Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 258

Search results for: DNA variants

258 Production Plan and Technological Variants Optimization by Goal Programming Methods

Authors: Tunjo Perić, Franjo Bratić


In this paper the goal programming methodology for solving multiple objective problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization has been applied. The optimization criteria are determined and the multiple objective linear programming model for solving a problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization is formed and solved. Then the obtained results are analysed. The obtained results point out to the possibility of efficient application of the goal programming methodology in solving the problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization. The paper points out on the advantages of the application of the goal programming methodolohy compare to the Surrogat Worth Trade-off method in solving this problem.

Keywords: goal programming, multi objective programming, production plan, SWT method, technological variants

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257 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo


Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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256 Mutation Profiling of Paediatric Solid Tumours in a Cohort of South African Patients

Authors: L. Lamola, E. Manolas, A. Krause


Background: The incidence of childhood cancer incidence is increasing gradually in low-middle income countries, such as South Africa. Globally, there is an extensive range of familial- and hereditary-cancer syndromes, where underlying germline variants increase the likelihood of developing cancer in childhood. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies have been key in determining the occurrence and genetic contribution of germline variants to paediatric cancer development. We aimed to design and evaluate a candidate gene panel specific to inherited cancer-predisposing genes to provide a comprehensive insight into the contribution of germline variants to childhood cancer. Methods: 32 paediatric patients (aged 0-18 years) diagnosed with a malignant tumour were recruited, and biological samples were obtained. After quality control, DNA was sequenced using an ion Ampliseq 50 candidate gene panel design and Ion Torrent S5 technologies. Sequencing variants were called using Ion Torrent Suite software and were subsequently annotated using Ion Reporter and Ensembl's VEP. High priority variants were manually analysed using tools such as MutationTaster, SIFT-INDEL and VarSome. Putative identified candidates were validated via Sanger Sequencing. Results: The patients studied had a variety of cancers, the most common being nephroblastoma (13), followed by osteosarcoma (4) and astrocytoma (3). We identified 10 pathogenic / likely pathogenic variants in 10 patients, most of which were novel. Conclusions: According to the literature, we expected ~10% of our patient population to harbour pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants, however, we reported about 3 times (~30%) more than we expected. Majority of the identified variants are novel; this may be because this is the first study of its kind in an understudied South African population.

Keywords: Africa, genetics, germline-variants, paediatric-cancer

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255 Effects of Drought on Microbial Activity in Rhizosphere, Soil Hydrophobicity and Leaching of Mineral Nitrogen from Arable Soil Depending on Method of Fertilization

Authors: Jakub Elbl, Lukáš Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Soňa Javoreková, Jaroslav Záhora, Libor Kalhotka, Olga Urbánková, Ivana Charousová


This work presents the first results from the long-term laboratory experiment dealing with impact of drought on soil properties. Three groups of the treatment (A, B and C) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. The soil water content was maintained at 70 % of soil water holding capacity in group A, at 40 % in group B. In group C, soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point. Each group of the experiment was divided into three variants (A1 = B1, C1; A2 = B2, C2 etc.) with three repetitions: Variants A1 (B1, C1) were controls without addition of another fertilizer. Variants A2 (B2, C2) were fertilized with mineral nitrogen fertilizer DAM 390 (0.140 Mg of N per ha) and variants A3 (B3, C3) contained 45 g of Cp per a pot. The significant differences (ANOVA, P<0.05) in the leaching of mineral nitrogen and values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) were found. The highest values of Ksat were found in variants (within each group) with addition of compost (A3, B3, C3). Conversely, the lowest values of Ksat were found in variants with addition of mineral nitrogen. Low values of Ksat indicate an increased level of hydrophobicity in individual groups of the experiment. Moreover, all variants with compost addition showed lower amount of mineral nitrogen leaching and high level of microbial activity than variants without. This decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was about 200 % in comparison with the control variant and about 300 % with variant, where mineral nitrogen was added. Based on these results, we can conclude that changes of soil water content directly have impact on microbial activity, soil hydrophobicity and loss of mineral nitrogen from the soil.

Keywords: drought, microbial activity, mineral nitrogen, soil hydrophobicity

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254 Variation in Italian Specialized Economic Texts

Authors: Abdelmagid Basyouny Sakr


Terminological variation is a reality and it is now recognized by terminologists. This paper investigates the terminological variation in the context of specialized economic texts in Italian. It aims to find whether certain patterns or tendencies can be derived from the analysis of these texts. Term variants pose two different kinds of difficulties. The first one is being able to recognize linguistic expressions that denote the same concept in running text. Another one lies in knowing which variant should be considered and for what purpose. This would help to differentiate between variants that could be candidates for inclusion in terminological resources and the ones which are synonyms or contextual variants. New insights about terminological variation in specialized texts could contribute to improve specialized dictionaries which will better account for the different ways in which a given thought is expressed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, specialized communication, terms and concepts, terminological variation

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253 Whole Exome Sequencing Data Analysis of Rare Diseases: Non-Coding Variants and Copy Number Variations

Authors: S. Fahiminiya, J. Nadaf, F. Rauch, L. Jerome-Majewska, J. Majewski


Background: Sequencing of protein coding regions of human genome (Whole Exome Sequencing; WES), has demonstrated a great success in the identification of causal mutations for several rare genetic disorders in human. Generally, most of WES studies have focused on rare variants in coding exons and splicing-sites where missense substitutions lead to the alternation of protein product. Although focusing on this category of variants has revealed the mystery behind many inherited genetic diseases in recent years, a subset of them remained still inconclusive. Here, we present the result of our WES studies where analyzing only rare variants in coding regions was not conclusive but further investigation revealed the involvement of non-coding variants and copy number variations (CNV) in etiology of the diseases. Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed using our standard protocols at Genome Quebec Innovation Center, Montreal, Canada. All bioinformatics analyses were done using in-house WES pipeline. Results: To date, we successfully identified several disease causing mutations within gene coding regions (e.g. SCARF2: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome and SNAP29: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) by using WES. In addition, we showed that variants in non-coding regions and CNV have also important value and should not be ignored and/or filtered out along the way of bioinformatics analysis on WES data. For instance, in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V and in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, we identified variants in 5'UTR, resulting in the production of longer or truncating non-functional proteins. Furthermore, CNVs were identified as the main cause of the diseases in patients with metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly and in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type VII. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of considering non-coding variants and CNVs during interpretation of WES data, as they can be the only cause of disease under investigation.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing data, non-coding variants, copy number variations, rare diseases

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252 Variants of Fat Mass Obesity Associated rs 9939609 Associated with Obesity and Eating Behavior in Adolescent of Minangkabau Ethnic

Authors: Susmiati, Ingrid S. Surono, Jamsari, Nur Indrawati Lipoeto


There are two contradicting opinions on the relationship between fat mass obesity associated (FTO) rs 9939609 variants and obesity on various ethnics and races. The first opinion agrees that there is an association between the two variables, yet another one disagree. Minangkabau ethnic had a different dietary pattern with other ethnics in Indonesia. They had higher fat and low fiber intakes compared to the other ethnics groups. There is little research in genetic factors that influence eating behavior (food preference or food selection). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between FTO rs 9939609 variants with obesity and eating behavior in adolescent girls of Minangkabau Ethnic. The research design was case control study. A total of 275 adolescent girls aged 12-15 years old (130 obese and 145 normal) were randomly chosen from four districts at West Sumatera (Padang, Padang Pariaman, Padang Panjang and Tanah Datar). Genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 were analyzed with Tetra-primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polimerase Chain Reaction (AMRS PCR), eating behavior were gathered using eating habits questionnaire, and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated according to BMI Z-score (WHO). The result showed that genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 (TT, TA and AA genotype) had associated with obesity (p = 0,013), whereas subject with An Allele was significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio 1,62 [95% confidential interval, 1,00-2,60]). Subjects with An Allele carrier reported a higher consumption of fried food (p < 0.05) as compared to TT genotypes carriers. There is no association between genetic variants and meal frequency, fruit and fiber intakes p > 0.05. The genetic variants of FTO rs 9939609 are associated with obesity and eating behavior in adolescent of Minangkabau Ethics.

Keywords: FTO rs9939609, obesity, eating behavior, adolescents

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251 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen


The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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250 Whole Coding Genome Inter-Clade Comparison to Predict Global Cancer-Protecting Variants

Authors: Lamis Naddaf, Yuval Tabach


In this research, we identified the missense genetic variants that have the potential to enhance resistance against cancer. Such field has not been widely explored, as researchers tend to investigate mutations that cause diseases, in response to the suffering of patients, rather than those mutations that protect from them. In conjunction with the genomic revolution, and the advances in genetic engineering and synthetic biology, identifying the protective variants will increase the power of genotype-phenotype predictions and can have significant implications on improved risk estimation, diagnostics, prognosis and even for personalized therapy and drug discovery. To approach our goal, we systematically investigated the sites of the coding genomes and picked up the alleles that showed a correlation with the species’ cancer resistance. We predicted 250 protecting variants (PVs) with a 0.01 false discovery rate and more than 20 thousand PVs with a 0.25 false discovery rate. Cancer resistance in Mammals and reptiles was significantly predicted by the number of PVs a species has. Moreover, Genes enriched with the protecting variants are enriched in pathways relevant to tumor suppression like pathways of Hedgehog signaling and silencing, which its improper activation is associated with the most common form of cancer malignancy. We also showed that the PVs are more abundant in healthy people compared to cancer patients within different human races.

Keywords: comparative genomics, machine learning, cancer resistance, cancer-protecting alleles

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249 Frequent Pattern Mining for Digenic Human Traits

Authors: Atsuko Okazaki, Jurg Ott


Some genetic diseases (‘digenic traits’) are due to the interaction between two DNA variants. For example, certain forms of Retinitis Pigmentosa (a genetic form of blindness) occur in the presence of two mutant variants, one in the ROM1 gene and one in the RDS gene, while the occurrence of only one of these mutant variants leads to a completely normal phenotype. Detecting such digenic traits by genetic methods is difficult. A common approach to finding disease-causing variants is to compare 100,000s of variants between individuals with a trait (cases) and those without the trait (controls). Such genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been very successful but hinge on genetic effects of single variants, that is, there should be a difference in allele or genotype frequencies between cases and controls at a disease-causing variant. Frequent pattern mining (FPM) methods offer an avenue at detecting digenic traits even in the absence of single-variant effects. The idea is to enumerate pairs of genotypes (genotype patterns) with each of the two genotypes originating from different variants that may be located at very different genomic positions. What is needed is for genotype patterns to be significantly more common in cases than in controls. Let Y = 2 refer to cases and Y = 1 to controls, with X denoting a specific genotype pattern. We are seeking association rules, ‘X → Y’, with high confidence, P(Y = 2|X), significantly higher than the proportion of cases, P(Y = 2) in the study. Clearly, generally available FPM methods are very suitable for detecting disease-associated genotype patterns. We use fpgrowth as the basic FPM algorithm and built a framework around it to enumerate high-frequency digenic genotype patterns and to evaluate their statistical significance by permutation analysis. Application to a published dataset on opioid dependence furnished results that could not be found with classical GWAS methodology. There were 143 cases and 153 healthy controls, each genotyped for 82 variants in eight genes of the opioid system. The aim was to find out whether any of these variants were disease-associated. The single-variant analysis did not lead to significant results. Application of our FPM implementation resulted in one significant (p < 0.01) genotype pattern with both genotypes in the pattern being heterozygous and originating from two variants on different chromosomes. This pattern occurred in 14 cases and none of the controls. Thus, the pattern seems quite specific to this form of substance abuse and is also rather predictive of disease. An algorithm called Multifactor Dimension Reduction (MDR) was developed some 20 years ago and has been in use in human genetics ever since. This and our algorithms share some similar properties, but they are also very different in other respects. The main difference seems to be that our algorithm focuses on patterns of genotypes while the main object of inference in MDR is the 3 × 3 table of genotypes at two variants.

Keywords: digenic traits, DNA variants, epistasis, statistical genetics

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248 The Impact of P108L Genetic Variant on Calcium Release and Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility

Authors: Mohammed Althobiti, Patrick Booms, Dorota Fiszer, Philip Hopkins


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle. MH results from anaesthetics induced breakdown of calcium homeostasis. RYR1 and CACN1AS mutations represent the aetiology in ~70% of the MH population. Previous studies indicate that up to 25% of MH patients carry no variants in these genes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between MH susceptibility and genes encoding skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels as well as accessory proteins. The JSRP, encoding JP-45, was previously sequenced and novel genetic variants were identified. The variant p.P108L (c.323C > T) was identified in exon 4 and encodes a change from a proline at amino acid 108 to leucine residue. The variant P108L was detected in two patients out of 50 with 4% frequency in the sample population. The alignment of DNA sequences in different species indicates highly conserved proline sequences involved in the substitution of the P108L variant. In this study, the variant P108L co-segregates with the SNP p.V92A (c.275T > C) at the same exon, both variants being inherited in the same two patients only. This indicates that the two variants may represent a haplotype. Therefore, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and statistical analysis will be used to investigate the effects of haplotypes on MH susceptibility. Furthermore, investigating the effect of the P108L variant in combination with RYR1 mutations or other genetic variants in other genes as a combination of two or more genetic variants, haplotypes may then provide stronger genetic evidence indicating that JSRP1 is associated with MH susceptibility. In conclusion, these preliminary results lend a potential modifier role of the variant P108L in JSRP1 in MH susceptibility and further investigations are suggested to confirm these results.

Keywords: JSRP1, malignant hyperthermia, RyR1, skeletal muscle

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247 Copy Number Variants in Children with Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Diseases from Mexico

Authors: Maria Lopez-Ibarra, Ana Velazquez-Wong, Lucelli Yañez-Gutierrez, Maria Araujo-Solis, Fabio Salamanca-Gomez, Alfonso Mendez-Tenorio, Haydeé Rosas-Vargas


Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital abnormalities. These conditions can occur as both an element of distinct chromosomal malformation syndromes or as non-syndromic forms. Their etiology is not fully understood. Genetic variants such copy number variants have been associated with CHD. The aim of our study was to analyze these genomic variants in peripheral blood from Mexican children diagnosed with non-syndromic CHD. We included 16 children with atrial and ventricular septal defects and 5 healthy subjects without heart malformations as controls. To exclude the most common heart disease-associated syndrome alteration, we performed a fluorescence in situ hybridization test to identify the 22q11.2, responsible for congenital heart abnormalities associated with Di-George Syndrome. Then, a microarray based comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify global copy number variants. The identification of copy number variants resulted from the comparison and analysis between our results and data from main genetic variation databases. We identified copy number variants gain in three chromosomes regions from pediatric patients, 4q13.2 (31.25%), 9q34.3 (25%) and 20q13.33 (50%), where several genes associated with cellular, biosynthetic, and metabolic processes are located, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, SNAPC4, SDCCAG3, PMPCA, INPP6E, C9orf163, NOTCH1, C20orf166, and SLCO4A1. In addition, after a hierarchical cluster analysis based on the fluorescence intensity ratios from the comparative genomic hybridization, two congenital heart disease groups were generated corresponding to children with atrial or ventricular septal defects. Further analysis with a larger sample size is needed to corroborate these copy number variants as possible biomarkers to differentiate between heart abnormalities. Interestingly, the 20q13.33 gain was present in 50% of children with these CHD which could suggest that alterations in both coding and non-coding elements within this chromosomal region may play an important role in distinct heart conditions.

Keywords: aCGH, bioinformatics, congenital heart diseases, copy number variants, fluorescence in situ hybridization

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246 Numerical Studies for Standard Bi-Conjugate Gradient Stabilized Method and the Parallel Variants for Solving Linear Equations

Authors: Kuniyoshi Abe


Bi-conjugate gradient (Bi-CG) is a well-known method for solving linear equations Ax = b, for x, where A is a given n-by-n matrix, and b is a given n-vector. Typically, the dimension of the linear equation is high and the matrix is sparse. A number of hybrid Bi-CG methods such as conjugate gradient squared (CGS), Bi-CG stabilized (Bi-CGSTAB), BiCGStab2, and BiCGstab(l) have been developed to improve the convergence of Bi-CG. Bi-CGSTAB has been most often used for efficiently solving the linear equation, but we have seen the convergence behavior with a long stagnation phase. In such cases, it is important to have Bi-CG coefficients that are as accurate as possible, and the stabilization strategy, which stabilizes the computation of the Bi-CG coefficients, has been proposed. It may avoid stagnation and lead to faster computation. Motivated by a large number of processors in present petascale high-performance computing hardware, the scalability of Krylov subspace methods on parallel computers has recently become increasingly prominent. The main bottleneck for efficient parallelization is the inner products which require a global reduction. The resulting global synchronization phases cause communication overhead on parallel computers. The parallel variants of Krylov subspace methods reducing the number of global communication phases and hiding the communication latency have been proposed. However, the numerical stability, specifically, the convergence speed of the parallel variants of Bi-CGSTAB may become worse than that of the standard Bi-CGSTAB. In this paper, therefore, we compare the convergence speed between the standard Bi-CGSTAB and the parallel variants by numerical experiments and show that the convergence speed of the standard Bi-CGSTAB is faster than the parallel variants. Moreover, we propose the stabilization strategy for the parallel variants.

Keywords: bi-conjugate gradient stabilized method, convergence speed, Krylov subspace methods, linear equations, parallel variant

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245 Pharmacokinetic Model of Warfarin and Its Application in Personalized Medicine

Authors: Vijay Kumar Kutala, Addepalli Pavani, M. Amresh Rao, Naushad Sm


In this study, we evaluated the impact of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants on binding and hydroxylation of warfarin. In silico data revealed that warfarin forms two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone i.e. I205 and S209, one hydrogen bond with protein side chain i.e. T301 and stacking interaction with F100 in CYP2C9*1. In CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants, two hydrogen bonds with protein backbone are disrupted. In double variant, all the hydrogen bonds are disrupted. The distances between C7 of S-warfarin and Fe-O in CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2/*3 were 5.81A°, 7.02A°, 7.43° and 10.07°, respectively. The glide scores (Kcal/mol) were -7.698, -7.380, -6.821 and -6.986, respectively. Increase in warfarin/7-hydroxy warfarin ratio was observed with increase in variant alleles. To conclude, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants result in disruption of hydrogen bonding interactions with warfarin and longer distance between C7 and Fe-O thus impairing warfarin 7-hydroxylation due to lower binding affinity of warfarin.

Keywords: warfarin, CYP2C9 polymorphism, personalized medicine, in Silico

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244 Genetic Association and Functional Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Promoter Variants rs1004030 and rs1003349 in Gallbladder Cancer Pathogenesis

Authors: J. Vinay , Kusumbati Besra, Niharika Pattnaik, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Manjusha Dixit


Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but highly malignant cancer; its prevalence is more in certain geographical regions and ethnic groups, which include the Northern and Eastern states of India. Previous studies in India have reported genetic predisposition as one of the risk factors in GBC pathogenesis. Although the matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) is a well-known modulator of the tumor microenvironment and tumorigenesis and TCGA data also suggests its upregulation yet, its role in the genetic predisposition for GBC is completely unknown. We elucidated the role of MMP14 promoter variants as genetic risk factors and their implications in expression modulation. We screened MMP14 promoter variants association with GBC using Sanger’s sequencing in approximately 300 GBC and 300 control subjects and 26 GBC tissue samples of Indian ethnicity. The immunohistochemistry was used to check the MMP14 protein expression in GBC tissue samples. The role of promoter variants on expression levels was elucidated using a luciferase reporter assay. The variants rs1004030 (p-value = 0.0001) and rs1003349 (p-value = 0.0008) were significantly associated with gallbladder cancer. The luciferase assay in two different cell lines, HEK-293 (p = 0.0006) and TGBC1TKB (p = 0.0036) showed a significant increase in relative luciferase activity in the presence of risk alleles for both the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Similarly, genotype-phenotype correlation in patients samples confirmed that the presence of risk alleles at rs1004030 and rs1003349 increased MMP14 expression. Overall, this study unravels the genetic association of MMP14 promoter variants with gallbladder cancer, which may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing its expression.

Keywords: gallbladder cancer, matrix metalloproteinase-14, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic association study

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243 Genetic Determinants of Ovarian Response to Gonadotropin Stimulation in Women Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Treatment

Authors: D. Tohlob, E. Abo Hashem, N. Ghareeb, M. Ghanem, R. Elfarahaty, S. A. Roberts, P. Pemberton, L. Mohiyiddeen, W. G. Newman


Gonadotropin stimulation is used in females undergoing assisted reproductive treatment for ovulation induction, but ovarian response is variable and unpredictable in these women. More effective protocols and individualization of treatment are needed to increase the success rate of IVF/ICSI cycles. We genotyped seven variants reported in previous studies to be associated with ovarian response (number of ova retrieved and total gonadotropin dose) in women undergoing IVF treatment including FSHR variants Asn 680 Ser (c.2039 A > G), Thr 307 Ala (c. 919 > A), -29 G > A, HRG c.610 C > T gene, BMP15 -9 C > G, AMH Ile 49 Ser (c.146 G > T), and AMHR -489A˃G in 118 Egyptian females attending Mansoura Integrated Fertility Center in Egypt, these females were undergoing their first cycle of controlled ovarian hyper stimulation for IVF/ICSI treatment. They were analyzed by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay in Manchester Center of Genomic Medicine. We found no evidence of any significant difference (p value < 0.05) in the number of eggs retrieved or the gonadotropin dose used between individuals in all genotypes except for HRG c.610 C > T gene polymorphism where regression analysis gives a p value of 0.04 with a fewer eggs number in TT genotyped females. These results indicate that these variants do not provide sufficient clinically relevant data to individualize the treatment protocols.

Keywords: controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, gene variants, ovarian response, assisted reproduction

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242 Association of Nuclear – Mitochondrial Epistasis with BMI in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Slomczynska, Michal T. Seweryn, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Katarzyna Cyganek, Urszula Mantaj, Lucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Maciej T. Malecki, Pawel Wolkow


Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyses have led to discovery of only about 100 variants influencing body mass index (BMI), which explain only a small portion of genetic variability. Analysis of gene epistasis gives a chance to discover another part. Since it was shown that interaction and communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genome are indispensable for normal cell function, we have looked for epistatic interactions between the two genomes to find their correlation with BMI. Methods: The analysis was performed on 366 T1DM patients using Illumina Infinium OmniExpressExome-8 chip and followed by imputation on Michigan Imputation Server. Only genes which influence mitochondrial functioning (listed in Human MitoCarta 2.0) were included in the analysis – variants of nuclear origin (MAF > 5%) in 1140 genes and 42 mitochondrial variants (MAF > 1%). Gene expression analysis was performed on GTex data. Association analysis between genetic variants and BMI was performed with the use of Linear Mixed Models as implemented in the package 'GENESIS' in R. Analysis of association between mRNA expression and BMI was performed with the use of linear models and standard significance tests in R. Results: Among variants involved in epistasis between mitochondria and nucleus we have identified one in mitochondrial transcription factor, TFB2M (rs6701836). It interacted with mitochondrial variants localized to MT-RNR1 (p=0.0004, MAF=15%), MT-ND2 (p=0.07, MAF=5%) and MT-ND4 (p=0.01, MAF=1.1%). Analysis of the interaction between nuclear variant rs6701836 (nuc) and rs3021088 localized to MT-ND2 mitochondrial gene (mito) has shown that the combination of the two led to BMI decrease (p=0.024). Each of the variants on its own does not correlate with higher BMI [p(nuc)=0.856, p(mito)=0.116)]. Although rs6701836 is intronic, it influences gene expression in the thyroid (p=0.000037). rs3021088 is a missense variant that leads to alanine to threonine substitution in the MT-ND2 gene which belongs to complex I of the electron transport chain. The analysis of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression has confirmed the trend explained above – the interaction of the two genes leads to BMI decrease (p=0.0308). Each of the mRNAs on its own is associated with higher BMI (p(mito)=0.0244 and p(nuc)=0.0269). Conclusıons: Our results show that nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis can influence BMI in T1DM patients. The correlation between transcription factor expression and mitochondrial genetic variants will be subject to further analysis.

Keywords: body mass index, epistasis, mitochondria, type 1 diabetes

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241 Variants of Mathematical Induction as Strong Proof Techniques in Theory of Computing

Authors: Ahmed Tarek, Ahmed Alveed


In the theory of computing, there are a wide variety of direct and indirect proof techniques. However, mathematical induction (MI) stands out to be one of the most powerful proof techniques for proving hypotheses, theorems, and new results. There are variations of mathematical induction-based proof techniques, which are broadly classified into three categories, such as structural induction (SI), weak induction (WI), and strong induction (SI). In this expository paper, several different variants of the mathematical induction techniques are explored, and the specific scenarios are discussed where a specific induction technique stands out to be more advantageous as compared to other induction strategies. Also, the essential difference among the variants of mathematical induction are explored. The points of separation among mathematical induction, recursion, and logical deduction are precisely analyzed, and the relationship among variations of recurrence relations, and mathematical induction are being explored. In this context, the application of recurrence relations, and mathematical inductions are considered together in a single framework for codewords over a given alphabet.

Keywords: alphabet, codeword, deduction, mathematical, induction, recurrence relation, strong induction, structural induction, weak induction

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240 Determination of the CCR5Δ32 Frequency in Emiratis and Tunisians and Screening of the CCR5 Gene for Novel Alleles in Emiratis

Authors: Sara A. Al-Jaberi, Salma Ben-Salem, Meriam Messedi, Fatma Ayadi, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Bassam R. Ali


Background: The chemokine receptor components play crucial roles in the immune system and some of them serve as co-receptors for the HIV virus. Several studies have documented those variants in chemokine receptors are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to infection with HIV virus. For example, mutations in the chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) resulting in loss-of-function (such as the homozygous CCR5Δ32) confer high degree of resistance to HIV infection. Heterozygotes for these variants exhibit slow progression to AIDS. The prevalence of CCR5 polymorphisms varies among ethnic and geographical groups. For example, the CCR5 Δ32 variant is present in 10–15% of north Europeans but is rarely encountered among Africans. This study aims to identify the prevalence of some CCR5 variants in two geographically distant Arab populations (namely Emiratis and Tunisians). Methodology: The prevalence of CCR5 gene variants including CCR5Δ32, FS299, C101X, A29S and C178R has been determined using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. A total of 403 unrelated healthy individuals (253 Emiratis and 150 Tunisians) were genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 variant using PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. In addition, 200 Emiratis have been screened for other SNPs using Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Among Emiratis, the allele frequency of the CCR5Δ32 variant has been found to be 0.002. In addition, two variants L55Q and A159 were found at a frequency of 0.002.Moreover, the prevalence of the CCR5Δ32 variant in Tunisians was estimated to be 0.013 which is relatively higher than its frequency in Emiratis but lower than Europeans. Conclusion: We conclude that the allele frequency of the most critical CCR5 polymorphism (Δ32) is extremely low among Emiratis compared to other Arabs and North Europeans. In addition, very low allele frequencies of other CCR5 polymorphisms have been detected among Emiratis.

Keywords: chemokine receptors, CCR5Δ32, CCR5 polymorphisms, Emiratis, Arab populations

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239 Genetic Diversity and Discovery of Unique SNPs in Five Country Cultivars of Sesamum indicum by Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Nam-Kuk Kim, Jin Kim, Soomin Park, Changhee Lee, Mijin Chu, Seong-Hun Lee


In this study, we conducted whole genome re-sequencing of 10 cultivars originated from five countries including Korea, China, India, Pakistan and Ethiopia with Sesamum indicum (Zhongzho No. 13) genome as a reference. Almost 80% of the whole genome sequences of the reference genome could be covered by sequenced reads. Numerous SNP and InDel were detected by bioinformatic analysis. Among these variants, 266,051 SNPs were identified as unique to countries. Pakistan and Ethiopia had high densities of SNPs compared to other countries. Three main clusters (cluster 1: Korea, cluster 2: Pakistan and India, cluster 3: Ethiopia and China) were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis using all variants. Interestingly, some variants were detected in DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) and FADS (fatty acid desaturase) genes, which are known to be related with fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. These results can provide useful information to understand the regional characteristics and develop DNA markers for origin discrimination of sesame.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, NGS, SNP, DNA marker

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238 Functional Variants Detection by RNAseq

Authors: Raffaele A. Calogero


RNAseq represents an attractive methodology for the detection of functional genomic variants. RNAseq results obtained from polyA+ RNA selection protocol (POLYA) and from exonic regions capturing protocol (ACCESS) indicate that ACCESS detects 10% more coding SNV/INDELs with respect to POLYA. ACCESS requires less reads for coding SNV detection with respect to POLYA. However, if the analysis aims at identifying SNV/INDELs also in the 5’ and 3’ UTRs, POLYA is definitively the preferred method. No particular advantage comes from ACCESS or POLYA in the detection of fusion transcripts.

Keywords: fusion transcripts, INDEL, RNA-seq, WES, SNV

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237 Alternative Splicing of an Arabidopsis Gene, At2g24600, Encoding Ankyrin-Repeat Protein

Authors: H. Sakamoto, S. Kurosawa, M. Suzuki, S. Oguri


In Arabidopsis, several genes encoding proteins with ankyrin repeats and trans-membrane domains (AtANKTM) have been identified as mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. It has been known that the expression of an AtANKTM gene, At2g24600, is induced in response to abiotic stress and that there are four splicing variants derived from this locus. In this study, by RT-PCR and sequencing analysis, an unknown splicing variant of the At2g24600 transcript was identified. Based on differences in the predicted amino acid sequences, the five splicing variants are divided into three groups. The three predicted proteins are highly homologous, yet have different numbers of ankyrin repeats and trans-membrane domains. It is generally considered that ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interaction and that the number of trans-membrane domains affects membrane topology of proteins. The protein variants derived from the At2g24600 locus may have different molecular functions each other.

Keywords: alternative splicing, ankyrin repeats, trans-membrane domains, arabidopsis

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236 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington


Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

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235 Clinical Impact of Ultra-Deep Versus Sanger Sequencing Detection of Minority Mutations on the HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotype Interpretations after Virological Failure

Authors: S. Mohamed, D. Gonzalez, C. Sayada, P. Halfon


Drug resistance mutations are routinely detected using standard Sanger sequencing, which does not detect minor variants with a frequency below 20%. The impact of detecting minor variants generated by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) on HIV drug-resistance (DR) interpretations has not yet been studied. Fifty HIV-1 patients who experienced virological failure were included in this retrospective study. The HIV-1 UDS protocol allowed the detection and quantification of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase variants related to genotypes A, B, C, E, F, and G. DeepChek®-HIV simplified DR interpretation software was used to compare Sanger sequencing and UDS. The total time required for the UDS protocol was found to be approximately three times longer than Sanger sequencing with equivalent reagent costs. UDS detected all of the mutations found by population sequencing and identified additional resistance variants in all patients. An analysis of DR revealed a total of 643 and 224 clinically relevant mutations by UDS and Sanger sequencing, respectively. Three resistance mutations with > 20% prevalence were detected solely by UDS: A98S (23%), E138A (21%) and V179I (25%). A significant difference in the DR interpretations for 19 antiretroviral drugs was observed between the UDS and Sanger sequencing methods. Y181C and T215Y were the most frequent mutations associated with interpretation differences. A combination of UDS and DeepChek® software for the interpretation of DR results would help clinicians provide suitable treatments. A cut-off of 1% allowed a better characterisation of the viral population by identifying additional resistance mutations and improving the DR interpretation.

Keywords: HIV-1, ultra-deep sequencing, Sanger sequencing, drug resistance

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234 Charge Transport in Biological Molecules

Authors: E. L. Albuquerque, U. L. Fulco, G. S. Ourique


The focus of this work is on the numerical investigation of the charge transport properties of the de novo-designed alpha3 polypeptide, as well as in its variants, all of them probed by gene engineering. The theoretical framework makes use of a tight-binding model Hamiltonian, together with ab-initio calculations within quantum chemistry simulation. The alpha3 polypeptide is a 21-residue with three repeats of the seven-residue amino acid sequence Leu-Glu-Thr-Leu-Ala-Lys-Ala, forming an alpha–helical bundle structure. Its variants are obtained by Ala→Gln substitution at the e (5th) and g (7th) position, respectively, of the alpha3 polypeptide amino acid sequence. Using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, it was observed that the alpha3 polypeptide and one of its variant do have the ability to form fibrous assemblies, while the other does not. Our main aim is to investigate whether or not the biased alpha3 polypeptide and its variants can be also identified by quantum charge transport measurements through current-voltage (IxV) curves as a pattern to characterize their fibrous assemblies. It was observed that each peptide has a characteristic current pattern, which may be distinguished by charge transport measurements, suggesting that it might be a useful tool for the development of biosensors.

Keywords: charge transport properties, electronic transmittance, current-voltage characteristics, biological sensor

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233 Lexico-Semantic and Contextual Analysis of the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan


Concepts are part and parcel of everyday text and talk. Their ubiquity predetermines the topicality of the given research which aims at the semantic decomposition of concepts in general and the concept of joy in particular, as well as the study of lexico-semantic variants as means of realization of a certain concept in different “semantic settings”, namely in a certain context. To achieve the stated aim, the given research departs from the methods of componential and contextual analysis, studying lexico-semantic variants /LSVs/ of the concept of joy and the semantic signs embedded in those LSVs, such as the semantic sign of intensity, supporting emotions, etc. in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: concept, context, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign

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232 Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E4 Gene Variation as Risk Factor for Cervical Cancer

Authors: Yudi Zhao, Ziyun Zhou, Yueting Yao, Shuying Dai, Zhiling Yan, Longyu Yang, Chuanyin Li, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao


HPV16 E4 gene plays an important role in viral genome amplification and release. Therefore, a variation of the E4 gene nucleic acid sequence may affect the carcinogenicity of HPV16. In order to understand the relationship between the variation of HPV16 E4 gene and cervical cancer, this study was to amplify and sequence the DNA sequences of E4 genes in 118 HPV16-positive cervical cancer patients and 151 HPV16-positive asymptomatic individuals. After obtaining E4 gene sequences, the phylogenetic trees were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method for gene variation analysis. The results showed that: 1) The distribution of HPV16 variants between the case group and the control group differed greatly (P = 0.015),and the Asian-American(AA)variant was likely to relate to the occurrence of cervical cancer. 2) DNA sequence analysis showed that there were significant differences in the distribution of 8 variants between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). And 3) In European (EUR) variant, two variations, C3384T (L18L) and A3449G (P39P), were associated with the initiation and development of cervical cancer. The results suggested that the variation of HPV16 E4 gene may be a contributor affecting the occurrence as well as the development of cervical cancer, and different HPV16 variants may have different carcinogenic capability.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV16, E4 gene, variations

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231 Milk Protein Genetic Variation and Haplotype Structure in Sudanse Indigenous Dairy Zebu Cattle

Authors: Ammar Said Ahmed, M. Reissmann, R. Bortfeldt, G. A. Brockmann


Milk protein genetic variants are of interest for characterizing domesticated mammalian species and breeds, and for studying associations with economic traits. The aim of this work was to analyze milk protein genetic variation in the Sudanese native cattle breeds, which have been gradually declining in numbers over the last years due to the breed substitution, and indiscriminate crossbreeding. The genetic variation at three milk protein genes αS1-casein (CSN1S1), αS2-casein (CSN1S2) and ƙ-casein (CSN3) was investigated in 250 animals belonging to five Bos indicus cattle breeds of Sudan (Butana, Kenana, White-nile, Erashy and Elgash). Allele specific primers were designed for five SNPs determine the CSN1S1 variants B and C, the CSN1S2 variants A and B, the CSN3 variants A, B and H. Allele, haplotype frequencies and genetic distances (D) were calculated and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. All breeds were found to be polymorphic for the studied genes. The CSN1S1*C variant was found very frequently (>0.63) in all analyzed breeds with highest frequency (0.82) in White-nile cattle. The CSN1S2*A variant (0.77) and CSN3*A variant (0.79) had highest frequency in Kenana cattle. Eleven haplotypes in casein gene cluster were inferred. Six of all haplotypes occurred in all breeds with remarkably deferent frequencies. The estimated D ranged from 0.004 to 0.049. The most distant breeds were White-nile and Kenana (D 0.0479). The results presented contribute to the genetic knowledge of indigenous cattle and can be used for proper definition and classification of the Sudanese cattle breeds as well as breeding, utilization, and potential development of conservation strategies for local breeds.

Keywords: milk protein, genetic variation, casein haplotype, Bos indicus

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230 Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene with Obesity and Metabolic Traits in Malaysian Adults

Authors: Yamunah Devi Apalasamy, Sanjay Rampal, Tin Tin Su, Foong Ming Moy, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Awang Bulgiba, Zahurin Mohamed


Obesity is a growing global health issue. Obesity results from a combination of environmental and genetics factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a gene encodes the BDNF protein and the BDNF gene have been linked to regulation of body weight and appetite. Genome-wide association studies have identified the BDNF variants to be related to obesity among Caucasians, East Asians, and Filipinos. However, the role of BDNF in other ethnic groups remains inconclusive. This case control study aims to investigate the associations of BDNF gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic parameters in Malaysian Malays. BDNF rs4074134, BDNF rs10501087 and BDNF rs6265 were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY. Anthropometric, body fat, fasting lipids and glucose levels were measured. A total of 663 subjects (194 obese and 469 non-obese) were included in this study. There were no significant associations association between BDNF SNPs and obesity. The allelic and genotype frequencies of the BDNF SNPs were similar in the obese and non-obese groups. After adjustment for age and sex, the BDNF variants were not associated with obesity, body fat, fasting lipids and glucose levels. Haplotypes at the BDNF gene region, were not significantly associated with obesity. The BDNF rs4074134 was in strong LD with BDNF rs10501087 (D'=0.98) and BDNF rs6265 (D'=0.87). The BDNF rs10501087 was also in strong LD with BDNF rs6265 (D'=0.91). Our findings suggest that the BDNF variants and the haplotypes of BDNF gene were not associated with obesity and metabolic traits in this study population. Further research is needed to explore other BDNF variants with a larger sample size with gene-environment interactions in multi ethnic Malaysian population.

Keywords: genomics of obesity, SNP, BMI, haplotypes

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229 Genetics of Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions of Most Commonly Used Drug Combinations in the UK: Uncovering Unrecognised Associations

Authors: Mustafa Malki, Ewan R. Pearson


Tools utilized by health care practitioners to flag potential adverse drug reactions secondary to drug-drug interactions ignore individual genetic variation, which has the potential to markedly alter the severity of these interactions. To our best knowledge, there have been limited published studies on the impact of genetic variation on drug-drug interactions. Therefore, our aim in this project is the discovery of previously unrecognized, clinically important drug-drug-gene interactions (DDGIs) within the list of most commonly used drug combinations in the UK. The UKBB database was utilized to identify the top most frequently prescribed drug combinations in the UK with at least one route of interaction (over than 200 combinations were identified). We have recognised 37 common and unique interacting genes considering all of our drug combinations. Out of around 600 potential genetic variants found in these 37 genes, 100 variants have met the selection criteria (common variant with minor allele frequency ≥ 5%, independence, and has passed HWE test). The association between these variants and the use of each of our top drug combinations has been tested with a case-control analysis under the log-additive model. As the data is cross-sectional, drug intolerance has been identified from the genotype distribution as presented by the lower percentage of patients carrying the risky allele and on the drug combination compared to those free of these risk factors and vice versa with drug tolerance. In GoDARTs database, the same list of common drug combinations identified by the UKBB was utilized here with the same list of candidate genetic variants but with the addition of 14 new SNPs so that we have a total of 114 variants which have met the selection criteria in GoDARTs. From the list of the top 200 drug combinations, we have selected 28 combinations where the two drugs in each combination are known to be used chronically. For each of our 28 combinations, three drug response phenotypes have been identified (drug stop/switch, dose decrease, or dose increase of any of the two drugs during their interaction). The association between each of the three phenotypes belonging to each of our 28 drug combinations has been tested against our 114 candidate genetic variants. The results show replication of four findings between both databases : (1) Omeprazole +Amitriptyline +rs2246709 (A > G) variant in CYP3A4 gene (p-values and ORs with the UKBB and GoDARTs respectively = 0.048,0.037,0.92,and 0.52 (dose increase phenotype)) (2) Simvastatin + Ranitidine + rs9332197 (T > C) variant in CYP2C9 gene (0.024,0.032,0.81, and 5.75 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (3) Atorvastatin + Doxazosin + rs9282564 (T > C) variant in ABCB1 gene (0.0015,0.0095,1.58,and 3.14 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (4) Simvastatin + Nifedipine + rs2257401 (C > G) variant in CYP3A7 gene (0.025,0.019,0.77,and 0.30 (drug stop/switch phenotype)). In addition, some other non-replicated, but interesting, significant findings were detected. Our work also provides a great source of information for researchers interested in DD, DG, or DDG interactions studies as it has highlighted the top common drug combinations in the UK with recognizing 114 significant genetic variants related to drugs' pharmacokinetic.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, common drug combinations, drug-drug-gene interactions, pharmacogenomics

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