Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Norman A. McPherson

31 When Talk Is the Cure for the Morning After: Talking Therapy in Conor Mcpherson’s Dublin Carol and Shining City

Authors: Maha Hamoud Alatawi

Abstract:

Drawing on the work of John McLeod and Ariel Watson, this paper explains the relationship between narrative and psychotherapy in two plays by the Irish playwright Conor McPherson. Dublin Carol presents John’s chequered past through his reminiscences of alcohol addiction and Shining City tells the story of John who is haunted by the ghost of his wife, recently died in a car accident, and who seeks the help of Ian, a therapist. At first, the significance of storytelling as an integral part of Irish culture is highlighted. Such a tradition features prominently in contemporary Irish drama. The paper concludes that it is the power of narrative and its therapeutic impact and not the act of psychotherapy and treatment which brings signs of change to characters’ lives.

Keywords: Conor McPherson, drama, psychotherapy, storytelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
30 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
29 Modelling Magnetohydrodynamics to Investigate Variation of Shielding Gases on Arc Characteristics in the GTAW Process

Authors: Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Norman A. McPherson, Duncan Camilleri, Daniel Micallef

Abstract:

Gas tungsten arc welding requires a gas shield to be present in order to protect the arc area from contamination by atmospheric gases. As a result of each gas having its own unique thermophysical properties, the shielding gas selected can have a major influence on the arc stability, welding speed, weld appearance and geometry, mechanical properties and fume generation. Alternating shielding gases is a relatively new method of discreetly supplying two different shielding gases to the welding region in order to take advantage of the beneficial properties of each gas, as well as the inherent pulsing effects generated. As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of this novel supply method, a computational fluid dynamics model has been generated to include the gas dependent thermodynamic and transport properties in order to evaluate the effects that an alternating gas supply has on the arc plasma. Experimental trials have also been conducted to validate the model arc profile predictions.

Keywords: Alternating shielding gases, ANSYS CFX, Gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW), magnetohydrodynamics(MHD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
28 The Theotokos of the Messina Missal as a Byzantine Icon in Norman Sicily: A Study on Patronage and Devotion

Authors: Jesus Rodriguez Viejo

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study cross-cultural interactions between the West and Byzantium, in the fields of art and religion, by analyzing the decoration of one luxury manuscript. The Spanish National Library is home to one of the most extraordinary examples of illuminated manuscript production of Norman Sicily – the Messina Missal. Dating from the late twelfth century, this liturgical book was the result of the intense activity of artistic patronage of an Englishman, Richard Palmer. Appointed bishop of the Sicilian city in the second half of the century, Palmer set a painting workshop attached to his cathedral. The illuminated manuscripts produced there combine a clear Byzantine iconographic language with a myriad of elements imported from France, such as a large number of decorated initials. The most remarkable depiction contained in the Missal is that of the Theotokos (fol. 80r). Its appearance immediately recalls portative Byzantine icons of the Mother of God in South Italy and Byzantium and implies the intervention of an artist familiar with icon painting. The richness of this image is a clear proof of the prestige that Byzantine art enjoyed in the island after the Norman takeover. The production of the school of Messina under Richard Palmer could be considered a counterpart in the field of manuscript illumination of the court art of the Sicilian kings in Palermo and the impressive commissions for the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalù. However, the ethnic composition of Palmer’s workshop has never been analyzed and therefore, we intend to shed light on the permanent presence of Greek-speaking artists in Norman Messina. The east of the island was the last stronghold of the Greeks and soon after the Norman conquest, the previous exchanges between the cities of this territory and Byzantium restarted again, mainly by way of trade. Palmer was not a Norman statesman, but a churchman and his love for religion and culture prevailed over the wars and struggles for power of the Sicilian kingdom in the central Mediterranean. On the other hand, the representation of the Theotokos can prove that Eastern devotional approaches to images were still common in the east of the island more than a century after the collapse of Byzantine rule. Local Norman lords repeatedly founded churches devoted to Greek saints and medieval Greek-speaking authors were widely copied in Sicilian scriptoria. The Madrid Missal and its Theotokos are doubtless the product of Western initiative but in a land culturally dominated by Byzantium. Westerners, such as Palmer and his circle, could have been immersed in this Hellenophile culture and therefore, naturally predisposed to perform prayers and rituals, in both public and private contexts, linked to ideas and practices of Greek origin, such as the concept of icon.

Keywords: history of art, byzantine art, manuscripts, norman sicily, messina, patronage, devotion, iconography

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
27 Tectonics in Sustainable Contemporary Architecture: An Approach to the Intersection between Design and Construction in the Work of Norman Foster

Authors: Mafalda Fabiene Ferreira Pantoja, Joao Da Costa Pantoja, Rui Humberto Costa De Fernandes Povoas

Abstract:

The present paper seeks to present a theoretical and practical reflection about examples of contemporary architecture in the world context where concerns about the planet become prominent and increasingly necessary. Firstly, a brief introduction will be made on the conceptual principles of tectonics in architecture in order to apply such concepts in a perspective of analysis of the intersection between design and construction in contemporary examples of Norman Foster’s architecture, once his work has demonstrated attitudes of composition that concerns about the place, technology, materials, and building life. Foster's compositions are usually focused on the role of technology in the process of architectural design, making his works a mixture of place, program, construction, and formal structures. The main purpose of the present paper is the reflection on the tools of theoretical and practical analysis about tectonics, optimizing the resources that allow cultural anchoring and creation of identity. Also establishing relation between resources, building life cycle and employment of correct materials, in order to find out how the tectonic concept can elevate the status of contemporary architecture, making it qualitative in a more sustainable context and adapted to current needs.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, norman foster, tectonic, sustainable architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
26 A Critical Discourse Analysis of President Muhammad Buhari's Speeches

Authors: Joy Aworo-Okoroh

Abstract:

Politics is about trust and trust is challenged by the speaker’s ability to manipulate language before the electorate. Critical discourse analysis investigates the role of language in constructing social relationships between a political speaker and his audience. This paper explores the linguistic choices made by President Muhammad Buhari that enshrines his ideologies as well as the socio-political relations of power between him and Nigerians in his speeches. Two speeches of President Buhari –inaugural and Independence Day speeches are analyzed using Norman Fairclough’s perspective on Halliday’s Systemic functional grammar. The analysis is at two levels. The first level of analysis is the identification of transitivity and modality choices in the speeches and how they reveal the covert ideologies. The second analysis is premised on Normal Fairclough’s model, the clauses are analyzed to identify elements of power, hesistation, persuasion, threat and religious statement. It was discovered that Buhari is a dominant character who manipulates the material processes a lot.

Keywords: politics, critical discourse analysis, Norman Fairclough, systemic functional grammar

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
25 The Impact of Usefulness and Ease of Using Mobile Learning Technology on Faculty Acceptance

Authors: Leena Ahmad Khaleel Alfarani, Maggie McPherson, Neil Morris

Abstract:

Over the last decade, m-learning has been widely accepted and utilized by many western universities. However, Saudi universities face many challenges in utilizing such technology, a central one being to encourage teachers to use such technology. Although there are several factors that affect faculty members’ participation in the adoption of m-learning, this paper focuses merely on two factors, the usefulness and ease of using m-learning. A sample of 279 faculty members in one Saudi university has responded to the online survey. The results of the study have revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship (at the 0.05 level) between both usefulness and ease of using m-learning factors and the intention of teachers to use m-learning currently and in the future.

Keywords: mobile learning, diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance, faculty adoption

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
24 Emily Dickinson's Green Aesthetics: Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower as the Anthropomorphic Architectural Representation in the Age of Anthropocene

Authors: Chia-Wen Kuo

Abstract:

Jesse Curran states that there is a "breath awareness" that "facilitates a present-minded capability" to catalyse an "epistemological rupture" in Emily Dickinson's poetry, particularly in the age of Anthropocene. In Dickinson's "Nature", non-humans are subjectified as nature ceases to be subordinated to human interests, and Dickinson's Eco-humility has driven us, readers, into mimicking nature for the making of a better world. In terms of sustainable architecture, Norman Foster is among the representatives who utilise BIM to reduce architectural waste while satiating the users' aesthetic craving for a spectacular skyline. Notably, the Gherkin - 30 St. Mary Axe in east-end London. In 2019, Foster and his team aspired to savour the London skyline with his new design - the Tulip, which has been certified by the LEED as a legitimate green building as well as a complementary extension of the Gherkin. However, Foster's proposition had been denied for numerous times by the mayor Sadiq Khan and the city council as the Tulip cannot blend in the public space around while its observatory functions like a surveillance platform. The Tulip, except for its aesthetic idiosyncrasy, fails to serve for the public good other than another ostentatious tourist attraction in London. The architectural team for Mode Gakuen Cocoon tower, completed in 2008, intended to honour Nature with the symbolism in the building's aesthetic design. It serves as an architectural cocoon that nurtures the students of "Special Technology and Design College" inside. The building itself turns into a Dickinsonian anthropomorphism, where humans are made humble to learn from the entomological beings for self-betterment in the age of Anthropocene. Despite bearing resemblance to a tulip as well as its LEED credential, Norman Foster’s Tulip merely pays tribute to the Nature in a relatively superficial manner without constructing an apparatus that substantially benefit the Londoners as all green cities should embrace Emily Dickinson’s “breath awareness” and be built and treated as an extensive as well as expansive form of biomimicry.

Keywords: green city, sustianable architecture, London, Tokyo

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
23 Influences Driving the Teachers’ Adoption of Mobile Learning

Authors: L. A. Alfarani, M. McPherson, N. Morris

Abstract:

The growth of mobile learning depends primarily on the participation of teachers and their belief in the possibilities that this technology has for enhancing learning. The need to integrate technology into education seems clear-cut, however, its acceptance in Saudi higher education remains low. Thus, determining the particular factors that affect faculty acceptance of technology is vital. This paper focuses on TAM which depends on two factors: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, this theory are used to predict faculty members’ behavioural intentions towards using mobile learning technology. 279 faculty members in one Saudi university have responded to the online questionnaire. The findings have revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in both usefulness and ease of using m-learning factors.

Keywords: TAM theory, mobile learning technology acceptance, usefulness, ease of use

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
22 Sports Racism in Australia: A Fifty Year Study of Bigotry and the Culture of Silence, from Mexico City to Melbourne

Authors: Tasneem Chopra

Abstract:

The 1968 Summer Olympics will forever be remembered for the silent protest against racism exhibited by American athletes Tommy Smith and John Carlos. Also standing on the medal podium was Australian Peter Norman, whose silent solidarity as a white sportsman completes the powerful, evocative image of that night in Mexico City. In the 50 years since Norman’s stance of solidarity with his American counterparts, Australian sports has traveled a wide arc of racism narratives, with athletes still experiencing episodes of bigotry, both on the pitch and elsewhere. Aboriginal athletes, like tennis champion Yvonne Goolagong, have endured the plaudits of appreciation for their achievements on both the national and international stage, while simultaneously being subject to both prejudice and even questions as to their right to represent their country as full, acceptable citizens. Racism in Australia is directed toward Australian athletes of colour as well as foreign sportspeople who visit the country. The complex, mutating nature of racism in Australia is also informed by the culture of silence, where fellow athletes stand mute in light of their colleagues’ experience with bigotry. This paper analyses the phenomenon of sports racism in Australia over the past fifty years, culminating in the most recent showdown between Heretier Lumumba, former Collingwood football player, and his public allegations of racism experienced by team mates over his 10 year career. It shall examine the treatment and mistreatment of athletes because of their race and will further assess how such public perceptions both shape Australian culture or are themselves a manifestation of preexisting pathologies of bigotry. Further, it will examine the efficacy of anti-racism initiatives in responding to this hate. This paper will analyse the growing influence of corporate and media entities in crafting the economics of Australian sports and assess the role of such factors in creating the narrative of racism in the nation, both as a sociological reality as well as a marker of national identity. Finally, this paper will examine the political, social and economic forces that contribute to the culture of silence in Australian society in defying racism.

Keywords: aboriginal, Australia, corporations, silence

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
21 Reviving Sustainable Architecture in Non-Wester Culture

Authors: Khaled Asfour

Abstract:

Going for LEED certification is the latest concern in Egyptian practice that only materialized during the last 4 years. Egyptian Consultant Group (ECG) together with Credit Agricole had the vision to design a headquarters (Cairo) that delivers a serious sustainable design. The bank is a strong advocator of “green banking” and supports renewable energy and energy saving projects. Their HQ in Cairo has passed all the hurdles to become the first platinum LEED certificate holder in Egypt. With this design Egyptian practice has finally re-engaged in a serious way with its long-standing traditions in sustainable architecture. Perhaps the closest to our memory is the medieval houses of Cairo. Few centuries later these qualities disappeared with the advent of Modern Movement that focused more on standard modernist image making than real localized quality of living environments. The first person to note this disappearance was Hassan Fathy half a century ago. Despite international applaud for his efforts he had no effect on prevailing local practice that continued senselessly adopting recycled modernist templates. The Egyptian society was not ready to accept any reference to historic architecture. Disciples of Hassan Fathy, few decades later sought, of tackling the lack of interest in green architecture in a different way. Mohamed Awad introduced in his design sustainable ideals inspired from traditional architecture rather than recycling directly historic forms and images. Despite success, this approach did not go far enough to influence the prevailing practice. Since year 2000 Egyptian economy was ebbing and flowing dramatically. This staggering fluctuation coupled by energy crisis has disillusioned architects and clients on the issue of modern image making. No more shining architecture under the sun with high running cost of fossil fuel. They sought of adopting contemporary green measures that offer pleasant living while saving on energy. A revival is on its way but is very slow and timid. The paper will present this problem of reviving sustainable architecture. How this process can be accelerated in order to give stronger impact on current practice will be addressed through the works of Mario Cucinella and Norman Foster.

Keywords: LEED certification, Hasan Fathy, Medieval architecture, Mario Cucinella, Norman Foster

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
20 A Pragmatic Study of Falnama Texts Based on Critical Discourse Analysis Approach

Authors: Raziyeh Mashhadi Moghadam

Abstract:

Persian writings in the form of stories, scientific articles, historiographies, biographies, and philosophical, religious, and poetic arguments have established their presence in the past and present. Any piece of text is composed in a unique style depending on its content and subject. In this paper, a manuscript called Falnama of the Prophet is reviewed. Only a few scattered pages of this version are extant, and the author, using the name of twenty-four prophets, seeks to explore the presence and future of the reader. This version is analyzed based on Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach to unravel the underlying processes in this type of manuscript. The spelling of some words and sentences is different from that of the new written Persian version.

Keywords: application of Falnama texts, critical discourse analysis, Fairclough’s approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
19 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana

Abstract:

Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
18 Cell Elevator: A Novel Technique for Cell Sorting and Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Discrimination

Authors: Kevin Zhao, Norman J. Horing

Abstract:

A methodology for cells sorting and circulating tumor cell detection and discrimination is presented in this paper. The technique is based on Dielectrophoresis and microfluidic device theory. Specifically, the sorting of the cells is realized by adjusting the relation among the sedimentation forces, the drag force provided by the fluid, and the Dielectrophortic force that is relevant to the bias voltage applied on the device. The relation leads to manipulation of the elevation of the cells of the same kind to a height by controlling the bias voltage. Once the cells have been lifted to a position next to the bottom of the cell collection channel, the buffer fluid flashes them into the cell collection channel. Repeated elevation of the cells leads to a complete sorting of the cells in the sample chamber. A proof-of-principle example is presented which verifies the feasibility of the methodology.

Keywords: cell sorter, CTC cell, detection and discrimination, dielectrophoresisords, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
17 A Critical Study of Gender Identity Issues in Daniyal Mueenuddin’s Short Story “Saleema”

Authors: Zafar Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to highlight problems that are faced by women at the hands of men. Males in Pakistani society have power and use this power for the exploitation of women. Further, the purpose of the study is to make societies, like Pakistan and especially the young generation, aware and enable them to resist such issues, and the role of discourse in the regard is to minimize its political and social repercussions. The study finds out different discursive techniques and manipulative language used in the short story to construct gender identity. The study also investigates socio-economic roles in the construction of gender identity. This study has been completed with the help of Critical Discourse Analysis principles. CDA principles have been applied to the text of the selected short story Saleem from DaniyalMueenuddin’s collection In Other Rooms, Other Wonders. Related passages, structures, expressions, and text are analyzed from the point of view of CDA, especially Norman Fairclough’s CDA approach. It was found from the analysis that women have no identity of their own in patriarchal societies like Pakistan. Further, it was found women are mistreated, and they have a very limited and defined role in Pakistan. They cannot go beyond the limit defined to them by men.

Keywords: gender issues, resourceful groups, CDA, exploitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
16 Conditions Required for New Sector Emergence: Results from a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Laurie Prange-Martin, Romeo Turcan, Norman Fraser

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to identify the conditions required and describe the process of emergence for a new economic sector created from new or established businesses. A systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1983 to 2016 was conducted using the following databases: ABI/INFORM Complete; Business Source Premiere; Google Scholar; Scopus; and Web of Science. The two main terms of business sector and emergence were used in the systematic literature search, along with another seventeen synonyms for each these main terms. From the search results, 65 publications met the requirements of an empirical study discussing and reporting the conditions of new sector emergence. A meta-analysis of the literature examined suggest that there are six favourable conditions and five key individuals or groups required for new sector emergence. In addition, the results from the meta-analysis showed that there are eighteen theories used in the literature to explain the phenomenon of new sector emergence, which can be grouped in three study disciplines. With such diversity in theoretical frameworks used in the 65 empirical studies, the authors of this paper propose the development of a new theory of sector emergence.

Keywords: economic geography, new sector emergence, economic diversification, regional economies

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
15 Hidden Markov Movement Modelling with Irregular Data

Authors: Victoria Goodall, Paul Fatti, Norman Owen-Smith

Abstract:

Hidden Markov Models have become popular for the analysis of animal tracking data. These models are being used to model the movements of a variety of species in many areas around the world. A common assumption of the model is that the observations need to have regular time steps. In many ecological studies, this will not be the case. The objective of the research is to modify the movement model to allow for irregularly spaced locations and investigate the effect on the inferences which can be made about the latent states. A modification of the likelihood function to allow for these irregular spaced locations is investigated, without using interpolation or averaging the movement rate. The suitability of the modification is investigated using GPS tracking data for lion (Panthera leo) in South Africa, with many observations obtained during the night, and few observations during the day. Many nocturnal predator tracking studies are set up in this way, to obtain many locations at night when the animal is most active and is difficult to observe. Few observations are obtained during the day, when the animal is expected to rest and is potentially easier to observe. Modifying the likelihood function allows the popular Hidden Markov Model framework to be used to model these irregular spaced locations, making use of all the observed data.

Keywords: hidden Markov Models, irregular observations, animal movement modelling, nocturnal predator

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
14 Capnography for Detection of Return of Spontaneous Circulation Pseudo-Pea

Authors: Yiyuan David Hu, Alex Lindqwister, Samuel B. Klein, Karen Moodie, Norman A. Paradis

Abstract:

Introduction: Pseudo-Pulseless Electrical Activity (p-PEA) is a lifeless form of profound cardiac shock characterized by measurable cardiac mechanical activity without clinically detectable pulses. Patients in pseudo-PEA carry different prognoses than those in true PEA and may require different therapies. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ET-CO2) is a reliable indicator of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in ventricular fibrillation and true-PEA but has not been studied p-PEA. Hypothesis: ET-CO2 can be used as an independent indicator of ROSC in p-PEA resuscitation. Methods: 30kg female swine (N = 14) under intravenous anesthesia were instrumented with aortic and right atrial micromanometer pressure. ECG and ET-CO2 were measured continuously. p-PEA was induced by ventilation with 6% oxygen in 94% nitrogen and was defined as a systolic Ao less than 40 mmHg. The statistical relationships between ET-CO2 and ROSC are reported. Results: ET-CO2 during resuscitation strongly correlated with ROSC (Figure 1). Mean ET-CO2 during p-PEA was 28.4 ± 8.4, while mean ET-CO2 in ROSC for 100% O2 cohort was 42.2 ± 12.6 (p < 0.0001), mean ET-CO2 in ROSC for 100% O2 + CPR was 33.0 ± 15.4 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of slope was limited to one minute of resuscitation data to capture local linearity; assessment began 10 seconds after resuscitation started to allow the ventilator to mix 100% O2. Pigs who would recover with 100% O2 had a slope of 0.023 ± 0.001, oxygen + CPR had a slope of 0.018 ± 0.002, and oxygen + CPR + epinephrine had a slope of 0.0050 ± 0.0009. Conclusions: During resuscitation from porcine hypoxic p-PEA, a rise in ET-CO2 is indicative of ROSC.

Keywords: ET-CO2, resuscitation, capnography, pseudo-PEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
13 Some Accuracy Related Aspects in Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Sub-Grid Modeling of Gas-Solid Riser Flows

Authors: Joseph Mouallem, Seyed Reza Amini Niaki, Norman Chavez-Cussy, Christian Costa Milioli, Fernando Eduardo Milioli

Abstract:

Sub-grid closures for filtered two-fluid models (fTFM) useful in large scale simulations (LSS) of riser flows can be derived from highly resolved simulations (HRS) with microscopic two-fluid modeling (mTFM). Accurate sub-grid closures require accurate mTFM formulations as well as accurate correlation of relevant filtered parameters to suitable independent variables. This article deals with both of those issues. The accuracy of mTFM is touched by assessing the impact of gas sub-grid turbulence over HRS filtered predictions. A gas turbulence alike effect is artificially inserted by means of a stochastic forcing procedure implemented in the physical space over the momentum conservation equation of the gas phase. The correlation issue is touched by introducing a three-filtered variable correlation analysis (three-marker analysis) performed under a variety of different macro-scale conditions typical or risers. While the more elaborated correlation procedure clearly improved accuracy, accounting for gas sub-grid turbulence had no significant impact over predictions.

Keywords: fluidization, gas-particle flow, two-fluid model, sub-grid models, filtered closures

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
12 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman

Abstract:

Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
11 Surgical Applied Anatomy: Alive and Kicking

Authors: Jake Hindmarch, Edward Farley, Norman Eizenberg, Mark Midwinter

Abstract:

There is a need to bring the anatomical knowledge of medical students up to the standards required by surgical specialties. Contention exists amongst anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons about the standard of anatomical knowledge medical students need. The aim of this study was to explore the standards which the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons are applying knowledge of anatomy. Furthermore, to align medical school teaching to what the surgical profession requires from graduates.: The 2018 volume of the ANZ Journal of Surgery was narrowed down to 254 articles by applying the search term “Anatomy”. The main topic was then extracted from each paper. The content of the paper was assessed for ‘novel description’ or ‘application’ of anatomical knowledge’ and classified accordingly. The majority of papers with an anatomical focus was from the general surgery specialty, which focused on surgical techniques, outcomes and management. Vascular surgery had the highest percentage of papers with a novel description and application of anatomy. Cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery had no papers with a novel description of anatomy. Finally, a novel application of anatomy was the main focus of each speciality. Firstly, a high proportion of novel applications and descriptions of anatomy are in general surgery. Secondly, vascular surgery had the largest proportion of novel application and description of anatomy, namely due to the rise of therapeutic imaging and endovascular techniques. Finally, all disciplines demonstrated a trend towards having a higher proportion of novel application of anatomical knowledge

Keywords: anatomical knowledge, anatomy, surgery, novel anatomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
10 Capnography in Hypoxic Pseudo-Pea May Correlate to the Amount of Required Intervention for Resuscitation

Authors: Yiyuan David Hu, Alex Lindqwister, Samuel B. Klein, Karen Moodie, Norman A. Paradis

Abstract:

Introduction: Pseudo-Pulseless Electrical Activity (p-PEA) is a lifeless form of profound cardiac shock characterized by measurable cardiac mechanical activity without clinically detectable pulses. Patients in pseudo-PEA carry different prognoses than those in true PEA and may require different therapies. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ET-CO2) has been studied in ventricular fibrillation and true PEA but in p-PEA. We utilized an hypoxic porcine model to characterize the performance of ET-CO2 in resuscitation from p-PEA. Hypothesis: Capnography correlates to the number of required interventions for resuscitation from p-PEA. Methods: Female swine (N = 14) under intravenous anesthesia were instrumented with aortic and right atrial micromanometer pressure. ECG and ET-CO2 were measured continuously. p-PEA was induced by ventilation with 6% oxygen in 94% nitrogen and was defined as a systolic aortic (Ao) pressure less than 40 mmHg. Pigs were grouped based on the interventions required to achieve ROSC: 100%O2, 100%O2 + CPR, 100%O2 + CPR + epinephrine. Results: End tidal CO2 reliably predicted O2 therapy vs CPR-based interventions needed for resuscitation (Figure 1). Pigs who would recover with 100%O2 only had a mean ET-CO2 slope of 0.039 ± 0.013 [ R2 = 0.68], those requiring oxygen + CPR had a slope of -0.15 ± 0.016 [R2 = 0.95], and those requiring oxygen + CPR + epinephrine had a slope of -0.12 ± 0.031 [R2 = 0.79]. Conclusions: In a porcine model of hypoxic p-PEA, measured ET-CO2 appears to be strongly correlated with the required interventions needed for ROSC. If confirmed clinically, these results indicate that ET-CO2 may be useful in guiding therapy in patients suffering p-PEA cardiac arrest.

Keywords: pseudo-PEA, resuscitation, capnography, hypoxic pseudo-PEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
9 Characterization of the Music Admission Requirements and Evaluation of the Relationship among Motivation and Performance Achievement

Authors: Antonio M. Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva, Jose Matias Alves, Gary McPherson

Abstract:

The music teaching is oriented towards offering formal music training. Due to its specificities, this vocational program starts at a very young age. Although provided by the State, the offer is limited to 6 schools throughout the country, which means that the vacancies for prospective students are very limited every year. It is therefore crucial that these vacancies be taken by especially motivated children grown within households that offer the ideal setting for success. Some of the instruments used to evaluate musical performance are highly sensitive to specific previous training, what represents a severe validity problem for testing children who have had restricted opportunities for formal training. Moreover, these practices may be unfair because, for instance, they may not reflect the candidates’ music aptitudes. Based on what constitutes a prerequisite for making an excellent music student, researchers in this field have long argued that motivation, task commitment, and parents’ support are as important as ability. Thus, the aim of this study is: (1) to prepare an inventory of admission requirements in Australia, Portugal and Ireland; (2) to examine whether the candidates to music conservatories and parents’ level of motivation, assessed at three evaluation points (i.e., admission, at the end of the first year, and at the end of the second year), correlates positively with the candidates’ progress in learning a musical instrument (i.e., whether motivation at the admission may predict student musicianship); (3) an adaptation of an existing instrument to assess the motivation (i.e., to adapt the items to the music setting, focusing on the motivation for playing a musical instrument). The inclusion criteria are: only children registered in the administrative services to be evaluated for entrance to the conservatory will be accepted for this study. The expected number of participants is fifty (5-6 years old) in all the three frequency schemes: integrated, articulated and supplementary. Revisiting musical admission procedures is of particular importance and relevance to musical education because this debate may bring guidance and assistance about the needed improvement to make the process of admission fairer and more transparent.

Keywords: music learning, music admission requirements, student’s motivation, parent’s motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
8 Prioritizing the Most Important Information from Contractors’ BIM Handover for Firefighters’ Responsibilities

Authors: Akram Mahdaviparsa, Tamera McCuen, Vahideh Karimimansoob

Abstract:

Fire service is responsible for protecting life, assets, and natural resources from fire and other hazardous incidents. Search and rescue in unfamiliar buildings is a vital part of firefighters’ responsibilities. Providing firefighters with precise building information in an easy-to-understand format is a potential solution for mitigating the negative consequences of fire hazards. The negative effect of insufficient knowledge about a building’s indoor environment impedes firefighters’ capabilities and leads to lost property. A data rich building information modeling (BIM) is a potentially useful source in three-dimensional (3D) visualization and data/information storage for fire emergency response. Therefore, this research’s purpose is prioritizing the required information for firefighters from the most important information to the least important. A survey was carried out with firefighters working in the Norman Fire Department to obtain the importance of each building information item. The results show that “the location of exit doors, windows, corridors, elevators, and stairs”, “material of building elements”, and “building data” are the three most important information specified by firefighters. The results also implied that the 2D model of architectural, structural and way finding is more understandable in comparison with the 3D model, while the 3D model of MEP system could convey more information than the 2D model. Furthermore, color in visualization can help firefighters to understand the building information easier and quicker. Sufficient internal consistency of all responses was proven through developing the Pearson Correlation Matrix and obtaining Cronbach’s alpha of 0.916. Therefore, the results of this study are reliable and could be applied to the population.

Keywords: BIM, building fire response, ranking, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
7 Aberrant Genome‐Wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19

Authors: Inam Ridha, Christine L. Kuryla, Madhuranga Thilakasiri Madugoda Ralalage Don, Norman J. Kleiman, Yunro Chung, Jin Park, Vel Murugan, Joshua LaBaer

Abstract:

To date, more than 275 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with COVID-19 and the rapid spread of the omicron variant suggests many millions more will soon become infected. Many infections are asymptomatic, while others result in mild to moderate illness. Unfortunately, some infected individuals exhibit more serious symptoms including respiratory distress, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, multi-organ failure, cognitive difficulties, and, in roughly 2% of cases, death. Studies indicate other coronaviruses can alter the host cell's epigenetic profile and lead to alterations in the immune response. To better understand the mechanism(s) by which SARS-CoV-2 infection causes serious illness, DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 90 hospitalized severely ill COVID-19 patients were compared to profiles from uninfected control subjects. Exploratory epigenome-wide DNA methylation analyses were performed using multiplexed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by pathway enrichment analysis. The findings demonstrated significant DNA methylation changes in infected individuals as compared to uninfected controls. Pathway analysis indicated that apoptosis, cell cycle control, Toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokine interactions, and T cell differentiation were among the most affected metabolic processes. In addition, changes in specific gene methylation were compared to SARS-CoV-2 induced changes in RNA expression using published RNA-seq data from 3 patients with severe COVID-19. These findings demonstrate significant correlations between differentially methylated and differentially expressed genes in a number of critical pathways.

Keywords: COVID19, epigenetics, DNA mathylation, viral infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
6 Studying the Effect of Heartfulness Meditation on Brain Activity

Authors: Norman Farb, Anirudh Kumar, Abdul Subhan, Pallavi Gupta, Jahnavi Mundluru, Abdul Subhan, Shankar Pathmakanthan

Abstract:

Long term meditation practice is increasingly recognized for its health benefits. Among a diversity of contemplative traditions, Heartfulness meditation represents a quickly growing set of practices that is largely unstudied. Heartfulness is unique in that it is a meditation practice that focuses on the Heart. It helps individuals to connect to themselves and find inner peace while meditating. In order to deepen ones’ meditation on the heart, the element of Yogic Energy (‘pranahuti’) is used as an aid during meditation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent EEG effects of Heartfulness meditation be observed in sixty experienced Heartfulness meditators, each of whom attended 6 testing sessions. In each session, participants performed three conditions: a set of cognitive tasks, Heartfulness guided relaxation, and Heartfulness Meditation. To measure EEG, the MUSE EEG head band (product of Interaxon Inc) was used. Participants during the cognitive portion were required to answer questions that tested their logical thinking (Cognitive Reflective Test) and creative thinking skills. (Random Associative Test) The order of condition was randomly counter balanced across six sessions. It was hypothesized that Heartfulness meditation would bring increased alpha (8-12Hz) brain activity during meditation and better cognitive task scores in sessions where the tasks followed meditation. Results show that cognitive task scores were higher after meditation in both CRT and RAT, suggesting stronger right brain and left brain activation. Heartfulness meditation produces a significant decrease in brain activity (as indexed by higher levels of alpha) during the early stages of meditation. As the meditation progressed deep meditative state (as indexed by higher levels of delta) were observed until the end of the condition. This lead to the conclusion that Heartfulness Meditation produces a state that is clearly distinguishable from effortful problem solving.

Keywords: heartfulness meditation, neuroplasticity, brain activity, relaxation response

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
5 Insectivorous Medicinal Plant Drosera Ecologyand its Biodiversity Conservation through Tissue Culture and Sustainable Biotechnology

Authors: Sushil Pradhan

Abstract:

Biotechnology contributes to sustainable development in several ways such as biofertilizer production, biopesticide production and management of environmental pollution, tissue culture and biodiversity conservation in vitro, in vivo and in situ, Insectivorous medicinal plant Drosera burmannii Vahl belongs to the Family-Droseraceae under Order-Caryophyllales, Dicotyledoneae, Angiospermeae which has 31 (thirty one) living genera and 194 species besides 7 (seven) extinct (fossil) genera. Locally it is known as “Patkanduri” in Odia. Its Hindi name is “Mukhajali” and its English name is “Sundew”. The earliest species of Drosera was first reported in 1753 by Carolous Linnaeus called Drosera indica L (Indian Sundew). The latest species of Drosera reported by Fleisch A, Robinson, AS, McPherson S, Heinrich V, Gironella E and Madulida D.A. (2011) is Drosera ultramafica from Malaysia. More than 50 % species of Drosera have been reported from Australia and next to Australia is South Africa. India harbours only 3 species such as D. indica L, Drosera burmannii Vahl and D. peltata L. From our Odisha only D. burmannii Vahl is being reported for the first time from the district of Subarnapur near Sonepur (Arjunpur Reserve Forest Area). Drosera plant is autotrophic but to supplement its Nitrogen (N2) requirement it adopts heterotrophic mode of nutrition (insectivorous/carnivorous) as well. The colour of plant in mostly red and about 20-30cm in height with beautiful pink or white pentamerous flowers. Plants grow luxuriantly during November to February in shady and moist places near small water bodies of running water stream. Medicinally it is a popular herb in the locality for the treatment of cold and cough in children in rainy season by the local Doctors (Kabiraj and Baidya). In the present field investigation an attempt has been made to understand the unique reproductive phase and life cycle of the plant thereby planning for its conservation and propagation through various techniques of tissue culture and biotechnology. More importantly besides morphological and anatomical studies, cytological investigation is being carried out to find out the number of chromosomes in the cell and its genomics as there is no such report as yet for Drosera burmannii Vahl. The ecological significance and biodiversity conservation of Drosera with special reference to energy, environmental and chemical engineering has been discussed in the research paper presentation.

Keywords: insectivorous, medicinal, drosera, biotechnology, chromosome, genome

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
4 Algorithm for Automatic Real-Time Electrooculographic Artifact Correction

Authors: Norman Sinnigen, Igor Izyurov, Marina Krylova, Hamidreza Jamalabadi, Sarah Alizadeh, Martin Walter

Abstract:

Background: EEG is a non-invasive brain activity recording technique with a high temporal resolution that allows the use of real-time applications, such as neurofeedback. However, EEG data are susceptible to electrooculographic (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) artifacts (i.e., jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements). Due to their non-stationary nature, these artifacts greatly obscure the information and power spectrum of EEG signals. Many EEG artifact correction methods are too time-consuming when applied to low-density EEG and have been focusing on offline processing or handling one single type of EEG artifact. A software-only real-time method for correcting multiple types of EEG artifacts of high-density EEG remains a significant challenge. Methods: We demonstrate an improved approach for automatic real-time EEG artifact correction of EOG and EMG artifacts. The method was tested on three healthy subjects using 64 EEG channels (Brain Products GmbH) and a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. Captured EEG signals were imported in MATLAB with the lab streaming layer interface allowing buffering of EEG data. EMG artifacts were detected by channel variance and adaptive thresholding and corrected by using channel interpolation. Real-time independent component analysis (ICA) was applied for correcting EOG artifacts. Results: Our results demonstrate that the algorithm effectively reduces EMG artifacts, such as jaw clenching, teeth squeezing and forehead movements, and EOG artifacts (horizontal and vertical eye movements) of high-density EEG while preserving brain neuronal activity information. The average computation time of EOG and EMG artifact correction for 80 s (80,000 data points) 64-channel data is 300 – 700 ms depending on the convergence of ICA and the type and intensity of the artifact. Conclusion: An automatic EEG artifact correction algorithm based on channel variance, adaptive thresholding, and ICA improves high-density EEG recordings contaminated with EOG and EMG artifacts in real-time.

Keywords: EEG, muscle artifacts, ocular artifacts, real-time artifact correction, real-time ICA

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3 Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Yazan S. Khaled, Shazana Shamsuddin, Jim Tiernan, Mike McPherson, Thomas Hughes, Paul Millner, David G. Jayne

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, silica nanoparticles, Affimers, antibodies, imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2 Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions on Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Constructing Domestic Effects of International Sanctions in the Iranian Presidential Election of 2013

Authors: Adel Hawatmeh

Abstract:

This study aims to explore how the effects of economic sanctions against nuclear proliferation affect nuclear policy choices through elite discourse in general elections. Sanctions on Iran 2006-2015 were continuous, inclusive, mandatory, and collective CIMC. Sanctions impacts have affected significantly Iranian macroeconomic indicators such as GDP growth, inflation, and unemployment. In addition, mismanagement has also contributed minorly to the economic harms. These causes have been portrayed and articulated differently among elite discourse in Iran during the 2013 presidential election campaigning, especially by the two dominant candidates. For a better understanding of Iran’s elite discourse, this study uses Norman Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework in analysing Iran’s elite discourse of domestic newspapers “Shargh & Keyhan”, Mr. Muhammad Baqer Ghalibaf, and Mr. Hassan Rouhani. The main results of the research show that sanctions’ effects have contributed significantly in constructing elite discourses of domestic newspapers “Shargh & Keyhan”, Mr. Muhammad Baqer Ghalibaf, and Mr. Hassan Rouhani during the presidential election of 2013; economic issues have been articulated more than any other issues such as political or social ones; Rouhani’s discourse was convergent with Shargh newspaper both have ranked the effects of economic sanctions as the main cause of economic harms. Rouhani’s announced policies and approach were convergent with Shargh newspaper in the way of solving the economic hardship, that is, reconsidering current Iran’s nuclear choice by renegotiating the nuclear programme in order to get rid of economic sanctions; the economic issue was the main priority of the voters; Muhammad Ghalibaf ranked the economic mismanagement as the main cause of economic harms in convergence with Keyhan newspaper. Ghalibaf and Keyhan were convergent that the effects of economic sanctions were not significant and the way to solve the economic hardship is to enhance the effectiveness of economic management and no need to change the current choice of Iran’s nuclear policy. The convergent policies of Rouhani and voters’ priorities might contribute significantly to his victory in 2013 and consequently reached a nuclear deal through renegotiating the nuclear issue with the 5+1 in 2015 according to the JCPOA agreement. This topic is significant because it explores the crucial role of economic sanctions in influencing nuclear choices through elite discourses in general elections that affects voter preferences. Methodology:This is a qualitative study that seeks to understand in depth the case study of Iran, using discourse analysis.

Keywords: economic sanctions, international security, Iran, discourse analysis, nuclear non-proliferation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 27