Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 159

Search results for: Camelina meal

159 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)

Abstract:

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Camelina meal, polysaccharide, rheology, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
158 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

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The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
157 Effect of Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria on Yield and Seed Quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under Drought Stress

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Chaudhry, Fahim Nawaz, Rana Nauman Shabbir

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New strategies aimed at increasing the resilience of crop plants to the negative effects of climate change represent important research priorities of plant scientists. The use of soil microorganisms to alleviate abiotic stresses like drought has gained particular importance in recent past. A field experiment was planned to investigate the effect of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria on yield and seed quality of Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) under water deficit conditions. The study was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, during 4th week of November, 2013. The available seeds of Camelina sativa were inoculated with two bacterial strains (pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.) and grown under various water stress levels i.e. D0, (four irrigations), D3 (three irrigation), D2 (two irrigations), and D1 (one irrigation). The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduced the plant growth and yield, consequently reducing protein contents and oil concentration in camelina. The exposure to drought stress decreased plant height (16%), plant population (27%), number of fertile branches (41-59%), number of pods per plant (35%) and seed per pod (33%). Drought stress also exerted a negative impact on yield characteristics by reducing the 1000-seed weight (65%), final seed yield (52%), biological yield (22%) and harvest index (39%) of camelina. However, the inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. promoted the plant growth characterized by increased plant height and enhanced plant population. It was noted that inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas resulted in the maximum plant population (113.4 cm), primary branches (19 plant-1), and number of pods (664 plant-1), whereas Bacillus inoculation resulted in maximum plant height (113.4 cm), seeds per pod (15.9), 1000-seed weight (1.85 g), and seed yield (3378.8 kg ha-1). Moreover, the inoculation with Bacillus also significantly improved the quality attributes of camelina and gave 3.5% and 2.1% higher oil contents than Pseudomonas and control (no-inoculation), respectively. Similarly, the same strain also resulted in maximum protein contents (33.3%). Our results confirmed the hypothesis that inoculation of seeds with phosphorous solubilizing bacterial strains is an effective, viable and environment-friendly approach to improve yield and quality of camelina under water deficit conditions. However, further studies are suggested to investigate the physiological and molecular processes, stimulated by bacterial strains, for increasing drought tolerance in food crops.

Keywords: Camelina, drought stress, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, seed quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
156 A Comparison of Dietary Quality and Nutritional Adequacy of Meal Plans of a Diet Prescription Generator Web App against the Australian Guidelines to Healthy Eating

Authors: Ananda Perera

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Diet therapy has a positive impact on many diseases in General Practice. If a meal plan can be generated as easily as writing a drug prescription for dyspepsia, then the evidence and practice gap in nutrition therapy can be narrowed. Meal plans of 50 diet prescriptions were compared with the criteria for a healthy diet given by Australian authorities. The energy value of each meal plan was compared with the recommended daily energy requirements of the authorities for Diet Prescription Generator (DPG) accuracy. Meal plans generated were within the criteria laid down by the Australian authorities for a healthy diet.

Keywords: dieting, obesity, diabetes, weight loss, computerized decision support systems, dieting software, CDSS, meal plans

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155 Impact of Mid-Day Meal on Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Haryana, India

Authors: Vinti Davar

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India is one among the many countries where child malnutrition is severe and also a major underlying cause of child mortality. The Mid Day Meal (MDM) program was launched to improve the nutritional status of children, attendance, and retention in schools. It was based on one meal provided to the children, who are attending elementary school (primary school). The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of mid-day meal on the nutritional status of primary school children in Haryana, India. The present work was carried out on 1200 children between 6-11years of age, studying in primary schools in Haryana, India. Out of these 960 students as, the experimental group was selected from schools where mid-day meal is supplied by the government, and 240 students as control group where mid-day meal is not supplied. The mean height, weight, and BMI of children of both the groups were found to be significantly low as compared to NCHS standards. Stunting was found in 56.40% MDMB (Mid-day meal beneficiaries) and 62.50 % NMDMC (non- mid-day meal children).The weight of almost all subjects were low according to age indicating thinness. Anemia was more prevalent in MDMB as compared to NMDMC may be because school meals did not include vegetables. The consumption of energy, proteins, fat, calcium, iron, vitamins was significantly low (P ≤ .01) in both groups especially in girls of NMDM. The consumption of various food groups except vegetables was better in MDMB compared to NMDMC. It is concluded that with certain improvements, mid-meal can be beneficial in meeting everyday requirements of school going children.

Keywords: foods, meals, nutritional status, school going children

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
154 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney

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Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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153 Irregular Meal Pattern: What Is the Impact on Weight

Authors: Maha Alhussain, Moira A Taylor, Ian A. Macdonald

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Background: It is well established that dietary composition has effects on metabolism and therefore impacts on health; however other aspects of diet, such as meal pattern, could also be important in both obesity management and promoting health. The present study investigated the effect of irregular meal frequency on anthropometric measurements and energy expenditure (EE) in healthy women. Design: 11 healthy weight women (18–40 years) were studied in a randomized crossover trial with two phases of 2 weeks each. In Phase 1, participants consumed either a regular meal pattern (6 meals/day) or an irregular meal pattern (varying from 3 to 9 meals/day). In Phase 2, participants followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-weeks washout period. In the two phases, identical foods were provided to a participant in amounts designed to keep body weight constant. Participants came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. EE was measured in fasting state by indirect calorimetry. Postprandial EE was measured during the 3 h period after consumption of a milkshake, test drink. Results: There were no significant changes in body weight and anthropometric measurements after both meal pattern interventions. There was also no significant difference in mean daily energy intake between the regular and irregular meal pattern (2043 ±31 and 2099 ±33 respectively). EE in the fasting state showed no significant differences cross the experiment visits. There was a significant difference in Postprandial EE (measured for 3 h) by visit (P=0.04). Postprandial EE after the regular meal pattern was significantly higher than at baseline (P=0.002) or than after the irregular meal pattern (P= 0.04). Conclusion: Eating regularly for 14-day period significantly increases Postprandial EE which may contribute to weight loss and obesity management.

Keywords: energy expenditure, energy intake, meal pattern, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
152 MEAL Project–Modifying Eating Attitudes and Actions through Learning

Authors: E. Oliver, A. Cebolla, A. Dominguez, A. Gonzalez-Segura, E. de la Cruz, S. Albertini, L. Ferrini, K. Kronika, T. Nilsen, R. Baños

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The main objective of MEAL is to develop a pedagogical tool aimed to help teachers and nutritionists (students and professionals) to acquire, train, promote and deliver to children basic nutritional education and healthy eating behaviours competencies. MEAL is focused on eating behaviours and not only in nutritional literacy, and will use new technologies like Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and serious games (SG) platforms to consolidate the nutritional competences and habits.

Keywords: nutritional education, pedagogical ICT platform, serious games, training course

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151 Galawaste Meal as Dietary Supplement in Practical Diets for African Giant Catfish Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822 Fingerlings

Authors: G. O. Fakunmoju, F. A. Fakunmoju

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The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth response of African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with varying levels of Galawaste based diet, 300 clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean body weight 10 ± 0.1g were assigned to five (treatment levels in which Gala waste meal replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% respectively in a completely randomized design. The trial fish were fed at 5% body weight daily for a period of 84 days. Data collected showed that body weight gain increased with an increase gala waste meal in the diet (P<0.05). The similar observation was recorded for feed intake but there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in feed conversion ratio among the treatments. All the fish fed the test ingredients performed better than the control groups hence, Gala waste meal could be recommended as a dietary supplement in the diet of African Giant Catfish.

Keywords: Galawaste meal, Clarias gariepinus, replacement, growth performance, diets

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150 Comparative Rumen Degradable and Rumen Undegradable Fractions in Untreated, Formaldehyde and Heat Treated Vegetable Protein Sources of Pakistan

Authors: Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani, Nasrullah, Masood Ul Haq Kakar, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso, Behram Chacher

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Protein sources are the major part of ration fed to dairy buffaloes in Pakistan however, the limited availability and lack of judicious use of protein resources are further aggravating the conditions to enhance milk and meat production. In order to gain maximum production from limited protein source availability, it is necessary to balance feed for rumen degradable and rumen undegradable protein fractions. This study planned to know the rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions in all vegetable protein sources with (formaldehyde and heat treatment) and without treatments. Samples of soybean meal, corn gluten meal 60%, maize gluten feed, guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, canola meal, cottonseed cake, cottonseed meal, coconut cake, coconut meal, palm kernel cake, almond cake and sesame cake were collected from ten different geographical locations of Pakistan. These samples were also subjected to formaldehyde (1% /100g CP of test feed) and heat treatments (1 hr at 15 lb psi/100 g CP of test feed). In situ technique was used to know the ruminal degradability characteristics. Data obtained were fitted to Orskove equation. Results showed that both treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased ruminal degradability in all vegetable protein sources than untreated vegetable protein sources, however, of both treatments, heat treatment was more effective than formaldehyde treatment in decreasing ruminal degradability in most of the studied vegetable protein sources.

Keywords: formaldehyde and heat treatments, in situ technique, rumen degradable and rumen undegradable fractions, vegetable protein sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
149 Replacement of Dietary Soybean Meal by Dried Grains with Solubles on Liver Histology of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Authors: Baki Aydin, Erkan Gumus

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal by dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Five isoproteic (∼45% crude protein) and isocaloric (∼3570 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated: Conrol-1 (Fish meal control), Control-2, DDGS33, DDGS66 and DDGS100 which included 0%, 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% DDGS, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 20.46 g were fed three times a day until apparent satiation during 84 days. The obtained results showed that diameters of hepatocyte nuclei were not statistically different among the groups. The histological examination of liver sections from the fish fed the Control-1 diet showed normal histology, mild cytoplasm vacuoles and appears to be central to hepatocyte nuclei. Fish fed diets containing soybean meal and DDGS presented variable levels of cytoplasmic vacuolization and some with eccentric hepatocyte nuclei. But, fish fed diet soybean meal based control (Control-2) showed the highest hepatocyte nuclei displacement, and cytoplasm vacuoles compared the DDGS30 diet. DDGS20 and DDGS30 fish also showed more regular hepatocytes than in Control-2 fish. The results of this study demonstrated that fish fed diets containing increasing DDGS levels exhibited less histomorphological changes compared the Control-2 diet.

Keywords: DDGS, soybean meal, rainbow trout, hepatocyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
148 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.

Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
147 Full Fat Soybean Meal as a Substitute for Soybean Meal in Broiler Rations

Authors: R. M. K. S. Chandana, A. P. D. G. Pathirana, N. Priyankarage, W. A. D. Nayananjalie, S. S. P. Silva

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Full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) has been used in many parts of the world together with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in livestock feeds. Although some local FFSBM is available, their use has not been assessed experimentally. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of local extruded FFSBM in broiler rations. Four treatment diets were formulated by incorporating locally produced FFSBM (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in a two-phase (starter and finisher) feeding program. Two hundred Hubbard F 15 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with five replicates per each. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intakes (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for a period of 42 days. Nutrient utilization in the form of dry matter (DM), energy, nitrogen, and fat retention were estimated by the total collection method in three weeks old broilers. At the end of the experiment, carcass weight was measured, and the dressing percentage was calculated. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS. There was no significant effect of FFSBM on feed intakes of chicks fed different diets (p > 0.05). Birds fed the control diet, and FF10 (10% FFSBM diet) gained significantly more than that of birds fed FF20 or FF30 diets (p > 0.05). In the finisher period, control birds gained more than all the other treatment birds. FCR was poorer in bird fed higher levels of FFSBM compared to the control or FF10 birds during their early life, but that was not evident in the latter part of the experiment. Treatments did not alter (p > 0.05) the retention of DM and nitrogen, but energy utilization was lowest (p < 0.05) in birds fed with 0% FFSBM, and the highest fat digestibility was observed in birds fed with 30% FFSBM diets. Thus, it can be concluded that FFSBM can be used as a substitute for SBM in broiler rations and could be incorporated up to 10% of the diet safely with no adverse effects on broiler performances.

Keywords: body weight, broiler, digestibility, full fat soybean meal, soybean meal

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
146 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

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Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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145 The Inclusion of the Cabbage Waste in Buffalo Ration Made of Sugarcane Waste and Its Effect on Characteristics of the Silage

Authors: Adrizal, Irsan Ryanto, Sri Juwita, Adika Sugara, Tino Bapirco

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The objective of the research was to study the influence of the inclusion of the cabbage waste into a buffalo rations made of sugarcane waste on the feed formula and characteristic of complete feed silage. Research carried out a two-stage i.e. the feed formulation and experiment of making complete feed silage. Feed formulation is done by linear programming. Data input is the price of feed stuffs and their nutrient contents as well as requirements for rations, while the output is the use of each feed stuff and the price of complete feed. The experiment of complete feed silage was done by a completely random design 4 x 4. The treatments were 4 inclusion levels of the cabbage waste i.e. 0%,(T1) 5%(T2), 10%(T3) and 15% (T4), with 4 replications. The result of feed formulation for T1 was cabbage (0%), sugarcane top (17.9%), bagasse (33.3%), Molasses (5.0%), cabagge (0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (2.7%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (9.1%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T2 was cabagge (5%), sugarcane top (1.7%), bagasse (45.2%), Molasses (5.0%), , Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.6%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (7.5%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). The formula of T3 was cabbage (10%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (45.3%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.8%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (3.9%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt(0.5%). The formula of T4 was cabagge (15.0%), sugarcane top (0%), bagasse (44.1%), Molasses (5.0%), Thitonia sp (10.0%), rice brand (3.9%), palm kernel cake (20.0%), corn meal (0%), bond meal (1.5%) and salt (0.5%). An increase in the level of inclusion of the cabbage waste can decrease the cost of rations. The cost of rations (IDR/kg on DM basis) were 1442, 1367, 1333, and 1300 respectively. The rations formula were not significantly (P > 0.05) influent the on fungal colonies, smell, texture and color of the complete ration silage, but the pH increased significantly (P < 0.05). It concluded that inclusion of cabbage waste can minimize the cost of buffalo ration, without decreasing the silage quality of complete feed.

Keywords: buffalo, cabbage, complete feed, sillage characteristic, sugarcane waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
144 Healthy, Breast Fed Bangladeshi Children Can Regulate Their Food Consumption in Each Meal and Feeding Duration When Offered with Varied Energy Density and Feeding Frequency of Complementary Foods

Authors: M. Munirul Islam, Makhduma Khatun M., Janet M. Peerson, Tahmeed Ahmed, M. Abid Hossain Mollah, Kathryn G. Dewey, Kenneth H. Brown

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Information is required on the effects of dietary energy density (ED) and feeding frequency (FF) of complementary foods (CF) on food consumption during individual meals and time expended in child feeding. We evaluated the effects of varied ED and FF of CFs on food intake and time required for child feeding during individual meals. During 9 separate, randomly ordered dietary periods lasting 3-6 days each, we measured self-determined intakes of porridges by 18 healthy, breastfed children 8-11 mo old who were fed coded porridges with energy densities of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 kcal/g, during 3, 4, or 5 meals/d. CF intake was measured by weighing the feeding bowl before and after every meal. Children consumed greater amounts of CFs per meal when they received diets with lower ED (p = 0.044) and fewer meals per day (p < 0.001). Food intake was less during the first meal of the day than the other meals. Greater time was expended per meal when fewer meals were offered. Time expended per meal did not vary by ED, but the children ate the lower ED diets faster (p = 0.019). Food intake velocity was also greater when more meals were offered per day (p = 0.005). These results provide further evidence of young children’s ability to regulate their energy intakes, even during infancy; and they convey information on factors that affect the amount of time that caregivers must devote to child feeding.

Keywords: complementary foods, energy density, feeding frequency, young children

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143 Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings Fed on Sunflower Meal Based Diet Supplemented with Phytase

Authors: Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal, Farhat Jabeen, Arshad Javid, Tasneem Hameed

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A feeding trial was conducted with Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings to study the effects of microbial phytase with graded levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 FTUkg-1) by sunflower meal based diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. The chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average wt 5.98 g fish-1) were fed once a day and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth and feed performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was obtained by the fish fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 phytase level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70%, and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Again, maximum response of nutrient digestibility was recorded at the phytase level of 1000 FTU kg-1 diet. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet can help in the development of sustainable aquaculture by reducing the feed cost and nutrient discharge through feces in the aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: sunflower meal, Cirrhinus mrigala, growth, nutrient digestibility, phytase

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142 Performance, Yolk and Serum Cholesterol of Shaver-Brown Layers Fed Moringa Leaf Meal and Sun Dried Garlic Powder

Authors: Anselm Onyimonyi, A. Abaponitus

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One hundred and ninety two Shaver-Brown layers aged 40 weeks were used in a 10 weeks feeding trial to investigate the effect of supplementary moringa leaf meal and sun-dried garlic powder (MOGA) on the performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design with 48 birds per treatment. Each treatment had 24 replicates with 2 birds, each separately housed in a cell in a battery cage. Birds on treatment 1 received a standard layers mash (16.5% CP and 3000 kcalME/kg) without any MOGA. Treatment 2 birds received the control diet with 5 g moringa leaf meal/kg of feed, treatment 3 received the control diet with 5 g sun-dried garlic powder/kg of feed, treatment 4 had a combination of 5 g each of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder/kg of feed. Data were kept on daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake. 10 eggs were collected per treatment at the end of the study for yolk cholesterol determination. Blood samples from four birds per treatment were collected and used for the serum cholesterol and triglycerides determination. Results showed that bird on treatment 3 (5% moringa leaf meal/kg of feed) had significantly higher (P < 0.05) Hen Day Egg Production record of 83.3% as against 78.75%, 65.05% and 66.67% recorded for the control, T2 and T4 birds, respectively. Egg weight of 56.39 g recorded for the same birds on treatment 3 was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than the values of 62.61 g, 60.99 g and 59.33 g recorded for birds on T4, T1 and T2, respectively. Yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the moringa leaf meal fed birds were significantly (P<0.05) lowered when compared to those of the other treatments. Comparatively, the birds on the MOGA diets had significantly reduced yolk and serum cholesterol than the control. It is concluded that supplementation of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder at the levels used in this study will result in the production of nutritionally healthier eggs with less yolk and serum cholesterol.

Keywords: performance, cholesterol, moringa, garlic

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
141 Growth and Laying Performance of Commercial Hens Fed with Varying Levels of Trichanthera gigantea (Nees.) Leaf Meal

Authors: Carmel Khrisna Wong Moreno, Dinah M. Espina

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The increasing price of feed ingredients has prompted farmers to seek feasible feed alternatives like the utilization of locally-grown protein-rich feedstuff which is cheaper but gives a positive result in poultry production. Trichanthera gigantea, a fodder tree which is an excellent alternative as feed ingredient in the Philippines has now gained popularity as feed supplement. This study was conducted to determine the growth and laying performance of commercial hens fed with varying levels of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal. The incorporation of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal at 5%, 10%, and 15% into the diet of commercial hens did not affect the growth and laying performance. Results of the study revealed that the weight gain of the birds fed with Trichanthera gigantea supplemented diets was not significantly different with the control (100% commercial layer mash). The voluntary feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weekly average egg weight and egg production of the commercial hens fed with T. gigantea leaf meal supplemented diets were not significantly different from the control. Results of the study showed that the supplementation of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal of up to 15% into the diets of commercial hens is highly acceptable since it does not affect the growth and laying performance of the birds. In addition, it would mean a 15% savings in production cost from commercial feeds.

Keywords: egg production, growth, laying performance, trichanthera gigantea (nees)

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
140 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro

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An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
139 Fermented Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiacal) Peel Meal as a Replacement for Maize in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

Authors: N. A. Bamidele, S. O. Obasa, I. O. Taiwo, I. Abdulraheem, O. C. Odebiyi, A. A. Adeoye, O. E. Babalola, O. V. Uzamere

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented unripe plantain peel meal (FUP) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and economic indices of production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Fingerlings (150) of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Five iso-nitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0), 25% (FUP25), 50% (FUP50), 75% (FUP75) and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the growth parameters among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio of 1.35 in fish fed diet FUP25 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from 1.42 of fish fed diet FUP0. Apparent protein digestibility of 86.94% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than 70.37% in fish fed diet FUP0 while apparent carbohydrate of 88.34% in fish fed diet FUP0 was significantly different (p < 0.05) from 70.29% of FUP100. Red blood cell (4.30 ml/mm3) of fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different from 4.13 ml/mm3 of fish fed diet FUP50. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0 while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings.

Keywords: fermentation, fish diets, plantain peel, tilapia

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
138 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Fed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: Nnennaya Samuel Okoro

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PPSM). The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that haematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P<0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23 g/d) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: haematology, internal organs, pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
137 Time and Energy Saving Kitchen Layout

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, Premavathy Seetharaman

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The two important resources of any worker performing any type of work at any workplace are time and energy. These are important inputs of the worker and need to be utilised in the best possible manner. The kitchen is an important workplace where the homemaker performs many essential activities. Its layout should be so designed that optimum use of her resources can be achieved.Ideally, the shape of the kitchen, as determined by the physical space enclosed by the four walls, can be square, rectangular or irregular. But it is the shape of the arrangement of counter that one normally refers to while talking of the layout of the kitchen. The arrangement can be along a single wall, along two opposite walls, L shape, U shape or even island. A study was conducted in 50 kitchens belonging to middle income group families. These were DDA built kitchens located in North, South, East and West Delhi.The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non working homemakers were interviewed. The data related to personal characteristics of the homemakers was collected. Additional information was also collected regarding the kitchens-the size, shape , etc. The homemakers were also questioned about various aspects related to meal preparation-people performing the task, number of items cooked, areas used for meal preparation , etc. In the second phase, a suitable technique was designed for conducting time and motion study in the kitchen while the meal was being prepared. This technique was called Path Process Chart. The final phase was carried out in 50 kitchens. The criterion for selection was that all items for a meal should be cooked at the same time. All the meals were cooked by the homemakers in their own kitchens. The meal preparation was studied using the Path Process Chart technique. The data collected was analysed and conclusions drawn. It was found that of all the shapes, it was the kitchen with L shape arrangement in which, on an average a homemaker spent minimum time on meal preparation and also travelled the minimum distance. Thus, the average distance travelled in a L shaped layout was 131.1 mts as compared to 181.2 mts in an U shaped layout. Similarly, 48 minutes was the average time spent on meal preparation in L shaped layout as compared to 53 minutes in U shaped layout. Thus, the L shaped layout was more time and energy saving layout as compared to U shaped.

Keywords: kitchen layout, meal preparation, path process chart technique, workplace

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
136 Different Feedings on Chemical Characteristics of Atlantic Salmon Fillet

Authors: Mahsa Jalili, Trude Johansen, Signe Dille Lovmo, Turid Rustad, Rolf Erik Olsen, Atle M. Bones

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The quality of fish muscle is a key factor in fish industry, and dietary ingredients can influence fish quality. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of krill meal, soybean meal, Bactocell® and butyrate fortified feeds and control diet on characteristics of salmon fillet. Thirty Atlantic salmon (6 per each group) were farmed for 12 weeks. All the fish were killed and frozen immediately. The white muscle from top posterior part of dorsal fin was dissected to analyze fat content, carotenoid content, content of water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins, cathepsin B and cathepsin B-L activities. ANOVA test was used to analyze mean and standard error of mean values at 0.05 significance level. There were significant difference in cathepsin B activity, water-soluble proteins and salt-soluble proteins (p-value= 0.005, 0.009 and 0.002). The mean values of other factors were not significantly different among the groups. Cathepsin B activity was higher in soymeal group. Water-soluble proteins were reported higher in soy meal and krill groups and salt-soluble proteins were significantly higher in soy meal and butyrate rich diets. Although soy meal has proven effect on enteritis, it results in higher percentage of protein in fillets. On the other hand, this feeding may have role in textural deterioration of fillets owing to higher values of endogenous cathepsin B in soymeal group.

Keywords: aquaculture, food quality, Krill protein extract, prebiotics, probiotics, Salmo salar, soy

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
135 Space Utilisation during Meal Preparation in an Indian Kitchen Belonging to Middle-Income Group Family

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, P. Seetharaman

Abstract:

A kitchen is a major workplace in any home. A large variety of tasks, mainly related to meal preparation is performed here. The types of activities performed are varied and vast. In a way, it is the activities performed that determine the way the space within the kitchen is going to be utilised. A study was conducted in 510 Indian kitchens belonging to middle-income group families living in Delhi. It was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non-working homemakers were interviewed and questions pertaining to their personal characteristics, meal preparation and physical aspects related to the kitchen were asked. In the second phase, the technique of Path Process Chart was developed. Subsequently, a sub-sample of 50 homemakers was selected from the larger group. The activity of meal preparation was carried out by the homemakers themselves in their kitchens. A time and motion study was conducted using the technique of Path Process Chart. The results were analysed using the appropriate analysis sheets and conclusions were drawn. It was found that the entire kitchen and more specifically, the counter had been 'divided' into a number of workplaces. These workplaces were being used either for performing operations or for the purpose of storage. In many cases, it was used for both. On the whole, in 50 kitchens studied, 21 workplaces were identified which were used for performing operations related to meal preparation and 17 for storage It was also observed that almost the entire kitchen was used for the purpose of storage of some item or the other. The major workplaces where operations were performed were the range, workplaces to the right and left of range and sink and workplaces to the right or left of the sink. The same workplaces were also used for the purpose of storage. There were some workplaces outside the kitchen too, which were used for operations or storage. These were the dining table, courtyard or balcony, bedroom cupboard. On the whole, the range centre and the sink centre were found to be the two most important centres in an Indian kitchen belonging to urban middle-income group family.

Keywords: kitchen, workplace, meal preparation, path process chart

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
134 Appraisal of Different Levels of Soybean Meal in Diets on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidation and Gut Histology of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Zakir Hossain, Arzu Pervin, Halima Jahan, Rabeya Akter, Abdel Omri

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Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal is an effective way to relieve the pressure on fish meal as the supply of this feed ingredient is dwindling and certainly is not sustainable in long term at present levels in commercial feeds. This study was designed to determine the effect of fishmeal (FM) replacement with soybean meal (SBM) in diet on growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidation and gut histomorphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Five diets were formulated where SBM0 contained 100% FM, FM substituted with graded levels of a mix of SBM to replace 25% (SBM25), 50% (SBM50), 75% (SBM75) and 100% (SBM100) of FM. Juvenile tilapia having weight and length of 6.60±0.13 g and 5.42±0.17 cm were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 40 individual each group and fed to visual satiation for 90 days. Diet with SBM was increased significant in body weight gain and specific growth rate in fish compared to the fish fed with SBM100. Fish having the similar weight (74.34±5.41 g) fed the diets SBM50, SBM75 and SBM100 containing higher level of SBM showed significantly longer intestine compared to SBM0. Villus height of stomach and intestine were significantly greater in the fish fed with the diets SBM0, SBM25 and SBM50 compared to SBM100. Muscular thickness was inversely changed with the increasing villus height. Protease activity was increased significantly in stomach, anterior and posterior intestine of fish fed with SBM0 and SBM25 compared to SBM100. In anterior and posterior segment of intestine, significantly higher lipase activity was observed in fish fed with the diets SBM0 and SBM25 compared to diet SBM100. In stomach, amylase activity was also significantly greater in SBM0 compared to SBM100. The antioxidant enzymes including catalase and superoxide dismutase of liver were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the O. niloticus fed SBM100 compared to the ones fed SBM0. These results suggest that the replacement of FM upto 75% with SBM could be possible considering the growth performances, gut health and activities digestive enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in O. niloticus.

Keywords: soybean meal, fish meal, digestive enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
133 Integration of the Electro-Activation Technology for Soy Meal Valorization

Authors: Natela Gerliani, Mohammed Aider

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Nowadays, the interest of using sustainable technologies for protein extraction from underutilized oilseeds is growing. Currently, a major disposal problem for the oil industry is by-products of plant food processing such as soybean meal. That is why valorization of soybean meal is important for the oil industry since it contains high-quality proteins and other valuable components. Generally, soybean meal is used in livestock and poultry feed but is rarely used in human feed. Though chemical composition of this meal compensate nutritional deficiency and can be used to balance protein in human food. Regarding the efficiency of soybean meal valorization, extraction is a key process for obtaining enriched protein ingredient, which can be incorporated into the food matrix. However, most of the food components such as proteins extracted from oilseeds by-products imply the utilization of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g. acids, bases, TCA-acetone) having a significant environmental impact. In a context of sustainable production, the use of an electro-activation technology seems to be a good alternative. Indeed, the electro-activation technology requires only water, food grade salt and electricity as main materials. Moreover, this innovative technology helps to avoid special equipment and trainings for workers safety as well as transport and storage of hazardous materials. Electro-activation is a technology based on applied electrochemistry for the generation of acidic and alkaline solutions on the basis of the oxidation-reduction reactions that occur at the vicinity electrode/solution interfaces. It is an eco-friendly process that can be used to replace the conventional acidic and alkaline extraction. In this research, the electro-activation technology for protein extraction from soybean meal was carried out in the electro-activation reactor. This reactor consists of three compartments separated by cation and anion exchange membranes that allow creating non-contacting acidic and basic solutions. Different current intensities (150 mA, 300 mA and 450 mA) and treatment durations (10 min, 30 min and 50 min) were tested. The results showed that the extracts obtained by the electro-activation method have good quality in comparison to conventional extracts. For instance, extractability obtained with electro-activation method was 55% whereas with the conventional method it was only 36%. Moreover, a maximum protein quantity of 48 % in the extract was obtained with the electro-activation technology comparing to the maximum amount of protein obtained by conventional extraction of 41 %. Hence, the environmentally sustainable electro-activation technology seems to be a promising type of protein extraction that can replace conventional extraction technology.

Keywords: by-products, eco-friendly technology, electro-activation, soybean meal

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
132 Nutritive Advantage of Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) in the Diet of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Authors: Tae-ho Chung, Chul Park, Gi-wook Shin, Joo-min Kim, Seong-hyun Kim, Namjung Kim

Abstract:

Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) was evaluated to investigate the effect of partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Experimental groups of shrimp with average initial body weight (2.43 ± 0.54 g) were fed each with 4 isonitrogeneous (38% crude protein) diets formulated to include 0, 25, 50 and 100% (diets 1 to 4, respectively) of fish meal substituted with mealworm. After eight weeks of feeding trials, shrimp fed with diet 3 and 4 revealed the highest values for live weight gain(8.01 ± 2.51 and 7.93 ± 1.12), specific growth rates (2.70 ± 1.12 and 2.59 ± 0.51) as well as better feed conversion ratio (2.69 ± 0.09 and 2.72 ± 0.19) compared to the control group with statistically significant manner (p<0.05). Survival range was 98% in all the treatments. An increase in weight gain and other growth associated parameters was observed with higher replacement. These results clearly indicate that 50% and 100% of fish meal protein in shrimp diet can be replaced by mealworm not only without any adverse effect but also the effect of promoting growth performance.

Keywords: mealworm, Litopenaeus vannamei, Tenebrio molitor, white shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
131 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje

Abstract:

The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
130 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai

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Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: digesta, goats, meal termination, reticulo-rumen fill

Procedia PDF Downloads 282