Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7903

Search results for: Charpy impact toughness

7903 Effect of Austenitizing Temperature, Soaking Time and Grain Size on Charpy Impact Toughness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

Authors: S. Gupta, R. Sarkar, S. Pathak, D. H. Kela, A. Pramanick, P. Talukdar


Low alloy quenched and tempered steels are typically used in cast railway components such as knuckles, yokes, and couplers. Since these components experience extensive impact loading during their service life, adequate impact toughness of these grades need to be ensured to avoid catastrophic failure of parts in service. Because of the general availability of Charpy V Test equipment, Charpy test is the most common and economical means to evaluate the impact toughness of materials and is generally used in quality control applications. With this backdrop, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of austenitizing temperature, soaking time and resultant grain size on the Charpy impact toughness and the related fracture mechanisms in a quenched and tempered low alloy steel, with the aim of optimizing the heat treatment parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and soaking time) with respect to impact toughness. In the first phase, samples were austenitized at different temperatures viz. 760, 800, 840, 880, 920 and 960°C, followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. In the next phase, samples were subjected to different soaking times (0, 2, 4 and 6 hours) at a fixed austenitizing temperature (980°C), followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. The samples corresponding to different test conditions were then subjected to instrumented Charpy tests at -40°C and energy absorbed were recorded. Subsequently, microstructure and fracture surface of samples corresponding to different test conditions were observed under scanning electron microscope, and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. In the final stage, austenitizing temperature, soaking time and measured grain sizes were correlated with impact toughness and the fracture morphology and mechanism.

Keywords: heat treatment, grain size, microstructure, retained austenite and impact toughness

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7902 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson


This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

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7901 Correlation Between Hydrogen Charging and Charpy Impact of 4340 Steel

Authors: J. Alcisto, M. Papakyriakou, J. Guerra, A. Dominguez, M. Miller, J. Foyos, E. Jones, N. Ula, M. Hahn, L. Zeng, Y. Li, O. S. Es-Said


Current methods of testing for hydrogen charging are slow and time consuming. The objective of this paper was to determine if hydrogen charging can be detected quantitatively through the use of Charpy Impact (CI) testing. CI is a much faster and simpler process than current methods for detecting hydrogen charging. Steel plates were Electro Discharge Machined (EDM) into ninety-six 4340 steel CI samples and forty-eight tensile bars. All the samples were heat treated at 900°C to austentite and then rapidly quenched in water to form martensite. The samples were tempered at eight different target strengths/target temperatures (145, 160, 170, 180, 190, 205, 220, to 250KSI, thousands of pounds per square inch)/(1100, 1013, 956, 898, 840, 754, 667, 494 degrees Celsius). After a tedious process of grinding and machining v-notches to the Charpy samples, they were divided into four groups. One group was kept as received baseline for comparison while the other three groups were sent to Alcoa (Fasteners) Inc. in Torrance to be cadmium coated. The three groups were coated with three thicknesses (2, 3 and 5 mils). That means that the samples were charged with ascending hydrogen levels. The samples were CI tested and tensile tested, and the data was tabulated and compared to the baseline group of uncharged samples of the same material. The results of this study were successful and indicated that CI testing was able to quantitatively detect hydrogen charging.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, hydrogen charging, 4340 steel, Electro Discharge Machined (EDM)

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7900 Enhancement of Fracture Toughness for Low-Temperature Applications in Mild Steel Weldments

Authors: Manjinder Singh, Jasvinder Singh


Existing theories of Titanic/Liberty ship, Sydney bridge accidents and practical experience generated an interest in developing weldments those has high toughness under sub-zero temperature conditions. The purpose was to protect the joint from undergoing DBT (Ductile to brittle transition), when ambient temperature reach sub-zero levels. Metallurgical improvement such as low carbonization or addition of deoxidization elements like Mn and Si was effective to prevent fracture in weldments (crack) at low temperature. In the present research, an attempt has been made to investigate the reason behind ductile to brittle transition of mild steel weldments when subjected to sub-zero temperatures and method of its mitigation. Nickel is added to weldments using manual metal arc welding (MMAW) preventing the DBT, but progressive reduction in charpy impact values as temperature is lowered. The variation in toughness with respect to nickel content being added to the weld pool is analyzed quantitatively to evaluate the rise in toughness value with increasing nickel amount. The impact performance of welded specimens was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact tests at various temperatures (20 °C, 0 °C, -20 °C, -40 °C, -60 °C). Notch is made in the weldments, as notch sensitive failure is particularly likely to occur at zones of high stress concentration caused by a notch. Then the effect of nickel to weldments is investigated at various temperatures was studied by mechanical and metallurgical tests. It was noted that a large gain in impact toughness could be achieved by adding nickel content. The highest yield strength (462J) in combination with good impact toughness (over 220J at – 60 °C) was achieved with an alloying content of 16 wt. %nickel. Based on metallurgical behavior it was concluded that the weld metals solidify as austenite with increase in nickel. The microstructure was characterized using optical and high resolution SEM (scanning electron microscopy). At inter-dendritic regions mainly martensite was found. In dendrite core regions of the low carbon weld metals a mixture of upper bainite, lower bainite and a novel constituent coalesced bainite formed. Coalesced bainite was characterized by large bainitic ferrite grains with cementite precipitates and is believed to form when the bainite and martensite start temperatures are close to each other. Mechanical properties could be rationalized in terms of micro structural constituents as a function of nickel content.

Keywords: MMAW, Toughness, DBT, Notch, SEM, Coalesced bainite

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7899 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash


The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.

Keywords: hot forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (HV), impact toughness (J), microstructure, low alloy steels

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7898 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ simulation, mechanical properties, peak temperature, ship hull steel, weldability

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7897 Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen


According to the ASTM C1018 toughness index method, the single and combined toughness effects of copper coated steel fiber and polypropylene (pp) fiber on reactive powder concrete (RPC) were investigated. Through flexural toughness test of RPC with different fiber volume dosages, the corresponding load-deflection curves were also drawn. Test results indicate that the binary combination of fibers provide the best flexural toughness, and improve the post-peak load-deflection characteristics of RPC. However, the single effect of pp fibers was not pronounced on improving the flexural toughness of RPC.

Keywords: RPC, PP, flexural toughness, toughness index

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7896 Effect of Crystallographic Characteristics on Toughness of Coarse Grain Heat Affected Zone for Different Heat Inputs

Authors: Trishita Ray, Ashok Perka, Arnab Karani, M. Shome, Saurabh Kundu


Line pipe steels are used for long distance transportation of crude oil and gas under extreme environmental conditions. Welding is necessary to lay large scale pipelines. Coarse Grain Heat Affected Zone (CGHAZ) of a welded joint exhibits worst toughness because of excessive grain growth and brittle microstructures like bainite and martensite, leading to early failure. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate microstructures and properties of the CGHAZ for different welding heat inputs. In the present study, CGHAZ for two heat inputs of 10 kJ/cm and 50 kJ/cm were simulated in Gleeble 3800, and the microstructures were investigated in detail by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). Charpy Impact Tests were also done to evaluate the impact properties. High heat input was characterized with very low toughness and massive prior austenite grains. With the crystallographic information from EBSD, the area of a single prior austenite grain was traced out for both the welding conditions. Analysis of the prior austenite grains showed the formation of high angle boundaries between the crystallographic packets. Effect of these packet boundaries on secondary cleavage crack propagation was discussed. It was observed that in the low heat input condition, formation of finer packets with a criss-cross morphology inside prior austenite grains was effective in crack arrest whereas, in the high heat input condition, formation of larger packets with higher volume of low angle boundaries failed to resist crack propagation resulting in a brittle fracture. Thus, the characteristics in a crystallographic packet and impact properties are related and should be controlled to obtain optimum properties.

Keywords: coarse grain heat affected zone, crystallographic packet, toughness, line pipe steel

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7895 Comparative Study of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphological of Nano-CaCO3 and Nanoclay Reinforced HDPE Nanocomposites

Authors: Harun Sepet, Necmettin Tarakcioglu


The present study investigated the impact strength and fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites by using Charpy impact test. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were prepared by the melt blending method using a compounder system, which consists of industrial banbury mixer, single screw extruder and granule cutting in industrial-scale. The nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE granules were molded using an injection-molding machine as plates, and then impact samples were cut by using punching die from the nanocomposite plates. As a result of impact experiments, nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites were determined to have lower impact energy level than neat HDPE. Also, the impact strength of HDPE further decreased by addition nanoclay compared to nano-CaCO3. The occurred fracture areas with the impact were detected by SEM examination. It is understood that fracture surface morphology changes when nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay ratio increases. The fracture surface changes were examined to determine the fracture mechanism of nano-CaCO3 and nanoclay reinforced HDPE nanocomposites.

Keywords: charpy, HDPE, industrial scale nano-CaCO3, nanoclay, nanocomposite

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7894 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez


The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

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7893 Athletes with High Mental Toughness Levels Experiencing Less Anxiety

Authors: H. Analuie, M. Faruque, S. Saha, H. Hashim, M. Muzaimi


Though mental toughness has long been explored in sport psychology, much of our understanding on the topic remains largely unexplored. The concept is used widely, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand the construct and its related variables. This research investigated the correlation between mental toughness and trait anxiety to determine whether mentally tough athletes generally experience more or less anxiety. A sample of 57 men (M age = 25.4 years, s=4.66) and 45 women (M age = 23.5 years, s=5.73) participated in a variety of sports were recruited, where mental toughness was measured using MTQ48. Levels of trait anxiety were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Series of Pearson correlations between trait anxiety, overall mental toughness, and the six subscales of mental toughness showed significant (p> .05) relationships. As predicted, greater mental toughness was associated with less reported trait anxiety. Independent t-tests found significant differences (p> .05) in overall mental toughness, the mental toughness subscales or trait anxiety between men and women. More research is required to understand how mentally tough athletes experience less anxiety in comparison to those who are not as mentally tough. Our findings suggest that relationships observed in this study emphasize the need for the inclusion of trait anxiety in mental toughness interventions.

Keywords: mental toughness, trait anxiety, MTQ48, sport psychology

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7892 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil


Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fiber, polyethylene, polymer nanocomposite, impact strength

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7891 Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Authors: Robert J. Thomas, Colton Bedke, Andrew Sorensen


The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.

Keywords: Charpy impact test, dynamic shear, impact loading, ultra-high performance concrete

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7890 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun


Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: resilience, community resilience, urban resilience, construction strategies

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7889 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal


Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, composite materials, matrix, metal matrix composite, surface roughness, reinforcement

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7888 Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz

Authors: Mahta Eskandarnejad


The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.

Keywords: Baecke physical activity questionnaire, mental toughness, physical activity, university staff, university student

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7887 Improvement of Microstructure, Wear and Mechanical Properties of Modified G38NiCrMo8-4-4 Steel Used in Mining Industry

Authors: Mustafa Col, Funda Gul Koc, Merve Yangaz, Eylem Subasi, Can Akbasoglu


G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel is widely used in mining industries, machine parts, gears due to its high strength and toughness properties. In this study, microstructure, wear and mechanical properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel modified with boron used in the mining industry were investigated. For this purpose, cast materials were alloyed by melting in an induction furnace to include boron with the rates of 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and 50 ppm (wt.) and were formed in the dimensions of 150x200x150 mm by casting into the sand mould. Homogenization heat treatment was applied to the specimens at 1150˚C for 7 hours. Then all specimens were austenitized at 930˚C for 1 hour, quenched in the polymer solution and tempered at 650˚C for 1 hour. Microstructures of the specimens were investigated by using light microscope and SEM to determine the effect of boron and heat treatment conditions. Changes in microstructure properties and material hardness were obtained due to increasing boron content and heat treatment conditions after microstructure investigations and hardness tests. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Charpy V notch impact test was performed to determine the toughness properties of the specimens. Fracture and worn surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that boron element has a positive effect on the hardness and wear properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel.

Keywords: G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, wear, mechanical properties

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7886 Study of the Mental Toughness of the Basketball Players

Authors: Jaswinder Singh


The purpose of the study was to compare the mental toughness between male and female basketball players of District shri muktsar sahib Panjab. A sample of fifty male players (N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years and Fifty female player(N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years. The Data was collected by using mental toughness questionnaire developed by Goldberg (1998). The t-test was applied to assess the differences male and female basketball players. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Study revealed that there were significant differences male and female basketball players with regard to Rebound Ability, Ability to Handle Pressure, Confidence and Overall Mental Toughness and insignificant differences with regard to Concentration and Motivation.

Keywords: mental toughness, basketball, psychological, competitive

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7885 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li


The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

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7884 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution on Toughening Performance of Polybutadiene in Polystyrene

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Yavarizadeh


Polystyrene (PS) and related homopolymers are brittle materials that typically fail in tensile tests at very low strains. These polymers can be toughened by the addition of rubbery particles which initiate a large number of crazes that produce substantial plastic strain at relatively low stresses. Considerable energy is dissipated in the formation of these crazes, producing a relatively tough material that shows an impact toughness of more than 5 times of pure PS. While cross linking of rubbery phase is necessary in aforementioned mechanism of toughening, another mechanism of toughening was also introduced in which low molecular weight liquid rubbers can also toughen PS when dispersed in the form of small pools in the glassy matrix without any cross linking. However, this new mechanism which is based on local plasticization, fails to act properly at high strain rate deformations, i.e. impact tests. In this work, the idea of combination of these two mechanisms was tried. To do so, Polybutadiene rubbers (PB) with bimodal distribution of molecular weight were prepared in which, comparable fractions of very high and very low molecular weight rubbers were mixed. Incorporation of these materials in PS matrix in a reactive process resulted in more significant increases in toughness of PS. In other words, although low molecular weight PB is ineffective in high strain rate impact test by itself, it showed a significant synergistic effect when combined with high molecular weight PB. Surprisingly, incorporation of just 10% of low molecular weight PB doubled the impact toughness of regular high impact PS (HIPS). It was observed that most of rubbery particles could initiate crazes. The effectiveness of low molecular weight PB in impact test was attributed to low strain rate deformation of each individual craze as a result of producing a large number of crazes in this material. In other words, high molecular weight PB chains make it possible to have an appropriate dispersion of rubbery phase in order to create a large number of crazes in the PS matrix and consequently decrease the velocity of each craze. Low molecular weight PB, in turn, would have enough time to locally plasticize craze fibrils and enhance the energy dissipation.

Keywords: molecular weight distribution, polystyrene, toughness, homopolymer

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7883 Toughness Factor of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Aggressive Environment

Authors: R. E. Vasconcelos, K. R. M. da Silva, J. M. B. Pinto


This study aims to determine and to present the results of an experimental study of Synthetic (polypropylene) Fibers Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), in levels of 0.33% - 3kg/m3, 0.50% - 4.5kg/m3, and 0.66% - 6kg/m3, using cement CP V – ARI, at ages 28 and 88 days after specimens molding. The specimens were exposed for 60 days in aggressive environment (in solution of water and 3% of sodium chloride), after 28 days. The bending toughness tests were performed in prismatic specimens of 150 x 150 x 500 mm. The toughness factor values of the specimens in aggressive environment were the same to those obtained in normal environment (in air).

Keywords: concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibers, toughness in bending, synthetic fibers, concrete reinforced

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7882 Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement

Authors: Jayden Levy, Garth M. K. Pearce


An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.

Keywords: AFP, automated fibre placement, delamination, fracture toughness, inter-weaving

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7881 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas


In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials/plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: ballistic, composite, thermoplastic, prepreg

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7880 Optimization of Submerged Arc Welding Parameters for Joining SS304 and MS1018

Authors: Jasvinder Singh, Manjinder Singh


Welding of dissimilar materials is a complicated process due to the difference in melting point of two materials. Thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of dissimilar materials also different; therefore, residual stresses produced in the weldment and base metal are the most critical problem associated with the joining of dissimilar materials. Tensile strength and impact toughness also reduced due to the residual stresses. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to weld SS304 and MS1018 dissimilar materials by submerged arc welding (SAW). By conducting trail, runs most effective parameters welding current, Arc voltage, welding speed and nozzle to plate distance were selected to weld these materials. The fractional factorial technique was used to optimize the welding parameters. Effect on tensile strength (TS), fracture toughness (FT) and microhardness of weldment were studied. It was concluded that by optimizing welding current, voltage and welding speed the properties of weldment can be enhanced.

Keywords: SAW, Tensile Strength (TS), fracture toughness, micro hardness

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7879 A Study on Effect of Dynamic Loading Speed on the Fracture Toughness of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Moon Byung Woo, Seok Chang-Sung, Koo Jae-Mean, Kim Sang-Young, Choi Jae Gu, Huh Nam-Su


Recently, the occurrence of the earthquake has increased sharply and many of the casualties have occurred worldwide, due to the influence of earthquakes. Especially, the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident which was caused by the earthquake in 2011 has significantly increased the fear of people and the demand for the safety of the nuclear power plant. Thus, in order to prevent the earthquake accident at nuclear power plant, it is important to evaluate the fracture toughness considering the seismic loading rate. To obtain fracture toughness for the safety evaluation of nuclear power plant, it is desirable to perform experiments with a real scale pipe which is expensive and hard to perform. Therefore, many researchers have proposed various test specimens to replicate the fracture toughness of a real scale pipe. Since such specimens have several problems, the equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen has been recently suggested. In this study, in order to consider the effects of the dynamic loading speed on fracture toughness, the experiment was conducted by applying five different kinds of test speeds using an ESG specimen. In addition, after we performed the fracture toughness test under dynamic loading with different speeds using an ESG specimen and a standard specimen, we compared them with the test results under static loading.

Keywords: dynamic loading speed, fracture toughness, load-ratio-method, equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen

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7878 Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Its Correlation with Mental Toughness among Professional South African Rugby Players

Authors: H. B. Grobler, K. Du Plooy, P. Kruger, S. Ellis


Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to determine the common mental disorders (CMD) identified by professional South African rugby players and its correlation with their mental toughness, as a first step towards developing such a programme within a larger research project. Design: Survey research, within the theoretical perspective of field theory, was conducted, utilising an adaptation of an already existing mental health questionnaire. The aim was to obtain feedback from as many possible professional South African rugby players in order to make certain generalizations and come to conclusions with regard to the current mental health experiences of these rugby players. Methods: Non-randomized sampling was done, linking it with internet research in the form of the online completion of a questionnaire. A sample of 215 rugby players participated and completed the online questionnaire. Permission was obtained to make use of an existing questionnaire, previously used by the specific authors with retired professional rugby players. A section on mental toughness was added. Data were descriptively analysed by means of the SPSS software platform. Results: Results indicated that the most significant problem that the players are experiencing, is a problem with alcohol (47.9%). Other problems that featured are distress (16.3%), sleep disturbances (7%), as well as anxiety and depression (4.2%). 4.7% of the players indicated that they smoke. 3.3% of the players experience themselves as not being mentally tough. A positive correlation between mental toughness and sound sleep (0.262) was found while a negative correlation was found between mental toughness and the following: anxiety/depression (-0.401), anxiety/depression positive (-0.423), distress (-0.259) and common mental disorder problems in general (-0.220). Conclusions: Although the presence of CMD at first glance do not seem significantly high amongst all the players, it must be considered that if one player in a team experiences the presence of CMD, it will have an impact on his mental toughness and most likely on his performance, as well as on the performance of the whole team. It is therefore important to ensure mental health in the whole team, by addressing individual CMD problems. A mental health support programme is therefore needed to be implemented to the benefit of these players within the South African context.

Keywords: common mental disorders, mental toughness, professional athletes, rugby players

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7877 Toughness of a Silt-Based Construction Material Reinforced with Fibers

Authors: Y. Shamas, S. Imanzadeh, A. Jarno, S. Taibi


Silt-based construction material is acknowledged since forever and lately received the researchers’ attention more than before as being an ecological and economical alternative for typical cement-based concrete. Silt-based material is known for its worldwide availability, cheapness, and various applications. Some rules should be defined to obtain a standardized method for the use of raw earth as a modern construction material; but first, its mechanical properties should be precisely studied to better understand its behavior in order to find new aspects in making it a better competitor for the cement concrete that is high energy-demanding in terms of gray energy. Some researches were performed on the raw earth material to enhance its characteristics as strength and ductility for their importance and their wide use for various materials. Yet, many other mechanical properties can be used to study the mechanical behavior of raw earth materials such as Young’smodulus and toughness. Studies concerning the toughness of material were rarely conducted previously except for metals despite its significant role associated to the energy absorbed by the material under loading before fracturing. The purpose of this paper is to restate different toughness definitions used in the literature and propose a new definition.

Keywords: silt-based material, raw earth concrete, stress-strain curve, energy, toughness

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7876 Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. S. S Abou El-Mal, A. S. Sherbini, H. E. M. Sallam


Mode II fracture toughness (KIIc) of fiber reinforced concrete has been widely investigated under various patterns of testing geometries. The effect of fiber type, concrete matrix properties, and testing mechanisms were extensively studied. The area of hybrid fiber addition shows a lake of reported research data. In this paper an experimental investigation of hybrid fiber embedded in high strength concrete matrix is reported. Three different types of fibers; namely steel (S), glass (G), and polypropylene (PP) fibers were mixed together in four hybridization patterns, (S/G), (S/PP), (G/PP), (S/G/PP) with constant cumulative volume fraction (Vf) of 1.5%. The concrete matrix properties were kept the same for all hybrid fiber reinforced concrete patterns. In an attempt to estimate a fairly accepted value of fracture toughness KIIc, four testing geometries and loading types are employed in this investigation. Four point shear, Brazilian notched disc, double notched cube, and double edge notched specimens are investigated in a trial to avoid the limitations and sensitivity of each test regarding geometry, size effect, constraint condition, and the crack length to specimen width ratio a/w. The addition of all hybridization patterns of fiber reduced the compressive strength and increased mode II fracture toughness in pure mode II tests. Mode II fracture toughness of concrete KIIc decreased with the increment of a/w ratio for all concretes and test geometries. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc is found to be sensitive to the hybridization patterns of fiber. The (S/PP) hybridization pattern showed higher values than all other patterns, while the (S/G/PP) showed insignificant enhancement on mode II fracture toughness (KIIc). Four point shear (4PS) test set up reflects the most reliable values of mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete couldn’t be assumed as a real material property.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, Hybrid fiber, Mode II fracture toughness, testing geometry

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7875 A Comparative Study of Mental Toughness among Players of Team and Individual Sports

Authors: P. B. Thumar


Today’s athletes face acute and unique challenges as the competition standards are higher and tougher. There are certain moments during a competition that appear to carry great psychological significance when the momentum starts to shift in one direction or another. These situations require athletes to remain completely focused and calm in facing the difficult circumstances. The purpose of the study was to compare the Mental Toughness level among the players of the team and individual sports. Purposive sampling was done in which subjects for the present study were the male students of The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara studying various courses in the academic year 2014-15. Thus, a total number of 120 boys were identified and included in the study from which 60 boys had participated in individual sports and 60 in team sports. ‘The Mental Toughness Questionnaire’ prepared by Dr. Alan Goldberg was used to determine mental toughness level of the players of the team and individual sports. The scores arrived from 60 individual players and 60 team players were compared by applying the t-test. Significant difference was found on overall Mental Toughness and in subcomponents there was significant difference in ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence whereas there was no significant difference in reboundability and motivation among team and individual sports players. This could be largely due the nature of both sports. Team players of MSU found to be having more overall mental toughness, and team players are able to handle pressure more than individual players, can concentrate more and are also more confident while playing in the team. Team preparation and training prior to competition could have increased the level of ability to handle pressure, concentration and confidence of team players.

Keywords: mental toughness, reboundability, confidence, team sports, individual sports

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7874 Thickness Effect on Concrete Fracture Toughness K1c

Authors: Benzerara Mohammed, Redjel Bachir, Kebaili Bachir


The cracking of the concrete is a more crucial problem with the development of the complex structures related to technological progress. The projections in the knowledge of the breaking process make it possible today for better prevention of the risk of the fracture. The breaking strength brutal of a quasi-fragile material like the concrete called Toughness, is measured by a breaking value of the factor of intensity of the constraints K1C for which the crack is propagated, it is an intrinsic property of material. Many studies reported in the literature treating of the concrete were carried out on specimens which are in fact inadequate compared to the intrinsic characteristic to identify. We started from this established fact, in order to compare the evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured by calling upon ordinary concrete specimens of three prismatics geometries different (10*10*84) cm³ and (5*20*120) cm³ &(12*20*120) cm³ containing from the side notches various depths simulating of the cracks was set up. The notches are carried out using triangular pyramidal plates into manufactured out of sheet coated placed at the centre of the specimens at the time of the casting, then withdrawn to leave the trace of a crack. The tests are carried out in 3 points bending test in mode 1 of fracture, by using the techniques of mechanical fracture. The evolution of the parameter of toughness K1C measured with the three geometries specimens gives almost the same results. They are acceptable and return in the beach of the results determined by various researchers (toughness of the ordinary concrete turns to the turn of the 1 MPa √m). These results inform us about the presence of an economy on the level of the geometrie specimen (5*20*120) cm³, therefore to use plates specimens later if one wants to master the toughness of this material complexes, astonishing but always essential that is the concrete.

Keywords: elementary representative volume, concrete, fissure, toughness

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