Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: responsivity

13 Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors

Authors: Lekshmi Vijayan, K. Shreekrishna Kumar

Abstract:

We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.

Keywords: photodetector, responsivity, photosensitivity, detectivity

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12 Photoresponse of Epitaxial GaN Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Nisha Prakash, Kritika Anand, Arun Barvat, Prabir Pal, Sonachand Adhikari, Suraj P. Khanna

Abstract:

Group-III nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN and their ternary and quaternary compounds) have attracted a great deal of attention for the development of high-performance Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Any midgap defect states in the epitaxial grown film have a direct influence on the photodetectors responsivity. The proportion of the midgap defect states can be controlled by the growth parameters. To study this we have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on MOCVD- grown GaN template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) with different growth parameters. Optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements, respectively. The observed persistent photoconductivity behaviour is proportional to the yellow luminescence (YL) and the absolute responsivity has been found to decrease with decreasing YL. The results will be discussed in more detail later.

Keywords: gallium nitride, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, photoluminescence, photoconductivity, persistent photoconductivity, yellow luminescence

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11 Room Temperature Sensitive Broadband Terahertz Photo Response Using Platinum Telluride Based Devices

Authors: Alka Jakhar, Harmanpreet Kaur Sandhu, Samaresh Das

Abstract:

The Terahertz (THz) technology-based devices are heightening at an alarming rate on account of the wide range of applications in imaging, security, communication, and spectroscopic field. The various available room operational THz detectors, including Golay cell, pyroelectric detector, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive antennas, have some limitations such as narrow-band response, slow response speed, transit time limits, and complex fabrication process. There is an urgent demand to explore new materials and device structures to accomplish efficient THz detection systems. Recently, TMDs including topological semimetals and topological insulators such as PtSe₂, MoTe₂, WSe₂, and PtTe₂ provide novel feasibility for photonic and optical devices. The peculiar properties of these materials, such as Dirac cone, fermions presence, nonlinear optical response, high conductivity, and ambient stability, make them worthy for the development of the THz devices. Here, the platinum telluride (PtTe₂) based devices have been demonstrated for THz detection in the frequency range of 0.1-1 THz. The PtTe₂ is synthesized by direct selenization of the sputtered platinum film on the high-resistivity silicon substrate by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The Raman spectra, XRD, and XPS spectra confirm the formation of the thin PtTe₂ film. The PtTe₂ channel length is 5µm and it is connected with a bow-tie antenna for strong THz electric field confinement in the channel. The characterization of the devices has been carried out in a wide frequency range from 0.1-1 THz. The induced THz photocurrent is measured by using lock-in-amplifier after preamplifier. The maximum responsivity is achieved up to 1 A/W under self-biased mode. Further, this responsivity has been increased by applying biasing voltage. This photo response corresponds to low energy THz photons is mainly due to the photo galvanic effect in PtTe₂. The DC current is induced along the PtTe₂ channel, which is directly proportional to the amplitude of the incident THz electric field. Thus, these new topological semimetal materials provide new pathways for sensitive detection and sensing applications in the THz domain.

Keywords: terahertz, detector, responsivity, topological-semimetals

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10 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng

Abstract:

Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: polycrystalline PbSe, sensitization, transport, stoichiometry

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9 Characterization of the in 0.53 Ga 0.47 as n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani

Abstract:

We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detectivity for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed. The responsivity and the detectivity are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: detectivity, photodetectors, continuity equation, current noise

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8 Miniaturization of Germanium Photo-Detectors by Using Micro-Disk Resonator

Authors: Haifeng Zhou, Tsungyang Liow, Xiaoguang Tu, Eujin Lim, Chao Li, Junfeng Song, Xianshu Luo, Ying Huang, Lianxi Jia, Lianwee Luo, Kim Dowon, Qing Fang, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo

Abstract:

Several Germanium photodetectors (PD) built on silicon micro-disks are fabricated on the standard Si photonics multiple project wafers (MPW) and demonstrated to exhibit very low dark current, satisfactory operation bandwidth and moderate responsivity. Among them, a vertical p-i-n Ge PD based on a 2.0 µm-radius micro-disk has a dark current of as low as 35 nA, compared to a conventional PD current of 1 µA with an area of 100 µm2. The operation bandwidth is around 15 GHz at a reverse bias of 1V. The responsivity is about 0.6 A/W. Microdisk is a striking planar structure in integrated optics to enhance light-matter interaction and construct various photonics devices. The disk geometries feature in strongly and circularly confining light into an ultra-small volume in the form of whispering gallery modes. A laser may benefit from a microdisk in which a single mode overlaps the gain materials both spatially and spectrally. Compared to microrings, micro-disk removes the inner boundaries to enable even better compactness, which also makes it very suitable for some scenarios that electrical connections are needed. For example, an ultra-low power (≈ fJ) athermal Si modulator has been demonstrated with a bit rate of 25Gbit/s by confining both photons and electrically-driven carriers into a microscale volume.In this work, we study Si-based PDs with Ge selectively grown on a microdisk with the radius of a few microns. The unique feature of using microdisk for Ge photodetector is that mode selection is not important. In the applications of laser or other passive optical components, microdisk must be designed very carefully to excite the fundamental mode in a microdisk in that essentially the microdisk usually supports many higher order modes in the radial directions. However, for detector applications, this is not an issue because the local light absorption is mode insensitive. Light power carried by all modes are expected to be converted into photo-current. Another benefit of using microdisk is that the power circulation inside avoids any introduction of the reflector. A complete simulation model with all involved materials taken into account is established to study the promise of microdisk structures for photodetector by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. By viewing from the current preliminary data, the directions to further improve the device performance are also discussed.

Keywords: integrated optical devices, silicon photonics, micro-resonator, photodetectors

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7 FISCEAPP: FIsh Skin Color Evaluation APPlication

Authors: J. Urban, Á. S. Botella, L. E. Robaina, A. Bárta, P. Souček, P. Císař, Š. Papáček, L. M. Domínguez

Abstract:

Skin coloration in fish is of great physiological, behavioral and ecological importance and can be considered as an index of animal welfare in aquaculture as well as an important quality factor in the retail value. Currently, in order to compare color in animals fed on different diets, biochemical analysis, and colorimetry of fished, mildly anesthetized or dead body, are very accurate and meaningful measurements. The noninvasive method using digital images of the fish body was developed as a standalone application. This application deals with the computation burden and memory consumption of large input files, optimizing piece wise processing and analysis with the memory/computation time ratio. For the comparison of color distributions of various experiments and different color spaces (RGB, CIE L*a*b*) the comparable semi-equidistant binning of multi channels representation is introduced. It is derived from the knowledge of quantization levels and Freedman-Diaconis rule. The color calibrations and camera responsivity function were necessary part of the measurement process.

Keywords: color distribution, fish skin color, piecewise transformation, object to background segmentation

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6 Development of an Integrated Criminogenic Intervention Programme for High Risk Offenders

Authors: Yunfan Jiang

Abstract:

In response to an identified gap in available treatment programmes for high-risk offenders with multiple criminogenic needs and guided by emerging literature in the field of correctional rehabilitation, Singapore Prison Service (SPS) developed the Integrated Criminogenic Programme (ICP) in 2012. This evidence-informed psychological programme was designed to address all seven dynamic criminogenic needs (from the Central 8) of high-risk offenders by applying concepts from rehabilitation and psychological theories such as Risk-Need-Responsivity, Good Lives Model, narrative identity, and motivational interviewing. This programme also encompasses a 6-month community maintenance component for the purpose of providing structured step-down support in the aftercare setting. These sessions provide participants the opportunity for knowledge reinforcement and application of skills attained in-care. A quantitative evaluation of the ICP showed that the intervention group had statistically significant improvements across time in most self-report measures of criminal attitudes, substance use attitudes, and psychosocial functioning. This was congruent with qualitative data from participants saying that the ICP had the most impact on their criminal thinking patterns and management of behaviours in high-risk situations. Results from the comparison group showed no difference in their criminal attitudes, even though they reported statistically significant improvements across time in their substance use attitudes and some self-report measures of psychosocial functioning. The programme’s efficacy was also apparent in the lower rates of recidivism and relapse within 12 months for the intervention group. The management of staff issues arising from the development and implementation of an innovative high-intensity psychological programme such as the ICP will also be discussed.

Keywords: evaluation, forensic psychology, intervention programme, offender rehabilitation

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5 Highly Responsive p-NiO/n-rGO Heterojunction Based Self-Powered UV Photodetectors

Authors: P. Joshna, Souvik Kundu

Abstract:

Detection of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is very important as it has exhibited a profound influence on humankind and other existences, including military equipment. In this work, a self-powered UV photodetector was reported based on oxides heterojunctions. The thin films of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) and n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used for the formation of p-n heterojunction. Low-Cost and low-temperature chemical synthesis was utilized to prepare the oxides, and the spin coating technique was employed to deposit those onto indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The top electrode platinum was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. NiO offers strong UV absorption with high hole mobility, and rGO prevents the recombination rate by separating electrons out from the photogenerated carriers. Several structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope were used to study the materials crystallinity, microstructures, and surface roughness. On one side, the oxides were found to be polycrystalline in nature, and no secondary phases were present. On the other side, surface roughness was found to be low with no pit holes, which depicts the formation of high-quality oxides thin films. Whereas, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical compositions and oxidation structures. The electrical characterizations such as current-voltage and current response were also performed on the device to determine the responsivity, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency under dark and UV illumination. This p-n heterojunction device offered faster photoresponse and high on-off ratio under 365 nm UV light illumination of zero bias. The device based on the proposed architecture shows the efficacy of the oxides heterojunction for efficient UV photodetection under zero bias, which opens up a new path towards the development of self-powered photodetector for environment and health monitoring sector.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, oxides, photodetectors, spin coating

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4 Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Hsyi-En Cheng, Ying-Yi Liou

Abstract:

Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, nanotube arrays, gas sensor, tin dioxide

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3 InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiode Array ns-Response

Authors: Utpal Das, Sona Das

Abstract:

InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have recently seen rapid development. However, in small pixel size large format FPAs, the occurrence of high mesa sidewall surface leakage current is a major constraint necessitating proper surface passivation. A simple pixel isolation technique in InAs/GaSb T2SL detector arrays without the conventional mesa etching has been proposed to isolate the pixels by forming a more resistive higher band gap material from the SL, in the inter-pixel region. Here, a single step femtosecond (fs) laser anneal of the T2SL structure of the inter-pixel T2SL regions, have been used to increase the band gap between the pixels by QW-intermixing and hence increase isolation between the pixels. The p-i-n photodiode structure used here consists of a 506nm, (10 monolayer {ML}) InAs:Si (1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML) GaSb SL as the bottom n-contact layer grown on an n-type GaSb substrate. The undoped absorber layer consists of 1.3µm, (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL. The top p-contact layer is a 63nm, (10ML)InAs:Be(1x10¹⁸cm⁻³)/(10ML)GaSb T2SL. In order to improve the carrier transport, a 126nm of graded doped (10ML)InAs/(10ML)GaSb SL layer was added between the absorber and each contact layers. A 775nm 150fs-laser at a fluence of ~6mJ/cm² is used to expose the array where the pixel regions are masked by a Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) cap. Here, in the inter-pixel regions, the p+ layer have been reactive ion etched (RIE) using CH₄+H₂ chemistry and removed before fs-laser exposure. The fs-laser anneal isolation improvement in 200-400μm pixels due to spatially selective quantum well intermixing for a blue shift of ~70meV in the inter-pixel regions is confirmed by FTIR measurements. Dark currents are measured between two adjacent pixels with the Ti(200nm)-Au(300nm) caps used as contacts. The T2SL quality in the active photodiode regions masked by the Ti-Au cap is hardly affected and retains the original quality of the detector. Although, fs-laser anneal of p+ only etched p-i-n T2SL diodes show a reduction in the reverse dark current, no significant improvement in the full RIE-etched mesa structures is noticeable. Hence for a 128x128 array fabrication of 8μm square pixels and 10µm pitch, SU8 polymer isolation after RIE pixel delineation has been used. X-n+ row contacts and Y-p+ column contacts have been used to measure the optical response of the individual pixels. The photo-response of these 8μm and other 200μm pixels under a 2ns optical pulse excitation from an Optical-Parametric-Oscillator (OPO), shows a peak responsivity of ~0.03A/W and 0.2mA/W, respectively, at λ~3.7μm. Temporal response of this detector array is seen to have a fast response ~10ns followed typical slow decay with ringing, attributed to impedance mismatch of the connecting co-axial cables. In conclusion, response times of a few ns have been measured in 8µm pixels of a 128x128 array. Although fs-laser anneal has been found to be useful in increasing the inter-pixel isolation in InAs/GaSb T2SL arrays by QW inter-mixing, it has not been found to be suitable for passivation of full RIE etched mesa structures with vertical walls on InAs/GaSb T2SL.

Keywords: band-gap blue-shift, fs-laser-anneal, InAs/GaSb T2SL, Inter-pixel isolation, ns-Response, photodiode array

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2 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, AlGaN/GaN, passivation, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

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1 4-Channel CWDM Optical Transceiver Applying Silicon Photonics Ge-Photodiode and MZ-Modulator

Authors: Do-Won Kim, Andy Eu Jin Lim, Raja Muthusamy Kumarasamy, Vishal Vinayak, Jacky Wang Yu-Shun, Jason Liow Tsung Yang, Patrick Lo Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) optical transceiver based on silicon photonics integrated circuits (PIC) of waveguide Ge-photodiode (Ge-PD) and Mach Zehnder (MZ)-modulator. 4-channel arrayed PICs of Ge-PD and MZ-modulator are verified to operate at 25 Gbps/ch achieving 4x25 Gbps of total data rate. 4 bare dies of single-channel commercial electronics ICs (EICs) of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) for Ge-PD and driver IC for MZ-modulator are packaged with PIC on printed circuit board (PCB) in a chip-on-board (COB) manner. Each single-channel EIC is electrically connected to the one channel of 4-channel PICs by wire bonds to trace. The PICs have 4-channel multiplexer for MZ-modulator and 4-channel demultiplexer for Ge-PD. The 4-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer have echelle gratings for4 CWDM optic signals of which center wavelengths are 1511, 1531, 1553, and 1573 nm. Its insertion loss is around 4dB with over 15dB of extinction ratio.The dimension of 4-channel Ge-PD is 3.6x1.4x0.3mm, and its responsivity is 1A/W with dark current of less than 20 nA.Its measured 3dB bandwidth is around 20GHz. The dimension of the 4-channel MZ-modulator is 3.6x4.8x0.3mm, and its 3dB bandwidth is around 11Ghz at -2V of reverse biasing voltage. It has 2.4V•cmbyVπVL of 6V for π shift to 4 mm length modulator.5x5um of Inversed tapered mode size converter with less than 2dB of coupling loss is used for the coupling of the lensed fiber which has 5um of mode field diameter.The PCB for COB packaging and signal transmission is designed to have 6 layers in the hybrid layer structure. 0.25 mm-thick Rogers Duroid RT5880 is used as the first core dielectric layer for high-speed performance over 25 Gbps. It has 0.017 mm-thick of copper layers and its dielectric constant is 2.2and dissipation factor is 0.0009 at 10 GHz. The dimension of both single ended and differential microstrip transmission lines are calculated using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator HFSS which RF industry is using most. It showed 3dB bandwidth at around 15GHz in S-parameter measurement using network analyzer. The wire bond length for transmission line and ground connection from EIC is done to have less than 300 µm to minimize the parasitic effect to the system.Single layered capacitors (SLC) of 100pF and 1000pF are connected as close as possible to the EICs for stabilizing the DC biasing voltage by decoupling. Its signal transmission performance is under measurement at 25Gbps achieving 100Gbps by 4chx25Gbps. This work can be applied for the active optical cable (AOC) and quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP) for high-speed optical interconnections. Its demands are quite large in data centers targeting 100 Gbps, 400 Gbps, and 1 Tbps. As the demands of high-speed AOC and QSFP for the application to intra/inter data centers increase, this silicon photonics based high-speed 4 channel CWDM scheme can have advantages not only in data throughput but also cost effectiveness since it reduces fiber cost dramatically through WDM.

Keywords: active optical cable(AOC), 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM), communication system, data center, ge-photodiode, Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator, optical interconnections, optical transceiver, photonics integrated circuits (PIC), quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP), silicon photonics

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