Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 664

Search results for: friction stir welding(FSW)

664 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
663 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
662 Friction Stir Welding of Al-Mg-Mn Aluminum Alloy Plates: A Review

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jayakumar

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Friction stir welding process eliminates the defects found in fusion welding processes. It is environmentally friend process. 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation industries. The Al-Mg-Mn (5000) and Al-Mg-Si (6000) alloys are preferably offer best combination of use in Marine construction. The medium strength and high corrosion resistant 5000 series alloys are the aluminum alloys, which are found maximum utility in the world. In this review, the tool pin profile, process parameters such as hardness, yield strength and tensile strength, and microstructural evolution of friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Mn alloys (5000 Series) have been discussed.

Keywords: Al-Mg-Mn alloys, friction stir welding, tool pin profile, microstructure and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
661 Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys on Normal Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding for Structural Applications

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Laxmi Mohan Kumar Chintada, Devadas Deepu, Pravin Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is the new-fangled and cutting-edge technique in welding applications; it is widely used in the fields of transportation, aerospace, defense, etc. For thriving significant welding joints and properties of friction stir welded components, it is essential to carry out this advanced process in a prescribed systematic procedure. At this moment, Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) Process is the field of interest to do research work. In the continuous assessment, the study of UFSW process is to comprehend problems occurred in the past and the structure through which the mechanical properties of the welded joints can be value-added and contributes to conclude results an acceptable and resourceful joint. A meticulous criticism is given on how to modify the experimental setup from NFSW to UFSW. It can discern the influence of tool materials, feeds, spindle angle, load, rotational speeds and mechanical properties. By expending the DEFORM-3D simulation software, the achieved outcomes are validated.

Keywords: Underwater Friction Stir Welding(UFSW), Al alloys, mechanical properties, Normal Friction Stir Welding(NFSW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
660 Review of Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar 5000 and 6000 Series Aluminum Alloy Plates

Authors: K. Subbaiah

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Friction stir welding process eliminates the defects found in fusion welding processes. It is environmentally friend process. 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation industries. The Al-Mg-Mn (5000) and Al-Mg-Si (6000) alloys are preferably offer best combination of use in Marine construction. The medium strength and high corrosion resistant 5000 series alloys are the aluminum alloys, which are found maximum utility in the world. In this review, the tool pin profile, process parameters such as hardness, yield strength and tensile strength, and microstructural evolution of friction stir welding of Al-Mg alloys 5000 Series and 6000 series have been discussed.

Keywords: 5000 series and 6000 series Al alloys, friction stir welding, tool pin profile, microstructure and properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
659 The Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Bonded Joint between AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

Authors: Richard E. Miller

Abstract:

12.7-mm thick plates of 6061-T6511 aluminum alloy and high hardness steel (528 HV) were successfully joined by a friction stir bonding process using a tungsten-rhenium stir tool. Process parameter variation experiments, which included tool design geometry, plunge and traverse rates, tool offset, spindle tilt, and rotation speed, were conducted to develop a parameter set which yielded a defect free joint. Laboratory tensile tests exhibited yield stresses which exceed the strengths of comparable AA6061-to-AA6061 fusion and friction stir weld joints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis also show atomic diffusion at the material interface region.

Keywords: dissimilar materials, friction stir, welding, materials science

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
658 Hardness Analysis of Samples of Friction Stir Welded Joints of (Al-Cu)

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a Solid-State joining process. Unlike fusion welding techniques it does not involve operation above the melting point temperature of metals, but above the re-crystallization temperature. FSW also does not involve fusion of other material. FSW of ALUMINIUM has been commercialized and recent studies on joining dissimilar metals have been studied. Friction stir welding was introduced and patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute. For this paper, a total of nine samples each of copper and ALUMINIUM(Dissimilar metals) were welded using FSW process and Vickers Hardness were conducted on each of the samples.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), recrystallization temperature, dissimilar metals, aluminium-copper, Vickers hardness test

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
657 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
656 Optimization in Friction Stir Processing Method with Emphasis on Optimized Process Parameters Laboratory Research

Authors: Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhch

Abstract:

Friction stir processing (FSP) has promised for application of thermo-mechanical processing techniques where aims to change the micro structural and mechanical properties of materials in order to obtain high performance and reducing the production time and cost. There are lots of studies focused on the microstructure of friction stir welded aluminum alloys. The main focus of this research is on the grain size obtained in the weld zone. Moreover in second part focused on temperature distribution effect over the entire weld zone and its effects on the microstructure. Also, there is a need to have more efforts on investigating to obtain the optimal value of effective parameters such as rotational speed on microstructure and to use the optimum tool designing method. the final results of this study will be present the variation of structural and mechanical properties of materials in the base of applying Friction stir processing and effect of (FSP) processing and tensile testing on surface quality. in the hand, this research addresses the FSP f AA-7020 aluminum and variation f ration of rotation and translational speeds.

Keywords: friction stir processing, AA-7020, thermo-mechanical, microstructure, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
655 Investigation on the Effect of Welding Parameters in Additive Friction Stir Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 66 Composite

Authors: Nandhini Ravi, Muthukumaran Shanmugam

Abstract:

Metals are being replaced by thermoplastic polymer composites in automotive industries because of their low density, easiness to fabricate, low cost and good wear resistance. Complex polymer components consist of assemblies of smaller parts which can be joined by friction stir welding. This study deals with the additive friction stir welding of 15 wt.% glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 composite which is a modified technique of the conventional friction stir welding by the addition of a filler plate for the heating of the composite work piece through the tool during the welding process. Welding at different combinations of tool rotational speed, travel speed and tool plunge depth was done after which the tensile strength of the respective experiments was determined. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 77 MPa which was 80% of the strength of the base material. The process parameters were optimized using the L9 orthogonal array and also the effect of individual welding parameter on the tensile strength was studied. The optimum parameter combination was determined with the help of ANOVA studies. The hardness of the welded joints was studied with the help of Shore Durometer which yielded the maximum of D 75.

Keywords: additive friction stir welding, polyamide 66, process parameters, thermoplastic polymer composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
654 Studying the Possibility to Weld AA1100 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding

Authors: Ahmad K. Jassim, Raheem Kh. Al-Subar

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a modern and an environmentally friendly solid state joining process used to joint relatively lighter family of materials. Recently, friction stir spot welding has been used instead of resistance spot welding which has received considerable attention from the automotive industry. It is environmentally friendly process that eliminated heat and pollution. In this research, friction stir spot welding has been used to study the possibility to weld AA1100 aluminum alloy sheet with 3 mm thickness by overlapping the edges of sheet as lap joint. The process was done using a drilling machine instead of milling machine. Different tool rotational speeds of 760, 1065, 1445, and 2000 RPM have been applied with manual and automatic compression to study their effect on the quality of welded joints. Heat generation, pressure applied, and depth of tool penetration have been measured during the welding process. The result shows that there is a possibility to weld AA1100 sheets; however, there is some surface defect that happened due to insufficient condition of welding. Moreover, the relationship between rotational speed, pressure, heat generation and tool depth penetration was created.

Keywords: friction, spot, stir, environmental, sustainable, AA1100 aluminum alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
653 Optimization of Friction Stir Spot Welding Process Parameters for Joining 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Mohammed A. Tashkandi, Jawdat A. Al-Jarrah, Masoud Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper investigates the shear strength of the joints produced by friction stir spot welding process (FSSW). FSSW parameters such as tool rotational speed, plunge depth, shoulder diameter of the welding tool and dwell time play the major role in determining the shear strength of the joints. The effect of these four parameters on FSSW process as well as the shear strength of the welded joints was studied via five levels of each parameter. Taguchi method was used to minimize the number of experiments required to determine the fracture load of the friction stir spot-welded joints by incorporating independently controllable FSSW parameters. Taguchi analysis was applied to optimize the FSSW parameters to attain the maximum shear strength of the spot weld for this type of aluminum alloy.

Keywords: Friction Stir Spot Welding, Al6061 alloy, Shear Strength, FSSW process parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
652 Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets

Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici, Memduh Kurtulmuş, İlyas Kartal, Ahmet İrfan Yükler

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.

Keywords: friction stir welding, mechanical properties, polyethylene, high density polyethylene, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
651 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
650 Investigation of Optimized Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Al6063 Alloy

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Narasa Raju Gosangi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is relatively new, environmentally friendly, versatile, and widely used joining technique for soft materials such as aluminum. FSW has got a lot of attention as a solid-state joining method which avoids many common problems of fusion welding and provides an improved way of producing aluminum joints in a faster way. FSW can be used for various aerospace, defense, automotive and transportation applications. It is necessary to understand the friction stir welded joints and its characteristics to use this new joining technique in critical applications. This study investigated the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum 6063 alloys. FSW is carried out based on the design of experiments using L16 mixed level array by considering tool rotational speeds, tool feed rate and tool tilt angles as process parameters. The optimization of process parameters is carried by Taguchi based regression analysis and the significance of process parameters is analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that the considered process parameters are high influences the mechanical properties of Al6063.

Keywords: FSW, aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, optimization, Taguchi, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
649 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
648 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Ankur Gill, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
647 Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Aluminium Alloys using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, A. M. El-Kassas, I. Sabry

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties in order to demonstrate the feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminium alloys. Welding was performed on pipe with different thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm), five rotational speeds (485, 710, 910, 1120 and 1400 rpm) and a traverse speed of 4mm/min. This work focuses on two methods which are artificial neural networks using software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminium alloy. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. Tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters tool rotation speed, material thickness and axial force as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was also developed and the values obtained for the response tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameters on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminium alloy has been analysed in detail.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, response surface methodology, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
646 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
645 Thermal Analysis of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Materials with Different Preheating Conditions

Authors: Prashant S. Humnabad

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The objective of this work is to carry out a thermal heat transfer analysis to obtain the time dependent temperature field in welding process friction stir welded dissimilar materials with different preheating temperature. A series of joints were made on four mm thick aluminum and steel plates. The temperature used was 100ºC, 150ºC and 200ºC. The welding operation was performed with different rotational speeds and traverse speed (1000, 1400 and 2000 rmp and 16, 20 and 25 mm/min..). In numerical model, the welded plate was modeled as the weld line is the symmetric line. The work-piece has dimensions of 100x100x4 mm. The obtained result was compared with experimental result, which shows good agreement and within the acceptable limit. The peak temperature at the weld zone increases significantly with respect to increase in process time.

Keywords: FEA, thermal analysis, preheating, friction stir welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
644 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: friction stir welding, fatigue and tensile test, Al alloys, microstructural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
643 The Joint Properties for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Tubes

Authors: Ahbdelfattah M. Khourshid, T. Elabeidi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical investigation, Optic Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for base and weld zones.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), Al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

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642 Microstructure and Mechanical Evaluation of PMMA/Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Fabricated via Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Reham K. El Sawah, N. S. M. El-Tayeb

Abstract:

This study aims to produce a polymer matrix composite reinforced with Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in order to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA. The composite was fabricated via Friction stir processing to ensure homogenous dispersion of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in the polymer, and the processing was submerged to prevent the sputtering of nanoparticles. The surface quality, microstructure, impact energy and hardness of the prepared samples were investigated. Good surface quality and dispersion of nanoparticles were attained through employing sufficient processing conditions. The experimental results indicated that as the percentage of nanoparticles increased, the impact energy and hardness increased, reaching 2 kJ/m2 and 14.7 HV at a nanoparticle concentration of 25%, which means that the toughness and the hardness of the polymer-ceramic produced composite is higher than unprocessed PMMA by 66% and 33% respectively.

Keywords: friction stir processing, polymer matrix nanocomposite, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
641 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
640 Mechanical Analysis and Characterization of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Jaswinder Kumar, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface processing technique. A single-pass FSP was performed on Aluminum alloy at combinations of different tool rotational speeds with cylindrical threaded pin profiled tool. The effect of these parameters on tribological properties was studied. The wear resistance is found to be increased from base metal to a single pass FSP sample. The results revealed that with an increase in tool rotational speed, the wear rate increases. The high heat generation causes matrix softening, which results in an increased wear rate; on the other hand, high heat generation leads to coarse grains, which also affected tribological properties. Furthermore, Microstructure results showed that FSPed alloy has a more refined grain structure as compare to the base material, which may be resulted in enhancement of hardness and resistance to wear in FSP.

Keywords: friction stir processing, aluminium alloy, microhardness, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
639 Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process for Joining Aluminum Alloy

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, I. Sabry

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2 mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminum alloy welding was performed on pipe with different thickness 2, 3 and 4 mm,five rotational speeds (485,710,910,1120 and 1400) rpm and a traverse speed (4, 8 and 10)mm/min was applied. This work focuses on two methods such as artificial neural networks using software (pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. The tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters Tool rotation speed, material thickness and travel speed as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed and the values obtained for the response Tensile strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameter on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy has been analyzed in detail.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
638 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Sukhdeep Singh Gill, Gurbhinder Singh Brar

Abstract:

In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: aluminum, friction stir welding, magnesium, structural applications, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
637 High-Temperature Behavior of Boiler Steel by Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Supreet Singh, Manpreet Kaur, Manoj Kumar

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High temperature corrosion is an imperative material degradation method experienced in thermal power plants and other energy generation sectors. Metallic materials such as ferritic steels have special properties such as easy fabrication and machinibilty, low cost, but a serious drawback of these materials is the worsening in properties initiating from the interaction with the environments. The metallic materials do not endure higher temperatures for extensive period of time because of their poor corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Processing (FSP), has emerged as the potent surface modification means and control of microstructure in thermo mechanically heat affecting zones of various metal alloys. In the current research work, FSP was done on the boiler tube of SA 210 Grade A1 material which is regularly used by thermal power plants. The strengthening of SA210 Grade A1 boiler steel through microstructural refinement by Friction Stir Processing (FSP) and analyze the effect of the same on high temperature corrosion behavior. The high temperature corrosion performance of the unprocessed and the FSPed specimens were evaluated in the laboratory using molten salt environment of Na₂SO₄-82%Fe₂(SO₄). The unprocessed and FSPed low carbon steel Gr A1 evaluation was done in terms of microstructure, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties like hardness- tensile. The in-depth characterization was done by EBSD, SEM/EDS and X-ray mapping analyses with an aim to propose the mechanism behind high temperature corrosion behavior of the FSPed steel.

Keywords: boiler steel, characterization, corrosion, EBSD/SEM/EDS/XRD, friction stir processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
636 Material Flow Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Alloy and Study of the Effect of Process Parameters

Authors: B. SahaRoy, T. Medhi, S. C. Saha

Abstract:

To understand the friction stir welding process, it is very important to know the nature of the material flow in and around the tool. The process is a combination of both thermal as well as mechanical work i.e it is a coupled thermo-mechanical process. Numerical simulations are very much essential in order to obtain a complete knowledge of the process as well as the physics underlying it. In the present work a model based approach is adopted in order to study material flow. A thermo-mechanical based CFD model is developed using a Finite Element package, Comsol Multiphysics. The fluid flow analysis is done. The model simultaneously predicts shear strain fields, shear strain rates and shear stress over the entire workpiece for the given conditions. The flow fields generated by the streamline plot give an idea of the material flow. The variation of dynamic viscosity, velocity field and shear strain fields with various welding parameters is studied. Finally the result obtained from the above mentioned conditions is discussed elaborately and concluded.

Keywords: AA6061-T6, CFD modelling, friction stir welding, material flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
635 Deformation and Crystallization in a 7075-T651 Friction Stir Weld

Authors: C. S. Paglia

Abstract:

The deformation and the crystallization in a 7075-T651 friction stir weld, in particular for regions directly in contact with the mechanical action of the rotating probe, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy. The investigation enabled to identify regions of the weld differently affected by the deformation caused by the welding process. The highly deformed grains in the horizontal direction close to the plate margin were indicative of shear movements along the horizontal plane, while highly deformed grains along the plate margin in the vertical direction were indicative of vertical shear movements of opposite directions, which superimposed the shear movement along the horizontal plane. The vertical shear movements were not homogeneous through the plate thickness. The microstructure indicated that after the probe passes, the grain growth may take place under static conditions. The small grains microstructure of the nugget region, formed after the main dynamic recrystallization process, develops to an equiaxed microstructure. A material transport influenced by the rotating shoulder was also observed from the trailing to the advancing side of the weld.

Keywords: AA7075-T651, friction stir welding, deformation, crystallization

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