Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10052

Search results for: compact design

10052 Dual Band Antenna Design with Compact Radiator for 2.5/5.2/5.8 Ghz Wlan Application Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ramnath Narhete, Saket Pandey, Puran Gour


This paper presents of dual-band planner antenna with a compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 proposed by optimizing its resonant frequency, Bandwidth of operation and radiation frequency using the genetic algorithm. The antenna consists L-shaped and E-shaped radiating element to generate two resonant modes for dual band operation. The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. Dual band antenna with the compact radiator for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN application design and radiator size only width 8mm and a length is 11.3 mm. The antenna can we used for various application in the field of communication. Genetic algorithm will be used to design the antenna and impedance matching network.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, dual-band E, dual-band L, WLAN, compact radiator

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10051 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi


Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-wideband

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10050 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

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10049 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh


This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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10048 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla


This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

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10047 Design of a Rectifier with Enhanced Efficiency and a High-gain Antenna for Integrated and Compact-size Rectenna Circuit

Authors: Rawaa Maher, Ahmed Allam, Haruichi Kanaya, Adel B. Abdelrahman


In this paper, a compact, high-efficiency integrated rectenna is presented to operate in the 2.45 GHz band. A comparison between two rectifier topologies is performed to verify the benefits of removing the matching network from the rectifier. A rectifier high conversion efficiency of 74.1% is achieved. To complete the rectenna system, a novel omnidirectional antenna with high gain (3.72 dB) and compact size (25 mm * 29 mm) is designed and fabricated. The same antenna is used with a reflector for raising the gain to nearly 8.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results of the antenna are in good agreement.

Keywords: internet of things, integrated rectenna, rectenna, RF energy harvesting, wireless sensor networks(WSN)

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10046 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai, Navneet Madan


In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip, antenna, LTE, CAD

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10045 Compact Finite Difference Schemes for Fourth Order Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Sufyan Muhammad


Recently, in achieving highly efficient but at the same time highly accurate solutions has become the major target of numerical analyst community. The concept is termed as compact schemes and has gained great popularity and consequently, we construct compact schemes for fourth order parabolic differential equations used to study vibrations in structures. For the superiority of newly constructed schemes, we consider range of examples. We have achieved followings i.e. (a) numerical scheme utilizes minimum number of stencil points (which means new scheme is compact); (b) numerical scheme is highly accurate (which means new scheme is reliable) and (c) numerical scheme is highly efficient (which means new scheme is fast).

Keywords: central finite differences, compact schemes, Bernoulli's equations, finite differences

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10044 Thermal Management of a Compact Electronic Device Subjected to Different Harsh Operating Conditions

Authors: Murat Parlak, Muhammed Çağlar Malyemez


In a harsh environment, it is crucialtoinvestigatethethermal problem systematically implement a reliableandeffectivecoolingtechniqueformilitaryequipment. In this study, an electronicaldevice has been designed to fit different boundary conditions. Manyfinalternatives can be possiblesolutionsforthethermal problem. Therefore, it is an important step to define an easyproduciblefindesignand a low power fan selection for the optimum unit-design satisfying IP68. The equipment is planned to serve at 71C environment conditions and it also can be screwedto a cold plate at +85C. In both conditions, it is intendedtousethesamechassiswithoutanymodifications. To optimize such a ruggeddevice, all CFD analysis has been done withAnsysFluent 2021®. Afterstudyingpinfins, it is seenthatthesurfacearea is not enough, hencethefin-type is changed to a straightrectangulartypewithforcedconvectioncooling. Finally, a verycompactproductthat can serve in a harsh environment is obtained.

Keywords: electronic cooling, harsh environment, forced convection, compact design

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10043 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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10042 Compact Settlement: The Direction of Chinese Future Urban Residential Area Sustainable Development

Authors: Yajing Jiang, Jing Wu


Residential area construction links many problems such as population resources, ecology, social values, public services and transportation in the city. After Chinese housing reform, a large number of residential area development accompanied by the loss of agricultural and ecological land. To explore the future of Chinese urban residential area, this article concentrates on how the 'Compact Settlement' behaves in improving the living environment and saving the resources. Through the research of residential area in Hangzhou, there are some determines that increasing the development intensity of the area can indeed bring some improvement in the overall environment. In conclusion, possible design alternatives are discussed for leading Chinese urban development towards a more sustainable path.

Keywords: compact city development, environmental sustainability, residential area, Hangzhou

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10041 Design Optimization of a Compact Quadrupole Electromagnet for CLS 2.0

Authors: Md. Armin Islam, Les Dallin, Mark Boland, W. J. Zhang


This paper reports a study on the optimal magnetic design of a compact quadrupole electromagnet for the Canadian Light Source (CLS 2.0). The nature of the design is to determine a quadrupole with low relative higher order harmonics and better field quality. The design problem was formulated as an optimization model, in which the objective function is the higher order harmonics (multipole errors) and the variable to be optimized is the material distribution on the pole. The higher order harmonics arose in the quadrupole due to truncating the ideal hyperbola at a certain point to make the pole. In this project, the arisen harmonics have been optimized both transversely and longitudinally by adjusting material on the poles in a controlled way. For optimization, finite element analysis (FEA) has been conducted. A better higher order harmonics amplitudes and field quality have been achieved through the optimization. On the basis of the optimized magnetic design, electrical and cooling calculation has been performed for the magnet.

Keywords: drift, electrical, and cooling calculation, integrated field, magnetic field gradient, multipole errors, quadrupole

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10040 Compact Dual-band 4-MIMO Antenna Elements for 5G Mobile Applications

Authors: Fayad Ghawbar


The significance of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system in the 5G wireless communication system is essential to enhance channel capacity and provide a high data rate resulting in a need for dual-polarization in vertical and horizontal. Furthermore, size reduction is critical in a MIMO system to deploy more antenna elements requiring a compact, low-profile design. A compact dual-band 4-MIMO antenna system has been presented in this paper with pattern and polarization diversity. The proposed single antenna structure has been designed using two antenna layers with a C shape in the front layer and a partial slot with a U-shaped cut in the ground to enhance isolation. The single antenna is printed on an FR4 dielectric substrate with an overall size of 18 mm×18 mm×1.6 mm. The 4-MIMO antenna elements were printed orthogonally on an FR4 substrate with a size dimension of 36 × 36 × 1.6 mm3 with zero edge-to-edge separation distance. The proposed compact 4-MIMO antenna elements resonate at 3.4-3.6 GHz and 4.8-5 GHz. The s-parameters measurement and simulation results agree, especially in the lower band with a slight frequency shift of the measurement results at the upper band due to fabrication imperfection. The proposed design shows isolation above -15 dB and -22 dB across the 4-MIMO elements. The MIMO diversity performance has been evaluated in terms of efficiency, ECC, DG, TARC, and CCL. The total and radiation efficiency were above 50 % across all parameters in both frequency bands. The ECC values were lower than 0.10, and the DG results were about 9.95 dB in all antenna elements. TARC results exhibited values lower than 0 dB with values lower than -25 dB in all MIMO elements at the dual-bands. Moreover, the channel capacity losses in the MIMO system were depicted using CCL with values lower than 0.4 Bits/s/Hz.

Keywords: compact antennas, MIMO antenna system, 5G communication, dual band, ECC, DG, TARC

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10039 Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator for RF Applications in 0.18 µm CMOS Technology

Authors: Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan, Zainal Abidin Nordin, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


A compact and power efficient high performance Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a must in analog and digital circuits especially in the communication system, but the best trade-off among the performance parameters is a challenge for researchers. In this paper, a design of a compact 3-stage differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with low phase noise, low power and higher tuning bandwidth is proposed in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The VCRO is designed with symmetric load and positive feedback techniques to achieve higher gain and minimum delay. The proposed VCRO can operate at tuning range of 3.9-5.0 GHz at 1.6 V supply voltage. The circuit consumes only 1.0757 mW of power and produces -129 dbc/Hz. The total active area of the proposed VCRO is only 11.74 x 37.73 µm2. Such a VCO can be the best choice for compact and low-power RF applications.

Keywords: CMOS, VCO, VCRO, oscillator

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10038 Miniaturized and Compact Monopole Corner Antenna with a Periodic Slot Truncated and T-Inverted Stub-Tuning for Ultra Wideband Applications

Authors: R. Dakir, J. Zbitou, Ahmed Mouhsen, A. Errkik, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach


The design and analysis of a new compact and miniaturized monopole antenna structure for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless applications are presented and suggested in this paper. The proposed antenna structure is based on corner radiator patch with T-shaped slot and fed by mictostrip feed line with a partial ground plane combined a periodic rectangular slot and inverted T-stub tuning to increase the bandwidth. The design parameters and the performance of the suggested antenna are investigated by using 'CST Microwave Studio' and Advanced Design System. The final prototype of the proposed antenna operates from 3GHZ to 25GHz, corresponding to wide input impedance bandwidth around (157.14%) with a size of 16*24mm2 and can be easily integrated with radio-frequency or microwave circuits with low cost manufacturing. Details of the UWB antenna design and both simulated and measured results are described and discussed.

Keywords: UWB, T-shaped slots, improvement, bandwidth, stub tuning

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10037 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

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10036 On-Chip Ku-Band Bandpass Filter with Compact Size and Wide Stopband

Authors: Jyh Sheen, Yang-Hung Cheng


This paper presents a design of a microstrip bandpass filter with a compact size and wide stopband by using 0.15-μm GaAs pHEMT process. The wide stop band is achieved by suppressing the first and second harmonic resonance frequencies. The slow-wave coupling stepped impedance resonator with cross coupled structure is adopted to design the bandpass filter. A two-resonator filter was fabricated with 13.5GHz center frequency and 11% bandwidth was achieved. The devices are simulated using the ADS design software. This device has shown a compact size and very low insertion loss of 2.6 dB. Microstrip planar bandpass filters have been widely adopted in various communication applications due to the attractive features of compact size and ease of fabricating. Various planar resonator structures have been suggested. In order to reach a wide stopband to reduce the interference outside the passing band, various designs of planar resonators have also been submitted to suppress the higher order harmonic frequencies of the designed center frequency. Various modifications to the traditional hairpin structure have been introduced to reduce large design area of hairpin designs. The stepped-impedance, slow-wave open-loop, and cross-coupled resonator structures have been studied to miniaturize the hairpin resonators. In this study, to suppress the spurious harmonic bands and further reduce the filter size, a modified hairpin-line bandpass filter with cross coupled structure is suggested by introducing the stepped impedance resonator design as well as the slow-wave open-loop resonator structure. In this way, very compact circuit size as well as very wide upper stopband can be achieved and realized in a Roger 4003C substrate. On the other hand, filters constructed with integrated circuit technology become more attractive for enabling the integration of the microwave system on a single chip (SOC). To examine the performance of this design structure at the integrated circuit, the filter is fabricated by the 0.15 μm pHEMT GaAs integrated circuit process. This pHEMT process can also provide a much better circuit performance for high frequency designs than those made on a PCB board. The design example was implemented in GaAs with center frequency at 13.5 GHz to examine the performance in higher frequency in detail. The occupied area is only about 1.09×0.97 mm2. The ADS software is used to design those modified filters to suppress the first and second harmonics.

Keywords: microstrip resonator, bandpass filter, harmonic suppression, GaAs

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10035 Urban Compactness and Sustainability: Beijing Experience

Authors: Xilu Liu, Ameen Farooq


Beijing has several compact residential housing settings in many of its urban districts. The study in this paper reveals that urban compactness, as predictor of density, may carry an altogether different meaning in the developing world when compared to the U.S for achieving objectives of urban sustainability. Recent urban design studies in the U.S are debating for compact and mixed-use higher density housing to achieve sustainable and energy efficient living environments. While the concept of urban compactness is widely accepted as an approach in modern architectural and urban design fields, this belief may not directly carry well into all areas within cities of developing countries. Beijing’s technology-driven economy, with its historic and rich cultural heritage and a highly speculated real-estate market, extends its urban boundaries into multiple compact urban settings of varying scales and densities. The accelerated pace of migration from the countryside for better opportunities has led to unsustainable and uncontrolled buildups in order to meet the growing population demand within and outside of the urban center. This unwarranted compactness in certain urban zones has produced an unhealthy physical density with serious environmental and ecological challenging basic living conditions. In addition, crowding, traffic congestion, pollution and limited housing surrounding this compactness is a threat to public health. Several residential blocks in close proximity to each other were found quite compacted, or ill-planned, with residential sites due to lack of proper planning in Beijing. Most of them at first sight appear to be compact and dense but further analytical studies revealed that what appear to be dense actually are not as dense as to make a good case that could serve as the corner stone of sustainability and energy efficiency. This study considered several factors including floor area ratio (FAR), ground coverage (GSI), open space ratio (OSR) as indicators in analyzing urban compactness as a predictor of density. The findings suggest that these measures, influencing the density of residential sites under study, were much smaller in density than expected given their compact adjacencies. Further analysis revealed that several residential housing appear to support the notion of density in its compact layout but are actually compacted due to unregulated planning marred by lack of proper urban design standards, policies and guidelines specific to their urban context and condition.

Keywords: Beijing, density, sustainability, urban compactness

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10034 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach


A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

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10033 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang


This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR

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10032 Design of Reconfigurable Supernumerary Robotic Limb Based on Differential Actuated Joints

Authors: Qinghua Zhang, Yanhe Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Yeqin Yang, Hongwei Jing, Guoan Zhang, Jie Zhao


This paper presents a wearable reconfigurable supernumerary robotic limb with differential actuated joints, which is lightweight, compact and comfortable for the wearers. Compared to the existing supernumerary robotic limbs which mostly adopted series structure with large movement space but poor carrying capacity, a prototype with the series-parallel configuration to better adapt to different task requirements has been developed in this design. To achieve a compact structure, two kinds of cable-driven mechanical structures based on guide pulleys and differential actuated joints were designed. Moreover, two different tension devices were also designed to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the cable-driven transmission. The proposed device also employed self-designed bearings which greatly simplified the structure and reduced the cost.

Keywords: cable-driven, differential actuated joints, reconfigurable, supernumerary robotic limb

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10031 Robust Single/Multi bit Memristor Based Memory

Authors: Ahmed Emara, Maged Ghoneima, Mohamed Dessouky


Demand for low power fast memories is increasing with the increase in IC’s complexity, in this paper we introduce a proposal for a compact SRAM based on memristor devices. The compact size of the proposed cell (1T2M compared to 6T of traditional SRAMs) allows denser memories on the same area. In this paper, we will discuss the proposed memristor memory cell for single/multi bit data storing configurations along with the writing and reading operations. Stored data stability across successive read operation will be illustrated, operational simulation results and a comparison of our proposed design with previously conventional SRAM and previously proposed memristor cells will be provided.

Keywords: memristor, multi-bit, single-bit, circuits, systems

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10030 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin


Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: germination, salinity, rice and weedy rice, sustainable agriculture

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10029 Characteristics of New Town Planning between Neighborhood Unit and New Urbanism in Korea

Authors: In Su Na, Dongyeon Seo, Hwanyong Kim


This research focuses on new town planning methodology in aspects of Neighborhood Unit Formula and New Urbanism. In Korea, there were built many new towns since 1980’s. The urban design concepts also shifted variously in land use, transportation, open spaces and architectural design. This research aims to find out urban design planning and factors in each new town planning through comparison of four new town cases in aspects of land use, transportation and building design of metropolitan area of Seoul. In conclusion the recent new town has created an area with a unique place that has not been seen in the early new town, and it has a certain aspect that is in line with the planning principles of New Urbanism.

Keywords: compact city, neighborhood unit formula, new town planning, new urbanism

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10028 A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities

Authors: Mohammed Dabboor


Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.

Keywords: compact polarimetry, RADARSAT, SAR mission, SAR applications

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10027 A Compact Extended Laser Cavity Centered at 780 nm For Use in High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: J. Alvarez, J. Pimienta, R. Sarmiento


Diodes lasers working in free mode present different types of shifting and broadening determined by external factors such as temperature, current or mechanical vibrations, and they are not more useful in applications such as Spectroscopy, Metrology, cooling of atoms, among others. Different types of configurations can be used to reduce the spectral width of a laser, one of the most effective is to extend the optical resonator of the laser diode and use optical feedback either with the help of a partially reflective mirror or with a diffraction grating, this latter configuration not only allows to reduce the spectral width of the laser line but also to coarsely adjust its working wavelength, within a wide range typically ~ 10nm by slightly varying the angle of the diffraction grating. Two settings are commonly used for this purpose; the Littrow configuration and the Littmann Metcalf. In this paper, we present the design, construction, and characterization of a compact extended laser cavity in Littrow configuration. The designed cavity is compact and was machined on an aluminum block using computer numerical control (CNC), it has a mass of only 380 g. The design was tested on laser diodes with different wavelengths 650nm, 780nm, and 795nm but can be equally efficient at other wavelengths. This report details the results obtained from the extended cavity working at a wavelength of 780 nm, with an output power of around 35mW and a line width of less than 1Mhz. The cavity was used to observe the spectrum of the corresponding Rubidium D2 line. By modulating the current and with the help of phase detection techniques, a dispersion signal with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio was generated that allowed the stabilization of the laser to a transition of the hyperfine structure of Rubidium with an integral proportional controller (PI) circuit made with precision operational amplifiers.

Keywords: littrow, littmann-metcalf, laser stabilization, line width, hyperfine structure

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10026 Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Local Avalanche Compact Model for Bipolar Transistors

Authors: Robert Setekera, Ramses van der Toorn


We present an extensive analysis of the temperature dependence of the local avalanche model used in most of the modern compact models for bipolar transistors. This local avalanche model uses the Chynoweth's empirical law for ionization coefficient to define the generation of the avalanche current in terms of the local electric field. We carry out the model analysis using DC-measurements taken on both Si and advanced SiGe bipolar transistors. For the advanced industrial SiGe-HBTs, we consider both high-speed and high-power devices (both NPN and PNP transistors). The limitations of the local avalanche model in modeling the temperature dependence of the avalanche current mostly in the weak avalanche region are demonstrated. In addition, the model avalanche parameters are analyzed to see if they are in agreement with semiconductor device physics.

Keywords: avalanche multiplication, avalanche current, bipolar transistors, compact modeling, electric field, impact ionization, local avalanche

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10025 Development of a Compact Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor Using Soft Magnetic Composite

Authors: Nasiru Aliyu, Glyn Atkinson, Nick Stannard


With increasing demand for electric motors used in nearly all sectors of our day to day activities, which range from the motor that rotates the washing machine and dishwasher to the tens of thousands of motors used in domestic appliance. The number of applications for soft magnetic composites (SMC) material is growing significantly. This paper presents the development of a compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor using soft magnetic composite as core for reducing core losses and cost. The effects of changing the flux carrying component to pressed SMC parts are investigated based on a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the material. A 3-D finite-element analysis is performed for accurate parameter calculation. To validate the simulation, a new static test measurement was fully conducted on a prototype motor and agree with the theoretical calculations and old measured static test.

Keywords: SMC, compact development, axial field motor, 3DFA

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10024 High Efficiency Class-F Power Amplifier Design

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed Eblabla


Due to the high increase and demand for a wide assortment of applications that require low-cost, high-efficiency, and compact systems, RF power amplifiers are considered the most critical design blocks and power consuming components in wireless communication, TV transmission, radar, and RF heating. Therefore, much research has been carried out in order to improve the performance of power amplifiers. Classes-A, B, C, D, E, and F are the main techniques for realizing power amplifiers. An implementation of high efficiency class-F power amplifier with Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) was realized in this paper. The simulation and optimization of the class-F power amplifier circuit model was undertaken using Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS). The circuit was designed using lumped elements.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), gallium nitride (GaN), Agilent’s Advanced Design System (ADS), lumped elements

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10023 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi


Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: earthing design, high-frequency, lightning, tower footing impedance

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