Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Ewelina Pitera

9 Association of Nuclear – Mitochondrial Epistasis with BMI in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Slomczynska, Michal T. Seweryn, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Katarzyna Cyganek, Urszula Mantaj, Lucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Maciej T. Malecki, Pawel Wolkow


Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyses have led to discovery of only about 100 variants influencing body mass index (BMI), which explain only a small portion of genetic variability. Analysis of gene epistasis gives a chance to discover another part. Since it was shown that interaction and communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genome are indispensable for normal cell function, we have looked for epistatic interactions between the two genomes to find their correlation with BMI. Methods: The analysis was performed on 366 T1DM patients using Illumina Infinium OmniExpressExome-8 chip and followed by imputation on Michigan Imputation Server. Only genes which influence mitochondrial functioning (listed in Human MitoCarta 2.0) were included in the analysis – variants of nuclear origin (MAF > 5%) in 1140 genes and 42 mitochondrial variants (MAF > 1%). Gene expression analysis was performed on GTex data. Association analysis between genetic variants and BMI was performed with the use of Linear Mixed Models as implemented in the package 'GENESIS' in R. Analysis of association between mRNA expression and BMI was performed with the use of linear models and standard significance tests in R. Results: Among variants involved in epistasis between mitochondria and nucleus we have identified one in mitochondrial transcription factor, TFB2M (rs6701836). It interacted with mitochondrial variants localized to MT-RNR1 (p=0.0004, MAF=15%), MT-ND2 (p=0.07, MAF=5%) and MT-ND4 (p=0.01, MAF=1.1%). Analysis of the interaction between nuclear variant rs6701836 (nuc) and rs3021088 localized to MT-ND2 mitochondrial gene (mito) has shown that the combination of the two led to BMI decrease (p=0.024). Each of the variants on its own does not correlate with higher BMI [p(nuc)=0.856, p(mito)=0.116)]. Although rs6701836 is intronic, it influences gene expression in the thyroid (p=0.000037). rs3021088 is a missense variant that leads to alanine to threonine substitution in the MT-ND2 gene which belongs to complex I of the electron transport chain. The analysis of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression has confirmed the trend explained above – the interaction of the two genes leads to BMI decrease (p=0.0308). Each of the mRNAs on its own is associated with higher BMI (p(mito)=0.0244 and p(nuc)=0.0269). Conclusıons: Our results show that nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis can influence BMI in T1DM patients. The correlation between transcription factor expression and mitochondrial genetic variants will be subject to further analysis.

Keywords: body mass index, epistasis, mitochondria, type 1 diabetes

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8 Modified DNA as a Base Material for Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biomolecule which exhibits an electro-optic properties. These features are related with structure of double-stranded helix. Modification of DNA with ionic liquids allows intensify these properties. The aim of our study was synthesis of ionic liquids that are used the formation of DNA-surfactant complexes in order to obtain new materials with potential application for nonlinear optics. Complexes were achieved through the ion exchange reactions of carbazole-based and imidazole-based ionic liquids with H+ ions from salmon DNA. To examination the properties of obtained complexes DNA-ionic liquids there were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), UV-Vis spectra and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Additionally, the resulting DNA-surfactant complexes were characterized in terms of solubility in common organic solvents and water.

Keywords: deoxyribonucleic acid, biomolecule, carbazole, imidazole, ionic liquids, ion exchange reactions

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7 DNA and DNA-Complexes Modified with Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Krzysztof Danel


Aqueous suspensions of DNA were illuminated with linearly polarized visible light and ultraviolet for 5, 15, 20 and 40 h. In order to check the nature of modification, DNA interactions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For each illuminated sample, weight average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius were measured by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Resulting optical changes for illuminated DNA were investigated using UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescent. Optical properties show potential application in sensors based on modified DNA. Then selected DNA-surfactant complexes were illuminated with electromagnetic radiation for 5h. Molecular structure, optical characteristic were examinated for obtained complexes. Illumination led to changes of complexes physicochemical properties as compared with native DNA. Observed changes were induced by rearrangement of the molecular structure of DNA chains.

Keywords: biopolymers, deoxyribonucleic acid, ionic liquids, linearly polarized visible light, ultraviolet

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6 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of DNA-Ionic Liquids Complexes

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Gohar Khachatryan, Krzysztof Danel


Complexes of ionic liquids with different heterocyclic-rings were synthesized by ion exchange reactions with pure salmon DNA. Ionic liquids (ILs) like 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide were used. The ILs were built into helical state and confirmed by IR spectrometric techniques. Patterns of UV-Vis, photoluminescence, IR, and CD spectra indicated inclusion of small molecules into DNA structure. Molecular weight and radii of gyrations values of ILs-DNA complexes chains were established by HPSEC–MALLS–RI method. Modification DNA with 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide gives more uniform material and leads to elimination of high molecular weight chains. Thus, the incorporation DNA double helical structure with both 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride exhibited higher molecular weight values. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate formation of nanofibre structures in all DNA complexes. Fluorescence depends strongly on the environment in which the chromophores are inserted and simultaneously on the molecular interactions with the biopolymer matrix. The most intensive emission was observed for DNA-imidazole ring complex. Decrease in intensity UV-Vis peak absorption is a consequence of a reduction in the spatial order of polynucleotide strands and provides different π–π stacking structure. Changes in optical properties confirmed by spectroscopy methods make DNA-ILs complexes potential biosensor applications.

Keywords: biopolymers, biosensors, cationic surfactant, DNA, DNA-gels

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5 The Role and Tasks of a Social Worker in the Care of a Terminally Ill Child with Regard to the Malopolska Hospice for Children

Authors: Ewelina Zdebska


A social worker is an integral part of an interdisciplinary team working with the child and his family in a terminal state. Social support is an integral part of the medical procedure in the care of hospice. This is the basis and prerequisite of full treatment and good care of the child - patient, whose illness often finds at least the expected period of his life when his personal and legal issues are not regulated, and the family burdened with the problem requires care and support specialists - professionals. Hospice for Children in Krakow: a palliative care team operating in the province of Krakow and Malopolska, conducts specialized care for terminally ill children in place of their residence from the time when parents and doctors decided to end of treatment in hospital, allows parents to carry out medical care at home, provides parents social and legal assistance and provides care, psychological support and friendship to families throughout the life of the child's illness and after his death, as long as it is needed. The social worker in a hospice does not bear the burden of solving social problems, which is the responsibility of other authorities, but provides support possible and necessary at the moment. The most common form of assistance is to provide information on benefits, which for the child and his family may be subject to any treatment and fight for the life and health of a child. Employee assists in the preparation and completion of documents, requests to increase the degree of disability because of progressive disease or Allowance care because of the inability to live independently. It works in settling all the issues with the Department of Social Security, as well as with the Municipal and District Team Affairs of disability. Seeking help and support using multi-faceted childcare. With the Centres for Social Welfare contacts are also often on the organization of additional respite care for the sick at home (care), especially in the work of the other members of the family or if the family can not cope with the care and needs extra help. Hospice for Children in Cracow completing construction of Poland's first Respite Care Centre for chronically and terminally ill children, will be an open house where children suffering from chronic and incurable diseases and their families can get professional help, whenever - when they need it. The social worker has to pick up a very important role in caring for a terminally ill child. His presence gives a little patient and family the opportunity to be at this difficult time together while organizing assistance and support.

Keywords: social worker, care, terminal care, hospice

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4 Hierarchical Zeolites as Potential Carriers of Curcumin

Authors: Ewelina Musielak, Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik, Izabela Nowak


Based on the latest data, it is expected that the substances of therapeutic interest used will be as natural as possible. Therefore, active substances with the highest possible efficacy and low toxicity are sought. Among natural substances with therapeutic effects, those of plant origin stand out. Curcumin isolated from the Curcuma longa plant has proven to be particularly important from a medical point of view. Due to its ability to regulate many important transcription factors, cytokines, and protein kinases, curcumin has found use as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer agent. The unfavorable properties of curcumin, such as low solubility, poor bioavailability, and rapid degradation under neutral or alkaline pH conditions, limit its clinical application. These problems can be solved by combining curcumin with suitable carriers such as hierarchical zeolites. This is a new class of materials that exhibit several advantages. Hierarchical zeolites used as drug carriers enable delayed release of the active ingredient and promote drug transport to the desired tissues and organs. In addition, hierarchical zeolites play an important role in regulating micronutrient levels in the body and have been used successfully in cancer diagnosis and therapy. To apply curcumin to hierarchical zeolites synthesized from commercial FAU zeolite, solutions containing curcumin, carrier and acetone were prepared. The prepared mixtures were then stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 24 h at room temperature. The curcumin-filled hierarchical zeolites were drained into a glass funnel, where they were washed three times with acetone and distilled water, after which the obtained material was air-dried until completely dry. In addition, the effect of piperine addition to zeolite carrier containing a sufficient amount of curcumin was studied. The resulting products were weighed and the percentage of pure curcumin in the hierarchical zeolite was calculated. All the synthesized materials were characterized by several techniques: elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), N2 adsorption, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The aim of the presented study was to improve the biological activity of curcumin by applying it to hierarchical zeolites based on FAU zeolite. The results showed that the loading efficiency of curcumin into hierarchical zeolites based on commercial FAU-type zeolite is enhanced by modifying the zeolite carrier itself. The hierarchical zeolites proved to be very good and efficient carriers of plant-derived active ingredients such as curcumin.

Keywords: carriers of active substances, curcumin, hierarchical zeolites, incorporation

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3 Antiulcer Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducers

Authors: Gaweł Magdalena, Lipkowska Anna, Olbert Magdalena, Frąckiewicz Ewelina, Librowski Tadeusz, Nowak Gabriel, Pilc Andrzej


Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), also known as heat shock protein 32 (HSP32), has been shown to be implicated in cytoprotection in various organs. Its activation plays a significant role in acute and chronic inflammation, protecting cells from oxidative injury and apoptosis. This inducible isoform of HO catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce equimolar quantities of biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. CO has been reported to possess anti-apoptotic properties. Moreover, it inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as promotes vasodilatation at sites of inflammation. The second product of catalytic HO-1 activity, free cytotoxic iron, is promptly sequestered into the iron storage protein ferritin, which lowers the pro-oxidant state of the cell. The third product, biliverdin, is subsequently converted by biliverdin reductase into the bile pigment bilirubin, the most potent endogenous antioxidant among the constituents of human serum, which modulates immune effector functions and suppresses inflammatory response. Furthermore, being one of the so-called stress proteins, HO-1 adaptively responds to different stressors, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and heavy metals and thus protects cells against such conditions as ischemia, hemorrhagic shock, heat shock or hypoxia. It is suggested that pharmacologic modulation of HO-1 may represent an effective strategy for prevention of stress and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. HO-1 is constitutively expressed in normal gastric, intestinal and colonic mucosa and up-regulated during inflammation. It has been proven that HO-1 up-regulated by hemin, heme and cobalt-protoporphyrin ameliorates experimental colitis. In addition, the up-regulation of HO-1 partially explains the mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is used clinically as an anti-colitis agent. In 2009 Ueda et al. has reported for the first time that mucosal protection by Polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine used as an anti-ulcer drug in Japan, is also attributed to induction of HO-1 in the stomach. Since then, inducers of HO-1 are desired subject of research, as they may constitute therapeutically effective anti-ulcer drugs.

Keywords: heme oxygenase-1, gastric lesions, gastroprotection, Polaprezinc

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2 Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of a New Noble Metal Modified [email protected] and SrTiO3 Photocatalysts

Authors: Ewelina Grabowska, Martyna Marchelek


Among the various semiconductors, nanosized TiO2 has been widely studied due to its high photosensitivity, low cost, low toxicity, and good chemical and thermal stability. However, there are two main drawbacks to the practical application of pure TiO2 films. One is that TiO2 can be induced only by ultraviolet (UV) light due to its intrinsic wide bandgap (3.2 eV for anatase and 3.0 eV for rutile), which limits its practical efficiency for solar energy utilization since UV light makes up only 4-5% of the solar spectrum. The other is that a high electron-hole recombination rate will reduce the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. In order to overcome the above drawbacks and modify the electronic structure of TiO2, some semiconductors (eg. CdS, ZnO, PbS, Cu2O, Bi2S3, and CdSe) have been used to prepare coupled TiO2 composites, for improving their charge separation efficiency and extending the photoresponse into the visible region. It has been proved that the fabrication of p-n heterostructures by combining n-type TiO2 with p-type semiconductors is an effective way to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. SrTiO3 is a good candidate for coupling TiO2 and improving the photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst because its conduction band edge is more negative than TiO2. Due to the potential differences between the band edges of these two semiconductors, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Conversely, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Then the photogenerated charge carriers can be efficiently separated by these processes, resulting in the enhancement of the photocatalytic property in the photocatalyst. Additionally, one of the methods for improving photocatalyst performance is addition of nanoparticles containing one or two noble metals (Pt, Au, Ag and Pd) deposited on semiconductor surface. The mechanisms were proposed as (1) the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal particles is excited by visible light, facilitating the excitation of the surface electron and interfacial electron transfer (2) some energy levels can be produced in the band gap of TiO2 by the dispersion of noble metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix; (3) noble metal nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps, enhancing the electron–hole separation. In view of this, we recently obtained series of [email protected] and SrTiO3 photocatalysts loaded with noble metal NPs. using photodeposition method. The M- [email protected] and M-SrTiO3 photocatalysts (M= Rh, Rt, Pt) were studied for photodegradation of phenol in aqueous phase under UV-Vis and visible irradiation. Moreover, in the second part of our research hydroxyl radical formations were investigated. Fluorescence of irradiated coumarin solution was used as a method of ˙OH radical detection. Coumarin readily reacts with generated hydroxyl radicals forming hydroxycoumarins. Although the major hydroxylation product is 5-hydroxycoumarin, only 7-hydroxyproduct of coumarin hydroxylation emits fluorescent light. Thus, this method was used only for hydroxyl radical detection, but not for determining concentration of hydroxyl radicals.

Keywords: composites TiO2, SrTiO3, photocatalysis, phenol degradation

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1 PARP1 Links Transcription of a Subset of RBL2-Dependent Genes with Cell Cycle Progression

Authors: Ewelina Wisnik, Zsolt Regdon, Kinga Chmielewska, Laszlo Virag, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz


Apart from protecting genome, PARP1 has been documented to regulate many intracellular processes inter alia gene transcription by physically interacting with chromatin bound proteins and by their ADP-ribosylation. Our recent findings indicate that expression of PARP1 decreases during the differentiation of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to monocytes as a consequence of differentiation-associated cell growth arrest and formation of E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-SWI/SNF repressive complex at the promoter of this gene. Since the RBL2 complexes repress genes in a E2F-dependent manner and are widespread in the genome in G0 arrested cells, we asked (a) if RBL2 directly contributes to defining monocyte phenotype and function by targeting gene promoters and (b) if RBL2 controls gene transcription indirectly by repressing PARP1. For identification of genes controlled by RBL2 and/or PARP1,we used primer libraries for surface receptors and TLR signaling mediators, genes were silenced by siRNA or shRNA, analysis of gene promoter occupation by selected proteins was carried out by ChIP-qPCR, while statistical analysis in GraphPad Prism 5 and STATISTICA, ChIP-Seq data were analysed in Galaxy On the list of 28 genes regulated by RBL2, we identified only four solely repressed by RBL2-E2F4-HDAC1-BRM complex. Surprisingly, 24 out of 28 emerged genes controlled by RBL2 were co-regulated by PARP1 in six different manners. In one mode of RBL2/PARP1 co-operation, represented by MAP2K6 and MAPK3, PARP1 was found to associate with gene promoters upon RBL2 silencing, which was previously shown to restore PARP1 expression in monocytes. PARP1 effect on gene transcription was observed only in the presence of active EP300, which acetylated gene promoters and activated transcription. Further analysis revealed that PARP1 binding to MA2K6 and MAPK3 promoters enabled recruitment of EP300 in monocytes, while in proliferating cancer cell lines, which actively transcribe PARP1, this protein maintained EP300 at the promoters of MA2K6 and MAPK3. Genome-wide analysis revealed a similar distribution of PARP1 and EP300 around transcription start sites and the co-occupancy of some gene promoters by PARP1 and EP300 in cancer cells. Here, we described a new RBL2/PARP1/EP300 axis which controls gene transcription regardless of the cell type. In this model cell, cycle-dependent transcription of PARP1 regulates expression of some genes repressed by RBL2 upon cell cycle limitation. Thus, RBL2 may indirectly regulate transcription of some genes by controlling the expression of EP300-recruiting PARP1. Acknowledgement: This work was financed by Polish National Science Centre grants nr DEC-2013/11/D/NZ2/00033 and DEC-2015/19/N/NZ2/01735. L.V. is funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office grants GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00020 TUMORDNS, GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048-STAYALIVE and OTKA K112336. AR is supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 776/STYP/11/2016.

Keywords: retinoblastoma transcriptional co-repressor like 2 (RBL2), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), monocytes

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