated for in-vitro studies and randomized clinical trials comparing one of the pearlier mentioned properties between bulk-fill and control composites. Despite differences in physical and in-vitro properties, failure rate of conventional and flowable bulk-fill resin composites was not significantly different to sculptable bulk-fill resin composites.

Keywords: polymerization shrinkage, color stability, marginal adaptation, recurrent caries, occlusion, pulpal reaction

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594 ZnS and Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite as Potential Electron Acceptor for Photovoltaics

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Shikha Jindal

Abstract:

Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. The band gap of the QDs was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of ZnS QD confirm the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend was formed by spin coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75 V and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene QDs nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appear as quasi spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The average particle size of ZnS-graphene nanocomposite QDs was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 104 times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene QDs, with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility and tunable band gap, show a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: graphene, heterojunction, quantum confinement effect, quantum dots(QDs), zinc sulphide(ZnS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
593 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson

Abstract:

The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

Procedia PDF Downloads 378