Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: Cliff L. W. Jones

115 A Scheme Cooperating with Cryptography to Enhance Security in Satellite Communications

Authors: Chieh-Fu Chang, Wan-Hsin Hsieh

Abstract:

We have proposed a novel scheme— iterative word-extension (IWE) to enhance the cliff effect of Reed-Solomon codes regarding the error performance at a specific Eb/N0. The scheme can be readily extended to block codes and the important properties of IWE are further investigated here. In order to select proper block codes specifying the desired cliff Eb/N0, the associated features of IWE are explored. These properties and features grant IWE ability to enhance security regarding the received Eb/N0 in physical layer so that IWE scheme can cooperate with the traditional presentation layer approach — cryptography, to meet the secure requirements in diverse applications. The features and feasibility of IWE scheme in satellite communication are finally discussed.

Keywords: security, IWE, cliff effect, space communications

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
114 Coastal Cliff Protection in Beit Yanai, Israel: Examination of Alternatives and Public Preference Analysis

Authors: Tzipi Eshet

Abstract:

The primary objectives of this work are the examination of public preferences and attributed importance to different characteristics of coastal cliff protection alternatives, and drawing conclusions about the applicable alternative in Beit-Yanai beach. Erosion of coastal cliffs is a natural phenomenon that occurs in many places in the world. This creates problems along the coastlines, which are densely populated areas with highly developed economic activity. In recent years, various aspects of the aeolianite cliffs along the Israeli coast have been studied extensively. There is a consensus among researchers regarding a general trend of cliff retreat. This affects civilian infrastructure, wildlife habitats and heritage values, as well as Increases the risk to human life. The Israeli government, committed to the integrated coastal zones management approach, decided on a policy and guidelines to deal with cliff erosion, which includes establishing physical protection on land and in the sea, sand nourishment and runoff drainage. Physical protection solutions to reduce the rate of retreat of the cliffs are considerably important both for planning authorities and visitors to the beach. Direct costs of different protection alternatives, as well as external costs and benefits, may vary, thus affecting consumer preferences. Planning and execution of sustainable coastal cliff protection alternatives must take into account the different characteristics and their impact on aspects of economics, environment and leisure. The rocky shore of Beit-Yanai Beach was chosen as a case study to examine the nature of the influence of various protective solutions on consumer preferences. This beach is located in the center of Israel's coastline, and acts as a focus of attraction for recreation, land and sea sports, and educational activities as well. If no action will be taken, cliff retreat will continue. A survey was conducted to reveal the importance of coastal protection alternatives characteristics and the visual preferences to visitors at beach Beit-Yanai and residents living on the cliff (N=287). Preferences and willingness-to-pay were explored using Contingent-Ranking and Choice-Experiments techniques. Results show that visitors’ and residents’ willingness-to-pay for coastal cliff protection alternatives is affected both by financial and environmental aspects, as well as leisure. They prefer coastal cliff protection alternatives that are not visible and do not need constant maintenance, do not affect the quality of seawater or the habitats of wildlife and do not lower the security level of the swimmers. No significant difference was found comparing willingness-to-pay among local and non-local users. Additionally, they mostly prefer a protection solution which is integrated in the coastal landscape and maintains the natural appearance of the beach. Of the possible protection alternatives proposed for the protection of the cliff in Beit Yanai beach are two techniques that meet public preferences: rock revetments and submerged detached breakwaters. Results indicate that the visiting public prefer the implementation of these protection alternatives and will be willing to pay for them. Future actions to reduce retreat rate in Beit-Yanai have to consider implications on the economic, environmental and social conditions, along with weighting public interest against the interest of the individual.

Keywords: contingent-ranking, choice-experiments, coastal cliff protection, erosion of coastal cliffs, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
113 Improvements in OpenCV's Viola Jones Algorithm in Face Detection–Skin Detection

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, M. K. Gupta, Astha Jain

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new improved approach for false positives filtering of detected face images on OpenCV’s Viola Jones Algorithm In this approach, for Filtering of False Positives, Skin Detection in two colour spaces i.e. HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) and YCrCb (Y is luma component and Cr- red difference, Cb- Blue difference) is used. As a result, it is found that false detection has been reduced. Our proposed method reaches the accuracy of about 98.7%. Thus, a better recognition rate is achieved.

Keywords: face detection, Viola Jones, false positives, OpenCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
112 Manifestation of Hybridity in Marie Jones’s "Stones in His Pockets"

Authors: Mahsa Mahjoub Laleh, Nasser Dasht Peyma

Abstract:

This paper explores Marie Jones’s Stones in His Pockets in the light of the postcolonial notion of hybridity. The play is a tragicomedy about a small village in Ireland where many of the locales are extras in a Hollywood film. The actions of the play revolve around a local teenager named Sean who has been vilipended by a famous film star. The Sean character commits suicide by drowning himself with stones in his pockets. This paper explored how the attempts to gain cultural identity is manifested in Marie Jones’s play and how authority causes a change in the culture and destiny of people. Apparently, the play demonstrates that the political, economic and social realities directly affect people’s destiny and identity.

Keywords: cultural identity, hybridity, identity, postcolonial

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
111 Evaluation of a Piecewise Linear Mixed-Effects Model in the Analysis of Randomized Cross-over Trial

Authors: Moses Mwangi, Geert Verbeke, Geert Molenberghs

Abstract:

Cross-over designs are commonly used in randomized clinical trials to estimate efficacy of a new treatment with respect to a reference treatment (placebo or standard). The main advantage of using cross-over design over conventional parallel design is its flexibility, where every subject become its own control, thereby reducing confounding effect. Jones & Kenward, discuss in detail more recent developments in the analysis of cross-over trials. We revisit the simple piecewise linear mixed-effects model, proposed by Mwangi et. al, (in press) for its first application in the analysis of cross-over trials. We compared performance of the proposed piecewise linear mixed-effects model with two commonly cited statistical models namely, (1) Grizzle model; and (2) Jones & Kenward model, used in estimation of the treatment effect, in the analysis of randomized cross-over trial. We estimate two performance measurements (mean square error (MSE) and coverage probability) for the three methods, using data simulated from the proposed piecewise linear mixed-effects model. Piecewise linear mixed-effects model yielded lowest MSE estimates compared to Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models for both small (Nobs=20) and large (Nobs=600) sample sizes. It’s coverage probability were highest compared to Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models for both small and large sample sizes. A piecewise linear mixed-effects model is a better estimator of treatment effect than its two competing estimators (Grizzle and Jones & Kenward models) in the analysis of cross-over trials. The data generating mechanism used in this paper captures two time periods for a simple 2-Treatments x 2-Periods cross-over design. Its application is extendible to more complex cross-over designs with multiple treatments and periods. In addition, it is important to note that, even for single response models, adding more random effects increases the complexity of the model and thus may be difficult or impossible to fit in some cases.

Keywords: Evaluation, Grizzle model, Jones & Kenward model, Performance measures, Simulation

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110 Islamic Banks and the Most Important Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Mahmood Mohammed Abdulsattar Aljumaili

Abstract:

Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Islamic banks have not only made a lot of great achievements in a short period, but they imposed themselves in the global market, not to mention the transformation of some conventional interest-based banks to Islamic banks to the large demand on them, this transformation has pushed the Dow Jones Global Foundation to develop a new economic indicator released it (the Dow Jones Islamic market) for those who wish to invest in Islamic financial institutions. The success of Islamic financial institutions today face significant and serious challenges, that embody the serious consequences created by the current events on Islamic banking industry. This modest study, deals with these serious challenges facing the Islamic banking industry, and reflected on the success recorded in the previous period. The study deals with four main topics: The emergence of Islamic banks, the goals of Islamic banks, International challenges facing Islamic banks, internal challenges facing Islamic banks, and finally it touches on, (Basel 1-2) Agreement and its implications for Islamic banks.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Basel 1-2 agreement, most important contemporary challenges, islamic banking industry, Dow Jones Islamic market

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
109 Dynamic Correlations and Portfolio Optimization between Islamic and Conventional Equity Indexes: A Vine Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Imen Dhaou

Abstract:

This study examines conditional Value at Risk by applying the GJR-EVT-Copula model, and finds the optimal portfolio for eight Dow Jones Islamic-conventional pairs. Our methodology consists of modeling the data by a bivariate GJR-GARCH model in which we extract the filtered residuals and then apply the Peak over threshold model (POT) to fit the residual tails in order to model marginal distributions. After that, we use pair-copula to find the optimal portfolio risk dependence structure. Finally, with Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the Value at Risk (VaR) and the conditional Value at Risk (CVaR). The empirical results show the VaR and CVaR values for an equally weighted portfolio of Dow Jones Islamic-conventional pairs. In sum, we found that the optimal investment focuses on Islamic-conventional US Market index pairs because of high investment proportion; however, all other index pairs have low investment proportion. These results deliver some real repercussions for portfolio managers and policymakers concerning to optimal asset allocations, portfolio risk management and the diversification advantages of these markets.

Keywords: CVaR, Dow Jones Islamic index, GJR-GARCH-EVT-pair copula, portfolio optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
108 Creative Accounting as a Financial Numbers Game

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

Through this study we will try to shed light on the theoretical framework proposed for understanding creative accounting as a financial numbers game and one of the most important techniques of accounts manipulation, its main actors and its practices. We will discover the role of the modified Jones model (1995) in detecting creative accounting practices using discretionary accruals. Finally we will try to confirm the importance and the need to address this type of practices using corporate governance as a main control system and an important defense line to reduce these dangerous accounts manipulation.

Keywords: financial numbers game, creative accounting, modified Jones model, accounts manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
107 The Effect of Kelp Ecklonia maxima Inclusion in Formulated Feed on Growth, Feed Utilization and the Gut Microbiota of South African Abalone Haliotis Midae

Authors: Aldi Nel, Cliff L. W. Jones, Justin O. G. Kemp, Peter J. Britz

Abstract:

Kelp Ecklonia maxima is included in formulated abalone feeds in South Africa, but its effect on abalone growth, feed utilisation efficiency and gut-bacterial communities has not previously been investigated. An eight-month on-farm growth trial with sub-adult Haliotis midae (~43 mm shell length) fed graded levels of kelp in formulated feeds was conducted. Kelp inclusion (0.44–3.54 % of pellet dry mass) promoted faster growth (65.7 – 74.5 % total mass gain), with better feed and protein conversions (FCR: 1.4 – 1.8; PER 2.3 – 2.7), compared to abalone fed the non-supplemented feed (52.3% total mass gain; FCR: 2.1; PER 1.9; p < 0.001). The gut-bacterial communities of abalone fed kelp-supplemented feed (0.88 % of pellet dry mass) were subsequently compared with that of abalone fed a non-supplemented control diet. Abalone gut-bacterial DNA was sequenced using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97 % similarity level. A supplementary 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was conducted. The dominant OTUs differed in terms of their relative abundances, with that of an autochthonous Mollicutes strain being significantly higher (p = 0.03) in the guts of abalone fed kelp-supplemented feed. The DGGE band patterns displayed a higher within-group variability of dominant bacterial strains for abalone fed the control diet, suggesting that dietary inclusion of kelp, which is rich in fermentable polysaccharides, promotes a balanced gut-bacterial community. This may contribute to the better feed utilisation and growth in abalone fed kelp-supplemented feeds.

Keywords: abfeed, digestion, macroalgae, mariculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
106 Financial Market Turmoil and Performance of Islamic Equity Indices

Authors: Abul Shamsuddin

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The Islamic stock market indices are constructed by screening out stocks that are incompatible with Islam’s prohibition of interest and certain lines of business. This study examines the effects of Islamic screening on the risk-return characteristics of Islamic vis-a-vis mainstream equity portfolios. We use data on Dow Jones Islamic market indices and FTSE Global Islamic indices over 1993-2013. We observe that Islamic equity indices outperform their mainstream counterparts in both raw and risk-adjusted returns. In addition, Islamic equity indices are more resilient to turbulence in international markets than that of their mainstream counterparts. The findings are robust across a variety of portfolio performance measures.

Keywords: Dow Jones Islamic market index, FTSE global Islamic index, ethical investment, finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
105 Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case

Authors: A. Lubis, S. S. Pasulu, Z. Hikmah, A. Endaryanto, A. Harsono

Abstract:

Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.

Keywords: arthritis, group a streptococcus, autoantibody, Jones criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
104 Corporate Culture and Subcultures: Corporate Culture Analysis in a Company without a Public Relations Department

Authors: Sibel Kurt

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In this study, with the use of Goffee and Jones’s corporate culture classification and the scale of this classification, there aimed to analyze a company’s corporate culture which does not have a public relations or communication department. First of all, the type of corporate culture in the company had been determined. Then it questioned if there are subcultures which formed according to demographics or the department of work. In the survey questionnaire, there are 53 questions total. 6 of these questions are about demographics, and 47 of them are about corporate culture. 152 personnel of the company had answered the survey, and the data have been evaluated according to frequency, descriptive, and compare means tests. The type of corporate culture of the company was determined as the 'communal' from the typology of Goffee and Jones in the positive form. There are no subcultures in the company which bases on the demographics, but only one subculture has determined according to the department of work. As a result, the absence of public relations department, personnel’s low level of awareness about corporate culture, and the lack of information between management and employees has been revealed.

Keywords: corporate culture, subculture, public relations, organizational communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
103 A Sector-Wise Study on Detecting Earnings Management in India

Authors: Raghuveer Kaur, Kartikay Sharma, Ashu Khanna

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Earnings management has been present from times immemorial. The recent downfall of giant enterprises like Enron, Satyam and WorldCom has brought a lot of focus on the study and detection of earnings management. The present study is an attempt to study earnings management in one of the fastest emerging economy - India. The study makes an attempt to understand earnings management in different sectors of the economy. The paper first tests a hypothesis to check whether different sectors of India are engaged in earnings management or not. In the later section the paper aims to study the level of earnings management in 6 popular sectors of India: IT&BPO, Retail, Telecom, Biotech, Hotels and coffee. To measure earnings management two popular techniques of detecting earnings management has been employed: Modified Jones Model and Beniesh M Score. A total of 332 companies were studied. Publicly available data from Capitaline database has been used. The paper also classifies the top and bottom five performers on the basis of sales turnover in each sector and identifies whether they manage their earnings or not.

Keywords: earnings management, India, modified Jones model, Beneish M score

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
102 Mathematical Model for Interaction Energy of Toroidal Molecules and Other Nanostructures

Authors: Pakhapoom Sarapat, James M. Hill, Duangkamon Baowan

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Carbon nanotori provide several properties such as high tensile strength and heat resistance. They are promised to be ideal structures for encapsulation, and their encapsulation ability can be determined by the interaction energy between the carbon nanotori and the encapsulated nanostructures. Such interaction energy is evaluated using Lennard-Jones potential and continuum approximation. Here, four problems relating to toroidal molecules are determined in order to find the most stable configuration. Firstly, the interaction energy between a carbon nanotorus and an atom is examined. The second problem relates to the energy of a fullerene encapsulated inside a carbon nanotorus. Next, the interaction energy between two symmetrically situated and parallel nanotori is considered. Finally, the classical mechanics is applied to model the interaction energy between the toroidal structure of cyclodextrin and the spherical DNA molecules. These mathematical models might be exploited to study a number of promising devices for future developments in bio and nanotechnology.

Keywords: carbon nanotori, continuum approximation, interaction energy, Lennard-Jones potential, nanotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
101 Between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Dying Infidel

Authors: Michael Keller

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Beyond the heterodoxy expressed in his now-famous 1838 address to the Harvard Divinity School, Emerson’s timing was particularly dangerous. Ideologically, New England faced a severe crisis of identity, as traditional categories of class and religion were growing increasingly unstable. Jones Very, influenced by Emerson, crossed the perceived border between acceptable religious zeal and insane enthusiasm. Abner Kneeland, on the other hand, crossed the uncomfortable border between post-Puritan Unitarian rationalism and blasphemous Enlightenment skepticism. More importantly, Kneeland oversaw a more overtly subversive brand of resistance (in the form of freethought periodicals) that not only threatened religious orthodoxy but also threatened to destabilize the class structure of New England. Very and Kneeland provide instructive case studies of how religious ideologies could run afoul of the social contract and the law itself. By looking closely at the social and religious forces that led to Kneeland’s prosecution for blasphemy, Jones Very’s forced committal to McLean Asylum, and Emerson’s escape from these fates, we gain a greater understanding of the shifting cultural landscape of 1830s New England. This paper will examine Emerson’s resistance to the traditional forces of class and ideology in Massachusetts by situating his early work in the context of the ideological battles of his time. More specifically, I will explore how Emerson was able to resist the conservative cultural forces of his time without experiencing the extremity of their wrath.

Keywords: American literature, cultural studies, emerson, religious studies

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100 Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses

Authors: El Sayed A. Sharara, A. Tsuji, K. Terada

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Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.

Keywords: call center agents, fatigue, skin color detection, face recognition

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99 Breeding Cotton for Annual Growth Habit: Remobilizing End-of-season Perennial Reserves for Increased Yield

Authors: Salman Naveed, Nitant Gandhi, Grant Billings, Zachary Jones, B. Todd Campbell, Michael Jones, Sachin Rustgi

Abstract:

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the primary source of natural fiber in the U.S. and a major crop in the Southeastern U.S. Despite constant efforts to increase the cotton fiber yield, the yield gain has stagnated. Therefore, we undertook a novel approach to improve the cotton fiber yield by altering its growth habit from perennial to annual. In this effort, we identified genotypes with high-expression alleles of five floral induction and meristem identity genes (FT, SOC1, FUL, LFY, and AP1) from an upland cotton mini-core collection and crossed them in various combinations to develop cotton lines with annual growth habit, optimal flowering time and enhanced productivity. To facilitate the characterization of genotypes with the desired combinations of stacked alleles, we identified markers associated with the gene expression traits via genome-wide association analysis using a 63K SNP Array (Hulse-Kemp et al. 2015 G3 5:1187). Over 14,500 SNPs showed polymorphism and were used for association analysis. A total of 396 markers showed association with expression traits. Out of these 396 markers, 159 mapped to genes, 50 to untranslated regions, and 187 to random genomic regions. Biased genomic distribution of associated markers was observed where more trait-associated markers mapped to the cotton D sub-genome. Many quantitative trait loci coincided at specific genomic regions. This observation has implications as these traits could be bred together. The analysis also allowed the identification of candidate regulators of the expression patterns of these floral induction and meristem identity genes whose functions will be validated via virus-induced gene silencing.

Keywords: cotton, GWAS, QTL, expression traits

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98 Stock Market Prediction by Regression Model with Social Moods

Authors: Masahiro Ohmura, Koh Kakusho, Takeshi Okadome

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This paper presents a regression model with autocorrelated errors in which the inputs are social moods obtained by analyzing the adjectives in Twitter posts using a document topic model. The regression model predicts Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) more precisely than autoregressive moving-average models.

Keywords: stock market prediction, social moods, regression model, DJIA

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
97 VaR Estimation Using the Informational Content of Futures Traded Volume

Authors: Amel Oueslati, Olfa Benouda

Abstract:

New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.

Keywords: Garch-EVT, value at risk, volume, volatility

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
96 Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions

Authors: G. A. Khalid, M. D. Jones, R. Prabhu, A. Mason-Jones, W. Whittington, H. Bakhtiarydavijani, P. S. Theobald

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Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, impact simulation, infant head trauma, material properties, post mortem human subjects

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95 Financial Ethics: A Review of 2010 Flash Crash

Authors: Omer Farooq, Salman Ahmed Khan, Sadaf Khalid

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Modern day stock markets have almost entirely became automated. Even though it means increased profits for the investors by algorithms acting upon the slightest price change in order of microseconds, it also has given birth to many ethical dilemmas in the sense that slightest mistake can cause people to lose all of their livelihoods. This paper reviews one such event that happened on May 06, 2010 in which $1 trillion dollars disappeared from the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We are going to discuss its various aspects and the ethical dilemmas that have arisen due to it.

Keywords: flash crash, market crash, stock market, stock market crash

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
94 Effect of Long Term Orientation and Indulgence on Earnings Management: The Moderating Role of Legal Tradition

Authors: I. Martinez-Conesa, E. Garcia-Meca, M. Barradas-Quiroz

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The objective of this study is to assess the impact on earnings management of latest two Hofstede cultural dimensions: long-term orientation and indulgence. Long-term orientation represents the alignment of a society towards the future and indulgence expresses the extent to which a society exhibits willingness, or restrain, to realise their impulses. Additionally, this paper tests if there are relevant differences by testing the moderating role of the legal tradition, Continental versus Anglo-Saxon. Our sample comprises 15 countries: Belgium, Canada, Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand, with a total of 12,936 observations from 2003 to 2013. Our results show that managers in countries with high levels of long-term orientation reduce their levels of discretionary accruals. The findings do not confirm the effect of indulgence on earnings management. In addition, our results confirm previous literature regarding the effect of individualism, noting that firms in countries with high levels of collectivism might be more inclined to use earnings discretion to protect the welfare of the collective group of firm stakeholders. Uncertainty avoidance results in downwards earnings management as well as high disclosure, suggesting that less manipulation takes place when transparency is higher. Indulgence is the cultural dimension that confronts wellbeing versus survival; dimension is formulated including happiness, the perception of live control and the importance of leisure. Indulgence shows a weak negative correlation with power distance indicating a slight tendency for more hierarchical societies to be less indulgent. Anglo-Saxon countries are a positive effect of individualism and a negative effect of masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and disclosure. With respect to continental countries, we can see a significant and positive effect of individualism and a significant and negative effect of masculinity, long-term orientation, and indulgence. Therefore, we observe the negative effect on earnings management provoked by higher disclosure and uncertainty avoidance only happens in Anglo-Saxon countries. Meanwhile, the improvement in reporting quality motivated by higher long-term orientation and higher indulgence is dominant in Continental countries. Our results confirm that there is a moderating effect of the legal system in the association between culture and earnings management. This effect is especially relevant in the dimensions related to uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence, and disclosure. The negative effect of long-term orientation on earnings management only happens in those countries set in continental legal systems because of the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is supported by the decisions of the courts and the traditions, so it already has long-term orientation. That does not occur in continental systems, depending mainly of contend of the law. Sensitivity analysis used with Jones modified CP model, Jones Standard model and Jones Standard CP model confirm the robustness of these results. This paper collaborates towards a better understanding on how earnings management, culture and legal systems relate to each other, and contribute to previous literature by examining the influence of the two latest Hofstede’s dimensions not previously studied in papers.

Keywords: Hofstede, long-term-orientation, earnings management, indulgence

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93 Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors

Authors: Lekshmi Vijayan, K. Shreekrishna Kumar

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We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.

Keywords: photodetector, responsivity, photosensitivity, detectivity

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92 Optimization of Black-Litterman Model for Portfolio Assets Allocation

Authors: A. Hidalgo, A. Desportes, E. Bonin, A. Kadaoui, T. Bouaricha

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Present paper is concerned with portfolio management with Black-Litterman (B-L) model. Considered stocks are exclusively limited to large companies stocks on US market. Results obtained by application of the model are presented. From analysis of collected Dow Jones stock data, remarkable explicit analytical expression of optimal B-L parameter τ, which scales dispersion of normal distribution of assets mean return, is proposed in terms of standard deviation of covariance matrix. Implementation has been developed in Matlab environment to split optimization in Markovitz sense from specific elements related to B-L representation.

Keywords: Black-Litterman, Markowitz, market data, portfolio manager opinion

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91 Representations of Childcare Robots as a Controversial Issue

Authors: Raya A. Jones

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This paper interrogates online representations of robot companions for children, including promotional material by manufacturers, media articles and technology blogs. The significance of the study lies in its contribution to understanding attitudes to robots. The prospect of childcare robots is particularly controversial ethically, and is associated with emotive arguments. The sampled material is restricted to relatively recent posts (the past three years) though the analysis identifies both continuous and changing themes across the past decade. The method extrapolates social representations theory towards examining the ways in which information about robotic products is provided for the general public. Implications for social acceptance of robot companions for the home and robot ethics are considered.

Keywords: acceptance of robots, childcare robots, ethics, social representations

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90 Image Recognition Performance Benchmarking for Edge Computing Using Small Visual Processing Unit

Authors: Kasidis Chomrat, Nopasit Chakpitak, Anukul Tamprasirt, Annop Thananchana

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Internet of Things devices or IoT and Edge Computing has become one of the biggest things happening in innovations and one of the most discussed of the potential to improve and disrupt traditional business and industry alike. With rises of new hang cliff challenges like COVID-19 pandemic that posed a danger to workforce and business process of the system. Along with drastically changing landscape in business that left ruined aftermath of global COVID-19 pandemic, looming with the threat of global energy crisis, global warming, more heating global politic that posed a threat to become new Cold War. How emerging technology like edge computing and usage of specialized design visual processing units will be great opportunities for business. The literature reviewed on how the internet of things and disruptive wave will affect business, which explains is how all these new events is an effect on the current business and how would the business need to be adapting to change in the market and world, and example test benchmarking for consumer marketed of newer devices like the internet of things devices equipped with new edge computing devices will be increase efficiency and reducing posing a risk from a current and looming crisis. Throughout the whole paper, we will explain the technologies that lead the present technologies and the current situation why these technologies will be innovations that change the traditional practice through brief introductions to the technologies such as cloud computing, edge computing, Internet of Things and how it will be leading into future.

Keywords: internet of things, edge computing, machine learning, pattern recognition, image classification

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89 Neuron-Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand

Authors: Nishant Singh, Christian Huyck, Vaibhav Gandhi, Alexander Jones

Abstract:

A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated neurons is presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron simulator using a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are organised to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs from sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to more effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and other animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion. This is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience, robotics, and psychology.

Keywords: cell assembly, force sensitive resistor, robot, spiking neuron

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88 Asymptotic Expansion of Double Oscillatory Integrals: Contribution of Non Stationary Critical Points of the Second Kind

Authors: Abdallah Benaissa

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the problem of asymptotics of double oscillatory integrals in the case of critical points of the second kind, the order of contact between the boundary and a level curve of the phase being even, the situation when the order of contact is odd will be studied in other occasions. Complete asymptotic expansions will be derived and the coefficient of the leading term will be computed in terms of the original data of the problem. A multitude of people have studied this problem using a variety of methods, but only in a special case when the order of contact is minimal: the more cited papers are a paper of Jones and Kline and an other one of Chako. These integrals are encountered in many areas of science, especially in problems of diffraction of optics.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, double oscillatory integral, critical point of the second kind, optics diffraction

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87 Digitalised Welfare: Systems for Both Seeing and Working with Mess

Authors: Amelia Morris, Lizzie Coles-Kemp, Will Jones

Abstract:

This paper examines how community welfare initiatives transform how individuals use and experience an ostensibly universal welfare system. This paper argues that the digitalisation of welfare overlooks the complex reality of being unemployed or in low-wage work, and erects digital barriers to accessing welfare. Utilising analysis of ethnographic research in food banks and community groups, the paper explores the ways that Universal Credit has not abolished face-to-face support, but relocated it to unofficial sites of welfare. The apparent efficiency and simplicity of the state’s digital welfare apparatus, therefore, is produced not by reducing the ‘messiness’ of welfare, but by rendering it invisible within the digital framework. Using the analysis of the study’s data, this paper recommends three principles of service design that would render the messiness visible to the state.

Keywords: welfare, digitalisation, food bank, Universal Credit

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86 A Theoretical Framework on Using Social Stories with the Creative Arts for Individuals on the Autistic Spectrum

Authors: R. Bawazir, P. Jones

Abstract:

Social Stories are widely used to teach social and communication skills or concepts to individuals on the autistic spectrum. This paper presents a theoretical framework for using Social Stories in conjunction with the creative arts. The paper argues that Bandura’s social learning theory can be used to explain the mechanisms behind Social Stories and the way they influence changes in response, while Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory can be used simultaneously to demonstrate the role of the creative arts in learning. By using Social Stories with the creative arts for individuals on the autistic spectrum, the aim is to meet individual needs and help individuals with autism to develop in different areas of learning and communication.

Keywords: individuals on the autistic spectrum, social stories, the creative arts, theoretical framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 224