Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6389

Search results for: small cells

6389 Neighbour Cell List Reduction in Multi-Tier Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz

Abstract:

The ongoing call or data session must be maintained to ensure a good quality of service. This can be accomplished by performing the handover procedure while the user is on the move. However, the dense deployment of small cells in 5G networks is a challenging issue due to the extensive number of handovers. In this paper, a neighbour cell list method is proposed to reduce the number of target small cells and hence minimizing the number of handovers. The neighbour cell list is built by omitting cells that could cause an unnecessary handover and handover failure because of short time of stay of the user in these cells. A multi-attribute decision making technique, simple additive weighting, is then applied to the optimized neighbour cell list. Multi-tier small cells network is considered in this work. The performance of the proposed method is analysed and compared with that of the existing methods. Results disclose that our method has decreased the candidate small cell list, unnecessary handovers, handover failure, and short time of stay cells compared to the competitive method.

Keywords: handover, HetNets, multi-attribute decision making, small cells

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6388 The Comparison between bFGF and Small Molecules in Derivation of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells and Embryonic Germ Cells

Authors: Maryam Farzaneh, Seyyedeh Nafiseh Hassani, Hossein Baharvand

Abstract:

Objective: Chicken gonadal tissue has a two population such primordial germ cells (PGCs) and stromal cells (somatic cells). PGCs and embryonic germ cells (EGCs) that is a pluripotent type of PGCs in long-term culture are suitable sources for the production of chicken pluripotent stem cell lines, transgenic birds, vaccine and recombinant protein production. In general, the effect of growth factors such bFGF and mouse LIF on derivation of PGCs in vitro are important and in this study we could see the unique effect of small molecules such PD032 and SB43 as a chemical, in comparison to growth factors. Materials and Methods: After incubation of fertilized chicken egg up to 6 days and isolation of primary gonadal tissues and culture of mixed cells like PGCs and stromal cells. PGCs proliferate in the present of fetal calf serum (FCS) and small molecules and in another group bFGF, that these factors are important for PGCs culture and derivation. Somatic cells produce a multilayer feeder under the PGCs in primary culture and PGCs make a small cluster under these cells. Results: In present of small molecules and high volume of FCS (15%), the present of EGCs as a pluripotent stem cells were clear four weeks, that they had a positive immune-staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS), but in present of growth factors like bFGF without any chemicals, the present of PGCs were clear but after 7 until 10 days, there were disappear. Conclusion: Until now we have seen many researches about derivation and maintenance of chicken PGCs, in the hope of understanding the mechanisms that occur during germline development and production of a therapeutic product by transgenic birds. There are still many unknowns in this area and this project will try to have efficient conditions for identification of suitable culture medium for long-term culture of PGCs in vitro without serum and feeder cells.

Keywords: chicken gonadal primordial germ cells, pluripotent stem cells, growth factors, small molecules, transgenic birds

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6387 Small Molecule Inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 Interaction

Authors: K. Żak, S. Przetocka, R. Kitel, K. Guzik, B. Musielak, S. Malicki, G. Dubin, T. A. Holak

Abstract:

Studies on tumor genesis revealed a number of factors that may potentially serve as molecular targets for immunotherapies. One of such promising targets are PD1 and PDL1 proteins. PD1 (Programmed cell death protein 1) is expressed by activated T cells and plays a critical role in modulation of the host's immune response. One of the PD1 ligands -PDL1- is expressed by macrophages, monocytes and cancer cells which exploit it to avoid immune attack. The notion of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to block the immune system response was utilized in the development of therapies blocking PD1-PDL1 interaction. Up to date, human PD1-PDL1 complex has not been crystallized and structure of the mouse-human complex does not provide a complete view of the molecular basis of PD1-PDL1 interactions. The purpose of this study is to obtain crystal structure of the human PD1-PDL1 complex which shall allow rational design of small molecule inhibitors of the interaction. In addition, the study presents results of binding small-molecules to PD1 and fragment docking towards PD1 protein which will facilitate the design and development of small–molecule inhibitors of PD1-PDL1 interaction.

Keywords: PD1, PDL1, cancer, small molecule, drug discovery

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6386 Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks

Authors: Abdullah A. Al Orainy

Abstract:

Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.

Keywords: backhaul, small cells, wireless, 5G

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6385 Synthesis and in-vitro Evaluation of Quinozolines as Potent EGFR Inhibitor

Authors: Vinaya Kambappa, Chinnadurai Mani, Komaraiah Palle

Abstract:

Non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) cells have increased expression of EGFR, which makes them a potential target for cancer therapy. Based on molecular docking and previous reports, we designed and synthesized quinazoline derivatives as potent EGFR inhibitors. Among the derivatives, three compounds showed good antiproliferative activity against A-549 and H-1299 cells. Furthermore, these compounds inhibited EGFR signaling exhibiting diminishing p-EGFR and its downstream proteins like p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and p-mTOR; however, it did not alter the levels of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2 and mTOR proteins. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the accumulation of cells at G1 phase suggesting induction of apoptosis, which was further confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Our study suggested that quinazoline scaffold can be developed as novel EGFR kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, non-small cell-lung cancer cells, EGFR, quinazoline

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6384 Increased Retention of Nanoparticle by Small Molecule Inhibitor in Cancer Cells

Authors: Neha Singh

Abstract:

Background: Nowadays, the nanoparticle is gaining unexceptional attention in targeted drug delivery. But before proceeding to this episode of accomplishment, the journey and closure of these nanoparticles inside the cells should be disentangle. Being foreign for the cells, nanoparticles will easily getcleared off without any effective outcome. As the cancer cells withhold these nanoparticles for a longer period of time, more will be the drug’s effect. Chlorpromazine is a cationic amphiphilic drug which is believed to inhibit clathrin-coated pit formation by a reversible translocation of clathrin and its adapter proteins from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles. Chlorpromazine has a role in increasing the retention of nanoparticles in cancer cells. The mechanism of action how this small molecule increases the retention of nanoparticles is still uncovered. Method: Polymeric nanoparticle (PLGA) with Cyanine3.5 dye were synthesized by solvent evaporation method and characterized for size and zeta potential. FTIR was also done. Pulse and chase studies with and without inhibitor were done to check the retention of nanoparticle using fluorescence microscopy. Mean fluorescence intensity was measured by ImageJ software. Results: Increased retention of nanoparticle with inhibitor was observed in both pulse and chase studies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that by repurposing these small molecule inhibitor, we can increase the retention of nanoparticle at the targeted site.

Keywords: nanoparticle, endocytosis, clathrin inhibitor, cancer cell

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6383 Astaxanthin Induces Cytotoxicity through Down-Regulating Rad51 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Jyh-Cheng Chen, Tai-Jing Wang, Yun-Wei Lin

Abstract:

Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with astaxanthin decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and astaxanthin further decreased the Rad51 expression in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of Rad51 enhanced astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating astaxanthin for the treatment of NSCLC.

Keywords: astaxanthin, cytotoxicity, AKT, non-small cell lung cancer, PI3K

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6382 Control of IL-23 Release in Dendritic Cells Protects Mice from Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis

Authors: Xingxin Wu, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yang Tan, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. IL-23 signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Control of IL-23 release by small molecule compounds during developing psoriasis has not been well established. Here, we show that compound 1, a small molecule nature product, protected mice from imiquimod-induced psoriasis with improved skin lesions, reduced skin thickness, and reduced IL-23 mRNA expression in the skin tissue. FACS results showed compound 1 reduced the number of dendritic cells in the skin. Interestingly, compound 1 was not able to ameliorate IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice. Further, compound 1 inhibited MyD88-dependent IL-23 mRNA expression induced by LPS, CpG and imiquimod in BMDC cells, but not MyD88-independent CD80 and CD86 expression induced by LPS. The methods included real-time PCR, western blot, H & E staining, FACS and ELISA et al. In conclusion, compound 1 regulates MyD88-dependent signaling to control IL-23 release in dendritic cells, which improves imiquimod-induced psoriasis.

Keywords: dendritic cells, IL-23, toll-like receptor signaling, psoriasis

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6381 Genotoxicity Induced by Nanoparticles on Human Lymphoblast Cells (TK6)

Authors: Piyaporn Buaklang, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat

Abstract:

The use of nanoparticles is increasing worldwide and there are many nanotech-based daily products available in the market. The toxicity of nanoparticles results from their extremely small size which can be transported easily into the blood stream and other organs. We aimed to study the genotoxicity of two nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) and Zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), in TK6 cells by micronucleus assay. The cells were tested at 8, 24, and 48 hours after exposed to 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL of TiO2-NPs particles size < 25 nm and < 100 nm and to ZnO-NPs at 1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, particles size < 50 nm and < 100 nm. At 24 hours of incubation transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the nanoparticles TiO2-NPs at 1.00 µg/mL and ZnO-NPs at 10 µg/mL were able to be taken into the cells and induced the production of increasing amount of micronucleus in dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two nanoparticles on chromosome aberration indicated that TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs are genotoxic. In addition, the toxicity of TiO2-NPs was found to be 10 times more toxic than ZnO-NPs after 24 hours exposure. Analysis showed that the TiO2-NPs induced formation of micronucleus was both time and dose dependent, whereas the genotoxicity of ZnO-NPs was only dose dependent. In conclusion, TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs were able to transport through the cells membrane and directly genotoxic to TK6 cells in dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: nanoparticles, genotoxicity, human lymphoblast cells (TK6), micronucleus

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6380 Aza-Flavanones as Small Molecule Inhibitors of MicroRNA-10b in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Debasmita Mukhopadhyay, Manika Pal Bhadra

Abstract:

MiRNAs contribute to oncogenesis either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Hence, discovery of miRNA-based therapeutics are imperative to ameliorate cancer. Modulation of miRNA maturation is accomplished via several therapeutic agents, including small molecules and oligonucleotides. Due to the attractive pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules over oligonucleotides, we set to identify small molecule inhibitors of a metastasis-inducing microRNA. Cytotoxicity profile of aza-flavanone C1 was analyzed in a panel of breast cancer cells employing the NCI-60 screen protocols. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and western blotting of apoptotic or EMT markers were performed to analyze the effect of C1. A dual luciferase assay unequivocally suggested that C1 repressed endogenous miR-10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. A derivative of aza-flavanone C1 is shown as a strong inhibitor miR-10b. Blockade of miR-10b by C1 resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b targets in an aggressive breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. Abrogation of TWIST1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor also contributed to C1 mediated apoptosis. Moreover C1 exhibited a specific and selective down-regulation of miR-10b and did not function as a general inhibitor of miRNA biogenesis or other oncomiRs of breast carcinoma. Aza-flavanone congener C1 functions as a potent inhibitor of the metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b. Our present study provides evidence for targeting metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b with a derivative of Aza-flavanone. Better pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules place them as attractive agents compared to nucleic acids based therapies to target miRNA. Further work, in generating analogues based on aza-flavanone moieties will significantly improve the affinity of the small molecules to bind miR-10b. Finally, it is imperative to develop small molecules as novel miRNA-therapeutics in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, microRNA, metastasis, EMT

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6379 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar

Abstract:

Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

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6378 In vitro Culture of Stem Node Segments of Maerua crassifolia

Authors: Abobaker Abrahem M. Saad, Asma Abudasalam

Abstract:

The stem node segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. In the case of using MS+ Zeatin (1 mg/l), small shoot buds were formed directly in 70% of explants after 15 days, their length range between 0.1 to 0.3 cm after two weeks and reached 0.3 cm in length and three shoots in numbers after 4 weeks. When those small shoots were sub cultured on the same medium, they increased in length, number and reached 0.4 cm with 4 shoots, 0.4 cm with 5 shoots after six, eight and ten weeks respectively. In the case of using MS free hormones, MS+IAA (0.2mg/l) +BA (0.5mg/l), MS + kin(0.5mg/l), MS + kin (3mg/l) and MS +NAA (3mg/l) +BA (1mg/l), no sign of responses were noticed and only change in color in some cases. Different types of parenchyma cells and many layers of thick wall sclerenchyma cells were observed on MS+BA (1mg/l).

Keywords: Maerua, stem node, shoots, buds, In vitro

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6377 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi

Abstract:

Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

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6376 Thiazolo[5,4-D]Thiazole-Core Organic Chromophore with Furan Spacer for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: M. Nazim, S. Ameen, H. K. Seo, H. S. Shin

Abstract:

Energy is the basis of life and strong attention has been growing for the cost-effective energy production. Recently, solution-processed small molecule organic solar cells (SMOSCs) have grown much attention due to the wages such as well-defined molecular structures, definite molecular weight, easy synthesis and easy purification techniques. In particular, the size of donor (D) and acceptor (A) unit is a crucial factor for the exciton-diffusion towards D-A interface and then charge-separation for the effective charge-transport to the electrodes. Furan-bridged materials are more electron-rich, high fluorescence, with better molecular-packing, and greater rigidity and greater solubility than their thiophene-counterparts In this work, a furan-bridged thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based organic small molecule (RFTzR) was formulated and applied for BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs). The introduction of furan spacer with two terminal alkyl units improved its absorption and solubility in the common organic solvents, significantly. RFTzR exhibited a HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.36 eV and -3.14 eV, respectively. The fabricated solar cell devices of RFTzR (donor) with PC60BM (acceptor) as photoactive materials showed high performance of 2.72% (RFTzR:PC60BM, 2:1, w/w) ratio with open-circuit voltage of 0.756 V and high photocurrent density of 10.13 mA/cm².

Keywords: chromophore, organic solar cells, photoactive materials, small molecule

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6375 Simulation of Remove the Fouling on the in vivo By Using MHD

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets(small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.”We study the effects of different parameters on the deposition of Nanoparticles on the surface of a bump in the blood vessels by the magnetic field. The Maxwell and the flow equations are solved for this purpose. It is assumed that the blood is non-Newtonian and the number of particles has been considered enough to rely on the results statistically. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form.

Keywords: MHD, fouling, in-vivo, blood clots, simulation

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6374 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

Abstract:

It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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6373 Immunoliposomes Conjugated with CD133 Antibody for Targeting Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells

Authors: Chuan Yin

Abstract:

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of cancer cells that possess the characteristics associated with normal stem cells. CD133 is a phenotype of melanoma CSCs responsible for melanoma metastasis and drug resistance. Although adriamycin (ADR) is commonly used drug in melanoma therapy, but it is ineffective in the treatment of melanoma CSCs. In this study, we constructed CD133 antibody conjugated ADR immunoliposomes (ADR-Lip-CD133) to target CD133+ melanoma CSCs. The results showed that the immunoliposomes possessed a small particle size (~150 nm), high drug encapsulation efficiency (~90%). After 72 hr treatment on the WM266-4 melanoma tumorspheres, the IC50 values of the drug formulated in ADR-Lip-CD133, ADR-Lip (ADR liposomes) and ADR are found to be 24.42, 57.13 and 59.98 ng/ml respectively, suggesting that ADR-Lip-CD133 was more effective than ADR-Lip and ADR. Significantly, ADR-Lip-CD133 could almost completely abolish the tumorigenic ability of WM266-4 tumorspheres in vivo, and showed the best therapeutic effect in WM266-4 melanoma xenograft mice. It is noteworthy that ADR-Lip-CD133 could selectively kill CD133+ melanoma CSCs of WM266-4 cells both in vitro and in vivo. ADR-Lip-CD133 represent a potential approach in targeting and killing CD133+ melanoma CSCs.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, melanoma, immunoliposomes, CD133

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6372 Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicine Conium Maculatum 200 C for Management of Pyuria

Authors: Amir Ashraf

Abstract:

Homoeopathy is an alternative system of medicine discovered by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796. It has been used by several people for various health conditions globally for more than last 200 years. In India, homoeopathy is considered as a major system of alternative medicine. Homoeopathy is found effective in various medical conditions including Pyuria. Pyuria is the condition in which pus cells are found in urine. Homoeopathy is very useful for reducing pus cells, and homeopathically potentized Conium Mac (Hemlock) is an important remedy commonly used for reducing pyuria. Aim: To reduce the amount pus cells found in urine using Conium Mac 200C. Methods: Design. Small N Design. Samples: Purposive Sampling with 5 cases diagnosed as pyuria. Tools: Personal Data Schedule and ICD-10 Criteria for Pyuria. Techniques: Potentized homoeopathic medicine, Conium Mac 200th potency is used. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analyses were done using non-parametric tests. Results: There is significant pre/post difference has been identified. Conclusion: Homoeopathic potency, Conium Mac 200 C is effective in reducing the increased level of pus cells found in urine samples.

Keywords: homoeopathy, alternative medicine, Pyuria, Conim Mac, small N design, non-parametric tests, homeopathic physician, Ashirvad Hospital, Kannur

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6371 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

Abstract:

This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: distributed generation, renewable energy sources, energy policy, curriculum

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6370 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC, non-small cell lung cancer, oncogenesis

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6369 Follicular Fluid Proteins and Cells Study on Small, Medium, and Large Follicles of Large White Pig

Authors: Mayuva Youngsabanant-Areekijseree, Chanikarn Srinark, S. Sengsai, Mayuree Pumipaiboon

Abstract:

Our project was aimed at morphology of oocytes, follicle cells and follicular fluid proteins study of Large White pig (at local slaughter house in Nakhon Pathom Province). The porcine oocytes and follicular fluid of healthy small follicles (1-2 mm), medium follicles (3-6 mm in diameters) and large follicles (7-8 mm and 10 mm in diameter) were aspirated and collected from the ovary by sterile technique. Then, the oocytes and the follicle cells were separated from the fluid. The oocytes were round shape and surrounded by zona pellucida with numerous layers of cumulus cells. Based on the number of cumulus cell layers surrounding oocytes, the oocytes were classified into 5 types, which were intact-, multi-, partial-cumulus layer oocyte, completely denuded oocyte and degenerative oocyte. The collected oocytes showed high percentages of intact- and multi- cumulus cell layers in the small follicles (53.48%) medium follicles (56.94%) and large follicles (56.52%) which have high potential to develop into mature oocytes in vitro. Proteins from follicular fluid of 3 size follicles were separated by SDS-PAGE and LC/MS/MS. The molecular weight of follicular fluid proteins from the small follicles were 24, 60-65, 79, 110, 140, 160, and > 220 kDa. Meanwhile, the follicular fluid protein from medium and large follicle contained 52, 65, 79, 90, 110, 120, 160, 190 and > 220 kDa. Almost all proteins played important roles in promoting and regulating growth and development of oocytes and ovulation. This finding was an initial tool for in vitro testing and applied biotechnology research. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research & Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: follicular fluid protein, LC/MS/MS, porcine oocyte, SDS-PAGE, reproductive biology

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6368 Based on MR Spectroscopy, Metabolite Ratio Analysis of MRI Images for Metastatic Lesion

Authors: Hossain A, Hossain S.

Abstract:

Introduction: In a small cohort, we sought to assess the magnetic resonance spectroscopy's (MRS) ability to predict the presence of metastatic lesions. Method: A Popular Diagnostic Centre Limited enrolled patients with neuroepithelial tumors. The 1H CSI MRS of the brain allows us to detect changes in the concentration of specific metabolites caused by metastatic lesions. Among these metabolites are N-acetyl-aspartate (NNA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho). For Cho, NAA, Cr, and Cr₂, the metabolic ratio was calculated using the division method. Results: The NAA values were 0.63 and 5.65 for tumor cells, 1.86 and 5.66 for normal cells, and 1.86 and 5.66 for normal cells 2. NAA values for normal cells 1 were 1.84, 10.6, and 1.86 for normal cells 2, respectively. Cho levels were as low as 0.8 and 10.53 in the tumor cell, compared to 1.12 and 2.7 in the normal cell 1 and 1.24 and 6.36 in the normal cell 2. Cho/Cr₂ barely distinguished itself from the other ratios in terms of significance. For tumor cells, the ratios of Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr₂, NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr₂ were significant. Normal cell 1 had significant Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr ratios. Conclusion: The clinical result can be improved by using 1H-MRSI to guide the size of resection for metastatic lesions. Even though it is non-invasive and doesn't present any difficulties during the procedure, MRS has been shown to predict the detection of metastatic lesions.

Keywords: metabolite ratio, MRI images, metastatic lesion, MR spectroscopy, N-acetyl-aspartate

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6367 Mobile Traffic Management in Congested Cells using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: A. A. Balkhi, G. M. Mir, Javid A. Sheikh

Abstract:

To cater the demands of increasing traffic with new applications the cellular mobile networks face new changes in deployment in infrastructure for making cellular networks heterogeneous. To reduce overhead processing the densely deployed cells require smart behavior with self-organizing capabilities with high adaptation to the neighborhood. We propose self-organization of unused resources usually excessive unused channels of neighbouring cells with densely populated cells to reduce handover failure rates. The neighboring cells share unused channels after fulfilling some conditional candidature criterion using threshold values so that they are not suffered themselves for starvation of channels in case of any abrupt change in traffic pattern. The cells are classified as ‘red’, ‘yellow’, or ‘green’, as per the available channels in cell which is governed by traffic pattern and thresholds. To combat the deficiency of channels in red cell, migration of unused channels from under-loaded cells, hierarchically from the qualified candidate neighboring cells is explored. The resources are returned back when the congested cell is capable of self-contained traffic management. In either of the cases conditional sharing of resources is executed for enhanced traffic management so that User Equipment (UE) is provided uninterrupted services with high Quality of Service (QoS). The fuzzy logic-based simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is efficiently in coincidence with improved successful handoffs.

Keywords: candidate cell, channel sharing, fuzzy logic, handover, small cells

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6366 Regulation of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer NCI-H226 Cells through Caspase – Dependent Mechanism by Benjakul Extract

Authors: Pintusorn Hansakul, Ruchilak Rattarom, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, comprises of five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has been widely used to treat cancer patients in the context of folk medicine in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Benjakul against three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H226, A549, COR-L23), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line NCI-H1688 and normal lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. The study further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in NCI-H226 cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of Benjakul was determined by SRB assay. The effect of Benjakul on cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effects of Benjakul were determined by sub-G1 quantitation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analyses as well as by changes in caspase-3 activity. Results: Benjakul exerted potent cytotoxicity on NCI-H226 and A549 cells but lower cytotoxicity on COR-L23 and NCI-H1688 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Molecular studies showed that Benjakul extract induced G2/M phase arrest in human NCI-H226 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentration of Benjakul (150 μg/ml) led to the highest increase in the G2/M population at 12 h, followed by the highest increase in the sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells) at 60 h. Benjakul extract also induced early apoptosis (AnnexinV +/PI−) in NCI-H226 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with 150 μg/ml Benjakul extract for 36 h markedly increased caspase-3 activity by 3.5-fold, and pretreatment with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely abolished such activity. Conclusions: This study reveals for the first time the regulation of apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H226 cells through caspase-dependent mechanism by Benjakul extract.

Keywords: apoptosis, Benjakul, caspase activation, cytotoxicity

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6365 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra

Abstract:

A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

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6364 Viscoelastic Cell Concentration in a High Aspect Ratio Microchannel Using a Non-Powered Air Compressor

Authors: Jeonghun Nam, Seonggil Kim, Hyunjoo Choi, Chae Seung Lim

Abstract:

Quantification and analysis of rare cells are challenging in clinical applications and cell biology due to its extremely small number in blood. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic microfluidic device for continuous cell concentration without sheath flows. Due to the viscoelastic effect on suspending cells, cells with the blockage ratio higher than 0.1 could be tightly focused at the center of the microchannel. The blockage ratio was defined as the particle diameter divided by the channel width. Finally, cells were concentrated through the center outlet and the additional suspending medium was removed to the side outlets. Since viscoelastic focusing is insensitive to the flow rate higher than 10 μl/min, the non-powered hand pump sprayer could be used with no accurate control of the flow rate, which is suitable for clinical settings in resource-limited developing countries. Using multiple concentration processes, high-throughput concentration of white blood cells in lysed blood sample was achieved by ~ 300-fold.

Keywords: cell concentration, high-throughput, non-powered, viscoelastic fluid

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6363 Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Follicular Fluid Proteins of Pig during Folliculogenesis

Authors: Panomporn Wisuthseriwong, Hatairuk Tungkasen, Siyaporn Namsongsan, Chanikarn Srinark, Mayuva Youngsabanant-Areekijseree

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morphology of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (pCOCs) and follicular fluid during follicular development. The samples were obtained from local slaughterhouses in Nakorn Pathom Province, Thailand. Pigs were classified as either in the follicular phase or luteal phase. Porcine follicles (n = 3,510) were categorized as small (1-3 mm in diameters; n=2,910), medium (4-6 mm in diameters; n=530) and large (7-8 mm in diameters; n=70). Then pCOCs and follicular fluid were collected. Finally, we found that the oocytes can be categorized into intact cumulus cells layer oocyte, multi-cumulus cells layer oocyte, partial cumulus cells layer oocyte, completely denuded oocyte and degenerated oocyte. They showed high percentage of intact and multi-cumulus cells layer oocytes from small follicles (54.68%) medium follicles (69.06%) and large follicles (68.57%), which have high potential to develop into matured oocytes in vitro. Protein composition of the follicular fluid was separated by SDS-PAGE technique. The result shows that the protein molecular weight in the small and medium follicles are 23, 50, 66, 75, 92, 100, 132, 163, 225 and >225 kDa. Meanwhile, protein molecular weight in large follicles are 12, 16, 23, 50, 66, 75, 92, 100, 132, 163, 225 and >225 kDa. All proteins play an important role in promotion and regulation on development, maturation of oocytes and regulation of ovulation. We conclude that the results of discovery can be used porcine secretion proteins for supplement in IVM/IVF technology. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: porcine follicles, porcine oocyte, follicular fluid, SDS-PAGE

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6362 Novel Steviosides Analogs Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancers

Authors: Ahmed Malki

Abstract:

Breast cancer has been identified as the most lethal form of cancer today. In our study, we designed and screened 16 steviosides derivatives for their cytotoxic activities in MCF-7human breast cancer cells and normal MCF-12a cells. Our data indicated that steviosides derivatives 9 and 15 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells more thannormal breast cells epithelial cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both steviosides, derivatives 9 and 15 arrested the MCF-7 cells in G1 phase, which is further confirmed by the increased expression level of p21. Moreover, both steviosides derivatives increased caspase-9 activity, and the induction of apoptosis was significantly reduced after treating cells with caspase-9 inhibitor LEHD-CHO. Both steviosides derivatives increased Caspase 3 activities and induced Parp-1 cleavage in H1299 cells. Based on previous results, we have identified two novel steviosides derivatives which provoked apoptosis in breast cancer cells by arresting cells in G1 phase and increasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities which merits further development and investigations.

Keywords: steviosides, breast cancer, p53, cell cycle

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6361 Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

Authors: Liangliang Tang, Chang Xu, Xingying Chen

Abstract:

GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Keywords: thermophotovoltaic cell, GaSb, GaInAsSb, diffused emitters

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6360 Studying the Anti-Cancer Effects of Thymoquinone on Tumor Cells Through Natural Killer Cells Activity

Authors: Nouf A. Aldarmahi, Nesrin I. Tarbiah, Nuha A. Alkhattabi, Huda F. Alshaibi

Abstract:

Nigella sativa which is known as dark cumin is a well-known example for a widely applicable herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be effective in a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, gastrointestinal upset, and cancer. The anticancer effect of Nigella sativa appeared to be mediated by immune-modulatory effect through stimulating human natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocytes which is part of the innate immunity, also known as the first line of defense in the body against pathogens. This study investigated the effect of thymoquinone as a major component of Nigella sativa on the molecular cytotoxic pathway of NK cell and the role of thymoquinone therapeutic effect on NK cells. NK cells were cultured with breast tumor cells in different ways and cultured media was collected and the concentration of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-α were measured by ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of NK cells on breast tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of thymoquinone, with increased activity of perforin in NK cells. This improved anticancer effect of thymoquinone on breast cancer cells.

Keywords: breast cancer, cancer cells, natural killer cells, thymoquinone

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