Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8233

Search results for: economic community

8233 Convergence or Divergence of Economic Growth within the ASEAN Community: Challenges for the AEC

Authors: Philippe Gugler

Abstract:

This contribution reflects some important questions regarding inter alia the economic development occurring in the light of the ASEAN’s goal of creating the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. We observe a continuing economic growth of GDP per capita over recent years despite the negative effects of the world economic crisis. IMF forecasts indicate that this trend will continue. The paper focuses on the analysis and comparison of economic growth trends of ASEAN countries.

Keywords: ASEAN, convergence, divergence, economic growth, globalization, integration

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8232 The Study of Applying Models: House, Temple and School for Sufficiency Development to Participate in ASEAN Economic Community: A Case Study of Trimitra Temple (China Town) Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the impact of the 3-community-core model: House (H), Temple (T), and School (S) with the co-operation of official departments on community development to ASEAN economic community involvement, and 2) to study the procedures and extension of the model. The research which is a qualitative research based on formal and informal interviews. Local people in a community are observed. Group interview is also operated by executors and cooperators in the school in the community. In terms of social and cultural dimension, the 3-community-core model consisting of house, temple and school is the base of Thai cultures bringing about understanding, happiness and unity to the community. The result of this research is that the official departments in accompanied with this model developers cooperatively work together in the community to support such factors as budget, plan, activities. Moreover, the need of community, and the continual result to sustain the community are satisfied by the model implementation. In terms of the procedures of the model implementation, executors and co-operators can work, coordinate, think, and launch their public relation altogether. Concerning the model development, this enables the community to achieve its goal to prepare the community’s readiness for ASEAN Economic Community involvement.

Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community, the applying models and sufficiency development, house, temple, school

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8231 Unification of Indonesia Time Zones Encourages People to Be on Time for Facing ASEAN Economic Community

Authors: Hasrullah Hasrullah

Abstract:

Since December 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is officially declared in the 27th Summit Conference of ASEAN and Indonesia is one of country are listed in the ASEAN members. Per January 1st, 2016 the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) came into effect. However, its implementation in Indonesia is still weighing the pros and cons because Indonesia is considered too late to prepare for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). In other words, rubber time of Indonesian people has been occurring in the AEC. This paper reviews how Indonesia language influences people’s attitude to be rubber time culture and how time zones of Indonesia influence people’s attitude through media on television to be rubber time culture. The author addresses this research question empirically by collecting data from various sources of data those are relevant and compare among the unification of Indonesia time zones. The result demonstrates that unification of Indonesia time zones to be Standard Indonesia Time is a solution to encourage people to be ready on time for facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

Keywords: unification time zones, Indonesia Language, Rubber Time, AEC

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8230 Operationalizing the Concept of Community Resilience through Community Capitals Framework-Based Index

Authors: Warda Ajaz

Abstract:

This study uses the ‘Community Capitals Framework’ (CCF) to develop a community resilience index that can serve as a useful tool for measuring resilience of communities in diverse contexts and backgrounds. CCF is an important analytical tool to assess holistic community change. This framework identifies seven major types of community capitals: natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built, and claims that the communities that have been successful in supporting healthy sustainable community and economic development have paid attention to all these capitals. The framework, therefore, proposes to study the community development through identification of assets in these major capitals (stock), investment in these capitals (flow), and the interaction between these capitals. Capital based approaches have been extensively used to assess community resilience, especially in the context of natural disasters and extreme events. Therefore, this study identifies key indicators for estimating each of the seven capitals through an extensive literature review and then develops an index to calculate a community resilience score. The CCF-based community resilience index presents an innovative way of operationalizing the concept of community resilience and will contribute toward decision-relevant research regarding adaptation and mitigation of community vulnerabilities to climate change-induced, as well as other adverse events.

Keywords: adverse events, community capitals, community resilience, climate change, economic development, sustainability

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8229 Bank's Role in Economic Growth: Case of Africa

Authors: S. Khalifa, R. Chkoundali

Abstract:

The specific role of banks in economic development varies, depending on scope. Firstly, the participation of banks in economic development focus around providing credit and services to generate revenues, which are then invested back into a local, national or international community. The specific roles banks play in the economic development of a small community differ from the role banks play in national or international economic development. Although the role can vary, factors such as access to credit and bank investment policies or practices remain constant, no matter the scope of economic development. This paper provides an overview of the economic situation of Africa and its short-term outlook. He referred to the progress made in the implementation of the Medium-Term Strategy (2008-2012) and some major achievements of the Bank, as the speed and flexibility with which she responded to the oil crisis, food and financial.

Keywords: economic growth, bank, Africa, economic development

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8228 Conflicts between Conservation and Community Livelihoods: Lessons from KwaNibela and iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Zwelakhe Maseko

Abstract:

This chapter assesses the conflict arising from conservation between iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community of KwaNibela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve the aim of this study a qualitative research approach was adopted which included one-on-one in-depth interviews with fifty people from the community of KwaNibela who were randomly selected. In-depth interviews were further conducted with three officials from iSimangaliso Wetland Park who were purposely selected to understand their perceptions. The findings suggest that iSimangaliso Wetland Park conservation strategies have a negative impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in KwaNibela due to limited access to natural resources and lack of economic opportunities. This has led to conflict between the stakeholders of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community. ISimangaliso Wetland Park generates income from tourists who visit the park, while the community of KwaNibela receives little to no benefits from both tourism and conservation. This has led to conflict since the community of KwaNibela feels that iSimangaliso is generating income from their traditional land and natural resources while they (the community) are left poverty-stricken. In order to achieve conservation that caters to the needs and livelihoods of local people, it is suggested that iSimangaliso Wetland Park includes the community of KwaNibela in their conservation efforts and creates economic opportunities for the same community through conservation and tourism.

Keywords: conservation, socio-economic development, protected areas, natural Resources

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8227 The Way of the English Use of Businessmen for the ASEAN Economic Community in Chonburi Province

Authors: Kittivate Boonyopakorn

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to investigate the method of the English use of the businessmen and to study their behavior of the utilization for the ASEAN economic community. The participants were divided into the three types of the merchants including the construction contractors, the construction material traders, and SME entrepreneurs. Survey questionnaires and interviews were used in this study. The findings showed that in the type of traders, 23 of the participants are construction contractors, 121 are construction material traders, and 206 are SME entrepreneurs. The study of English in language institute is highly 51.4%. The use of Google in translating English into Thai is 41.7%. Learning English themselves is 41.1% respectively. The businessmen study English for readiness for their trade.

Keywords: way of rnglish use, businessmen, ASEAN economic community, Chonburi province

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8226 Assessment of Environmental and Socio-Economic Impact of Quarring in Ebonyi State South East Nigeria: A Case Study of Umuoghara Quarry Community

Authors: G. Aloh Obianuju, C. Chukwu Kelvin, Henry Aloh

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of quarrying in Umuoghara quarrying community of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed targeting quarry workers and people living within the community; personal interviews with other key informants were also conducted. All these were used as data gathering instruments. The study reveals that there were actually some benefits as well as marked environmental impacts in the community as a result of quarrying activities. Recommendations that can assist in mitigating these adverse impacts were suggested.

Keywords: environment, quarrying, environmental degradation, mitigation

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8225 Economic Conflict between the United Kingdom and the European Community 1945-1975

Authors: Soumia Hebbri

Abstract:

The relationship between Britain and the European Union is phenomenally complex with a great opposition to Europe in the British Conservative and Labour Parties emerged since 1945. During the history and development of the European Union, Europe saw a lack of British involvement until 1961, after refusing to sign the Treaties of Rome of 1957 for being a member of the European Economic Community. Britain then applied to join the EEC in 1961 under Harold Macmillan’s Conservative Government, its application led by the Chief Negotiator Edward Heath. This application was vetoed by President de Gaulle. With de Gaulle out of power Britain. finally could joined in 1973. But again Labour and conservative both found themselves divided on the issue and they hold a referendum under labour on whether to continue the UK’s membership.

Keywords: the European Union, the British, economic community, de Gaulle

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8224 Analysis of Social Factors for Achieving Social Resilience in Communities of Indonesia Special Economic Zone (SEZ) as a Strategy for Developing Program Management Frameworks

Authors: Inda Annisa Fauzani, Rahayu Setyawati Arifin

Abstract:

The development of Special Economic Zones in Indonesia cannot be separated from the development of the communities in it. In accordance with the SEZ's objectives as a driver of economic growth, the focus of SEZ development does not only prioritize investment receipts and infrastructure development. Community as one of the stakeholders must also be considered. This becomes a challenge when the development of an SEZ has the potential to have an impact on the community in it. These impacts occur due to changes in the development of the area, in the form of changes in the main regional industries and changes in the main livelihoods of the community. As a result, people can feel threats and disturbances. The community as the object of development is required to be able to have resilience in order to achieve a synergy between regional development and community development. Lack of resilience in the community can eliminate the ability to recover from disturbances and difficulty in adapting to changes that occur in their area. Social resilience is the ability of the community to be able to recover from disturbances and changes that occur. The achievement of social resilience occurs when the community gradually has the capacity in the form of coping capacity, adaptive capacity, and transformative capacity. It is hoped that when social resilience is achieved, the community is able to develop linearly with regional development so that the benefits of this development can have a positive impact on these communities. This study aims to identify and analyze social factors that influence the achievement of social resilience in the community in Special Economic Zones in Indonesia and develop a program framework for achieving social resilience capacity in the community so that it can be used as a strategy to support the successful development of Special Economic Zones in Indonesia that provide benefits to the local community. This study uses a quantitative research method approach. Questionnaires are used as research instruments that are distributed to predetermined respondents. Respondents in this study were determined by using purposive sampling of the people living in areas that were developed into Special Economic Zones. Respondents were given a questionnaire containing questions about the influence of social factors on the achievement of social resilience. As x variables, 42 social factors are provided, while social resilience is used as y variables. The data collected from the respondents is analyzed in SPSS using Spearman Correlation to determine the relation between x and y variables. The correlated factors are then used as the basis for the preparation of programs to increase social resilience capacity in the community.

Keywords: community development, program management, social factor, social resilience

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8223 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: resilience, community resilience, urban resilience, construction strategies

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8222 People’s Perception towards the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC)

Authors: Nopadol Burananuth

Abstract:

The purposes of this research paper were to study the relationship between the economic factor and political factor, the relationship between political and economic factor and social factor, and the effects of economic factor, political factor, and social factor to the people’s perception about ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). A total of 400 samples were selected from four sub-districts from Arunyaprathet District, Srakaow Province. Data analysis method included multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that political factor depended on trade cooperation, transportation cooperation, and communication cooperation. Social factor was depended on disaster protection, terrorism protection, and international relations. In addition, the people’s perception of the AEC depended on disaster perception, terrorism protection, international relations, transportation cooperation, communication cooperation, interdependence, and labor movement.

Keywords: economic factors, perception, political factors, social factors

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8221 The Role of Social Enterprise in Supporting Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Susan P. Teru, Jerome Nyameh

Abstract:

Many contemporary organizations are placing a greater emphasis on business enterprise systems as a means of generating higher levels of economic development. Many business research and literature has also concur that enterprise drive economic development, giving little or no credit to social enterprise, whose profit is reinvest to the community development compare to the business enterprise that share their profit to shareholders. Economic development includes economic policies that affect the beneficiaries of the economic entity. We suggest that producing social enterprise increments may be best achieved by orienting social enterprise entrepreneurs system to promote economic development. To this end, we describe a new approach to the social enterprise process that includes social entrepreneur and the key drivers of economic development at each stage. We present a model of social enterprise that incorporates the main ideas of the paper and suggests a new perspective for thinking about how to foster and manage social enterprise to achieve high levels of economic development.

Keywords: social enterprise, economic development, Nigeria, business and management

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8220 Advocacy for Increasing Health Care Budget in Parepare City with DALY Approach: Case Study on Improving Public Health Insurance Budget

Authors: Kasman, Darmawansyah, Alimin Maidin, Amran Razak

Abstract:

Background: In decentralization, advocacy is needed to increase the health budget in Parepare District. One of the advocacy methods recommended by the World Bank is the economic loss approach. Methods: This research is observational in the field of health economics that contributes directly to the magnitude of the economic loss of the community and the government and provides advocacy to the executive and legislative to see the harm it causes. Results: The research results show the amount of direct cost, which consists of household expenditure for transport Rp.295,865,500. Indirect Cost of YLD of Rp.14.688.000, and YLL of Rp.28.986.336.00, so the amount of DALY is Rp.43.674.336.000. The total economic loss of Rp.43.970.201.500. These huge economic losses can be prevented by increasing the allocation of health budgets for promotive and preventive efforts and expanding the coverage of health insurance for the community. Conclusion: There is a need to advocate the executive and legislative about the importance of guarantee on public health financing by conducting studies in terms of economic losses so that all strategic alliances believe that health is an investment.

Keywords: advocacy, economic lost, health insurance, economic losses

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8219 Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Residents in Low-Cost Housing in Thailand

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the factors affecting life quality of residents who lived in the low-cost housing in Thailand. This study employed by quantitative research and the questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 sampled of the residents in low-cost housing projects in Thailand. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that economic status of residents, government’s policy on dwelling places, leadership of community leaders, environmental condition of the community, and the quality of life were rated at the good level, while the participation of residents, and the knowledge and understanding of community members were rated at the high level. Furthermore, the environmental condition, the government’s policy on dwelling places, knowledge and understanding of residents, leadership of community leaders, economic status of the residents, and participation of community members had significantly affected the quality of life of residents in the low-cost housing.

Keywords: quality of life, community leadership, community participation, low-cost housing

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8218 Economic Impact of Ogbomoso Migrant Community in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria, 1940-2000

Authors: Afees Adebayo Salam

Abstract:

This paper attempts an in-depth analysis of the economic impact of Ogbomoso migrant community in the Jos metropolis. It discusses the factors that motivated a sizeable number of Ogbomoso people (from southwestern Nigeria) to leave their hometown for a new place/space in Jos (northern Nigeria). It examines the historical antecedent of Ogbomoso migrants in northern Nigeria with emphasis on Jos metropolis. The movement of Ogbomoso migrants to Jos was dictated by the economic and social challenges of colonial and post-colonial periods. The political crisis of the 1960s was a contributory factor to the process of Ogbomoso migration to other parts of Nigeria. In the aftermath, many people migrated from Ogbomoso to different parts of the country and beyond to seek for better economic opportunities. The establishment of Ogbomoso migrant community in Jos was dated back to the colonial era when taxation was introduced by the British. Many people could not pay these taxes from their peasant farming activities, while some embarked on migration to places such as Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Keffi and Bauchi due to the harsh economic situation at home. Their settlement in Jos brought about success in several spheres of human endeavours. Ogbomoso migrants dominated both paid jobs and private business sector such as textile merchants, food stuff sellers, herbalists, printers, transporters, and religious missionaries, as well as clerical officers in the government establishments. Their remittances were invested in different sectors of Ogbomoso economy. The migrants had in one way or the other contributed to the socio-economic development of their host community in Jos as entrepreneurs. Branches of such industries were located in their hometown of Ogbomoso as a clear demonstration of community development. The remittance pattern of the migrants has transformed Ogbomoso to enviable position. Moreover, the economic success of Ogbomoso migrants over the period under review indicates the process of nation building due to peaceful nature of inter-ethnic engagements between Ogbomoso migrants and their host community in Jos. Therefore, the paper makes use of oral, archival and secondary sources to analyse the processes of migration and its economic impact. Oral interviews were conducted in Ogbomoso town with veteran migrants and their family members. Interviews were also conducted in Jos with the indigenous host community as well as other urban residents. Archival materials were obtained from Arewa House Archives and the National Archives, Kaduna and the National Archives, Ibadan.

Keywords: Ogbomoso migrants, Jos metropolis, community development, economic impact

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8217 Community Based Participatory Research in Opioid Use: Design of an Informatics Solution

Authors: Sue S. Feldman, Bradley Tipper, Benjamin Schooley

Abstract:

Nearly every community in the US has been impacted by opioid related addictions/deaths; it is a national problem that is threatening our social and economic welfare. Most believe that tackling this problem from a prevention perspective advances can be made toward breaking the chain of addiction. One mechanism, community based participatory research, involves the community in the prevention approach. This project combines that approach with a design science approach to develop an integrated solution. Findings suggested accountable care communities, transpersonal psychology, and social exchange theory as product kernel theories. Evaluation was conducted on a prototype.

Keywords: substance use and abuse recovery, community resource centers, accountable care communities, community based participatory research

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8216 Fostering Involvement of Local Inhabitants in Participatory Governance of Cultural Patrimony in Cameroon

Authors: Asah Nelson Asoh, Wanie Clarkson Mvo

Abstract:

Given the diverse nature of cultural diversity in Cameroon from the forested south to the sudano-sahelian north regions, Cameroon is aptly described as 'Africa in Miniature', which simply means all of Africa in a single country-Cameroon. Cameroon possesses all that can be attractive to the eyes in Africa. Yet, there is a microscopic involvement of the local inhabitants in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development, which greatly jeopardizes conservation endeavors because the community fails to trust governing authorities. This study delves into the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research design and semi-structured interviews with experts in the collection of primary data blended with secondary materials from published sources, including textbooks, scientific journal articles, dissertations, reports, and internet websites. The collected data was presented and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, photographic illustrations, and through intuition. The study fosters the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. This is to ensure community support for the conservation of tourism cultural patrimony in Cameroon in particular and the world at large.

Keywords: participatory governance, cultural patrimony, tourism, socio-economic development, Cameroon

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8215 The Typology of Social Enterprise: Case Study of Community-Development Enterprise in Indonesia

Authors: Aluisius Pratono, Deddy Marciano, Suyanto Suyanto

Abstract:

The emerging model of community development social enterprise is one of the social enterprise models. However, a precise view of the community development enterprise is still lacking. Hence, this study was aimed at deepening the concept of the community development social enterprise model at the place management and development context. Multiple case studies in Indonesia context were observed to explore the typical criteria of the community development enterprise model in place-making practices. The research paradigm used interpretative approach, which involves dialectic process between the researchers and research participants. This study highlights some principles in the community-development enterprise, which cover an entrepreneurial dimension, social goals, participatory governance, and co-management. The result makes a contribution to conceptual literature occurs at the criteria of social enterprises by highlighting the typology of community development enterprise.

Keywords: community development enterprise, social purposes, economic project, participatory governance

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8214 Model of Community Management for Sustainable Utilization

Authors: Luedech Girdwichai, Withaya Mekhum

Abstract:

This research intended to develop the model of community management for sustainable utilization by investigating on 2 groups of population, the family heads and the community management team. The population of the former group consisted of family heads from 511 families in 12 areas to complete the questionnaires which were returned at 479 sets. The latter group consisted of the community management team of 12 areas with 1 representative from each area to give the interview. The questionnaires for the family heads consisted of 2 main parts; general information such as occupations, etc. in the form of checklist. The second part dealt with the data on self reliance community development based on 4P Framework, i.e., People (human resource) development, Place (area) development, Product (economic and income source) development, and Plan (community plan) development in the form of rating scales. Data in the 1st part were calculated to find frequency and percentage while those in the 2nd part were analyzed to find arithmetic mean and SD. Data from the 2nd group of population or the community management team were derived from focus group to find factors influencing successful management together with the in depth interview which were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results showed that 479 family heads reported that the aspect on the implementation of community plan to self reliance community activities based on Sufficient Economy Philosophy and the 4P was at the average of 3.28 or moderate level. When considering in details, it was found that the 1st aspect was on the area development with the mean of 3.71 or high level followed by human resource development with the mean of 3.44 or moderate level, then, economic and source of income development with the mean of 3.09 or moderate level. The last aspect was community plan development with the mean of 2.89. The results from the small group discussion revealed some factors and guidelines for successful community management as follows: 1) on the People (human resource) development aspect, there was a project to support and develop community leaders. 2) On the aspect of Place (area) development, there was a development on conservative tourism areas. 3) On the aspect of Product (economic and source of income) development, the community leaders promoted the setting of occupational group, saving group, and product processing group. 4) On the aspect of Plan (community plan) development, there was a prioritization through public hearing.

Keywords: model of community management, sustainable utilization, family heads, community management team

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8213 Urban Regeneration of Historic Paths: A Case Study of Kom El Dekka Historic Path

Authors: Ahmed R. Ismail, Hatem A. El Tawil, Nevin G. Rezk

Abstract:

Historic paths in today's cities are facing the pressure of the urban development due to the rapid urban growth. Every new development is tearing the old urban fabric and the socio-economic character of the historic paths. Furthermore, in some cases historic paths suffer from negligence and decay. Kom El Dekka historic path was one of those deteriorated paths in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, in spite of its high heritage and socio-economic value. Therefore, there was a need to develop urban regeneration strategies as a part of a wider sustainable development vision, to handle the situation and revitalize the path as a livable space in the heart of the city. This study aims to develop a comprehensive assessment methodology to evaluate the different values of the path and to create community-oriented and economic-based analysis methodology for its socio-economic values. These analysis and assessments provide strategies for any regeneration action plan for Kom El Dekka historic path.

Keywords: community-oriented, economic-based, syntactical analysis, urban regeneration

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8212 An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland

Authors: Marie Taylor, Catriona Murphy

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.

Keywords: collaboration, community-based heritage tourism, stakeholders, sustainable tourism

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8211 Assessing the Community Change Effects of Transit Oriented Development in Jabodetabek, Indonesia

Authors: Hayati Sari Hasibuan, Tresna P. Soemardi, Raldi H. Koestoer, Setyo S. Moersidik

Abstract:

Facing the severe transportation system in daily basis, the government of Indonesia were searching an alternative solution to combat the acute traffic jam and the socio-economic negative effects and pollutions resulted. Transit-oriented development as a strategy in reformulating and restructuring of the urban land uses as well as the transport system will be implemented in many urban areas in Indonesia, especially in Jabodetabek. Jabodetabek is the greatest metropolitan area in Indonesia with 27.9 million inhabitants. The Jabodetabek is also the center of economic activity with gross domestic product around 22 percent of gross national product. This study aims to assess the potential of economic development and community change effects with implementing the transit oriented development. This study found that using transit oriented development as an alternative approach in reconstructing of urban land uses in metropolitan region will effect to the behaviour of urban mobilities, the housing choices, and the cost of transportation. The sustainable of socio-economic aspects resulting from the transit oriented development is the main focus of this paper. The challenge here is to explore the characteristics of transit oriented development that suitable for metropolitan region in developing country,which considering the uniqueness of nature and socio-cultural that shapes this urban.

Keywords: economic development, community change, restructuring, land use, transportation, environment

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8210 Economic Important of Manta Ray Watching Tourism in Dampier Strait, Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia

Authors: Maulita Sari Hani, Abraham B. Sianipar, Jamaluddin Jompa, Natsir Nessa, Alan T. White

Abstract:

Manta ray is an icon for tourism in Raja Ampat. The tourist volume has been increased for the past ten years which up to approximately 23,000 tourists in 2017. Since 2013, Conservation International Indonesia deployed satellite and acoustic tags on manta ray in Dampier strait to track the species and identify the aggregation areas. These findings encourage the government and the local community to boost conservation through the management of marine protected areas for tourism purposes. Community in Dampier strait including the village of Arborek, Kurkapa, Kapisawar, and Sawingray involved in variety of small scale tourism business including homestay, dive shop, tour operator, and crafts. Working groups of related local businesses were established to support the local community and to ensure the sustainability of the economic viability and environmental sustainability. In order to analyze the economic benefits of manta ray tourism, this study was conducted to identify the number of local business in Dampier Strait and the economic impacts in terms of local finance security, social, humanity, individual, and physical assets. The results of this study identify 30 homestays, 2 dive shops, 10 tour operators, 30 women involved in crafts, and about 50 villagers worked for dive resorts. In addition to community assets, we confirmed the welfare of community has been improved in terms of food security, households, education for children, savings, and health insurance.

Keywords: marine wildlife tourism, elasmobranch, conservation, ecotourism, co-management, economic viability, environmental sustainability

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8209 Model of Learning Center on OTOP Production Process Based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy

Authors: Chutikarn Sriviboon, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to analyze and evaluate successful factors in OTOP production process for the developing of learning center on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality. The research has been designed as a qualitative study to gather information from 30 OTOP producers in Bangkontee District, Samudsongkram Province. They were all interviewed on 3 main parts. Part 1 was about the production process including 1) production 2) product development 3) the community strength 4) marketing possibility and 5) product quality. Part 2 evaluated appropriate successful factors including 1) the analysis of the successful factors 2) evaluate the strategy based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy and 3) the model of learning center on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality. The results showed that the production did not affect the environment with potential in continuing standard quality production. They used the raw materials in the country. On the aspect of product and community strength in the past 1 year, it was found that there was no appropriate packaging showing product identity according to global market standard. They needed the training on packaging especially for food and drink products. On the aspect of product quality and product specification, it was found that the products were certified by the local OTOP standard. There should be a responsible organization to help the uncertified producers pass the standard. However, there was a problem on food contamination which was hazardous to the consumers. The producers should cooperate with the government sector or educational institutes involving with food processing to reach FDA standard. The results from small group discussion showed that the community expected high education and better standard living. Some problems reported by the community included informal debt and drugs in the community. There were 8 steps in developing the model of learning center on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality.

Keywords: production process, OTOP, sufficiency economic philosophy, learning center

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8208 Establishing Community-Based Pro-Biodiversity Enterprise in the Philippines: A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy towards Agro-Biodiversity Conservation and Local Green Economic Development

Authors: Dina Magnaye

Abstract:

In the Philippines, the performance of the agricultural sector is gauged through crop productivity and returns from farm production rather than the biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. Agricultural development hinges on the overall goal of increasing productivity through intensive agriculture, monoculture system, utilization of high yielding varieties in plants, and genetic upgrading in animals. This merits an analysis of the role of agro-biodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. These enterprises conserve biodiversity while equitably sharing production income in the utilization of biological resources. The study aims to determine how community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises become instrumental in local climate change adaptation and agro-biodiversity conservation as input to local green economic development planning. It also involves an assessment of the role of agrobiodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. The perceptions of the local community members both in urban and upland rural areas on community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises were evaluated. These served as a basis in developing a planning modality that can be mainstreamed in the management of local green economic enterprises to benefit the environment, provide local income opportunities, conserve species diversity, and sustain environment-friendly farming systems and practices. The interviews conducted with organic farmer-owners, entrepreneur-organic farmers, and organic farm workers revealed that pro-biodiversity enterprise such as organic farming involved the cyclic use of natural resources within the carrying capacity of a farm; recognition of the value of tradition and culture especially in the upland rural area; enhancement of socio-economic capacity; conservation of ecosystems in harmony with nature; and climate change mitigation. The suggested planning modality for community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises for a green economy encompasses four (4) phases to include community resource or capital asset profiling; stakeholder vision development; strategy formulation for sustained enterprises; and monitoring and evaluation.

Keywords: agro-biodiversity, agro-biodiversity conservation, local green economy, organic farming, pro-biodiversity enterprise

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8207 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

Abstract:

The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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8206 The Model of Learning Centre on OTOP Production Process Based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for Sustainable Life Quality

Authors: Napasri Suwanajote

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to analyse and evaluate successful factors in OTOP production process for the developing of learning centre on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality. The research has been designed as a qualitative study to gather information from 30 OTOP producers in Bangkontee District, Samudsongkram Province. They were all interviewed on 3 main parts. Part 1 was about the production process including 1) production 2) product development 3) the community strength 4) marketing possibility and 5) product quality. Part 2 evaluated appropriate successful factors including 1) the analysis of the successful factors 2) evaluate the strategy based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy and 3) the model of learning centre on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality. The results showed that the production did not affect the environment with potential in continuing standard quality production. They used the raw materials in the country. On the aspect of product and community strength in the past 1 year, it was found that there was no appropriate packaging showing product identity according to global market standard. They needed the training on packaging especially for food and drink products. On the aspect of product quality and product specification, it was found that the products were certified by the local OTOP standard. There should be a responsible organization to help the uncertified producers pass the standard. However, there was a problem on food contamination which was hazardous to the consumers. The producers should cooperate with the government sector or educational institutes involving with food processing to reach FDA standard. The results from small group discussion showed that the community expected high education and better standard living. Some problems reported by the community included informal debt and drugs in the community. There were 8 steps in developing the model of learning centre on OTOP production process based on Sufficiency Economic Philosophy for sustainable life quality.

Keywords: production process, OTOP, sufficiency economic philosophy, marketing management

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8205 Analysis of the Relationship between the Old Days Hospitalized with Economic Lost Top Ten Age Productive Disease in Hospital Inpatient Inche Abdul Moeis Samarinda, Indonesia

Authors: Tri Murti Tugiman, Awalyya Fasha

Abstract:

This research aims to analyze the magnitude of the economic losses incurred as a result of a person suffering from a particular disease of the ten highest in the productive age diseases in Hospitals Inche Abdul Moeis Samarinda. This research was a descriptive survey research and a secondary data analysis. For the analysis of economic losses populations used are all in patients who suffer from the 10 highest diseases in the productive age in hospitals IA Moeis Samarinda in 2011. Sampling was performed by using a stratified random sampling with samples of 77 people. Research results indicate that the direct cost community incurred to obtain medical services in hospitals IA Moeis is IDR 74437520. The amount of indirect costs incurred during service in a community hospital is IDR 10562000. The amount lost due to sickness fee is IDR 5377800. The amount of economic lost people to obtain medical services in hospitals IA Moeis is IDR 90377320. The number of days of hospitalization was as much as 171 respondents throughout the day. This study suggests the economic loss could be prevented by changes in the lifestyle of the people who clean and healthy along with the following insurance.

Keywords: hospitalized, economic lost, productive age diseases, secondary data analysis

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8204 Forest Products Pricing System in Community Forestry Program: An Analysis of Its Impacts on Forest Resources Management and Livelihood Improvement of Local People

Authors: Mohan Bikram Thapa

Abstract:

Despite the successful implementation of community forestry program, a number of pros and cons have been raised on Terai community forestry in the case of lowland locally called Terai region of Nepal, which climatically belongs to tropical humid and possessed high-quality forests in terms of ecology and economy. The study aims to investigate the local pricing strategy of forest products and its impacts on equitable forest benefits sharing, the collection of community fund and carrying out livelihood improvement activities. The study was carried out on six community forests revealed that local people have substantially benefited from the community forests. However, being the region is heterogeneous by socio-economic conditions and forest resources have higher economic potential, the decision of low pricing strategy made by the local people have created inequality problems while sharing the forest benefits, and poorly contributed to community fund collection and consequently carrying out limited activities of livelihood improvement. The paper argued that the decision of low pricing strategy of forest products is counterproductive to promote the equitable benefit-sharing in the areas of heterogeneous socio-economic conditions with high-value forests. The low pricing strategy has been increasing accessibility of better off households at a higher rate than poor, as such households always have the higher affording capacity. It is also defective to increase the community fund and carry out activities of livelihood improvement effectively. The study concluded that unilateral decentralized forest policy and decision-making autonomy to the local people seems questionable unless their decision-making capacities are enriched sufficiently. Therefore, it is recommended that empowerments of decision-making capacity of local people and their respective institutions together with policy and program formulation are prerequisite for efficient and equitable community forest management and its long-term sustainability.

Keywords: benefit sharing, community forest, livelihood, pricing mechanism, Nepal

Procedia PDF Downloads 285