Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Falak Nawaz

47 Ideological Stance in Political Discourse: A Transitivity Analysis of Nawaz Sharif's Address at 71st UN Assembly

Authors: A. Nawaz

Abstract:

The present study uses Halliday’s transitivity model to analyze and interpret ideological stance in PM Nawaz Sharif’s political discourse. His famous speech at the 71st UN assembly was analyzed qualitatively using clausal analysis approach to investigate the communicative functions of the linguistic choices made in the address. The study discovers that among the six process types under the transitivity model, material, relational and mental processes appear most frequently in the speech, making up almost 86% of the whole. Verbal processes rank 4th, whereas existential and behavioral are the least occurring processes covering only 2 and 1 percent respectively. The dominant use of material processes suggests that Nawaz Sharif and his government are the main actors working on several concrete projects to produce a sense of developmental progression and continuity. Using relational and mental processes the PM, along with establishing proximity with masses and especially Kashmiri, gives guarantees and promises. The linguistic analysis concludes Kashmir dispute as being the central theme of the address, since it covers more than half of the discourse. The address calls for a strong action instead of formal assurances and wishful thoughts. The study establishes that language structures can yield certain connotations and ideologies which are not overt for readers. This is in affirmation to the supposition that language form performs a communicative function and is not merely fortuitous.

Keywords: transitivity, Hallidian perspective on language, implicit meanings, Nawaz Sharif, political ideologies, political speeches, UN Assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
46 Web Service Architectural Style Selection in Multi-Criteria Requirements

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Ahmad Mohsin, Syda Fatima, Falak Nawaz

Abstract:

Selection of an appropriate architectural style is vital to the success of target web service under development. The nature of architecture design and selection for service-oriented computing applications is quite different as compared to traditional software. Web Services have complex and rigorous architectural styles to choose. Due to this, selection for accurate architectural style for web services development has become a more complex decision to be made by architects. Architectural style selection is a multi-criteria decision and demands lots of experience in service oriented computing. Decision support systems are good solutions to simplify the selection process of a particular architectural style. Our research suggests a new approach using DSS for selection of architectural styles while developing a web service to cater FRs and NFRs. Our proposed DSS helps architects to select right web service architectural pattern according to the domain and non-functional requirements. In this paper, a rule base DSS has been developed using CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) to support decisions using multi-criteria requirements. This DSS takes architectural characteristics, domain requirements and software architect preferences for NFRs as input for different architectural styles in use today in service-oriented computing. Weighted sum model has been applied to prioritize quality attributes and domain requirements. Scores are calculated using multiple criterions to choose the final architecture style.

Keywords: Software Architecture, DSS, quality attributes, web-service, rule-based, multi-criteria requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
45 Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan

Authors: Javaid Iqbal, Akhtar Nawaz Malik, Aqeela Mir

Abstract:

The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.

Keywords: mathematical model, mechatronics society survey, future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan, probability estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
44 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

Abstract:

Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: Bullying, turnover intention, organizational commitment, workplace aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
43 Detection of Selected Heavy Metals in Raw Milk: Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Huma Naeem, Saif-Ur-Rehman Kashif, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

Abstract:

Milk plays a significant role in the dietary requirements of human beings as it is a single source that provides various essential nutrients. A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in the raw milk marketed in Data Gunj Baksh Town of Lahore. A total of 180 samples of raw milk were collected in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season from five colonies of Data Gunj Baksh Town, Lahore. The milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cr, Cu) by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated high levels of Cr and Cu in post-monsoon seasons. Heavy metals were detected in milk in all samples under study and exceeded the standards given by FAO.

Keywords: Chromium, Copper, heavy metal, atomic absorption spectrophotometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
42 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram

Abstract:

In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: perovskite solar cell, precursor composition, sequential deposition, charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
41 Automatic Extraction of Water Bodies Using Whole-R Method

Authors: Nikhat Nawaz, S. Srinivasulu, P. Kesava Rao

Abstract:

Feature extraction plays an important role in many remote sensing applications. Automatic extraction of water bodies is of great significance in many remote sensing applications like change detection, image retrieval etc. This paper presents a procedure for automatic extraction of water information from remote sensing images. The algorithm uses the relative location of R-colour component of the chromaticity diagram. This method is then integrated with the effectiveness of the spatial scale transformation of whole method. The whole method is based on water index fitted from spectral library. Experimental results demonstrate the improved accuracy and effectiveness of the integrated method for automatic extraction of water bodies.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Image Retrieval, Feature Extraction, chromaticity, water index, spectral library, integrated method

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
40 Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Farha Sattar, Sandeep N. Kundu

Abstract:

Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.

Keywords: Geoscience, Deep learning, constructivism, augmented reality sandbox

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
39 Droning the Pedagogy: Future Prospect of Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Farha Sattar, Laurence Tamatea

Abstract:

Drones, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are playing an important role in real-world problem-solving. With the new advancements in technology, drones are becoming available, affordable and user- friendly. Use of drones in education is opening new trends in teaching and learning practices in an innovative and engaging way. Drones vary in types and sizes and possess various characteristics and capabilities which enhance their potential to be used in education from basic to advanced and challenging learning activities which are suitable for primary, middle and high school level. This research aims to provide an insight to explore different types of drones and their compatibility to be used in teaching different subjects at various levels. Research focuses on integrating the drone technology along with Australian curriculum content knowledge to reinforce the understanding of the fundamental concepts and helps to develop the critical thinking and reasoning in the learning process.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Innovative Learning, Drone Technology, drone types

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
38 Foreign Human Capital as a Fiscal Burden on the UK's Exchequer: An Intellectual Capital Perspective

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Migration has once again become a lively topic in Europe and UK, in particular. A burgeoning concern in the public debate, however, is driven by the fear that migrants are fiscal burden because they drain public resources by drawing on the generous social transfers introduced in Europe to prevent social exclusion. This study challenges these beliefs by gathering empirical evidence through a qualitative research approach on the subject matter. The analysis suggests that UK provides a rich social and economic environment for intellectual profiles especially, human intellectual capital of migrants to flourish and add value to the exchequer. Contrary to the beliefs held by politicians and general public, the empirical evidence suggests that migrants add higher fiscal contribution by working longer hours, paying consistent taxes, and bringing skills which UK may lack thus, are not fiscal burdens on the UK exchequer.

Keywords: Social welfare, European Union, migrants, united kingdom, austerity, human intellectual capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
37 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Intellectual Capital, financial inclusion, Qard-al-Hassanah

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
36 Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing

Authors: Adnan Ahmed Khan, Sadaf Nawaz, Asad Mahmood, Chaudhary Farrukh Javed

Abstract:

Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, energy detector, periodogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
35 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, OLSR, AODV, DSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
34 Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Baber Saeed Olakh, M. Bilal Awan

Abstract:

Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.

Keywords: millisecond laser, defocusing beam, operational current, keyhole profile, recast layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
33 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

Abstract:

Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Fusarium, Antifungal, SDH, Wilt

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
32 An Automated System for the Detection of Citrus Greening Disease Based on Visual Descriptors

Authors: Sidra Naeem, Ayesha Naeem, Sahar Rahim, Nadia Nawaz Qadri

Abstract:

Citrus greening is a bacterial disease that causes considerable damage to citrus fruits worldwide. Efficient method for this disease detection must be carried out to minimize the production loss. This paper presents a pattern recognition system that comprises three stages for the detection of citrus greening from Orange leaves: segmentation, feature extraction and classification. Image segmentation is accomplished by adaptive thresholding. The feature extraction stage comprises of three visual descriptors i.e. shape, color and texture. From shape feature we have used asymmetry index, from color feature we have used histogram of Cb component from YCbCr domain and from texture feature we have used local binary pattern. Classification was done using support vector machines and k nearest neighbors. The best performances of the system is Accuracy = 88.02% and AUROC = 90.1% was achieved by automatic segmented images. Our experiments validate that: (1). Segmentation is an imperative preprocessing step for computer assisted diagnosis of citrus greening, and (2). The combination of shape, color and texture features form a complementary set towards the identification of citrus greening disease.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, classification, Feature Extraction, citrus greening

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
31 Characterization of the Catalytic and Structural Roles of the Human Hexokinase 2 in Cancer Progression

Authors: Wael M. Rabeh, Mir Hussain Nawaz, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu

Abstract:

In this study, we aim to biochemically and structurally characterize the interactions of human HK2 with the mitochondria in addition to the role of its N-terminal domain in catalysis and stability of the full-length enzyme. Here, we solved the crystal structure of human HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (PDB code: 2NZT), where it is a homodimer with catalytically active N- and C-terminal domains linked by a seven-turn α-helix. Different from the inactive N-terminal domains of isozymes 1 and 3, the N- domain of HK2 not only capable to catalyze a reaction but it is responsible for the thermodynamic stabilizes of the full-length enzyme. Deletion of first α-helix of the N-domain that binds to the mitochondria altered the stability and catalytic activity of the full-length HK2. In addition, we found the linker helix between the N- and C-terminal domains to play an important role in controlling the catalytic activity of the N-terminal domain. HK2 is a major step in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer making it an ideal target for the development of new anticancer therapeutics. Characterizing the structural and molecular mechanisms of human HK2 and its role in cancer metabolism will accelerate the design and development of new cancer therapeutics that are safe and cancer specific.

Keywords: Drug discovery, enzymology, cancer metabolism, Protein Stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
30 Impact of Cytokines Alone and Primed with Macrophages on Balamuthia mandrillaris Interactions with Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells in vitro

Authors: Abdul Matin, Salik Nawaz, Suk-Yul Jung

Abstract:

Balamuthia mandrillaris is well known to cause fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE). Amoebic transmission into the central nervous system (CNS), haematogenous spread is thought to be the prime step, followed by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dissemination. Macrophages are considered to be the foremost line of defense and present in excessive numbers during amoebic infections. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of macrophages alone or primed with cytokines on the biological characteristics of Balamuthia in vitro. Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitutes the BBB, we have shown that Balamuthia demonstrated > 90% binding and > 70% cytotoxicity to host cells. However, macrophages further increased amoebic binding and Balamuthia-mediated cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, macrophages exhibited no amoebicidal effect against Balamuthia. Zymography assay demonstrated that macrophages exhibited no inhibitory effect on proteolytic activity of Balamuthia. Overall, to our best knowledge, we have shown for the first time macrophages has no inhibitory effects on the biological properties of Balamuthia in vitro. This also strengthened the concept that how and why Balamuthia can cause infections in both immuno-competent and immuno-compromised individuals.

Keywords: Cytokines, macrophages, Balamuthia mandrillaris, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
29 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: Power, Ideology, ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, TV channels

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
28 Original and the Translated: A Comparative Evaluation of Native and Non-Native English Translations of Faiz

Authors: Anam Nawaz

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to compare the translations of Faiz’s poetry made by native and non-native translators, to determine the role of the translator in terms of preserving the cultural ethos of the original text. Peter Newmark and Katharine Reiss’s approaches to translation criticism have been used to provide a theoretical framework for the study. This study also emphasizes those cultural and semantic aspects of the original which are translated more convincingly by a native translator, and contrasting those features which the non-natives can tackle more ably. The research also highlights the linguistic sockets, ignored by the interpreters in the translation process. The analysis showed that both native and non-native translators have made an admirable effort to stay as close to the original as possible. The natives with their advantage of belonging to the same culture have excelled in preserving the original subject matter, whereas the non-native renderings have been presented in a much rhythmic and poetic manner with an excellent choice of words. Though none of the four translators has been successfully able to recreate Faiz’s magic, however V. G. Kiernan and Sarvat Rahman’s translations can be regarded as the closest to the original. Whereas V. G. Kiernan with his outstanding command over English mesmerizes the readers, Sarvat Rahman’s profound understanding of cultural ties helps establish her translations as a brilliant example of faithful re-renderings.

Keywords: comparative translations, linguistic and cultural constraints, native translators, non-native translators, poetry and translation, Faiz Ahmad Faiz

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
27 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad

Abstract:

A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: WLAN, uwb, notch, HFSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
26 An Investigation of Construct Validity of GAT as a High-Stake Test Used for MS/MPhil English Admissions in Pakistan

Authors: Anam Nawaz

Abstract:

The study attempts to investigate the ‘construct validity’ of GAT general test; a high-stake test (any assessment whose outcome has life-changing implications for the test taker, used by most of the government and private sector universities in Pakistan as an admission requirement). Participants need at least 50 marks to qualify the test which consists of verbal, quantitative and analytical sections. 10 participants from English department of International Islamic University Islamabad were conveniently selected and asked to attempt a sample of GAT test in a limited time. Afterwards, they were requested to fill a brief questionnaire and were further asked a few questions regarding the relevance and significance of GAT test. The study revealed some insights about the construct validity of GAT tests from the test takers’ perspectives. It has been unanimously reported that the mathematics queries in the quantitative part had little or nothing to do with the concept of English proficiency and were, therefore, unnecessary. The participants also reported facing issues while attempting the analytical part of the test for a couple of reasons; mainly because the questions needed more time to be solved and were scarcely relevant to the language proficiency being more of intelligence questions. In a nutshell, the study concluded that GAT tests suffer from both construct under-representation and construct-irrelevant problems. Consequently, it has been suggested that GAT tests (with the present format) should not continue to be a requirement for MS/MPhil admissions and more relevant alternatives should be developed.

Keywords: construct validity, GAT General, high-stake tests, National Testing Service (NTS), qualitative paradigm of construct validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
25 Assessment of Population Trends of Birds at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan

Authors: Masood Akhtar, Zulfiqar Ali, Fehmeada Bibi, Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani

Abstract:

Population trends learning is an important tool for conservation programs in rare as well as in common species of birds. A study was conducted to assess annual decline in species of birds and to identify the causes of this decline at Taunsa Barrage wildlife Sanctuary, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct census method during wintering and breeding periods (2001 to 2002 and 2008 to 2011). The results indicated an increasing trend in 157, whereas a decreasing trend in 14 species of birds. Among the species with declining trend, there was a 92% decrease in White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 60% in Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis), 57% in Garganey (Anas querquedula), Pallas’s Fish Eagle and Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 50% each, 41% in Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), 39% in Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger), 37% in Gadwall (Anas strepera), 33% in Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), 30% in Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) and 26% in Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) population. Habitat exploitation, hunting and grazing were found the main causes of this decline. In conclusion, conservation and management of the study area is foremost to interests of declining bird population. It is suggested, therefore, to take immediate steps for the protection of the sanctuary to conserve the declining population of birds.

Keywords: population trends, wildlife sanctuary, bird, habitat exploitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
24 Investigation of Stellram Indexable Milling Cutter XDLT09-D41 Tool Wear for Machining of Ti6Al4V

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Miao Haibin

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are attractive materials for aerospace industry due to their exceptional strength to weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their good corrosion resistance. Major applications of titanium alloys were military aerospace industry, but since last decade the trend has now shifted towards commercial industry. On the other hand, titanium alloys are notorious for being poor thermal conductor that leads to them being difficult materials for machining. In this experimental study, Stellram Indexable milling cutter XDLT09-D41 is used for rough down milling of Ti6Al4V for small depth of cut under different combinations of parameters and application of high-pressure coolant. The machining performance was evaluated in terms of tool wear, tool life, and thermal crack. The tool wear was mostly observed at the tool tip and at bottom part of tool thermal deformations were observed which propagated with respect to time. Flank wear due to scratching of the cutting chips and diffusion wear because of high thermal stresses were observed specially at the bottom of the cutting tool. It was found that maximum tool life was obtained at the speed of 40m/min, feed rate of 358mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8mm. In the end, it was concluded that machining of Ti6Al4V is a thermally dominant process which leads to high thermal stresses in machining zone that results in increasing tool wear rate and deformation propagation.

Keywords: Tool Wear, Tool Life, flank wear, cutting speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
23 Assessment of the Adoption and Distribution Pattern of Agroforestry in Faisalabad District Using GIS

Authors: Irfan Ahmad, Raza Ghafoor, Hammad Raza Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Farrakh Nawaz, M. Tahir Siddiqui

Abstract:

Due to the exploding population of Pakistan the pressure on natural forests is increasing to meet the demands of wood and wood based products. Agroforestry is being practiced throughout the world on scientific basis but unfortunately the farmers of Pakistan are reluctant in its adoption. The presents study was designed to assess the adoption of agroforestry practices in Faisalabad with respect to land holdings of farmers and future suitability by using Geographic information system (GIS). Faisalabad is the third largest city of the country and is famous due to the textile industry. A comprehensive survey from target villages of the Lyallpur town of Faisalabad district was carried out. Out of total 65 villages, 40 were selected for study. From each selected village, one farmer who was actively engaged in farming activities was selected. It was observed that medium sized farmers having 10-20 acre were more in number as compared to small and large farmers. Number of trees was found maximum in large farm lands, ratio of diseased trees was almost similar in all categories with maximum in small farmlands (24.1%). Regarding the future prospects 35% farmer were interested in agroforestry practices 65% were not interested in the promotion of trees due to the non-availability of technical guidance and proper markets. Geographic images of the study site can further help the researchers and policy makers in the promotion of agroforestry.

Keywords: Adoption, geographic information system (GIS), agroforestry trends, Faisalabad

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
22 Metaphorical Devices in Political Cartoons with Reference to Political Confrontation in Pakistan after Panama Leaks

Authors: Ayesha Ashfaq, Muhammad Ajmal Ashfaq

Abstract:

It has been assumed that metaphorical and symbolic contests are waged with metaphors, captions, and signs in political cartoons that play a significant role in image construction of political actors, situations or events in the political arena. This paper is an effort to explore the metaphorical devices in political cartoons related to the political confrontation in Pakistan between the ruling party Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and opposition parties especially after Panama leaks. For this purpose, political cartoons sketched by five renowned political cartoonists on the basis of their belongings to the most highly circulated mainstream English newspapers of Pakistan and their professional experiences in their genre, were selected. The cartoons were analyzed through the Barthes’s model of Semiotics under the umbrella of the first level of agenda setting theory ‘framing’. It was observed that metaphorical devices in political cartoons are one of the key weapons of cartoonists’ armory. These devices are used to attack the candidates and contribute to the image and character building. It was found that all the selected political cartoonists used different forms of metaphors including situational metaphors and embodying metaphors. Not only the physical stature but also the debates and their activities were depicted metaphorically in the cartoons that create the scenario of comparison between the cartoons and their real political confrontation. It was examined that both forms of metaphors shed light on cartoonist’s perception and newspaper’s policy about political candidates, political parties and particular events. In addition, it was found that zoomorphic metaphors and metaphors of diminishments were also predominantly used to depict the conflict between two said political actors.

Keywords: Political Communication, Metaphor, political cartoons, Panama leaks

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
21 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

Abstract:

Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: essential oils, potato, clove, fennel

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
20 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Sohail Yousaf, Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Mazhar Iqbal

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: Bacteria, ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
19 Integration of GIS with Remote Sensing and GPS for Disaster Mitigation

Authors: Sikander Nawaz Khan

Abstract:

Natural disasters like flood, earthquake, cyclone, volcanic eruption and others are causing immense losses to the property and lives every year. Current status and actual loss information of natural hazards can be determined and also prediction for next probable disasters can be made using different remote sensing and mapping technologies. Global Positioning System (GPS) calculates the exact position of damage. It can also communicate with wireless sensor nodes embedded in potentially dangerous places. GPS provide precise and accurate locations and other related information like speed, track, direction and distance of target object to emergency responders. Remote Sensing facilitates to map damages without having physical contact with target area. Now with the addition of more remote sensing satellites and other advancements, early warning system is used very efficiently. Remote sensing is being used both at local and global scale. High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), airborne remote sensing and space-borne remote sensing is playing vital role in disaster management. Early on Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to collect, arrange, and map the spatial information but now it has capability to analyze spatial data. This analytical ability of GIS is the main cause of its adaption by different emergency services providers like police and ambulance service. Full potential of these so called 3S technologies cannot be used in alone. Integration of GPS and other remote sensing techniques with GIS has pointed new horizons in modeling of earth science activities. Many remote sensing cases including Asian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, Mount Mangart landslides and Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005 are described in this paper.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, disaster mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
18 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

Abstract:

Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: Quality, age, Fruit, cultivars, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

Procedia PDF Downloads 48