Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: oyster

29 Structural Design and Environmental Analysis of Oyster Mushroom Cultivation House in Korea

Authors: Lee Sunghyoun, Yu Byeongkee, Kim Hyuckjoo, Yun Namkyu, Jung Jongcheon

Abstract:

Most of the recent on-sale oyster mushrooms are raised in a oyster mushroom house, in which the necessary adjustment of growing condition is feasible. The rationale for such artificial growing is the impossibility of successive cultivation in the case of a natural cultivation due to external weather conditions. A oyster mushroom house adopts an equipment called growing bed, laying one growing bed upon another in a multi-column fashion, growing and developing the mushrooms on the respective equipments. The indispensable environment management factors of mushroom cultivation are temperature, humidity, and CO2; on which an appropriate regulation of the three requisites is a necessitated condition for the sake of the total output’s increase. However, due to the multiple layers of growing bed’s disturbance on air circulation, a oyster mushroom house’s internal environmental uniformity meets with considerable instability. This research presents a technology which assures the facilitation of environment regulation over all the internal space of a oyster mushroom house, irrespective of its location. The research staff reinforced the oyster mushroom house’s insulation in order to minimize the external environment’s influence on the oyster mushroom house’s internal environment and installed circulation fan to improve the oyster mushroom house’s interior environmental uniformity. Also, the humidifier nozzle’s position was set to prevent dew condensation when humidifying. As a result, a highly sophisticated management over all the oyster mushroom house‘s internal space was realized with the temperature of 0.2~1.3℃, and the relative humidity of 2~7% at the cultivating stage of mushroom’s growth. Therefore, to maximize oyster mushroom house‘s internal environmental uniformity, it can be concluded that consideration of various factors such as insulation reinforcement, decision on the humidifier nozzle’s location, disposition of circulation fan’s installation and the direction of wind discharge is needed.

Keywords: mushroom growing facility, environmental uniformity, temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
28 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu

Abstract:

Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
27 Effects of Environmental Parameters on Salmonella Contaminated in Harvested Oysters (Crassostrea lugubris and Crassostrea belcheri)

Authors: Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Jarukorn Sripradite, Saharuetai Jeamsripong

Abstract:

Environmental contamination from wastewater discharges originated from anthropogenic activities introduces the accumulation of enteropathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, especially in oysters, and in shellfish harvesting areas. The consumption of raw or partially cooked oysters can be a risk for seafood-borne diseases in human. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Salmonella in oyster meat samples, and environmental factors (ambient air temperature, relative humidity, gust wind speed, average wind speed, tidal condition, precipitation and season) by using the principal component analysis (PCA). One hundred and forty-four oyster meat samples were collected from four oyster harvesting areas in Phang Nga province, Thailand from March 2016 to February 2017. The prevalence of Salmonella of each site was ranged from 25.0-36.11% in oyster meat. The results of PCA showed that ambient air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were main factors correlated with Salmonella detection in these oysters. Positive relationship was observed between positive Salmonella in the oysters and relative humidity (PC1=0.413) and precipitation (PC1=0.607), while the negative association was found between ambient air temperature (PC1=0.338) and the presence of Salmonella in oyster samples. These results suggested that lower temperature and higher precipitation and higher relative humidity will possibly effect on Salmonella contamination of oyster meat. During the high risk period, harvesting of oysters should be prohibited to reduce pathogenic bacteria contamination and to minimize a hazard of humans from Salmonellosis.

Keywords: oyster, Phang Nga Bay, principal component analysis, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
26 Preventive Effect of Three Kinds of Bacteriophages to Control Vibrio coralliilyticus Infection in Oyster Larvae

Authors: Hyoun Joong Kim, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Cheng Chi, Saekil Yun, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jeong Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

Vibrio corallilyticus is a well-known pathogen of coral. It is also infectious to a variety of shellfish species, including Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae. V. corallilyticus is remained to be a major constraint in marine bivalve aquaculture practice, especially in artificial seed production facility. Owing to the high mortality and contagious nature of the pathogen, large amount of antibiotics has been used for disease prevention and control. However, indiscriminate use of antibiotics may result in food and environmental pollution, and development of antibiotic resistant strains. Therefore, eco-friendly disease preventative measures are imperative for sustainable bivalve culture. The present investigation proposes the application of bacteriophage (phage) as an effective alternative method for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatcheries. Isolation of phages from sea water sample was carried out using drop or double layer agar methods. The host range, stability and morphology of the phage isolates were studied. In vivo phage efficacy to prevent V. corallilyticus infection in oyster larvae was also performed. The isolated phages, named pVco-5 and pVco-7 was classified as a podoviridae and pVco-14, was classified as a siphoviridae. Each phages were infective to four strains of seven V. corallilyticus strains tested. When oyster larvae were pre-treated with the phage before bacterial challenge, mortality of the treated oyster larvae was lower than that in the untreated control. This result suggests that each phages have the potential to be used as therapeutic agent for controlling V. corallilyticus infection in marine bivalve hatchery.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Vibrio coralliilyticus, Oyster larvae, mortality

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
25 The Study on Enhanced Micro Climate of the Oyster Mushroom Cultivation House with Multi-Layered Shelves by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis in Winter

Authors: Sunghyoun Lee, Byeongkee Yu, Chanjung Lee, Yeongtaek Lim

Abstract:

Oyster mushrooms are one of the ingredients that Koreans prefer. The oyster mushroom cultivation house has multiple layers in order to increase the mushroom production per unit area. However, the growing shelves in the house act as obstacles and hinder the circulation of the interior air, which leads to the difference of cultivation environment between the upper part and lower part of the growing shelves. Due to this difference of environments, growth distinction occurs according to the area of the growing shelves. It is known that minute air circulation around the mushroom cap facilitates the metabolism of mushrooms and improves its quality. This study has utilized the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program, that is, FLUENT R16, in order to analyze the improvement of the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house. The analyzed factors are velocity distribution, temperature distribution, and humidity distribution. In order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the oyster mushroom cultivation house, it appeared that installing circulation fan at the upper part of the working passage towards the ceiling is effective. When all the environmental control equipment – unit cooler, inlet fan, outlet fan, air circulation fan, and humidifier - operated simultaneously, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 28.23%, temperature 30.47%, humidity 7.88%. However, when only unit cooler and air circulation fan operated, the RMS figure on the growing shelves appeared as follows: velocity 22.28%, temperature 0.87%, humidity 0.82%. Therefore, in order to maintain the internal environment uniformity of the mushroom cultivation house, reducing the overall operating time of inlet fan, outlet fan, and humidifier is needed, and managing the internal environment with unit cooler and air circulation fan appropriately is essential.

Keywords: air circulation fan, computational fluid dynamics, multi-layered shelves cultivation, oyster mushroom cultivation house

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
24 Taphonomy and Paleoecology of Cenomanian Oysters (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Egypt

Authors: Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Heba Mansour, Magdy El-Hedeny

Abstract:

This study provided a taphonomic alteration and paleoecology of Cenomanian oysters from the Musabaa Salama area, south western Sinai, Egypt. Three oyster zones can be recognized in the studied area, a lower one of Amphidonte (Ceratostreon) flabellatum (lower-middle Cenomanian), a middle zone of Ilymatogyra (Afrogyra) africana (upper Cenomanian) and an upper one of Exogyra (Costagyra) olisiponensis (upper Cenomanian). Taphonomic features including disarticulation, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. The analyses showed that the distributions of the identified ichnospecies were greatly similar within the identified oyster zones in the Musabaa Salama section. With rare exceptions, Entobia cretacea, Gastrochaenolites torpedo and Maeandropolydora decipiens are considered as common to abundant ichnospecies within the three recorded oyster zones. In contrast, and with some exceptions, E. ovula, E. retiformis and Rogerella pattei are considered as frequent to common ichnospecies within the identified oyster zones. Other ichnospecies, including Caulostrepsis cretacea, G. orbicularis, Trypanites solitarius, E. geometrica and C. taeniola, are mostly recorded in rare to frequent occurrences. Careful investigation of these host shells and the preserved encrusters and/or bioerosion sculptures provided data concerning: 1) the substrate characteristics, 2) time of encrustation and bioerosion, 3) rate of sedimentation, 4) the planktonic productivity level, and 5) the general bathymetry and the rate of transgression across the substrate.

Keywords: oysters, Cenomanian, taphonomy, palaeoecology, Sinai, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
23 Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources

Authors: Arianne V. Julian, Michael R. Umagat, Renato G. Reyes

Abstract:

Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.

Keywords: calcium fortification, mushroom production, natural sources, Pleurotus ostreatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
22 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Hye-Sung Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

Abstract:

This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: king oyster mushroom, saccharide, amino acid, mycelia

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
21 Nacre Deposition Rate in Japanese and Hybrid Mother Oysters, Pinctada Fucata, and Its Relationship with Their Respective Pearls

Authors: Gunawan Muhammad, Takashi Atsumi, Akira Komaru

Abstract:

Pinctada fucata has been the most important pearl culture species in Japan and known as Japanese Akoya Pearl Oyster. However, during summer 1994, mass mortality devastated pearl culture in most parts of Japan. Therefore, pearl farmers started to import Chinese Pearl Oysters from Hainan Island that came from the same species because they are believed to be more resistant towards high water temperature, despite their lack of ability in producing high-quality pearls. The local farmers were then hybridized Japanese and Chinese pearl oysters and currently known as Hybrid pearl oysters, as an attempt to produce a new oyster's strain which is more resistant towards high temperature but also able to produce higher quality pearls. However, despite both strains were implanted by mantle tissues from the same group of donors, the thickness of pearl nacre produced by both strains was different, even though tablet thickness shows a rather similar pattern. Hence, this leads to a question of whether mother oysters play a major role in both nacre deposition rate and tablet thickness of pearls or not. This study first describes the nacre deposition rate of the shells of Japanese and Hybrid mother oysters towards the water temperature condition in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Later, a comparative study was conducted among 4 shell positions that had been chosen according to the mantle tissue location and shell growth directions. A correlative study was then taken between shells and pearls nacre deposition rate to know whether mother oyster ability in depositing nacre on their shells is related to that of pearls. All the four shell positions were significantly different in shell nacre growth rate (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.05), and the third position have faster nacre growth among the other three both in Japanese and Hybrid strains, especially in warm temperature. The ability to deposit nacre between Japanese and Hybrid during warm water conditions (August and September) is also significantly different in almost all positions (Mann Whitney U, p-value < 0.01), Japanese oyster growth faster than Hybrid in all four positions. This leads to a different total growth among the two strains and a higher possibility of thicker nacre thickness in Japanese shell nacre. Tablet thickness is significantly different among all positions of shells (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.01), the 2nd position deposited rather thinner tablet thickness than the other three, including on the 6th month of culture which is more desirable in producing pearls with good luster. This result gives us new information that pearl growth rate is highly affected by the mother oysters; however, nacre tablet thickness might be the result of the shell matrix expressed by different mantle position from donor oysters.

Keywords: nacre, deposition, biomineralization, pearl aquaculture, pearl oyster, Akoya pearl, pearl

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
20 Microplastic Concentrations in Cultured Oyster in Two Bays of Baja California, Mexico

Authors: Eduardo Antonio Lozano Hernandez, Nancy Ramirez Alvarez, Lorena Margarita Rios Mendoza, Jose Vinicio Macias Zamora, Felix Augusto Hernandez Guzman, Jose Luis Sanchez Osorio

Abstract:

Microplastics (MPs) are one of the most numerous reported wastes found in the marine ecosystem, representing one of the greatest risks for organisms that inhabit that environment due to their bioavailability. Such is the case of bivalve mollusks, since they are capable of filtering large volumes of water, which increases the risk of contamination by microplastics through the continuous exposure to these materials. This study aims to determine, quantify and characterize microplastics found in the cultured oyster Crassostrea gigas. We also analyzed if there are spatio-temporal differences in the microplastic concentration of organisms grown in two bays having quite different human population. In addition, we wanted to have an idea of the possible impact on humans via consumption of these organisms. Commercial size organisms (>6cm length; n = 15) were collected by triplicate from eight oyster farming sites in Baja California, Mexico during winter and summer. Two sites are located in Todos Santos Bay (TSB), while the other six are located in San Quintin Bay (SQB). Site selection was based on commercial concessions for oyster farming in each bay. The organisms were chemically digested with 30% KOH (w/v) and 30% H₂O₂ (v/v) to remove the organic matter and subsequently filtered using a GF/D filter. All particles considered as possible MPs were quantified according to their physical characteristics using a stereoscopic microscope. The type of synthetic polymer was determined using a FTIR-ATR microscope and using a user as well as a commercial reference library (Nicolet iN10 Thermo Scientific, Inc.) of IR spectra of plastic polymers (with a certainty ≥70% for polymers pure; ≥50% for composite polymers). Plastic microfibers were found in all the samples analyzed. However, a low incidence of MP fragments was observed in our study (approximately 9%). The synthetic polymers identified were mainly polyester and polyacrylonitrile. In addition, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, and T. elastomer. On average, the content of microplastics in organisms were higher in TSB (0.05 ± 0.01 plastic particles (pp)/g of wet weight) than found in SQB (0.02 ± 0.004 pp/g of wet weight) in the winter period. The highest concentration of MPs found in TSB coincides with the rainy season in the region, which increases the runoff from streams and wastewater discharges to the bay, as well as the larger population pressure (> 500,000 inhabitants). Otherwise, SQB is a mainly rural location, where surface runoff from streams is minimal and in addition, does not have a wastewater discharge into the bay. During the summer, no significant differences (Manne-Whitney U test; P=0.484) were observed in the concentration of MPs found in the cultured oysters of TSB and SQB, (average: 0.01 ± 0.003 pp/g and 0.01 ± 0.002 pp/g, respectively). Finally, we concluded that the consumption of oyster does not represent a risk for humans due to the low concentrations of MPs found. The concentration of MPs is influenced by the variables such as temporality, circulations dynamics of the bay and existing demographic pressure.

Keywords: FTIR-ATR, Human risk, Microplastic, Oyster

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
19 Microplastics in Two Bivalves of The Bay of Bengal Coast, Bangladesh

Authors: Showmitra Chowdhury, M. Shahadat Hossain, S. M. Sharifuzzaman, Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury, Subrata Sarker, M. Shah Nawaz Chowdhury

Abstract:

Microplastics were identified in mussel (Pernaviridis) and Oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) from the south east coast of Bangladesh. Samples were collected from four sites of the coast based on their availability, and gastrointestinal tracts were assessed following isolation, floatation, filtration, microscopic observation, and polymer identification by micro-Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscope (μ-FTIR) for microplastics determination. A total of 1527 microplastics were identified from 130 samples. The amount of microplastics varied from 0.66 to 3.10 microplastics/g and from 3.20 to 27.60 items/individual. Crassostrea madrasensiscontained on average 1.64 items/g and exhibited the highest level of microplastics by weight. Fiber was the most dominant type, accounting for 72% of total microplastics. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyester, and nylon were the major polymer types. In both species, transparent/ black color and filamentous shape was dominant. The most common size ranges from 0.005 to 0.25mm and accounted for 39% to 67%. The study revealed microplastics pollution is widespread and relatively high in the bivalves of Bangladesh.

Keywords: microplastics, bivalves, mussel, oyster, bay of bengal, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
18 Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime

Authors: Hene L. Hapinat, Mae D. Dumapig

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.

Keywords: shell lime, pH, calcium carbonate concentrations, mollusks, agricultural lime, lime potential concentration, acidic soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
17 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko

Abstract:

The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: isotopes, oysters, Siberia, taxonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
16 Analysis of the Effect of Food Veils on the Preservation of Button and Oyster Mushrooms, Case Study: Zein Corn Coating

Authors: Mohamad Javad Shakouri, Hamid Tavakkolipour, Mahdis Jamshidi Tehranian

Abstract:

The inclination toward using food coatings is increasing daily, due to containing natural elements and not producing environmental pollution. Food coatings are uniform and thin layers of natural substances that cover the food product and act as a barrier against moisture, oxygen, and substances dissolved in food. Using food coatings on fruits and vegetables can delay water dissipation, losing aroma, decolorization, and improve the appearance of the product, and in general, preserve and protect the quality of fresh produce. When fruits and vegetables grow, they are equipped with a natural shield, called cuticle– a layer of wax. Washing the products, after harvest, the cuticle – this protective coating – is removed. In order to replace the cuticle, we can use an edible protective coating. This coating delays dehydration and deterioration and hence increases the life of the product while keeping its moisture. In this study, it was concluded that using food coatings, such as corn zein, carrageenan, and starch can have a substantial effect on the quantitative and qualitative preservation of food products, such as fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms.

Keywords: food coating, corn zein, button and oyster mushrooms, ascorbic and citric acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
15 Quality Assessment Of Instant Breakfast Cereals From Yellow Maize (Zea mays), Sesame (Sesamum indicium), And Mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus) Flour Blends

Authors: Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, Ifeoma Elizabeth, Orngu, Africa Orngu

Abstract:

Composite flours were processed from blends of yellow maize (Zea mays), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder in the ratio of 80:20:0; 75:20:5; 70:20:10; 65:20:10 and 60:20:20, respectively to produce the breakfast cereal coded as YSB, SMB, TMB, PMB and OMB with YSB as the control. The breakfast cereals were produced by hydration and toasting of yellow maize and sesame to 160oC for 25 minutes and blended together with oven dried and packaged oyster mushroom. The developed products (flours and breakfast cereals) were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients, phytochemicals, functional, microbial and sensory properties. Results for the flours showed: proximate composition (%): moisture (2.59-7.27), ash (1.29-7.57), crude fat (0.98-14.91), fibre (1.03-16.02), protein (10.13-35.29), carbohydrate (75.48-38.18) and energy (295.18-410.75kcal). Vitamins ranged as: vitamin A (0.14-9.03 ug/100g), vitamin B1 (0.14-0.38), vitamin B2 (0.07-0.15), vitamin B3(0.89-4.88) and Vitamin C (0.03-4.24). Minerals (mg/100g) were reported thus: calcium (8.01-372.02), potassium (1.40-1.85), magnesium (12.09-13.15), iron (1.23-5.25) and zinc (0.85-2.20). The results for anti-nutrients and phytochemical ranged from: tannin (1.50-1.61mg/g), Phytate (0.40-0.71mg/g), Oxalate(1.81-2.02mg/g), Flavonoid (0.21-1.27%) and phenolic (1.12-2.01%). Functional properties showed: bulk density (0.51-0.77g/ml), water absorption capacity (266.0-301.5%), swelling capacity (136.0-354.0%), least Gelation (0.55-1.45g/g) and reconstitution index (35.20-69.60%). The total viable count ranged from 6.4× 102to1.0× 103cfu/g while the total mold count was from 1.0× 10to 3.0× 10 cfu/g. For the breakfast cereals, proximate composition (%) ranged thus: moisture (4.07-7.08), ash (3.09-2.28), crude fat(16.04-12.83), crude fibre(4.30-8.22), protein(16.14-22.54), carbohydrate(56.34-47.04) and energy (434.34-393.83Kcal).Vitamin A (7.99-5.98 ug/100g), vitamin B1(0.08-0.42mg/100g), vitamin B2(0.06-0.15 mg/100g), vitamin B3(1.91-4.52 mg/100g) and Vitamin C(3.55-3.32 mg/100g) were reported while Minerals (mg/100g) were: calcium (75.31-58.02), potassium (0.65-4.01), magnesium(12.25-12.62), iron (1.21-4.15) and zinc (0.40-1.32). The anti-nutrients and phytochemical revealed the range (mg/g) as: tannin (1.12-1.21), phytate (0.69-0.53), oxalate (1.21-0.43), flavonoid (0.23-1.22%) and phenolic (0.23-1.23%). The bulk density (0.77-0.63g/ml), water absorption capacity (156.5-126.0%), swelling capacity (309.5-249.5%), least gelation (1.10-0.75g/g) and reconstitution index (49.95-39.95%) were recorded. From the total viable count, it ranged from 3.3× 102to4.2× 102cfu/g but no mold growth was detected. Sensory scores revealed that the breakfast cereals were acceptable to the panelist with oyster mushroom supplementation up to 10%.

Keywords: oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), sesame seed (Sesamum indicum), yellow maize (Zea mays, instant breakfast cereals

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
14 Harnessing Environmental DNA to Assess the Environmental Sustainability of Commercial Shellfish Aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest United States

Authors: James Kralj

Abstract:

Commercial shellfish aquaculture makes significant contributions to the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest United States. The industry faces intense pressure to minimize environmental impacts as a result of Federal policies like the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act and the Endangered Species Act. These policies demand the protection of essential fish habitat and declare several salmon species as endangered. Consequently, numerous projects related to the protection and rehabilitation of eelgrass beds, a crucial ecosystem for countless fish species, have been proposed at both state and federal levels. Both eelgrass beds and commercial shellfish farms occupy the same physical space, and therefore understanding the effects of shellfish aquaculture on eelgrass ecosystems has become a top ecological and economic priority of both government and industry. This study evaluates the organismal communities that eelgrass and oyster aquaculture habitats support. Water samples were collected from Willapa Bay, Washington; Tillamook Bay, Oregon; Humboldt Bay, California; and Sammish Bay, Washington to compare species diversity in eelgrass beds, oyster aquaculture plots, and boundary edges between these two habitats. Diversity was assessed using a novel technique: environmental DNA (eDNA). All organisms constantly shed small pieces of DNA into their surrounding environment through the loss of skin, hair, tissues, and waste. In the marine environment, this DNA becomes suspended in the water column allowing it to be easily collected. Once extracted and sequenced, this eDNA can be used to paint a picture of all the organisms that live in a particular habitat making it a powerful technology for environmental monitoring. Industry professionals and government officials should consider these findings to better inform future policies regulating eelgrass beds and oyster aquaculture. Furthermore, the information collected in this study may be used to improve the environmental sustainability of commercial shellfish aquaculture while simultaneously enhancing its growth and profitability in the face of ever-changing political and ecological landscapes.

Keywords: aquaculture, environmental DNA, shellfish, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
13 DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Ocean Acidification at the Time of Larval Metamorphosis in the Edible Oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis

Authors: Yong-Kian Lim, Khan Cheung, Xin Dang, Steven Roberts, Xiaotong Wang, Vengatesen Thiyagarajan

Abstract:

Unprecedented rate of increased CO₂ level in the ocean and the subsequent changes in carbonate system including decreased pH, known as ocean acidification (OA), is predicted to disrupt not only the calcification process but also several other physiological and developmental processes in a variety of marine organisms, including edible oysters. Nonetheless, not all species are vulnerable to those OA threats, e.g., some species may be able to cope with OA stress using environmentally induced modifications on gene and protein expressions. For example, external environmental stressors, including OA, can influence the addition and removal of methyl groups through epigenetic modification (e.g., DNA methylation) process to turn gene expression “on or off” as part of a rapid adaptive mechanism to cope with OA. In this study, the above hypothesis was tested through testing the effect of OA, using decreased pH 7.4 as a proxy, on the DNA methylation pattern of an endemic and a commercially important estuary oyster species, Crassostrea hongkongensis, at the time of larval habitat selection and metamorphosis. Larval growth rate did not differ between control pH 8.1 and treatment pH 7.4. The metamorphosis rate of the pediveliger larvae was higher at pH 7.4 than those in control pH 8.1; however, over one-third of the larvae raised at pH 7.4 failed to attach to an optimal substrate as defined by biofilm presence. During larval development, a total of 130 genes were differentially methylated across the two treatments. The differential methylation in the larval genes may have partially accounted for the higher metamorphosis success rate under decreased pH 7.4 but with poor substratum selection ability. Differentially methylated loci were concentrated in the exon regions and appear to be associated with cytoskeletal and signal transduction, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, and larval metamorphosis, which implies the high potential of C. hongkongensis larvae to acclimate and adapt through non-genetic ways to OA threats within a single generation.

Keywords: adaptive plasticity, DNA methylation, larval metamorphosis, ocean acidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
12 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
11 Effect of Oyster Mushroom on Biodegradation of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Saidu, Afiz Busari, Ali Yuzir, Mohd Razman Salim

Abstract:

Degradation of agricultural residues from palm oil industry is increasing due to its expansion. Lignocelloulosic waste from these industry represent large amount of unutilized resources, this is due to their high lignin content. Since, white rot fungi are capable of degrading the lignin, its potential to degradation was accessed for upgrading it. The lignocellluloses content was measured before and after biodegradation and the rate of reduction was determined. From the results of biodegradation, it was observed that hemicellulose reduces by 22.62%, cellulose by 20.97% and lignin by 10.65% from the initials lignocelluloses contents. Thus, to improve the digestibility of palm oil mesocarp fibre, treatment by white rot-fungi is recommended.

Keywords: biological, fungi, lignocelluses, oil palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
10 Review of K0-Factors and Related Nuclear Data of the Selected Radionuclides for Use in K0-NAA

Authors: Manh-Dung Ho, Van-Giap Pham, Van-Doanh Ho, Quang-Thien Tran, Tuan-Anh Tran

Abstract:

The k0-factors and related nuclear data, i.e. the Q0-factors and effective resonance energies (Ēr) of the selected radionuclides which are used in the k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA), were critically reviewed to be integrated in the “k0-DALAT” software. The k0- and Q0-factors of some short-lived radionuclides: 46mSc, 110Ag, 116m2In, 165mDy, and 183mW, were experimentally determined at the Dalat research reactor. The other radionuclides selected are: 20F, 36S, 49Ca, 60mCo, 60Co, 75Se, 77mSe, 86mRb, 115Cd, 115mIn, 131Ba, 134mCs, 134Cs, 153Gd, 153Sm, 159Gd, 170Tm, 177mYb, 192Ir, 197mHg, 239U and 239Np. The reviewed data as compared with the literature data were biased within 5.6-7.3% in which the experimental re-determined factors were within 6.1 and 7.3%. The NIST standard reference materials: Oyster Tissue (1566b), Montana II Soil (2711a) and Coal Fly Ash (1633b) were used to validate the new reviewed data showing that the new data gave an improved k0-NAA using the “k0-DALAT” software with a factor of 4.5-6.8% for the investigated radionuclides.

Keywords: neutron activation analysis, k0-based method, k0 factor, Q0 factor, effective resonance energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
9 Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment

Authors: Mahidin, Yanna Syamsuddin, Samsul Rizal

Abstract:

In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.

Keywords: biomass, low-rank coal, bio-briquette, new and renewable energy, palm kernel shell

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
8 Marine Natural Products: A Rich Source of Medicine in Ayurveda, the Ancient Indian Medical Science

Authors: Ashok D. Satpute

Abstract:

Ayurveda, the ancient Indian Medical system is practiced all over India and abroad, is rich in natural source of medicines, including marine products. The marine drugs which prominently used are pravala (coral), mukta (pearl), kapardika (cowry).Shukti (oyster shell), shankha (conch), agnijara (amber) etc. Except agnijara (amber) all are rich in calcium. Interestingly they are not used as supplements in calcium deficiency as done in conventional medical practice. They are used as medicines in the disease like fever, tuberculosis, bleeding disorders, eye problems, digestive complaints etc. Many scientific studies have shown their potent medicinal value. Each has its own properties and used therapeutically after subjecting them to various purificatory processes which are called shodhana in which several medicinal plants are used which also help in enhancing therapeutical activity. Then these purified marine products are subjected to marana (incineration) process and obtained in the form of Bhasma (a finest form of medicine). Agnijara, a derivative of whale is useful as aphrodisiac and prescribed in neuromuscular disorders and tetanus. The ancient scriptures written in Sanskrit language thousands of years back have rich information about all these natural marine products and their medicinal usage.

Keywords: Ayurveda, bhasma, marana, shodhana

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
7 Study on Ratio of Binder Compounds in Thai Northern Style Sausages

Authors: Wipharat Saimo, Benjawan Thumthanaruk, Panida Banjongsinsiri, Nowwapan Noojuy

Abstract:

Thai northern style sausage (sai-ou) is originally cuisine made of chili paste, pork, and lard. It always serves with curry paste, vegetable, and rice. The meat and lard ingredients used can be substituted by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and King oyster (Pleurotus eryngii) mushroom (50:50 w/w) which is suitable for all people, especially vegetarians. However, the texture of mushroom type sai-ou had no homogenous texture due to no adhesiveness property of mushroom. Therefore, this research aimed to study the ratio of hydrocolloids (konjac flour (0-100%), konjac gel (0-100%) and Citri-fi®100 FG (0-2%)) on the physicochemical properties mushroom type sai-ou. The mixture design was applied by using Minitab 16 software. Nine formula were designed for the test. The values of moisture content and water activity of nine formula were ranged from 66.25-72.17% and 0.96-0.97. The pH values were 5.44-5.89. The optimal ratio of konjac flour, konjac gel and Citri-fi®100 FG (74.75:24.75:0.5 (w/w)) yielded the highest texture profiles (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) as well as color parameters (L*, a* and b*). Sensory results showed had higher acceptability scores in term of overall liking with the level of ‘like moderately’ (5.9 on 7 pointed scale). The mushroom type sai-ou sausage could be an alternative food for health-conscious consumers.

Keywords: Citri-fi® 100 FG, konjac flour, konjac gel, Thai northern style sausages

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
6 Power Production Performance of Different Wave Energy Converters in the Southwestern Black Sea

Authors: Ajab G. Majidi, Bilal Bingölbali, Adem Akpınar

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the amount of energy (economic wave energy potential) that can be obtained from the existing wave energy converters in the high wave energy potential region of the Black Sea in terms of wave energy potential and their performance at different depths in the region. The data needed for this purpose were obtained using the calibrated nested layered SWAN wave modeling program version 41.01AB, which was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) winds from 1979 to 2009. The wave dataset at a time interval of 2 hours was accumulated for a sub-grid domain for around Karaburun beach in Arnavutkoy, a district of Istanbul city. The annual sea state characteristic matrices for the five different depths along with a vertical line to the coastline were calculated for 31 years. According to the power matrices of different wave energy converter systems and characteristic matrices for each possible installation depth, the probability distribution tables of the specified mean wave period or wave energy period and significant wave height were calculated. Then, by using the relationship between these distribution tables, according to the present wave climate, the energy that the wave energy converter systems at each depth can produce was determined. Thus, the economically feasible potential of the relevant coastal zone was revealed, and the effect of different depths on energy converter systems is presented. The Oceantic at 50, 75 and 100 m depths and Oyster at 5 and 25 m depths presents the best performance. In the 31-year long period 1998 the most and 1989 is the least dynamic year.

Keywords: annual power production, Black Sea, efficiency, power production performance, wave energy converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5 Modeling Sediment Transports under Extreme Storm Situation along Persian Gulf North Coast

Authors: Majid Samiee Zenoozian

Abstract:

The Persian Gulf is a bordering sea with an normal depth of 35 m and a supreme depth of 100 m near its narrow appearance. Its lengthen bathymetric axis divorces two main geological shires — the steady Arabian Foreland and the unbalanced Iranian Fold Belt — which are imitated in the conflicting shore and bathymetric morphologies of Arabia and Iran. The sediments were experimented with from 72 offshore positions through an oceanographic cruise in the winter of 2018. Throughout the observation era, several storms and river discharge actions happened, as well as the major flood on record since 1982. Suspended-sediment focus at all three sites varied in reaction to both wave resuspension and advection of river-derived sediments. We used hydrological models to evaluation and associate the wave height and inundation distance required to carriage the rocks inland. Our results establish that no known or possible storm happening on the Makran coast is accomplished of detaching and transporting the boulders. The fluid mud consequently is conveyed seaward due to gravitational forcing. The measured sediment focus and velocity profiles on the shelf provide a strong indication to provision this assumption. The sediment model is joined with a 3D hydrodynamic module in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model that offers data on estuarine rotation and salinity transport under normal temperature conditions. 3-D sediment transport from model simulations specify dynamic sediment resuspension and transport near zones of highly industrious oyster beds.

Keywords: sediment transport, storm, coast, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
4 Hydrogen Production from Solid Waste of Sago Processing Industries in Indonesia: Effect of Chemical and Biological Pretreatment

Authors: Pratikno Hidayat, Khamdan Cahyari

Abstract:

Hydrogen is the ultimate choice of energy carriers in future. It contents high energy density (42 kJ/g), emits only water vapor during combustion and has high energy conversion up to 50% in fuel cell application. One of the promising methods to produce hydrogen is from organic waste through dark fermentation method. It utilizes sugar-rich organic waste as substrate and hydrogen-producing microorganisms to generate the hydrogen. Solid waste of sago processing industries in Indonesia is one of the promising raw materials for both producing biofuel hydrogen and mitigating the environmental impact due to the waste disposal. This research was meant to investigate the effect of chemical and biological pretreatment i.e. acid treatment and mushroom cultivation toward lignocellulosic waste of these sago industries. Chemical pretreatment was conducted through exposing the waste into acid condition using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) (various molar i.e. 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 M and various duration of exposure i.e. 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Meanwhile, biological treatment was conducted through utilization of the solid waste as growth media of mushroom (Oyster and Ling-zhi) for 3 months. Dark fermentation was conducted at pH 5.0, temperature 27℃ and atmospheric pressure. It was noticed that chemical and biological pretreatment could improve hydrogen yield with the highest yield at 3.8 ml/g VS (31%v H2). The hydrogen production was successfully performed to generate high percentage of hydrogen, although the yield was still low. This result indicated that the explosion of acid chemical and biological method might need to be extended to improve degradability of the solid waste. However, high percentage of hydrogen was resulted from proper pretreatment of residual sludge of biogas plant to generate hydrogen-producing inoculum.

Keywords: hydrogen, sago waste, chemical, biological, dark fermentation, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
3 Phospholipid Cationic and Zwitterionic Compounds as Potential Non-Toxic Antifouling Agents: A Study of Biofilm Formation Assessed by Micro-titer Assays with Marine Bacteria and Eco-toxicological Effect on Marine Microalgae

Authors: D. Malouch, M. Berchel, C. Dreanno, S. Stachowski-Haberkorn, P-A. Jaffres

Abstract:

Biofouling is a complex natural phenomenon that involves biological, physical and chemical properties related to the environment, the submerged surface and the living organisms involved. Bio-colonization of artificial structures can cause various economic and environmental impacts. The increase in costs associated with the over-consumption of fuel from biocolonized vessels has been widely studied. Measurement drifts from submerged sensors, as well as obstructions in heat exchangers, and deterioration of offshore structures are major difficulties that industries are dealing with. Therefore, surfaces that inhibit biocolonization are required in different areas (water treatment, marine paints, etc.) and many efforts have been devoted to produce efficient and eco-compatible antifouling agents. The different steps of surface fouling are widely described in literature. Studying the biofilm and its stages provides a better understanding of how to elaborate more efficient antifouling strategies. Several approaches are currently applied, such as the use of biocide anti-fouling paint (mainly with copper derivatives) and super-hydrophobic coatings. While these two processes are proving to be the most effective, they are not entirely satisfactory, especially in a context of a changing legislation. Nowadays, the challenge is to prevent biofouling with non-biocide compounds, offering a cost effective solution, but with no toxic effects on marine organisms. Since the micro-fouling phase plays an important role in the regulation of the following steps of biofilm formation, it is desired to reduce or delate biofouling of a given surface by inhibiting the micro-fouling at its early stages. In our recent works, we reported that some amphiphilic compounds exhibited bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties at a concentration that did not affect mammalian eukaryotic cells. These remarkable properties invited us to assess this type of bio-inspired phospholipids to prevent the colonization of surfaces by marine bacteria. Of note, other studies reported that amphiphilic compounds interacted with bacteria leading to a reduction of their development. An amphiphilic compound is a molecule consisting of a hydrophobic domain and a polar head (ionic or non-ionic). These compounds appear to have interesting antifouling properties: some ionic compounds have shown antimicrobial activity, and zwitterions can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Herein, we investigate the potential of amphiphilic compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth and marine biofilm formation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of four synthetic phospholipids that features a cationic charge or a zwitterionic polar-head group to prevent microfouling with marine bacteria. Toxicity of these compounds was also studied in order to identify the most promising compounds that inhibit biofilm development and show low cytotoxicity on two links representative of coastal marine food webs: phytoplankton and oyster larvae.

Keywords: amphiphilic phospholipids, biofilm, marine fouling, non-toxique assays

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2 Expanding Access and Deepening Engagement: Building an Open Source Digital Platform for Restoration-Based Stem Education in the Largest Public-School System in the United States

Authors: Lauren B. Birney

Abstract:

This project focuses upon the expansion of the existing "Curriculum and Community Enterprise for the Restoration of New York Harbor in New York City Public Schools" NSF EHR DRL 1440869, NSF EHR DRL 1839656 and NSF EHR DRL 1759006. This project is recognized locally as “Curriculum and Community Enterprise for Restoration Science,” or CCERS. CCERS is a comprehensive model of ecological restoration-based STEM education for urban public-school students. Following an accelerated rollout, CCERS is now being implemented in 120+ Title 1 funded NYC Department of Education middle schools, led by two cohorts of 250 teachers, serving more than 11,000 students in total. Initial results and baseline data suggest that the CCERS model, with the Billion Oyster Project (BOP) as its local restoration ecology-based STEM curriculum, is having profound impacts on students, teachers, school leaders, and the broader community of CCERS participants and stakeholders. Students and teachers report being receptive to the CCERS model and deeply engaged in the initial phase of curriculum development, citizen science data collection, and student-centered, problem-based STEM learning. The BOP CCERS Digital Platform will serve as the central technology hub for all research, data, data analysis, resources, materials and student data to promote global interactions between communities, Research conducted included qualitative and quantitative data analysis. We continue to work internally on making edits and changes to accommodate a dynamic society. The STEM Collaboratory NYC® at Pace University New York City continues to act as the prime institution for the BOP CCERS project since the project’s inception in 2014. The project continues to strive to provide opportunities in STEM for underrepresented and underserved populations in New York City. The replicable model serves as an opportunity for other entities to create this type of collaboration within their own communities and ignite a community to come together and address the notable issue. Providing opportunities for young students to engage in community initiatives allows for a more cohesive set of stakeholders, ability for young people to network and provide additional resources for those students in need of additional support, resources and structure. The project has planted more than 47 million oysters across 12 acres and 15 reef sites, with the help of more than 8,000 students and 10,000 volunteers. Additional enhancements and features on the BOP CCERS Digital Platform will continue over the next three years through funding provided by the National Science Foundation, NSF DRL EHR 1759006/1839656 Principal Investigator Dr. Lauren Birney, Professor Pace University. Early results from the data indicate that the new version of the Platform is creating traction both nationally and internationally among community stakeholders and constituents. This project continues to focus on new collaborative partners that will support underrepresented students in STEM Education. The advanced Digital Platform will allow for us connect with other countries and networks on a larger Global scale.

Keywords: STEM education, environmental restoration science, technology, citizen science

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1 Amphiphilic Compounds as Potential Non-Toxic Antifouling Agents: A Study of Biofilm Formation Assessed by Micro-titer Assays with Marine Bacteria and Eco-toxicological Effect on Marine Algae

Authors: D. Malouch, M. Berchel, C. Dreanno, S. Stachowski-Haberkorn, P-A. Jaffres

Abstract:

Biofilm is a predominant lifestyle chosen by bacteria. Whether it is developed on an immerged surface or a mobile biofilm known as flocs, the bacteria within this form of life show properties different from its planktonic ones. Within the biofilm, the self-formed matrix of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) offers hydration, resources capture, enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents, and allows cell-communication. Biofouling is a complex natural phenomenon that involves biological, physical and chemical properties related to the environment, the submerged surface and the living organisms involved. Bio-colonization of artificial structures can cause various economic and environmental impacts. The increase in costs associated with the over-consumption of fuel from biocolonized vessels has been widely studied. Measurement drifts from submerged sensors, as well as obstructions in heat exchangers, and deterioration of offshore structures are major difficulties that industries are dealing with. Therefore, surfaces that inhibit biocolonization are required in different areas (water treatment, marine paints, etc.) and many efforts have been devoted to produce efficient and eco-compatible antifouling agents. The different steps of surface fouling are widely described in literature. Studying the biofilm and its stages provides a better understanding of how to elaborate more efficient antifouling strategies. Several approaches are currently applied, such as the use of biocide anti-fouling paint6 (mainly with copper derivatives) and super-hydrophobic coatings. While these two processes are proving to be the most effective, they are not entirely satisfactory, especially in a context of a changing legislation. Nowadays, the challenge is to prevent biofouling with non-biocide compounds, offering a cost effective solution, but with no toxic effects on marine organisms. Since the micro-fouling phase plays an important role in the regulation of the following steps of biofilm formation7, it is desired to reduce or delate biofouling of a given surface by inhibiting the micro fouling at its early stages. In our recent works, we reported that some amphiphilic compounds exhibited bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties at a concentration that did not affect eukaryotic cells. These remarkable properties invited us to assess this type of bio-inspired phospholipids9 to prevent the colonization of surfaces by marine bacteria. Of note, other studies reported that amphiphilic compounds interacted with bacteria leading to a reduction of their development. An amphiphilic compound is a molecule consisting of a hydrophobic domain and a polar head (ionic or non-ionic). These compounds appear to have interesting antifouling properties: some ionic compounds have shown antimicrobial activity, and zwitterions can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Herein, we investigate the potential of amphiphilic compounds as inhibitors of bacterial growth and marine biofilm formation. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of four synthetic phospholipids that features a cationic charge (BSV36, KLN47) or a zwitterionic polar-head group (SL386, MB2871) to prevent microfouling with marine bacteria. We also study the toxicity of these compounds in order to identify the most promising compound that must feature high anti-adhesive properties and a low cytotoxicity on two links representative of coastal marine food webs: phytoplankton and oyster larvae.

Keywords: amphiphilic phospholipids, bacterial biofilm, marine microfouling, non-toxic antifouling

Procedia PDF Downloads 48