Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: Notch

63 FE Analysis of the Notch Effect on the Behavior of Repaired Crack with Bonded Composite Patch in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Faycal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra


In this paper, the finite element analysis is applied to study the performance of the bonded composite reinforcement or repair for reducing stress concentration at a semi-circular lateral notch and repairing cracks emanating from this kind of notch. The effects of the adhesive properties on the variation of the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were highlighted. The obtained results show that the stress concentration factor at the notch tip is reduced about 30% and the maximal reduction of the stress intensity factor is about 80%. The adhesive properties must be optimized in order to increase the performance of the patch repair or reinforcement.

Keywords: bonded repair, notch, crack, adhesive, composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
62 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
61 Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element

Authors: Xiaofei Hu, Zhiyu Cai, Weian Yao


V-notch problem under dynamic loading condition is considered in this paper. In the time domain, the precise time domain expanding algorithm is employed, in which a self-adaptive technique is carried out to improve computing accuracy. By expanding variables in each time interval, the recursive finite element formulas are derived. In the space domain, a Symplectic Analytical Singular Element (SASE) for V-notch problem is constructed addressing the stress singularity of the notch tip. Combining with the conventional finite elements, the proposed SASE can be used to solve the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) in a simple way. Numerical results show that the proposed SASE for V-notch problem subjected to dynamic loading condition is effective and efficient.

Keywords: V-notch, dynamic stress intensity factor, finite element method, precise time domain expanding algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
60 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi


This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
59 A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram

Authors: Ramesh Rajagopalan, Adam Dahlstrom


Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and power-line interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz power-line interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.

Keywords: notch filter, ECG, transient, pole radius

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
58 Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Jeng-Jie Huang


Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper employs a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to reject the disturbance. A notch filter with an adaptive tuning algorithm, the leaky filtered-X least mean square algorithm (leaky FXLMS algorithm), is developed and applied to the system. Experimental results show that the controller and MFC actuator was very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. Furthermore, this notch filter controller was compared with the traditional skyhook controller. It was found that its performance was better, with over 88% vibration suppression near the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: macro-fiber composite, notch filter, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
57 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad


A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: HFSS, Notch, UWB, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
56 Stress and Strain Analysis of Notched Bodies Subject to Non-Proportional Loadings

Authors: Ayhan Ince


In this paper, an analytical simplified method for calculating elasto-plastic stresses strains of notched bodies subject to non-proportional loading paths is discussed. The method was based on the Neuber notch correction, which relates the incremental elastic and elastic-plastic strain energy densities at the notch root and the material constitutive relationship. The validity of the method was presented by comparing computed results of the proposed model against finite element numerical data of notched shaft. The comparison showed that the model estimated notch-root elasto-plastic stresses strains with good accuracy using linear-elastic stresses. The prosed model provides more efficient and simple analysis method preferable to expensive experimental component tests and more complex and time consuming incremental non-linear FE analysis. The model is particularly suitable to perform fatigue life and fatigue damage estimates of notched components subjected to non-proportional loading paths.

Keywords: elasto-plastic, stress-strain, notch analysis, nonprortional loadings, cyclic plasticity, fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
55 Effects of Position and Cut-Out Lengths on the Axial Crushing Behavior of Aluminum Tubes: Experimental and Simulation

Authors: B. Käfer, V. K. Bheemineni, H. Lammer, M. Kotnik, F. O. Riemelmoser


Axial compression tests are performed on circular tubes made of Aluminum EN AW 6060 (AlMgSi0.5 alloy) in T66 state. All the received tubes have the uniform outer diameter of 40mm and thickness of 1.5mm. Two different lengths 100mm and 200mm are used in the analysis. After performing compression tests on the uniform tube, important crashworthy parameters like peak force, average force, crush efficiency and energy absorption are measured. The present paper has given importance to increase the percentage of crush efficiency without decreasing the value energy absorption of a tube, so a circumferential notch was introduced on the top section of the tube. The effects of position and cut-out lengths of a circumferential notch on the crush efficiency are well explained with relative deformation modes and force-displacement curves. The numerical simulations were carried on the software tool ANSYS/LS-DYNA. It is seen that the numerical results are reasonably good in agreement with the experimental results. 

Keywords: crash box, Notch triggering, energy absorption, FEM simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
54 Gene Prediction in DNA Sequences Using an Ensemble Algorithm Based on Goertzel Algorithm and Anti-Notch Filter

Authors: Hamidreza Saberkari, Mousa Shamsi, Hossein Ahmadi, Saeed Vaali, , MohammadHossein Sedaaghi


In the recent years, using signal processing tools for accurate identification of the protein coding regions has become a challenge in bioinformatics. Most of the genomic signal processing methods is based on the period-3 characteristics of the nucleoids in DNA strands and consequently, spectral analysis is applied to the numerical sequences of DNA to find the location of periodical components. In this paper, a novel ensemble algorithm for gene selection in DNA sequences has been presented which is based on the combination of Goertzel algorithm and anti-notch filter (ANF). The proposed algorithm has many advantages when compared to other conventional methods. Firstly, it leads to identify the coding protein regions more accurate due to using the Goertzel algorithm which is tuned at the desired frequency. Secondly, faster detection time is achieved. The proposed algorithm is applied on several genes, including genes available in databases BG570 and HMR195 and their results are compared to other methods based on the nucleotide level evaluation criteria. Implementation results show the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm in identifying protein coding regions, specifically in identification of small-scale gene areas.

Keywords: protein coding regions, period-3, anti-notch filter, Goertzel algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
53 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar


So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: crack, FRP, shear, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
52 Application of the Experimental Planning Design to the Notched Precracked Tensile Fracture of Composite

Authors: N. Mahmoudi, B. Guedim


Composite materials have important assets compared to traditional materials. They bring many functional advantages: lightness, mechanical resistance and chemical, etc. In the present study we examine the effect of a circular central notch and a precrack on the tensile fracture of two woven composite materials. The tensile tests were applied to a standardized specimen, notched and a precracked (orientation of the crack 0°, 45°, and 90°). These tensile tests were elaborated according to an experimental planning design of the type 23.31 requiring 24 experiments with three repetitions. By the analysis of regression, we obtained a mathematical model describing the maximum load according to the influential parameters (hole diameter, precrack length, angle of a precrack orientation). The specimens precracked at 90° have a better behavior than those having a precrack at 45° and still better than those having of the precracks oriented at 0°. In addition the maximum load is inversely proportional to the notch size.

Keywords: polymer matrix, glasses, fracture, precracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
51 Enhancement of Fracture Toughness for Low-Temperature Applications in Mild Steel Weldments

Authors: Manjinder Singh, Jasvinder Singh


Existing theories of Titanic/Liberty ship, Sydney bridge accidents and practical experience generated an interest in developing weldments those has high toughness under sub-zero temperature conditions. The purpose was to protect the joint from undergoing DBT (Ductile to brittle transition), when ambient temperature reach sub-zero levels. Metallurgical improvement such as low carbonization or addition of deoxidization elements like Mn and Si was effective to prevent fracture in weldments (crack) at low temperature. In the present research, an attempt has been made to investigate the reason behind ductile to brittle transition of mild steel weldments when subjected to sub-zero temperatures and method of its mitigation. Nickel is added to weldments using manual metal arc welding (MMAW) preventing the DBT, but progressive reduction in charpy impact values as temperature is lowered. The variation in toughness with respect to nickel content being added to the weld pool is analyzed quantitatively to evaluate the rise in toughness value with increasing nickel amount. The impact performance of welded specimens was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact tests at various temperatures (20 °C, 0 °C, -20 °C, -40 °C, -60 °C). Notch is made in the weldments, as notch sensitive failure is particularly likely to occur at zones of high stress concentration caused by a notch. Then the effect of nickel to weldments is investigated at various temperatures was studied by mechanical and metallurgical tests. It was noted that a large gain in impact toughness could be achieved by adding nickel content. The highest yield strength (462J) in combination with good impact toughness (over 220J at – 60 °C) was achieved with an alloying content of 16 wt. %nickel. Based on metallurgical behavior it was concluded that the weld metals solidify as austenite with increase in nickel. The microstructure was characterized using optical and high resolution SEM (scanning electron microscopy). At inter-dendritic regions mainly martensite was found. In dendrite core regions of the low carbon weld metals a mixture of upper bainite, lower bainite and a novel constituent coalesced bainite formed. Coalesced bainite was characterized by large bainitic ferrite grains with cementite precipitates and is believed to form when the bainite and martensite start temperatures are close to each other. Mechanical properties could be rationalized in terms of micro structural constituents as a function of nickel content.

Keywords: MMAW, Toughness, DBT, Notch, SEM, Coalesced bainite

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50 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna


Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
49 Estimating the Effect of Fluid in Pressing Process

Authors: A. Movaghar, R. A. Mahdavinejad


To analyze the effect of various parameters of fluid on the material properties such as surface and depth defects and/or cracks, it is possible to determine the affection of pressure field on these specifications. Stress tensor analysis is also able to determine the points in which the probability of defection creation is more. Besides, from pressure field, it is possible to analyze the affection of various fluid specifications such as viscosity and density on defect created in the material. In this research, the concerned boundary conditions are analyzed first. Then the solution network and stencil used are mentioned. With the determination of relevant equation on the fluid flow between notch and matrix and their discretion according to the governed boundary conditions, these equations can be solved. Finally, with the variation creations on fluid parameters such as density and viscosity, the affection of these variations can be determined on pressure field. In this direction, the flowchart and solution algorithm with their results as vortex and current function contours for two conditions with most applications in pressing process are introduced and discussed.

Keywords: pressing, notch, matrix, flow function, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
48 A Grid Synchronization Method Based On Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT

Authors: Priyanka Chaudhary, M. Rizwan


This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic systems, MPPT, voltage source converter, grid synchronization technique

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47 Enhancing Institutional Roles and Managerial Instruments for Irrigation Modernization in Sudan: The Case of Gezira Scheme

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abdelmawla


Calling to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) engaged with agriculture, i.e. poverty alleviation targets, human resources involved in agricultural sectors with special emphasis on irrigation must receive wealth of practical experience and training. Increased food production, including staple food, is needed to overcome the present and future threats to food security. This should happen within a framework of sustainable management of natural resources, elimination of unsustainable methods of production and poverty reduction (i.e. axes of modernization). A didactic tool to confirm the task of wise and maximum utility is the best management and accurate measurement, as major requisites for modernization process. The key component to modernization as a warranted goal is adhering great attention to management and measurement issues via capacity building. As such, this paper stressed the issues of discharge management and measurement by Field Outlet Pipes (FOP) for selected ones within the Gezira Scheme, where randomly nine FOPs were selected as representative locations. These FOPs extended along the Gezira Main Canal at Kilo 57 areas in the South up to Kilo 194 in the North. The following steps were followed during the field data collection and measurements: For each selected FOP, a 90 v- notch thin plate weir was placed in such away that the water was directed to pass only through the notch. An optical survey level was used to measure the water head of the notch and FOP. Both calculated discharge rates as measured by the v – notch, denoted as [Qc], and the adopted discharges given by (MOIWR), denoted as [Qa], are tackled for the average of three replicated readings undertaken at each location. The study revealed that the FOP overestimates and sometimes underestimates the discharges. This is attributed to the fact that the original design specifications were not fulfilled or met at present conditions where water is allowed to flow day and night with high head fluctuation, knowing that the FOP is non modular structure, i.e. the flow depends on both levels upstream and downstream and confirmed by the results of this study. It is convenient and formative to quantify the discharge in FOP with weirs or Parshall flumes. Cropping calendar should be clearly determined and agreed upon before the beginning of the season in accordance and consistency with the Sudan Gezira Board (SGB) and Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources. As such, the water indenting should be based on actual Crop Water Requirements (CWRs), not on rules of thumb (420 m3/feddan, irrespective of crop or time of season).

Keywords: management, measurement, MDGs, modernization

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
46 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture Behavior of Foamed Concrete Based on Three-Point Bending Test of Beams with Initial Notch

Authors: M. Kozłowski, M. Kadela


Foamed concrete is known for its low self-weight and excellent thermal and acoustic properties. For many years, it has been used worldwide for insulation to foundations and roof tiles, as backfill to retaining walls, sound insulation, etc. However, in the last years it has become a promising material also for structural purposes e.g. for stabilization of weak soils. Due to favorable properties of foamed concrete, many interests and studies were involved to analyze its strength, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties. However, these studies do not cover the investigation of fracture energy which is the core factor governing the damage and fracture mechanisms. Only limited number of publications can be found in literature. The paper presents the results of experimental investigation and numerical campaign of foamed concrete based on three-point bending test of beams with initial notch. First part of the paper presents the results of a series of static loading tests performed to investigate the fracture properties of foamed concrete of varying density. Beam specimens with dimensions of 100×100×840 mm with a central notch were tested in three-point bending. Subsequently, remaining halves of the specimens with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm were tested again as un-notched beams in the same set-up with reduced distance between supports. The tests were performed in a hydraulic displacement controlled testing machine with a load capacity of 5 kN. Apart from measuring the loading and mid-span displacement, a crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was monitored. Based on the load – displacement curves of notched beams the values of fracture energy and tensile stress at failure were calculated. The flexural tensile strength was obtained on un-notched beams with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm. Moreover, cube specimens 150×150×150 mm were tested in compression to determine the compressive strength. Second part of the paper deals with numerical investigation of the fracture behavior of beams with initial notch presented in the first part of the paper. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to simulate and analyze the damage and fracture process. The influence of meshing and variation of mechanical properties on results was investigated. Numerical models simulate correctly the behavior of beams observed during three-point bending. The numerical results show that XFEM can be used to simulate different fracture toughness of foamed concrete and fracture types. Using the XFEM and computer simulation technology allow for reliable approximation of load–bearing capacity and damage mechanisms of beams made of foamed concrete, which provides some foundations for realistic structural applications.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fracture energy, three-point bending, XFEM

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45 Tensile Behavior of Oil Palm Fiber Concrete (OPFC) with Different Fiber Volume

Authors: Khairul Zahreen Mohd Arof, Rahimah Muhamad


Oil palm fiber (OPF) is a fibrous material produced from the waste of palm oil industry which is suitable to be used in construction industry. The applications of OPF in concrete can reduce the material costs and enhance concrete behavior. Dog-bone test provides significant results for investigating the behavior of fiber reinforced concrete under tensile loading. It is able to provide stress-strain profile, modulus of elasticity, stress at cracking point and total crack width. In this research, dog-bone tests have been conducted to analyze total crack width, stress-strain profile, and modulus of elasticity of OPFC. Specimens are in a dog-bone shape with a long notch in the middle as compared to the end, to ensure cracks occur only within the notch. Tests were instrumented using a universal testing machine Shimadzu 300kN, a linear variable differential transformer and two strain gauges. A total of nine specimens with different fibers at fiber volume fractions of 0.75%, 1.00%, and 1.25% have been tested to analyze the behavior under tensile loading. Also, three specimens of plain concrete fiber have been tested as control specimens. The tensile test of all specimens have been carried out for concrete age exceed 28 days. It shows that OPFC able to reduce total crack width. In addition, OPFC has higher cracking stress than plain concrete. The study shows plain concrete can be improved with the addition of OPF.

Keywords: cracks, crack width, dog-bone test, oil palm fiber concrete

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44 The Evaluation for Interfacial Adhesion between SOFC and Metal Adhesive in the High Temperature Environment

Authors: Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, Oh Heon Kwon


The unit cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must be stacked as several layers type to obtain the high power. The most of researcher have concerned about the performance of stacked SOFC rather than the structural stability of stacked SOFC and especially interested how to design for reducing the electrical loss and improving the high efficiency. Consequently, the stacked SOFC able to produce the electrical high power and related parts like as manifold, gas seal, bipolar plate were developed to optimize the stack design. However, the unit cell of SOFC was just layered on the interconnector without the adhesion and the hydrogen and oxygen were injected to the interfacial layer in the high temperature. On the operating condition, the interfacial layer can be the one of the weak point in the stacked SOFC. Therefore the evaluation of the structural safety for the failure is essentially needed. In this study, interfacial adhesion between SOFC and metal adhesive was estimated in the high temperature environment. The metal adhesive was used to strongly connect the unit cell of SOFC with interconnector and provide the electrical conductivity between them. The four point bending test was performed to measure the interfacial adhesion. The unit cell of SOFC and SiO2 wafer were diced and then attached by metal adhesive. The SiO2 wafer had the center notch to initiate a crack from the tip of the notch. The modified stereomicroscope combined with the CCD camera and system for measuring the length was used to observe the fracture behavior. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion was evaluated in the high temperature condition because the metal adhesive was affected by high temperature. Also the specimen was exposed in the furnace during several hours and then the interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Finally, the interfacial adhesion energy was quantitatively determined and compared in the each condition.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), metal adhesive, adhesion, high temperature

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43 Survey of Prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Hawkers and Shopkeepers in Noisy Areas of Mumbai City

Authors: Hitesh Kshayap, Shantanu Arya, Ajay Basod, Sachin Sakhuja


This study was undertaken to measure the overall noise levels in different locations/zones and to estimate the prevalence of Noise induced hearing loss in Hawkers & Shopkeepers in Mumbai, India. The Hearing Test developed by American Academy Of Otolaryngology, translated from English to Hindi, and validated is used as a screening tool for hearing sensitivity was employed. The tool is having 14 items. Each item is scored on a scale 0, 1, 2 and 3. The score 6 and above indicated some difficulty or definite difficulty in hearing in daily activities and low score indicated lesser difficulty or normal hearing. The subjects who scored 6 or above or having tinnitus were made to undergo hearing evaluation by Pure tone audiometer. Further, the environmental noise levels were measured from Morning to Evening at road side at different Location/Hawking zones in Mumbai city using SLM9 Agronic 8928B & K type Digital Sound Level Meter) in dB (A). The maximum noise level of 100.0 dB (A) was recorded during evening hours from Chattrapati Shivaji Terminal to Colaba with overall noise level of 79.0 dB (A). However, the minimum noise level in this area was 72.6 dB (A) at any given point of time. Further, 54.6 dB (A) was recorded as minimum noise level during 8-9 am at Sion Circle. Further, commencement of flyovers with 2-tier traffic, sky walks, increasing number of vehicular traffic at road, high rise buildings and other commercial & urbanization activities in the Mumbai city most probably have resulted in increasing the overall environmental noise levels. Trees which acted as noise absorbers have been cut owing to rapid construction. The study involved 100 participants in the age range of 18 to 40 years of age, with the mean age of 29 years (S.D. =6.49). 46 participants having tinnitus or have obtained the score of 6 were made to undergo Pure Tone Audiometry and it was found that the prevalence rate of hearing loss in hawkers & shopkeepers is 19% (10% Hawkers and 9 % Shopkeepers). The results found indicates that 29 (42.6%) out of 64 Hawkers and 17 (47.2%) out of 36 Shopkeepers who underwent PTA had no significant difference in percentage of Noise Induced Hearing loss. The study results also reveal that participants who exhibited tinnitus 19 (41.30%) out of 46 were having mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss between 3000Hz to 6000Hz. The Pure tone Audiogram pattern revealed Hearing loss at 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz while hearing at adjacent frequencies were nearly normal. 7 hawkers and 8 shopkeepers had mild notch while 3 hawkers and 1 shopkeeper had a moderate degree of notch. It is thus inferred that tinnitus is a strong indicator for presence of hearing loss and 4/6 KHz notch is a strong marker for road/traffic/ environmental noise as an occupational hazard for hawkers and shopkeepers. Mass awareness about these occupational hazards, regular hearing check up, early intervention along with sustainable development juxtaposed with social and urban forestry can help in this regard.

Keywords: NIHL, noise, sound level meter, tinnitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
42 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki


In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield stress of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigate that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

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41 Investigations on the Fatigue Behavior of Welded Details with Imperfections

Authors: Helen Bartsch, Markus Feldmann


The dimensioning of steel structures subject to fatigue loads, such as wind turbines, bridges, masts and towers, crane runways and weirs or components in crane construction, is often dominated by fatigue verification. The fatigue details defined by the welded connections, such as butt or cruciform joints, longitudinal welds, welded-on or welded-in stiffeners, etc., are decisive. In Europe, the verification is usually carried out according to EN 1993-1-9 on a nominal stress basis. The basis is the detailed catalog, which specifies the fatigue strength of the various weld and construction details according to fatigue classes. Until now, a relation between fatigue classes and weld imperfection sizes is not included. Quality levels for imperfections in fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys are regulated in EN ISO 5817, which, however, doesn’t contain direct correlations to fatigue resistances. The question arises whether some imperfections might be tolerable to a certain extent since they may be present in the test data used for detail classifications dating back decades ago. Although current standardization requires proof of satisfying limits of imperfection sizes, it would also be possible to tolerate welds with certain irregularities if these can be reliably quantified by non-destructive testing. Fabricators would be prepared to undertake carefully and sustained weld inspection in view of the significant economic consequences of such unfavorable fatigue classes. This paper presents investigations on the fatigue behavior of common welded details containing imperfections. In contrast to the common nominal stress concept, local fatigue concepts were used to consider the true stress increase, i.e., local stresses at the weld toe and root. The actual shape of a weld comprising imperfections, e.g., gaps or undercuts, can be incorporated into the fatigue evaluation, usually on a numerical basis. With the help of the effective notch stress concept, the fatigue resistance of detailed local weld shapes is assessed. Validated numerical models serve to investigate notch factors of fatigue details with different geometries. By utilizing parametrized ABAQUS routines, detailed numerical studies have been performed. Depending on the shape and size of different weld irregularities, fatigue classes can be defined. As well load-carrying welded details, such as the cruciform joint, as non-load carrying welded details, e.g., welded-on or welded-in stiffeners, are regarded. The investigated imperfections include, among others, undercuts, excessive convexity, incorrect weld toe, excessive asymmetry and insufficient or excessive throat thickness. Comparisons of the impact of different imperfections on the different types of fatigue details are made. Moreover, the influence of a combination of crucial weld imperfections on the fatigue resistance is analyzed. With regard to the trend of increasing efficiency in steel construction, the overall aim of the investigations is to include a more economical differentiation of fatigue details with regard to tolerance sizes. In the long term, the harmonization of design standards, execution standards and regulations of weld imperfections is intended.

Keywords: effective notch stress, fatigue, fatigue design, weld imperfections

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40 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki


In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

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39 A Current Problem for Steel Bridges: Fatigue Assessment of Seams´ Repair

Authors: H. Pasternak, A. Chwastek


The paper describes the results from a research project about repair of welds. The repair was carried out by grinding the flawed seams and re-welding them. The main task was to determine the FAT classes of original state and after repair of seams according to the assessment procedures, such as nominal, structural and effective notch stress approach. The first part shows the results of the tests, the second part encloses numerical analysis and evaluation of results to determine the fatigue strength classes according to three assessment procedures.

Keywords: cyclic loading, fatigue crack, post-weld treatment, seams’ repair

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38 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre


Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

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37 Simplified Linearized Layering Method for Stress Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna, Bradley Storm


This paper looks to reduce the complexity of determining stress intensity factors while maintaining high levels of accuracy by the use of a linearized layering approach. Many techniques for stress intensity factor determination exist, but they can be limited by conservative results, requiring too many user parameters, or by being too computationally intensive. Multiple notch geometries with various crack lengths were investigated in this study to better understand the effectiveness of the proposed method. By linearizing the average stresses in radial layers around the crack tip, stress intensity factors were found to have error ranging from -10.03% to 8.94% when compared to analytically exact solutions. This approach proved to be a robust and efficient method of accurately determining stress intensity factors.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress linearization

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36 Comparison of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses in Laser and Electron Beam Welded Ti–5Al–2.5Sn Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. N. Baig, F. N. Khan, M. Junaid


Titanium alloys are widely employed in aerospace, medical, chemical, and marine applications. These alloys offer many advantages such as low specific weight, high strength to weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, high melting point and good fatigue behavior. These attractive properties make titanium alloys very unique and therefore they require special attention in all areas of processing, especially welding. In this work, 1.6 mm thick sheets of Ti-5Al-2,5Sn, an alpha titanium (α-Ti) alloy, were welded using electron beam (EBW) and laser beam (LBW) welding processes to achieve a full penetration Bead-on Plate (BoP) configuration. The weldments were studied using polarized optical microscope, SEM, EDS and XRD. Microhardness distribution across the weld zone and smooth and notch tensile strengths of the weldments were also recorded. Residual stresses using Hole-drill Strain Measurement (HDSM) method and deformation patterns of the weldments were measured for the purpose of comparison of the two welding processes. Fusion zone widths of both EBW and LBW weldments were found to be approximately equivalent owing to fairly similar high power densities of both the processes. Relatively less oxide content and consequently high joint quality were achieved in EBW weldment as compared to LBW due to vacuum environment and absence of any shielding gas. However, an increase in heat-affected zone width and partial ά-martensitic transformation infusion zone of EBW weldment were observed because of lesser cooling rates associated with EBW as compared with LBW. The microstructure infusion zone of EBW weldment comprised both acicular α and ά martensite within the prior β grains whereas complete ά martensitic transformation was observed within the fusion zone of LBW weldment. Hardness of the fusion zone in EBW weldment was found to be lower than the fusion zone of LBW weldment due to the observed microstructural differences. Notch tensile specimen of LBW exhibited higher load capacity, ductility, and absorbed energy as compared with EBW specimen due to the presence of high strength ά martensitic phase. It was observed that the sheet deformation and deformation angle in EBW weldment were more than LBW weldment due to relatively more heat retention in EBW which led to more thermal strains and hence higher deformations and deformation angle. The lowest residual stresses were found in LBW weldments which were tensile in nature. This was owing to high power density and higher cooling rates associated with LBW process. EBW weldment exhibited highest compressive residual stresses due to which the service life of EBW weldment is expected to improve.

Keywords: Laser and electron beam welding, Microstructure and mechanical properties, Residual stress and distortions, Titanium alloys

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35 EEG Signal Processing Methods to Differentiate Mental States

Authors: Sun H. Hwang, Young E. Lee, Yunhan Ga, Gilwon Yoon


EEG is a very complex signal with noises and other bio-potential interferences. EOG is the most distinct interfering signal when EEG signals are measured and analyzed. It is very important how to process raw EEG signals in order to obtain useful information. In this study, the EEG signal processing techniques such as EOG filtering and outlier removal were examined to minimize unwanted EOG signals and other noises. The two different mental states of resting and focusing were examined through EEG analysis. A focused state was induced by letting subjects to watch a red dot on the white screen. EEG data for 32 healthy subjects were measured. EEG data after 60-Hz notch filtering were processed by a commercially available EOG filtering and our presented algorithm based on the removal of outliers. The ratio of beta wave to theta wave was used as a parameter for determining the degree of focusing. The results show that our algorithm was more appropriate than the existing EOG filtering.

Keywords: EEG, focus, mental state, outlier, signal processing

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34 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil


Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fiber, polyethylene, polymer nanocomposite, impact strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 436