Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1414

Search results for: European musicians

1414 Ottoman Marches Composed by European Musicians

Authors: Selcen Özyurt Ulutaş

Abstract:

March as a musical form in Ottoman Music has started after Sultan II. Mahmud. Owing to the modernization process on Ottoman Empire, marches had accepted and embraced by the sultanate in a short period of time. The reasons behind sultans favor against marches that is actually a European Music form is closely related to attribute meanings to marches. After Sultan II. Mahmud, marches became a symbol of westernization and became a symbol of sultanate. After that period besides sultans also princes started to compose marches. The presentation includes the demonstration of the marches classification in achieves to be able to give information on the composers of those marches. Through that process, this study aims to show attributed meanings to those marches and what those marches represent.

Keywords: Ottoman marches, music, Europe, European musicians

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1413 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero

Abstract:

Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

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1412 The Musician as the Athlete: Psychological Response to Injury

Authors: Shulamit Sternin

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Athletes experience injuries that can have both a physical and psychological impact on the individual. In such instances, athletes are able to rely on the established field of sports psychology to facilitate holistic rehabilitation. Musicians, like athletes rely on their bodies to perform in much the same way athletes do and are also susceptible to injury. Due to the similar performative nature of succeeding as an athletes or a musician, these careers share many of the same primary psychological concerns and therefore it is reasonable that athletes and musicians may require similar rehabilitation post-injury. However, musicians face their own unique psychological challenges and understanding the needs of an injured athlete can serve as a foundation for understanding the injured musician but is not enough to fully rehabilitate an injured musician. The current research surrounding musicians and their injuries is primarily focused on physiological aspects of injury and rehabilitation; the psychological aspects have not yet received adequate attention resulting in poor musician rehabilitation post- injury. This review paper uses current models of psychological response to injury in athletes to draw parallels with the psychological response to injury in musicians. Search engines such as Medline and PsycInfo were systematically searched using specific key words, such as psychological response, injury, athlete, and musician. Studies that focused on post-injury psychology of either the musician or the athlete were included. Within the literature there is evidence to support psychological responses, unique to the musician, that are not accounted for by current models of response in athletes. The models of psychological response to injury in athletes are inadequate tools for application to the musician. Future directions for performance arts research that can fill the gaps in our understanding and modeling of musicians’ response to injury are discussed. A better understanding of the psychological impact of injuries on musicians holds significant implications for health care practitioners working with injured musicians. Understanding the unique barriers musicians face post-injury, and how support for this population must be tailored to properly suit musicians’ needs will aid in more holistic rehabilitation and a higher likelihood of musician’s returning to pre-injury performance levels.

Keywords: athlete, injury, musician, psychological response

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1411 Event Related Brain Potentials Evoked by Carmen in Musicians and Dancers

Authors: Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi

Abstract:

Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by simple tones in the brain have been extensively studied. However, in reality the music surrounding us is spectrally and temporally complex and dynamic. Thus, the research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation, which, in various forms, has always been an essential part of different cultures. In addition to sensory responses, music elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. When compared to laymen, professional musicians have stronger ERP responses in processing individual musical features in simple tone sequences, such as changes in pitch, timbre and harmony. Here we show that the ERP responses evoked by rapid changes in individual musical features are more intense in musicians than in laymen, also while listening to long excerpts of the composition Carmen. Interestingly, for professional dancers, the amplitudes of the cognitive P300 response are weaker than for musicians but still stronger than for laymen. Also, the cognitive P300 latencies of musicians are significantly shorter whereas the latencies of laymen are significantly longer. In contrast, sensory N100 do not differ in amplitude or latency between musicians and laymen. These results, acquired from a novel ERP methodology for natural music, suggest that we can take the leap of studying the brain with long pieces of natural music also with the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG), as has already been made with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), as these two brain imaging devices complement each other.

Keywords: electroencephalography, expertise, musical features, real-life music

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1410 Influence of Instrumental Playing on Attachment Type of Musicians and Music Students Using Adult Attachment Scale-R

Authors: Sofia Serra-Dawa

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Adult relationships accrue on a variety of past social experiences, intentions, and emotions that might predispose and influence the approach to and construction of subsequent relationships. The Adult Attachment Theory (AAT) proposes four types of adult attachment, where attachment is built over two dimensions of anxiety and avoidance: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant. The AAT has been studied in multiple settings such as personal and therapeutic relationships, educational settings, sexual orientation, health, and religion. In music scholarship, the AAT has been used to frame class learning of student singers and study the relational behavior between voice teachers and students. Building on this study, the present inquiry studies how attachment types might characterize learning relationships of music students (in the Western Conservatory tradition), and whether particular instrumental experiences might correlate to given attachment styles. Given certain behavioral cohesive features of established traditions of instrumental playing and performance modes, it is hypothesized that student musicians will display specific characteristics correlated to instrumental traditions, demonstrating clear tendency of attachment style, which in turn has implications on subsequent professional interactions. This study is informed by the methodological framework of Adult Attachment Scale-R (Collins and Read, 1990), which was particularly chosen given its non-invasive questions and classificatory validation. It is further hypothesized that the analytical comparison of musicians’ profiles has the potential to serve as the baseline for other comparative behavioral observation studies [this component is expected to be verified and completed well before the conference meeting]. This research may have implications for practitioners concerned with matching and improving musical teaching and learning relationships and in (professional and amateur) long-term musical settings.

Keywords: adult attachment, music education, musicians attachment profile, musicians relationships

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1409 Creative Practice and Consciousness in Juju Music: A Nigerian Musical and Cultural Perspective

Authors: Olupemi E. Oludare

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This paper investigates the creative practice engaged in Juju music, a Nigerian Neo-traditional genre of the Yoruba, and its influence on the consciousness of societal praxis. It takes a musical and cultural perspective, as representational indices of how the people’s religious, social, educational, and political consciousness is expressed in their music. The study adopts the historical cum descriptive design in its methodology, tracing the historical development of Juju music, the appropriation of musical and cultural materials in its creative process, and a descriptive analysis of its musical practice, in order to substantiate the role and function of Juju music and its musicians in the political, philosophical, and social consciousness of Nigeria’s pre- and post-independence epoch. Data were collected through oral interviews of selected Juju practitioners, stakeholders, and enthusiasts. It also employed the use of discography of Juju musicians. This paper discusses musical factors such as form, melodic and rhythmic patterns, and thematic materials, while highlighting cultural factors such as linguistic elements, with textual analysis, as a conscious avenue of expression. The study revealed that Juju musicians composed their music by engaging both indigenous and foreign musical materials, as a means of creative practice for musical entertainment, while expressing the people’s consciousness of their beliefs, values, and socio-political issues, hence the music functioning as a vehicle for social commentaries. The popularization and commercialization of Juju music brought the musicians national and international accolades, subsequently attracting contributions from contemporary musicians, which led to innovations of new brands, such as ‘Afro-Juju’, ‘Gospel-Juju’, ‘Hip-Hop-Juju’, etc., albeit retaining the basic musical elements of its progenitor, as a conscious music for socio-cultural functions. This study concludes that Juju music and its musicians remain germane in the musical scene of the nation’s social, educational, and political terrain, especially in the current Nigerian democratic climate. This paper recommends the promotion and patronage of the Juju music in its original form, to prevent its decline in current times, since it serves as an enrichment of national identity both in Nigeria, and Internationally.

Keywords: appropriation, consciousness, creative practice, national identity, neo-traditional

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1408 Encouraging Skills and Entrepreneurial Spirit to Improve Employability of Young Artists

Authors: Olga Lasaga, Carmen Parra

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Within the EU 'New Skills for New Jobs' initiative, the art and music sector is considered one of the most vulnerable. Its graduates are faced with the threat of the dole or of not finding work in the sector in which they trained. In this regard, an increasing number of students are graduating every year from European Conservatories and Fine Arts Centres, while the number of job opportunities in this sector has stagnated or decreased. Moreover, the traditional teaching of these institutes does not favour the acquisition of basic skills, such as team building, entrepreneurship, marketing, website design and the design of events, which are among the most important facets of project management and are precisely those aspects that are often most related to the improvement of employability in the art world. To remedy this situation, the results of the European Erasmus+ OMEGA project (Opening More Employment Gates for Art and Music Students) are presented. The OMEGA project aims to increase the employability of art and music students by equipping them with additional skills needed for the search for work. As a result of this project, a manual has been created, a pilot course has been designed and taught, and a comparative study has been conducted on the state of play of the participating countries.

Keywords: artists, employability, entrepreneurship, musicians, skills

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1407 Music Reading Expertise Facilitates Implicit Statistical Learning of Sentence Structures in a Novel Language: Evidence from Eye Movement Behavior

Authors: Sara T. K. Li, Belinda H. J. Chung, Jeffery C. N. Yip, Janet H. Hsiao

Abstract:

Music notation and text reading both involve statistical learning of music or linguistic structures. However, it remains unclear how music reading expertise influences text reading behavior. The present study examined this issue through an eye-tracking study. Chinese-English bilingual musicians and non-musicians read English sentences, Chinese sentences, musical phrases, and sentences in Tibetan, a language novel to the participants, with their eye movement recorded. Each set of stimuli consisted of two conditions in terms of structural regularity: syntactically correct and syntactically incorrect musical phrases/sentences. They then completed a sentence comprehension (for syntactically correct sentences) or a musical segment/word recognition task afterwards to test their comprehension/recognition abilities. The results showed that in reading musical phrases, as compared with non-musicians, musicians had a higher accuracy in the recognition task, and had shorter reading time, fewer fixations, and shorter fixation duration when reading syntactically correct (i.e., in diatonic key) than incorrect (i.e., in non-diatonic key/atonal) musical phrases. This result reflects their expertise in music reading. Interestingly, in reading Tibetan sentences, which was novel to both participant groups, while non-musicians did not show any behavior differences between reading syntactically correct or incorrect Tibetan sentences, musicians showed a shorter reading time and had marginally fewer fixations when reading syntactically correct sentences than syntactically incorrect ones. However, none of the musicians reported discovering any structural regularities in the Tibetan stimuli after the experiment when being asked explicitly, suggesting that they may have implicitly acquired the structural regularities in Tibetan sentences. This group difference was not observed when they read English or Chinese sentences. This result suggests that music reading expertise facilities reading texts in a novel language (i.e., Tibetan), but not in languages that the readers are already familiar with (i.e., English and Chinese). This phenomenon may be due to the similarities between reading music notations and reading texts in a novel language, as in both cases the stimuli follow particular statistical structures but do not involve semantic or lexical processing. Thus, musicians may transfer their statistical learning skills stemmed from music notation reading experience to implicitly discover structures of sentences in a novel language. This speculation is consistent with a recent finding showing that music reading expertise modulates the processing of English nonwords (i.e., words that do not follow morphological or orthographic rules) but not pseudo- or real words. These results suggest that the modulation of music reading expertise on language processing depends on the similarities in the cognitive processes involved. It also has important implications for the benefits of music education on language and cognitive development.

Keywords: eye movement behavior, eye-tracking, music reading expertise, sentence reading, structural regularity, visual processing

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1406 The Concept and Practice of Good Governance in the European Union

Authors: Robert Grzeszczak

Abstract:

The article deals with one of the most significant issues concerning the functioning of the public sector in the European Union. The objectives of good governance were formulated by the EU itself and also the Scholars in reaction to the discussion that started a decade ago and concerned the role of the government in 21st century, the future of integration processes and globalization challenges in Europe. Currently, the concept of good governance is mainly associated with the improvement of management of public policies in the European Union, concerning both domestic and EU policies. However, it goes beyond the issues of state capacity and effectiveness of management. Good governance relates also to societal participation in the public administration and verification of decisions made in public authorities’ (including public administration). Indirectly, the concept and practice of good governance are connected to societal legitimisation of public bodies in the European Union.

Keywords: good governance, government, European law, European Union

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1405 FlameCens: Visualization of Expressive Deviations in Music Performance

Authors: Y. Trantafyllou, C. Alexandraki

Abstract:

Music interpretation accounts to the way musicians shape their performance by deliberately deviating from composers’ intentions, which are commonly communicated via some form of music transcription, such as a music score. For transcribed and non-improvised music, music expression is manifested by introducing subtle deviations in tempo, dynamics and articulation during the evolution of performance. This paper presents an application, named FlameCens, which, given two recordings of the same piece of music, presumably performed by different musicians, allow visualising deviations in tempo and dynamics during playback. The application may also compare a certain performance to the music score of that piece (i.e. MIDI file), which may be thought of as an expression-neutral representation of that piece, hence depicting the expressive queues employed by certain performers. FlameCens uses the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm to compare two audio sequences, based on CENS (Chroma Energy distribution Normalized Statistics) audio features. Expressive deviations are illustrated in a moving flame, which is generated by an animation of particles. The length of the flame is mapped to deviations in dynamics, while the slope of the flame is mapped to tempo deviations so that faster tempo changes the slope to the right and slower tempo changes the slope to the left. Constant slope signifies no tempo deviation. The detected deviations in tempo and dynamics can be additionally recorded in a text file, which allows for offline investigation. Moreover, in the case of monophonic music, the color of particles is used to convey the pitch of the notes during performance. FlameCens has been implemented in Python and it is openly available via GitHub. The application has been experimentally validated for different music genres including classical, contemporary, jazz and popular music. These experiments revealed that FlameCens can be a valuable tool for music specialists (i.e. musicians or musicologists) to investigate the expressive performance strategies employed by different musicians, as well as for music audience to enhance their listening experience.

Keywords: audio synchronization, computational music analysis, expressive music performance, information visualization

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1404 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler

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This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

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1403 Developing and Testing a Questionnaire of Music Memorization and Practice

Authors: Diana Santiago, Tania Lisboa, Sophie Lee, Alexander P. Demos, Monica C. S. Vasconcelos

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Memorization has long been recognized as an arduous and anxiety-evoking task for musicians, and yet, it is an essential aspect of performance. Research shows that musicians are often not taught how to memorize. While memorization and practice strategies of professionals have been studied, little research has been done to examine how student musicians learn to practice and memorize music in different cultural settings. We present the process of developing and testing a questionnaire of music memorization and musical practice for student musicians in the UK and Brazil. A survey was developed for a cross-cultural research project aiming at examining how young orchestral musicians (aged 7–18 years) in different learning environments and cultures engage in instrumental practice and memorization. The questionnaire development included members of a UK/US/Brazil research team of music educators and performance science researchers. A pool of items was developed for each aspect of practice and memorization identified, based on literature, personal experiences, and adapted from existing questionnaires. Item development took the varying levels of cognitive and social development of the target populations into consideration. It also considered the diverse target learning environments. Items were initially grouped in accordance with a single underlying construct/behavior. The questionnaire comprised three sections: a demographics section, a section on practice (containing 29 items), and a section on memorization (containing 40 items). Next, the response process was considered and a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘always’ to ‘never’ with a verbal label and an image assigned to each response option was selected, following effective questionnaire design for children and youths. Finally, a pilot study was conducted with young orchestral musicians from diverse learning environments in Brazil and the United Kingdom. Data collection took place in either one-to-one or group settings to facilitate the participants. Cognitive interviews were utilized to establish response process validity by confirming the readability and accurate comprehension of the questionnaire items or highlighting the need for item revision. Internal reliability was investigated by measuring the consistency of the item groups using the statistical test Cronbach’s alpha. The pilot study successfully relied on the questionnaire to generate data about the engagement of young musicians of different levels and instruments, across different learning and cultural environments, in instrumental practice and memorization. Interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews undertaken with these participants, however, exposed the fact that certain items, and the response scale, could be interpreted in multiple ways. The questionnaire text was, therefore, revised accordingly. The low Cronbach’s Alpha scores of many item groups indicated another issue with the original questionnaire: its low level of internal reliability. Several reasons for each poor reliability can be suggested, including the issues with item interpretation revealed through interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews, the small number of participants (34), and the elusive nature of the construct in question. The revised questionnaire measures 78 specific behaviors or opinions. It can be seen to provide an efficient means of gathering information about the engagement of young musicians in practice and memorization on a large scale.

Keywords: cross-cultural, memorization, practice, questionnaire, young musicians

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1402 Do European Hedge Fund Managers Time Market Liquidity?

Authors: Soumaya Ben Kheilifa, Dorra Mezzez Hmaied

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We propose two approaches to examine whether European hedge fund managers can time market liquidity. Using a sample of 1616 European hedge funds, we find evidence of liquidity timing. More importantly, this ability adds economic value to investors. Thus, it represents valuable managerial skill and a major source of European hedge funds’ performance. Also we show that the majority of these funds demonstrate liquidity timing ability especially during liquidity crisis. Finally, it emerged that our main evidence of liquidity timing remains significant after controlling for market timing and volatility timing.

Keywords: european hedge funds, liquidity timing ability, market liquidity, crisis

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1401 Highly Skilled Migrants Trapped in the Brain Waste: The Eastern European Graduates in the Western European Underemployment

Authors: Katalin Bándy

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The European emigration of highly educated immigrants draws attention to the problem of brain drain. Due to the Eastern European countries joining the EU and the opening of the Western European labour market the west-wards migration brisked up. By now another problem has been intensified correlated to migration: the migration of highly skilled workers related to brain waste tendencies. With some exceptions, educated immigrants from Eastern European countries are more likely to end up in unskilled jobs than residents. This paper is about to reveal the above-mentioned problems and this study is supported by the results of secondary pieces of research and the own survey made in the EU-15 among the Hungarian highly skilled (especially economics graduated) migrants, and it also examines the causes and in the focus there are the migrant motivations of the high-skilled young generation after the crisis.

Keywords: brain drain, brain waste, migration of highly-skilled, underemployment

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1400 The Next Game Changer: 3-D Printed Musical Instruments

Authors: Leonardo Ko

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In an era marked by rapid technological innovation, the classical instrument industry nonetheless has not seen significant change. Is this a matter of stubborn traditionalism, or do old, conventional instruments really sound better? Because of the widespread use of 3-D printing, it seems feasible to produce modern, 3-D printed instruments that adhere to the basic conventions of standard construction. This study aimed to design and create a practical, effective 3-D printed acoustic violin. A cost-benefit analysis of materials and design is presented in addition to a report on sound tests in which a pool of professional musicians compared the traditional violin to its synthetic counterpart with regard to acoustic properties. With a low-cost yet functional instrument, musicians of all levels would be able to afford instruments with much greater ease; the present study thus hopes to contribute to efforts to increase the accessibility of classical music education.

Keywords: acoustic musical instrument, classical musical education, low-cost, 3-D printing

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1399 On the Way to the European Research Area: Programmes of the European Union as Factor of the Innovation Development the Scientific Organization in Ukraine

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Veronika Rukas

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Within the framework of the FP7 project "START" the cooperation with European research centres has had a positive impact on raising the level of innovation researches and the introduction of innovations Institute for Super hard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences (ISM NAS) of Ukraine in the economy of Europe and Ukraine, which in turn permits to speeds up the way for Ukrainian science to the European research area through the creation in Ukraine the scientific organizations of innovative type.

Keywords: programs of the EU, innovative scientific results, innovation competence of the staff, commercialization in business of industry of the Europe and Ukraine

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1398 Entrepreneurial Education in the European Union

Authors: Marko Kolaković, Mladen Turuk

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Entrepreneurship is a valuable discipline important for the competitiveness of the European economy. The European Union's economy is constantly changing, and there is an increased demand for special knowledge and skills to help actors cope in a turbulent business environment. By promoting entrepreneurship in education, the citizens of the European Union are encouraged to be enterprising, innovative, and creative in designing solutions to perceived commercial and social problems in the form of offered products and services created as a result of the entrepreneurial process. The European Union has developed a series of guidelines to encourage entrepreneurship in education and training, and it supports entrepreneurship itself through various activities such as Erasmus + and other programs. A number of tools have been developed to support the development of entrepreneurial spirit among the citizens of the European Union. Special emphasis is placed on the methods of developing creativity, critical thinking, and the development of digital competencies. The aim of this paper is to investigate the initiatives of the European Union in the field of entrepreneurship education and to analyze the concept of entrepreneurship education in selected EU member states. Also, an overview of the desired learning outcomes acquired as a result of the successfully completed entrepreneurship education process will be provided.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial education, EU, croatia

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1397 Economic Conflict between the United Kingdom and the European Community 1945-1975

Authors: Soumia Hebbri

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The relationship between Britain and the European Union is phenomenally complex with a great opposition to Europe in the British Conservative and Labour Parties emerged since 1945. During the history and development of the European Union, Europe saw a lack of British involvement until 1961, after refusing to sign the Treaties of Rome of 1957 for being a member of the European Economic Community. Britain then applied to join the EEC in 1961 under Harold Macmillan’s Conservative Government, its application led by the Chief Negotiator Edward Heath. This application was vetoed by President de Gaulle. With de Gaulle out of power Britain. finally could joined in 1973. But again Labour and conservative both found themselves divided on the issue and they hold a referendum under labour on whether to continue the UK’s membership.

Keywords: the European Union, the British, economic community, de Gaulle

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1396 LGBTQ+ Visibility: An Analysis of the Mechanisms for Safeguarding Sexual Minorities within the Common European Asylum System

Authors: Alessandra Tosi, Teia M. Rogers

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The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is the framework that standardises the treatment of applicants for international protection and harmonises asylum systems throughout the European Union. This paper interrogates the rules applied within the CEAS, specifically Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013, which puts forth the standards for the reception of vulnerable people applying for asylum. Absent from the definition of ‘vulnerable people’ are sexual minorities who routinely experience discrimination in reception centres and emergency accommodations. This paper undertakes an analysis of policies and legalisation of reception centres within the European Union. In confronting the flaws inherent to the system of processing asylum applications, this paper argues for the reform of the CEAS with emphasis on the inclusion of LBGTQ+ asylum seekers as vulnerable people following standards set by international human rights law.

Keywords: accommodation, asylum seekers, CEAS, Common European Asylum System, European Union, LGBTQ+, reception conditions, vulnerable people

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1395 The European Refugee Crisis and Its Effects on the Relationships between Turkey and the European Union

Authors: Ebru Nergiz

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The world is facing one of the biggest refugee crisis’ in history as hundred thousands of refugees who run away from the battle and genocide in the Middle East are travelling illegally to reach Europe over the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea. The number of refugees has reached huge numbers due to the civil war that was caused by the Arab Spring. The number of asylum applications to the European Union has also increased in parallel with the increase in the number of refugees. The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar Al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and especially Turkey. Turkey hosts massive numbers of Syrian refugees, almost 3 million and Syrians have been seeking protection in increasing numbers. The refugee crisis has affected the relationships between Turkey and the European Union deeply. President of the European Council Donald Tusk chaired a meeting of EU heads of state or government with Turkey on 29 November 2015. The meeting opened a new era in the relationships between Turkey and the European Union in terms of the migration crisis. The EU and Turkey agreed to negotiate Turkey's accession process to the European Union and to hold regular summits on Turkey-EU relations and discuss these issues. This paper looks at the reasons and consequences of the European refugee crisis and its effects on Turkey- European Union relationships. This paper also argues that the European Union has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement. The European Union’s priority is to guarantee that the lowest possible number of refugees reach Europe rather than to ensure the security of the refugees.

Keywords: European Union, human rights, refugee crisis, Turkey-European union relationships

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1394 Benefits of Polish Accession to the European Union for Air Transport

Authors: D. Tloczynski

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The main aim of this article is to present a balance of the decade of Polish air transport market in the European Union having taking into account selected entities of the aviation market. This article analyzes the functioning of the Polish air transport market after the Polish accession to the European Union. During the study two main areas were pointed: shipping activity and activity of the airports. The most important benefits of integration and the benefits of introducing of the open sky policy were indicated. The last part of the article presents the perspectives of development of air traffic.

Keywords: air transport, airports, development air transport, European Union, Poland

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1393 The Concepts of Urban Sustainable Development and Smart Cities: In the Understanding of Academia and the European Union

Authors: Wolfgang Haupt

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When considering the future city one repeatedly comes across two sometimes sparsely differentiated terms: Sustainable and smart. ‘A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth’, this is how the European Commission named its current growth strategy. Thus, Europe should become smarter and more sustainable. Both, the smart and the sustainable city represent a positive vision of urban development as well as a subject area for contemporary and future urban policies. However, more clarity on what is actually behind these terminologies is required. The paper analyses how the terms are defined academically and how this academic understanding is represented in the funding mechanisms of European urban policies. The theoretical framework is mainly based on sources such as journal articles and policy reports. It became clear that despite some similarities, such as the broad field of work or the tendency to operationalize the terms by defining sub-categories, both ideas are distinctly different in terms of the development history, the main driving forces behind and the theoretical scope. Moreover, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability has found its way into the centre of European regional funding policies. On the contrary, the smart city vision still lacks terminological and content-related clarity and as a consequence, the corresponding European funding landscape is more small-scaled and less customized.

Keywords: European spatial policy, European union, smart city, urban sustainable development

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1392 Improvisation Transformation: An Exploration of Musical Influence between the Cuban Descarga and American Jazz Movements

Authors: Alissa Settembrino

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Improvisation, one of the most expressive qualities of the performing arts, has allowed for entire compositions to be created through descargas. A topic relatively understudied, these combo-inspired jam sessions originated in Cuba and intrigued jazz musicians in the United States to experiment with their improvisation after the Cool Jazz era. Through the exploration of prominent improvisation-based Cuban dance styles, the crucial jazz musicians that contributed to the progression of the descarga movement and comparing such facets to that of jazz in the United States, this paper offers a critical comparative analysis to suggest how the descarga influenced American jazz. This paper specifically focuses on harmonic construction, form and rhythmic qualities, as well as how these recorded jam sessions started to change the way people listened to and enjoyed this style of music. Examining the harmonic intricacies of descargas offers the likelihood of having influenced the construction of the blues scale in American jazz. Since these recorded jam sessions originally stemmed from Cuban dance styles (the cumbia, guaracha, rumba, etc.), descarga compositions changed the way musicians structured their improvisation to meet recording guidelines as well as their audiences’ listening needs. The ways in which the descarga inspired harmonic and rhythmic change led to the movement’s influence on the jazz culture as it progressed from Cuba to New York during the 1950s. Exploring the descarga provides insight into a movement that is not commonly studied and encourages further discussion about how certain aspects of Latin American culture have influenced the United States socially and creatively.

Keywords: descarga, harmony, improvisation, jam session, jazz

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1391 Impact of Brexit on the Structure of the European Insurance Market: A Solvency and Financial Condition Report Content Analysis of UK Insurance Companies

Authors: Antonia Müller, Svend Reuse

Abstract:

The Brexit referendum in June 2016 led to different publications analysing potential consequences for European and British insurance companies under the European Passport. This study addresses a research gap, regarding the measures taken by insurance companies based in the United Kingdom and thus on structural changes to the European insurance market by an innovative structured Solvency and Financial Condition Report content analysis. In scope are all insurance companies based in the United Kingdom, that fall under the Solvency II supervisory regime. The results show that the majority of British Solvency II insurance companies in scope, conducting cross-border business to the European Union, have applied and reported measures to be able to continue operating this cross-border business after Brexit. In addition, the study shows that 34 new insurance companies based in the European Union were established as a result of Brexit, indicating structural changes to the European insurance market.

Keywords: brexit, europe, insurance market, solvency and financial condition repot, structural changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
1390 The Conception of Implementation of Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania

Authors: Eglė Bilevičiūtė, Vidmantas Egidijus Kurapka, Snieguolė Matulienė, Sigutė Stankevičiūtė

Abstract:

The Council of European Union (EU Council) has stressed on several occasions the need for a concerted, comprehensive and effective solution to delinquency problems in EU communities. In the context of establishing a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe, EU Council believes that forensic science can significantly contribute to the efficiency of law enforcement, crime prevention and combating crimes. Lithuanian scientists have consolidated to implement a project named “Conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 implementation in Lithuania” (the project is funded for the period of 1 March 2014 - 31 December 2016) with the objective to create a conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania by 1) evaluating the current status of Lithuania’s forensic system and opportunities for its improvement; 2) analysing achievements and knowledge in investigation of crimes listed in conclusions of EU Council on the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 including creation of a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe: trafficking in human beings, organised crime and terrorism; 3) analysing conceptions of criminalistics, which differ in different EU member states due to the variety of forensic schools, and finding means for their harmonization. Apart from the conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania, the project is expected to suggest provisions that will be relevant to other EU countries as well. Consequently, the presented conception of implementation of vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania could initiate a project for a common vision of European Forensic Science and contribute to the development of the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. The article presents main ideas of the project of the conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 of EU Council and analyses its legal background, as well as prospects of and challenges for its implementation in Lithuania and the EU.

Keywords: EUROVIFOR, standardization, vision for European Forensic Science 2020, Lithuania

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1389 Muslims as the Cultural ‘Other’ in Europe and the Crisis of Multiculturalism

Authors: Tatia Tavkhelidze

Abstract:

The European agenda on multiculturalism has undermined Muslim communities through cultural repulsion. Muslims have been labeled as primitive and dangerous people. They experience discrimination at university, workplace, or in the public sphere on a daily basis. Keeping this in view, the proposed research argues that the coining of Muslimness as a problem in modern European societies indicates the crisis of multiculturalism and it could be explained by the anthropological theory of cultural othering. To prove this assumption, the research undertakes a content analysis of modern policy discourse about Muslims and Islam in different European countries (e.g. France, Austria, Denmark, and Hungary). It focuses on the speech of populist politicians, right-wing party leaders and state officials. The research findings are of great significance as they elucidate that the European societies forgot to respect their own values of toleration, religious liberty and democracy; and undermine the European motto 'unity in diversity.

Keywords: assimilation, islamophobia, multiculturalism, populism

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1388 Gramscian Class Analysis of the Brexit Process in the Passive Revolution Framework

Authors: Volkan Gulsen

Abstract:

This paper attempts to indicate the main class dynamics of the Brexit process in a Gramscian theoretical framework. It further aims to point out the influence of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom on the European Union class structure. It defines the unification process of the European Union as a passive revolution. In that way, the Brexit process has been described as a moment of negation in the European Union history of class struggle. It will be argued that the withdrawal of the United Kingdom has already altered the European class structure from the embedded neoliberal structure to a more corporate-liberal one.

Keywords: brexit, gramsci, passive revolution, post-neoliberalism

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1387 Understanding Europe’s Role in the Area of Liberty, Security, and Justice as an International Actor

Authors: Barrere Sarah

Abstract:

The area of liberty, security, and justice within the European Union is still a work in progress. No one can deny that the EU struggles between a monistic and a dualist approach. The aim of our essay is to first review how the European law is perceived by the rest of the international scene. It will then discuss two main mechanisms at play: the interpretation of larger international treaties and the penal mechanisms of European law. Finally, it will help us understand the role of a penal Europe on the international scene with concrete examples. Special attention will be paid to cases that deal with fundamental rights as they represent an interesting case study in Europe and in the rest of the World. It could illustrate the aforementioned duality currently present in the Union’s interpretation of international public law. On the other hand, it will explore some specific European penal mechanism through mutual recognition and the European arrest warrant in the transnational criminality frame. Concerning the interpretation of the treaties, it will first, underline the ambiguity and the general nature of some treaties that leave the EU exposed to tension and misunderstanding then it will review the validity of an EU act (whether or not it is compatible with the rules of International law). Finally, it will focus on the most complete manifestation of liberty, security and justice through the principle of mutual recognition. Used initially in commercial matters, it has become “the cornerstone” of European construction. It will see how it is applied in judicial decisions (its main event and achieving success is via the European arrest warrant) and how European member states have managed to develop this cooperation.

Keywords: European penal law, international scene, liberty security and justice area, mutual recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1386 The European Union: Considering Its Alleged Endangerment

Authors: Jesús Ulloa

Abstract:

The creation, rise, and consolidation of far right-wing, ultranationalist, and eurosceptic parties in Europe after the Second World War pose a real threat towards the disintegration of the European Union. Starting more than thirty years ago with Jean-Marie Le Pen's FN and Margaret Thatcher's policies, to Marine Le Pen's current FN and anti-immigration proposals along with Nigel Farage's UKIP and their intentions to leave the European Union, the progress of right-wing parties should be noted, taking into account that they may have very important differences within their postures but that they also reach common ground in certain areas. The actual disintegration of the EU would represent an enormous failure of the new liberal world order. Through this essay, the roots of this political parties will be analyzed and the conclusion of whether the disintegration may become a reality or if the principles of cooperation and unity will prevail will be answered.

Keywords: eurosceptic, ultarnationalist, right-wing, European Union

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
1385 Random Walks and Option Pricing for European and American Options

Authors: Guillaume Leduc

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe a broad setting under which the error of the approximation can be quantified, controlled, and for which convergence occurs at a speed of n⁻¹ for European and American options. We describe how knowledge of the error allows for arbitrarily fast acceleration of the convergence.

Keywords: random walk approximation, European and American options, rate of convergence, option pricing

Procedia PDF Downloads 375