Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 265

Search results for: the British

265 British English vs. American English: A Comparative Study

Authors: Halima Benazzouz

Abstract:

It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties;that is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile,the terms “British English” and “American English” are used differently by different people to refer to: 1) Two national varieties each subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard. 2) Two national standard varieties in which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part. 3) Two international varieties, that is each is more than a national variety of the English Language. 4) Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties.Furthermore,each variety serves as a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere. Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.Eng) and American English (Am.Eng) are understood as national or international varieties. British English and American English are both “variants” and “varieties” of the English Language, more similar than different.In brief, the following may justify general categories of difference between Standard American English (S.Am.E) and Standard British English (S.Br.e) each having their own sociolectic value: A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax, and punctuation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

Keywords: Greek, Latin, French pronunciation expert, varieties of English language

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264 The Role of British Public Opinion in the Process of the Great Britain’s Involvement in the Crimean War

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu

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As a result of the policies constituted and pursued by Russia which aimed to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, Crimean War broke out in 1853. Nevertheless, the Eastern policies of Russia were in contradiction with the interests of Great Britain which was the great power of the era. Yet, it did hesitate to be confronted with Russian on its route to India, so the Ottoman territorial integrity was defended. In that period, Tzar Nicholas II, to begin with, tried to eliminate a probable opposition coming from the British side, and then tried its chance to build up cooperation with Britain on the territories of the sick man. As a more positive relation was being observed between these two states before the Crimean War, Great Britain initially had adopted a neutral policy. However, in the end, Britain entered the war against Russia due to the efforts of the opposing side in the British Parliament and the rising pressure of the public opinion. The article aims to examine the role of British public opinion in the process of Great Britain’s Involvement in this war. Also, the article will try to find an answer to the following question: to what extent did the public opinion become effective on the foreign policy-making of Great Britain before the war?

Keywords: British press, Crimean war, Great Britain, public opinion

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
263 Factors Affecting the Critical Understanding of the Strategies Which Children Use to Motivate Parents in the Family Buying Process: Case of British Bangladeshi Children in the UK

Authors: Salma Akter, Mohammad M. Haque, Lawrence Akwetey

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An empirical research design will analyze different factors/predictors children use to influence their parents in the family buying decision process in the unexplored area of British Bangladeshi children in the United Kingdom. The proposed conceptual model of factors- buying decision making process will be tested by the Structure Equation Model. A structured Questionnaire and secondary sources will employ to collect data and analyse and measure the validity by Statistical tools (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. The Contemporary research aims to use the deductive approach developing the research questions and testing the hypothesis to identify the impact of different strategies British Bangladeshi children used to influence their parents in the family buying decision which was overlooked in the previous research.

Keywords: British Bangladeshi children, buying decision process, children influence, influential factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
262 Demographic Variations of Multiple Sclerosis Patients between Britain and Kuwait

Authors: Ali Fuad Ashour

Abstract:

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS has been described to result in the debilitating symptom of the disease. It is reported to have a negative impact on the patient’s mental activities, brings a lower quality of life, leads to unemployment, causes distress and psychological disorders, generates low levels of motivation and self-esteem, and result in disability and neurological impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MS on patients from Britain and Kuwait. Methodology: A questionnaire was distributed to 200 individuals with MS (100 Kuwaiti and 100 British). The questionnaire consists of three parts; 1. General demographics, 2. Disease-specific data (symptoms, severity levels, relapse frequency, and support system), and 3. Attitudes towards physical exercise. Results: A response rate of 62% from the British sample and 50% from the Kuwaiti sample was achieved. 84% of the sample (n=52) were 41 years old or over. The duration of the disease was less than 10 years in 43.4% of British and 68% of Kuwaiti respondents. The majority of British respondents (56.5%) reported the disease severity to be moderate, while the majority of Kuwaitis was mild (72%). The annual relapse rates in Kuwait were relatively low, with 82% of the Kuwaiti sample had one relapse per year, compared to the 64.5% of British. The most common symptoms reported by British respondents were balance (75.8%), fatigue (74.2%), and weakness (71%), and by Kuwaiti respondents were fatigue (86%), balance (76%), and weakness (66%). The help and support for MS were by far more diverse for the British than Kuwaiti respondents. Discussion: The results unveiled marked differences between two groups of British and Kuwaiti MS patients in terms of patients’ age and disease duration, and severity. The overwhelming majority of Kuwaiti patients are young individuals who have been with the disease for a relatively short period of time, and their MS in most cases was mild. On the other hand, British patients were relatively older, many have been with the disease for a long period of time, and their average MS condition was more serious than that of their Kuwaiti counterparts. The main support in Kuwait comes from the neurologist, who primarily prescribe medications and advise patients to try to be active. The Kuwaiti respondents thought that lack of encouragement was the main reason for them not to engage in social activities.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, Kuwait, exercise, demographic

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
261 Economic Conflict between the United Kingdom and the European Community 1945-1975

Authors: Soumia Hebbri

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The relationship between Britain and the European Union is phenomenally complex with a great opposition to Europe in the British Conservative and Labour Parties emerged since 1945. During the history and development of the European Union, Europe saw a lack of British involvement until 1961, after refusing to sign the Treaties of Rome of 1957 for being a member of the European Economic Community. Britain then applied to join the EEC in 1961 under Harold Macmillan’s Conservative Government, its application led by the Chief Negotiator Edward Heath. This application was vetoed by President de Gaulle. With de Gaulle out of power Britain. finally could joined in 1973. But again Labour and conservative both found themselves divided on the issue and they hold a referendum under labour on whether to continue the UK’s membership.

Keywords: the European Union, the British, economic community, de Gaulle

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260 Traveling Abroad and the Construction of British Identity and Culture in Selected Women Writers: Lady Elizabeth Craven's A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Embassy Letters (1716-1718)

Authors: Raja Al-Khalili

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Traveling abroad for British citizens in the eighteenth century was usually performed for two reasons. The first major form was for administering the expanding realm of the British Empire and its need for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. The other form of travel was for pleasure and involved a manifestation of wealth. This form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism and usually involved a tour of Europe and the Mediterranean. In both forms of travel the British encountered a myriad of cultures. Travel had fostered a sense of pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, but it also brought a critical self-examination of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Women writers in particular have sought in the travels a kind of self-exploration of the nature of social patriarchy in a diversity of cultures. Both Lady Elizabeth Craven in A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Embassy Letters (1716-1718) have observed the culture of the Ottomans and then pursued to reflect on the social role of women in England.

Keywords: travel writing, Elizabeth Craven, Lady Mary Wortley, patriarchy

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259 Exploring the Vocabulary and Grammar Advantage of US American over British English Speakers at Age 2;0

Authors: Janine Just, Kerstin Meints

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The research aims to compare vocabulary size and grammatical development between US American English- and British English-speaking children at age 2;0. As there is evidence that precocious children with large vocabularies develop grammar skills earlier than their typically developing peers, it was investigated if this also holds true across varieties of English. Thus, if US American children start to produce words earlier than their British counterparts, this could mean that US children are also at an advantage in the early developmental stages of acquiring grammar. This research employs a British English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences (Lincoln Toddler CDI) to compare vocabulary and also grammar scores with the updated US Toddler CDI norms. At first, the Lincoln TCDI was assessed for its concurrent validity with the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-5 UK). This showed high correlations for the vocabulary and grammar subscales between the tests. In addition, the frequency of the Toddler CDI’s words was also compared using American and British English corpora of adult spoken and written language. A paired-samples t-test found a significant difference in word frequency between the British and the American CDI demonstrating that the TCDI’s words were indeed of higher frequency in British English. We then compared language and grammar scores between US (N = 135) and British children (N = 96). A two-way between groups ANOVA examined if the two samples differed in terms of SES (i.e. maternal education) by investigating the impact of SES and country on vocabulary and sentence complexity. The two samples did not differ in terms of maternal education as the interaction effects between SES and country were not significant. In most cases, scores were not significantly different between US and British children, for example, for overall word production and most grammatical subscales (i.e. use of words, over- regularizations, complex sentences, word combinations). However, in-depth analysis showed that US children were significantly better than British children at using some noun categories (i.e. people, objects, places) and several categories marking early grammatical development (i.e. pronouns, prepositions, quantifiers, helping words). However, the effect sizes were small. Significant differences for grammar were found for irregular word forms and progressive tense suffixes. US children were more advanced in their use of these grammatical categories, but the effect sizes were small. In sum, while differences exist in terms of vocabulary and grammar ability, favouring US children, effect sizes were small. It can be concluded that most British children are ‘catching up’ with their US American peers at age 2;0. Implications of this research will be discussed.

Keywords: first language acquisition, grammar, parent report instrument, vocabulary

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258 Uruguayan vs. British Press Coverage of a Political Kidnapping

Authors: Luisa Peirano

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What began as a middle-class insurgent political movement whose slogan was 'Words divide us. Action unites us!' ultimately mutated into an underground terrorist group that staged a series of armed robberies, kidnappings and even executions in the 1960s and early 1970s. One of the most memorable was the kidnapping of the British ambassador, Sir Geoffrey Jackson, in January 1971, who was held captive for eight months. The episode, which triggered a massive government response and resulted in the capture of the Tupamaros leaders, continued to have political repercussions decades later when Tupamaros leaders emerged from prison to re-enter mainstream Uruguayan politics. The kidnapping and its aftermath attracted intense media coverage in Uruguay and Britain, coverage that affected public opinion profoundly. The treatment by the Uruguayan and British medias’ diverged, however. Uruguayan newspapers focused on political issues, mirrored the positions of various political parties, and showed the larger context of social, cultural and political forces that rocked Latin America in the 1960s and early 1970s. By contrast, the British press limited its attention mainly to the human drama. On the 30th anniversary of Sir Geoffrey Jackson's death, this study compares over one hundred major newspaper articles and suggests some reasons for the differences between Uruguayan and British media treatment in terms of the volume, content, and perspective as well in the effect on readers. The differences have persisted and continue to matter in present day coverage of terrorism and its victims.

Keywords: British Ambassador, Churchill Archives Centre, Sir Geoffrey Jackson, political kidnapping, Latin America in the 1960's, Tupamaro guerrillas, Uruguay

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257 The Influence of National Culture on Business Negotiations: An Exploratory Study of Venezuelan and British Managers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Loredana Perez

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Significant attention has recently been paid to the cross-cultural negotiations due to the growth of international businesses. Despite the substantial body of literature examining the influence of national culture (NC) dimensions on negotiations, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Latin America with a Western European countries, In particular, an extensive review of the literature revealed that a contribution to knowledge would be derived from the comparison of the influence of NC dimensions on negotiations in UK and Venezuela. The primary data was collected through qualitative interviews, to obtain an insight about the perceptions and beliefs of Venezuelan and British business managers about their negotiating styles. The findings of this study indicated that NC has a great influence on the negotiating styles. In particular, Venezuelan and British managers demonstrated to have opposed negotiating styles, affecting the way they communicate, approach people and their willingness to take risks.

Keywords: national culture, negotiation, international business, Venezula, UK

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256 Assessment of Runway Micro Texture Using Surface Laser Scanners: An Explorative Study

Authors: Gerard Van Es

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In this study, the use of a high resolution surface laser scanner to assess the micro texture of runway surfaces was investigated experimentally. Micro texture is one of the important surface components that helps to provide high braking friction between aircraft tires and a wet runway surface. Algorithms to derive different parameters that characterise micro texture was developed. Surface scans with a high resolution laser scanner were conducted on 40 different runway (like) surfaces. For each surface micro texture parameters were calculated from the laser scan data. These results were correlated with results obtained from a British pendulum tester that was used on the same surface. Results obtained with the British pendulum tester are generally considered to be indicative for the micro texture related friction characteristics. The results show that a meaningful correlation can be found between different parameters that characterise micro texture obtained with the laser scanner and the British pendulum tester results. Surface laser scanners are easier to operate and give more consistent results than a British pendulum tester. Therefore for airport operators surface laser scanners can be a useful tool to determine if their runway becomes slippery when wet due to a smooth micro texture.

Keywords: runway friction, micro texture, aircraft braking performance, slippery runways

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255 Colonial Racism and the Benin Bronze Artefacts, 1862-1960

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo

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This research is on colonial racism and the Benin bronze artefacts between 1862 and 1960. It analyses the British racial sentiments against the Benin people that heralded colonial rule and how they influenced the perceptions of the artworks during the period. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of colonial rule in Benin by bringing to the fore its impacts on the perception and interpretation of the Benin bronze artefacts during the period. Primary and secondary sources were utilised and the historical method was adopted. The findings reveal that the first British racial propaganda against the Benin people started in 1862 and that it was consciously orchestrated to manoeuvre public opinion for the ill-conceived colonial project. The research also reveals that the Benin people were not alone in this, as other peoples of Africa that were targeted for British colonial domination suffered the same fate. Findings also show that racial propaganda was actually used to rationalised colonial rule in Benin and that it later influenced the interpretations and perception of the Benin bronze artefacts throughout the colonial period and beyond.

Keywords: Benin, Bronzes, colonial, racism

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254 Modern Sports and Imperial Solidarity: Sports, Mutiny and British Army in Colonial Malabar (1900-1930)

Authors: Anas Ali

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The British administration at Malabar, the southern coastal commercial outpost in the Indian Subcontinent, faced with a series of perpetual revolts from the Mappila Muslim peasants during the last decades of the 19th and early decades of the 20th century. The control of Malabar region was a concern for the British administrators as the region was a prime centre of spice trade and plantation products. The Madras government set up a special police battalion called the Malabar Special Police in 1884 and summoned different army battalions to Malabar to crush the revolts. The setting up of army camps in the rural Malabar led to the diffusion of modern sports as the army men played different games in the garrisons and with the local people. For the imperial army men deployed in Malabar, sports acted as a viable medium to strengthen solidarity with other European settlers. They actively participated in the ‘Canterbury Week’, an annual sporting event organized by the European planters and organized tournaments among themselves. This paper would argue that, sports enabled the imperial army men, European planters and British administrators to build camaraderie that enabled them to manifest their imperial solidarity during the time of these constant revolts. Based on newspaper reports and colonial memoirs, this paper would look at how modern sports enabled the imperial army men to be ‘good in health’ and create a feeling of ‘being at home’ during this period.

Keywords: imperial army, Malabar, modern sports, mutiny

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253 Transporting the Setting of the Beloved Musical, Peter Pan, to Colonial India

Authors: R. Roznowski

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This paper is an examination of a recent Michigan State University production of the classic musical, Peter Pan. In this production, approved by the licensor, the action was moved to Colonial India transforming the musical’s message to include themes of cultural identity, racism, classism and ultimately inclusion. Major character changes and casting decisions expanded the scope of the musical while still retaining the original book and score. Major changes included reframing the Darlings as British Colonials stationed in India. The Lost Boy’s as mixed race children of British officials and their Indian nannies, the Pirates were a female 'fishing fleet' a group of women sent from England to keep the British soldiers from mixing with the locals and the Michigan State University Bhangra Dance Team played the Indians in the production. Traditional Indian theatrical techniques were also employed in the storytelling. The presentation will cover the key changes to the musical, the rehearsal process, historical accuracy and audience reaction. A final analysis of cultural appropriation versus historical reframing will be examined.

Keywords: directing, history, musical theatre, producing

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252 Environmental Impacts on the British Era Structures of Faisalabad-a Detailed Study of the Clock Tower of Faisalabad

Authors: Bazla Manzoor, Aqsa Yasin

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Pakistan is the country which is progressing by leaps and bounds through agricultural and industrial growth. The main area, which presents the largest income rate through industrial activities, is Faisalabad from the Province of Punjab. Faisalabad’s main occupations include agriculture and industry. As these sectors i.e. agriculture and industry is developing day by day, they are earning much income for the country and generating thousands of job vacancies. On one hand the city, i.e. Faisalabad is on the way of development through industrial growth, while on the other hand this industrial growth is producing a bad impact on the environment. In return, that damaged environment is affecting badly on the people and built environment. This research is chiefly based on one of the above-mentioned factors i.e. adverse environmental impacts on the built structures. Faisalabad is an old city, therefore; it is having many old structures especially from British Era. Many of those structures are still surviving and are functioning as the government, private and public buildings. However, these structures are getting in a poor condition with the passage of time due to bad maintenance and adverse environmental impacts. Bad maintenance is a factor, which can be controlled by financial assistance and management. The factor needs to be seriously considered is the other one i.e. adverse environmental impacts on British Era structures of the city because this factor requires controlled and refined human activities and actions. For this reason, a research was required to conserve the British Era structures of Faisalabad so that these structures can function well. The other reason to conserve them is that these structures are historically important and are the heritage of the city. For doing this research, literature has been reviewed which was present in the libraries of the city. Department of Environment, Town Municipal Administration, Faisalabad Development Authority and Lyallpur Heritage Foundation were visited to collect the existing data available. Various British Era structures were also visited to note down the environmental impacts on them. From all the structures “Clock Tower,” was deeply studied as it is one of the oldest and most important heritage structures of the city because the earlier settlements of the city were planned based on its location by The British Government. The architectural and environmental analyses were done for The Clock Tower. This research study found the deterioration factors of the tower according to which suggestions have been made.

Keywords: lyallpur, heritage, architecture, environment

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251 The Jury System in the Courts in Nineteenth Century Assam: Power Negotiations and Politics in an Institutional Rubric of a Colonial Regime

Authors: Jahnu Bharadwaj

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In the third decade of the 19th century, the political landscape of the Brahmaputra valley changed at many levels. The establishment of East India Company’s authority in ‘Assam’ was complete with the Treaty of Yandaboo. The whole phenomenon of the annexation of Assam into the British Indian Empire led to several administrative reorganizations and reforms under the new regime. British colonial rule was distinguished by new systems and institutions of governance. This paper broadly looks at the historical proceedings of the introduction of the Rule of Law and a new legal structure in the region of ‘Assam’. With numerous archival data, this paper seeks to chiefly examine the trajectory of an important element in the new legal apparatus, i.e. the jury in the British criminal courts introduced in the newly annexed region. Right from the beginning of colonial legal innovations with the establishment of the panchayats and the parallel courts in Assam, the jury became an important element in the structure of the judicial system. In both civil and criminal courts, the jury was to be formed from the learned members of the ‘native’ society. In the working of the criminal court, the jury became significantly powerful and influential. The structure meant that the judge or the British authority eventually had no compulsion to obey the verdict of the jury. However, the structure also provided that the jury had a considerable say in matters of the court proceedings, and their verdict had significant weight. This study seeks to look at certain important criminal cases pertaining to the nineteenth century and the functioning of the jury in those cases. The power play at display between the British officials, judges and the members of the jury would be helpful in highlighting the important deliberations and politics that were in place in the functioning of the British criminal legal apparatus in colonial Assam. The working and the politics of the members of the jury in many cases exerted considerable influence in the court proceedings. The interesting negotiations of the British officials or judges also present us with vital insights. By reflecting on the difficulty that the British officials and judges felt with the considerable space for opinion and difference that was provided to important members of the local society, this paper seeks to locate, with evidence, the racial politics at play within the official formulations of the legal apparatus in the colonial rule in Assam. This study seeks to argue that despite the rhetorical claims of legal equality within the Empire, racial consideration and racial politics was a reality even in the making of the structure itself. This in a way helps to enrich our ideas about the racial elements at work in numerous layers sustaining the colonial regime.

Keywords: criminal courts, colonial regime, jury, race

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250 The Investigation on the Role of Colonial Judges in Protecting the Rights of Muslim Women to Dower and Divorce in British India: From the Period between 1800-1939

Authors: Sunil Tirkey

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The colonial court records between 1800 to 1939 in India show the existence of excessive dower, which were usually paid at the dissolution of marriage to discourage divorce. Supporting this view of excessive dower as a useful device, Mitra Sharafi (legal historian of modern South Asia) argues that inflated dower and divorce law protected Muslim women against instant divorce, making it too expensive for husbands to use it. Further, according to her, British judges enhanced women’s rights to dower and divorce by pronouncing rulings in favour of a high amount of dower to protect the women against the one-sided authority of men to divorce. Contrary to the view of Sharafi, this paper will argue that inflated dower did not protect the rights of women against instant divorce and undesirable marriage, and British judges did not really work to better the lives of Muslim women. To prove so, we shall firstly argue from the court cases that it was challenging for women to prove divorce on the husbands’ denial of divorce in order to avoid the payment of dower. Secondly, it was almost impossible for women to get rid of their undesirable marriage, as divorce was impartially dependent on their husbands. Thirdly, Muslim women were often deprived of their unpaid prompt dower due to the rigorous application of colonial law of limitation by British judges. Furthermore, the abolition of the office of Muslim legal experts from the colonial courts in 1864 deprived Muslim women not only to avail the interpretation of Islamic law but to benefit from the diversity and flexibility of Islamic law in obtaining their right to dower and divorce.

Keywords: courts, divorce, inflated dower, Islamic law, women’s rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
249 The Influence of National Culture on Consumer Buying Behaviour: An Exploratory Study of Nigerian and British Consumers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Lombe Ngome Enongene, Mohammed Hamdan, Gbolahan Gbadamosi

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Despite the considerable body of literature investigating the influence of National Culture (NC) dimensions on consumer behaviour, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Africa with Western European countries. This study is intended to fill the vacuum in knowledge by exploring how NC affects consumer buyer behavior in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. The primary data were collected through in depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with three groups of individuals: British students, Nigerian students in the United Kingdom, and Nigerian-based students. This approach and new frontier to analyze culture and consumer behaviour could help understand residual cultural threads of people (that are ingrained in their being) irrespective of exposure to other cultures. The findings of this study show that Nigerian and British consumers differ remarkably in cultural orientations such as symbols, values and psychological standpoints. This ultimately affects the choices made at every stage of the decision building process, and proves beneficial for international retail marketing.

Keywords: national culture, consumer behaviour, international business, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
248 'Infection in the Sentence': The Castration of a Black Woman's Dream of Authorship as Manifested in Buchi Emecheta's Second Class Citizen

Authors: Aseel Hatif Jassam, Hadeel Hatif Jassam

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The paper discusses the phallocentric discourse that is challenged by women in general and of women of color in particular in spite of the simultaneity of oppression due to race, class, and gender in the diaspora. Therefore, the paper gives a brief account of women's experience in the light of postcolonial feminist theory. The paper also cast light on the theories of Luce Irigaray and Helen Cixous, two Feminist theorists who support and advise women to have their own discourse to challenge the infectious patriarchal sentence advocated by Sigmund Freud and Harold Bloom's model of literary history. Black women authors like BuchiEmecheta as well as her alter ego Adah, a Nigerian-born girl and the protagonist of her semi-autobiographical novel, Second Class Citizen, suffer from this phallocentric and oppressive sentence and displacement as they migrate from Nigeria, a former British colony where they feel marginalized to North London with the hope of realizing their dreams. Yet, in the British diaspora, they get culturally shocked and continue to suffer from further marginalization due to class and race and are insulted and interiorized ironically by their patriarchal husbands who try to put an end to their dreams of authorship. With the phallocentric belief that women aren't capable of self-representation in the background of their mindsets, the violent Sylvester Onwordi and Francis Obi, the husbands of both Emecheta and Adah, respectively have practiced oppression on them by burning their own authoritative voice, represented by the novels they write while they are struggling with their economically atrocious living experience in the British diaspora.

Keywords: authorship, British diaspora, discourse, phallocentric, patriarchy

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247 An Architectural Study on the Railway Station Buildings in Malaysia during British Era, 1885-1957

Authors: Nor Hafizah Anuar, M. Gul Akdeniz

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This paper attempted on emphasize on the station buildings façade elements. Station buildings were essential part of the transportation that reflected the technology. Comparative analysis on architectural styles will also be made between the railway station buildings of Malaysia and any railway station buildings which have similarities. The Malay Peninsula which is strategically situated between the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea makes it an ideal location for trade. Malacca became an important trading port whereby merchants from around the world stopover to exchange various products. The Portuguese ruled Malacca for 130 years (1511–1641) and for the next century and a half (1641–1824), the Dutch endeavoured to maintain an economic monopoly along the coasts of Malaya. Malacca came permanently under British rule under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty, 1824. Up to Malaysian independence in 1957, Malaya saw a great influx of Chinese and Indian migrants as workers to support its growing industrial needs facilitated by the British. The growing tin ore mining and rubber industry resulted as the reason of the development of the railways as urgency to transport it from one place to another. The existence of railway transportation becomes more significant when the city started to bloom and the British started to build grandeur buildings that have different functions; administrative buildings, town and city halls, railway stations, public works department, courts, and post offices.

Keywords: Malaysia, station building, architectural styles, facade elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
246 Influence of Compactive Efforts on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Bagasse Ash Treated Black Cotton Soil

Authors: T. S. Ijimdiya, K. J. Osinubi

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This study examines the influence of compactive efforts on hydraulic conductivity behaviour of compacted black cotton soil treated with bagasse ash which is necessary in assessing the performance of the soil - bagasse ash mixture for use as a suitable barrier material in waste containment application. Black cotton soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash (obtained from burning the fibrous residue from the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane) by dry weight of soil for use in waste containment application. The natural soil classifies as A-7-6 or CH in accordance with the AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System, respectively. The treated soil samples were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2, and +4 % of optimum moisture contents and compacted using four compactive efforts of Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH). The results obtained show that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in bagasse ash content, moulding water content and compaction energy.

Keywords: bagasse ash treatment, black cotton soil, hydraulic conductivity, moulding water contents, compactive efforts

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245 Killed by the ‘Subhuman’: Jane Longhurst’s Murder and the Construction of the ‘Extreme Pornography’ Problem in the British National Press

Authors: Dimitrios Akrivos, Alexandros K. Antoniou

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This paper looks at the crucial role of the British news media in the construction of extreme pornography as a social problem, suggesting that this paved the way for the subsequent criminalization of such material through the introduction of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008. Focusing on the high-profile case of Graham Coutts, it examines the British national press’ reaction to Jane Longhurst’s murder through a qualitative content analysis of 251 relevant news articles. Specifically, the paper documents the key arguments expressed in the corresponding claims-making process. It considers the different ways in which the consequent ‘trial by media’ presented this exceptional case as the ‘tip of the iceberg’ and eventually translated into policy. The analysis sheds light on the attempts to ‘piggyback’ the issue of extreme pornography on child sexual abuse images as well as the textual and visual mechanisms used to establish an ‘us versus them’ dichotomy in the pertinent media discourse. Finally, the paper assesses the severity of the actual risk posed by extreme pornography, concluding that its criminalization should not merely be dismissed as the outcome of an institutionalized media panic.

Keywords: criminalization, extreme pornography, social problem, trial by media

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244 Modeling of Landslide-Generated Tsunamis in Georgia Strait, Southern British Columbia

Authors: Fatemeh Nemati, Lucinda Leonard, Gwyn Lintern, Richard Thomson

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In this study, we will use modern numerical modeling approaches to estimate tsunami risks to the southern coast of British Columbia from landslides. Wave generation is to be simulated using the NHWAVE model, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations due to the more complex behavior of flow near the landslide source; far-field wave propagation will be simulated using the simpler model FUNWAVE_TVD with high-order Boussinesq-type wave equations, with a focus on the accurate simulation of wave propagation and regional- or coastal-scale inundation predictions.

Keywords: FUNWAVE-TVD, landslide-generated tsunami, NHWAVE, tsunami risk

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243 Cross-Cultural Competence Development through 'Learning by Reflection': A Case Study of Chinese International Students Learning through Taking Part-Time Jobs in the UK

Authors: Xin Zhao

Abstract:

The project aims to expand the notion of narrative learning and address the importance of learning by reflection in our learning and teaching context at a British university. Drawing on the key concepts such as development ZPD, transition and reflection-in and –on-action, this project analyses the learning experiences of a small sample of Chinese postgraduate students in a British University, who use part-time job experience to develop cross-cultural communication skills. The project adopts a mixed methods approach. Questionnaires and focus group interviews are used to examine the way in which students adapt (or not adapt) to the culture of learning in a British university and develop a renewed sense of self in transitions from one culture to the other. The project also looks at how the students appropriate opportunities for learning not just from classrooms but outside classrooms from everyday encounters. The project aims to address the implication of learning by reflection as development in transition. Time in and for learning, or duration, is taken for granted in theorising narrative learning. The project shall explore this very issue of time in relation to learning by reflection in considering time in/of/for learning as duration.

Keywords: cross-cultural competence, learning by refection, international student transition, part-time work experience

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242 Aspects of Semantics of Standard British English and Nigerian English: A Contrastive Study

Authors: Chris Adetuyi, Adeola Adeniran

Abstract:

The concept of meaning is a complex one in language study when cultural features are added. This is mandatory because language cannot be completely separated from the culture in which case language and culture complement each other. When there are two varieties of a language in a society, i.e. two varieties functioning side by side in a speech community, there is a tendency to view one of the varieties with each other. There is, therefore, the need to make a linguistic comparative study of varieties of such languages. In this paper, a semantic contrastive study is made between Standard British English (SBE) and Nigerian English (NB). The semantic study is limited to aspects of semantics: semantic extension (Kinship terms, metaphors), semantic shift (lexical items considered are ‘drop’ ‘befriend’ ‘dowry’ and escort) acronyms (NEPA, JAMB, NTA) linguistic borrowing or loan words (Seriki, Agbada, Eba, Dodo, Iroko) coinages (long leg, bush meat; bottom power and juju). In the study of these aspects of semantics of SBE and NE lexical terms, conservative statements are made, problems areas and hierarchy of difficulties are highlighted with a view to bringing out areas of differences are highlighted in this paper are concerned. The study will also serve as a guide in further contrastive studies in some other area of languages.

Keywords: aspect, British, English, Nigeria, semantics

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241 Perceived and Projected Images of Algeria: A Comparison Study

Authors: Nour-Elhouda Lecheheb

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Destination image is one of the main factors that influence potential visitors' decision choice. This study aims to explore the pre-visit perception of prior British tourists and compare them to the actual projected images of the Algerian tourism suppliers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with both prior British tourists to Algeria and the Algerian tourism suppliers in 2019. The findings of this study suggest how the Algerian tourism suppliers might benefit from understanding the perceived image of prior tourists to match tourists' expectations and better plan their projected images.

Keywords: Algeria, destination choice, destination image, perceived image, projected image

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240 The Interaction of Lay Judges and Professional Judges in French, German and British Labour Courts

Authors: Susan Corby, Pete Burgess, Armin Hoeland, Helene Michel, Laurent Willemez

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In German 1st instance labour courts, lay judges always sit with a professional judge and in British and French 1st instance labour courts, lay judges sometimes sit with a professional judge. The lay judges’ main contribution is their workplace knowledge, but they act in a juridical setting where legal norms prevail. Accordingly, the research question is: does the professional judge dominate the lay judges? The research, funded by the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, is based on over 200 qualitative interviews conducted in France, Germany and Great Britain in 2016-17 with lay and professional judges. Each interview lasted an hour on average, was audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using MaxQDA. Status theories, which argue that external sources of (perceived) status are imported into the court, and complementary notions of informational advantage suggest professional judges might exercise domination and control. Furthermore, previous empirical research on British and German labour courts, now some 30 years old, found that professional judges dominated. More recent research on lay judges and professional judges in criminal courts also found professional judge domination. Our findings, however, are more nuanced and distinguish between the hearing and deliberations, and also between the attitudes of judges in the three countries. First, in Germany and Great Britain the professional judge has specialist knowledge and expertise in labour law. In contrast, French professional judges do not study employment law and may only seldom adjudicate on employment law cases. Second, although the professional judge chairs and controls the hearing when he/she sits with lay judges in all three countries, exceptionally in Great Britain lay judges have some latent power as they have to take notes systematically due to the lack of recording technology. Such notes can be material if a party complains of bias, or if there is an appeal. Third, as to labour court deliberations: in France, the professional judge alone determines the outcome of the case, but only if the lay judges have been unable to agree at a previous hearing, which only occurs in 20% of cases. In Great Britain and Germany, although the two lay judges and the professional judge have equal votes, the contribution of British lay judges’ workplace knowledge is less important than that of their German counterparts. British lay judges essentially only sit on discrimination cases where the law, the purview of the professional judge, is complex. They do not sit routinely on unfair dismissal cases where workplace practices are often a key factor in the decision. Also, British professional judges are less reliant on their lay judges than German professional judges. Whereas the latter are career judges, the former only become professional judges after having had several years’ experience in the law and many know, albeit indirectly through their clients, about a wide range of workplace practices. In conclusion, whether or if the professional judge dominates lay judges in labour courts varies by country, although this is mediated by the attitudes of the interactionists.

Keywords: cross-national comparisons, labour courts, professional judges, lay judges

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239 Identifying Neighborhoods at Potential Risk of Food Insecurity in Rural British Columbia

Authors: Amirmohsen Behjat, Aleck Ostry, Christina Miewald, Bernie Pauly

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Substantial research has indicated that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics’ of neighborhoods are strong determinants of food security. The aim of this study was to develop a Food Insecurity Neighborhood Index (FINI) based on the associated socioeconomic and demographic variables to identify the areas at potential risk of food insecurity in rural British Columbia (BC). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used to calculate the FINI for each rural Dissemination Area (DA) using the food security determinant variables from Canadian Census data. Using ArcGIS, the neighborhoods with the top quartile FINI values were classified as food insecure. The results of this study indicated that the most food insecure neighborhood with the highest FINI value of 99.1 was in the Bulkley-Nechako (central BC) area whereas the lowest FINI with the value of 2.97 was for a rural neighborhood in the Cowichan Valley area. In total, 98.049 (19%) of the rural population of British Columbians reside in high food insecure areas. Moreover, the distribution of food insecure neighborhoods was found to be strongly dependent on the degree of rurality in BC. In conclusion, the cluster of food insecure neighbourhoods was more pronounced in Central Coast, Mount Wadington, Peace River, Kootenay Boundary, and the Alberni-Clayoqout Regional Districts.

Keywords: neighborhood food insecurity index, socioeconomic and demographic determinants, principal component analysis, Canada census, ArcGIS

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238 A Developmental Study of the Flipped Classroom Approach on Students’ Learning in English Language Modules in British University in Egypt

Authors: A. T. Zaki

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The flipped classroom approach as a mode of blended learning was formally introduced to students of the English language modules at the British University in Egypt (BUE) at the start of the academic year 2015/2016. This paper aims to study the impact of the flipped classroom approach after three semesters of implementation. It will restrict itself to the examination of students’ achievement rates, student satisfaction, and how different student cohorts have benefited differently from the flipped practice. The paper concludes with recommendations of how the experience can be further developed.

Keywords: achievement rates, developmental experience, Egypt, flipped classroom, higher education, student cohorts, student satisfaction

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237 Raising High School English Teachers' Awareness of World Englishes

Authors: Julio Cesar Torres Rocha

Abstract:

The present study is a three-stage action research that aims at raising EFL teachers’ awareness of World Englishes (WE) within a critical perspective of inquiry. Through a taught module on English and its varieties, a survey, a reflection paper, and a semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that there was a clear change of conception, at the theoretical level, in teachers’ papers. However, WE was regarded as future possibility for action. On the one hand, all of the participants said the module changed their conception of other varieties of English different from British and American ones. They all went from identifying themselves with either American or British variety, a celebratory perspective, to acknowledging and accepting other English varieties, a critical perspective of English as an international language (EIL).

Keywords: teachers’ s awareness, English as an international language, introducing world Englishes, critical applied linguistics

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236 The Post-Colonial Yoruba Poets as Agents of Political and Economic Emancipation in Nigeria

Authors: Isaac Alonge Olusola

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One of the major peculiarities of man is the ability to communicate and interact with language. The original Yoruba society, before the advent of the Europeans, was purely oral. That is the major means of inter- personal communication was through speaking. The abolition of slave trade by Britain marked the beginning of development of Yoruba alphabet and introduction of writing around 1800. However, most of the writing was Christian religion-focused. Later, the introduction of British colonial rule led to the introduction of writing that dwelt on political and economic emancipation. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria was granted independence by the British colonial masters and self-rule started in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the military and civilian administrations brought about political and economic oppression instead of comfort. The discomfort brought about by Nigerian political and military rulers turned the Yoruba poets to activists, reactionaries and critics. This paper will give a brief preamble on the history of Nigeria and how she got her political independence from the British in 1960. It will thereafter go further to mention some political and economic hardship brought about by Nigerian leaders. Using literary theories called semiotics and structuralism, the reactions and criticisms of some Yoruba poets will be mentioned and analyzed vis-à-vis the counter reactions of the governments in power. Moreover, the paper will bring about a conclusion on how to create a conducive atmosphere for the Yoruba poets to operate in Nigeria. Finally, suggestions will be offered on how the Nigerian government and Yoruba poets can co-exist positively to bring about a better standard of living to Nigerians and also promote good governance

Keywords: Yoruba, Yoruba language, Yoruba poets, political leaders

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