Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: pigeon pea

18 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality Attributes of Pigeon Pea Used in Bread Production

Authors: B. F. Olanipekun, O. J. Oyelade, C. O. Osemobor

Abstract:

Pigeon pea is a very good source of protein and micronutrient, but it is being underutilized in Nigeria because of several constraints. This research considered the effect of different processing methods on the quality attributes of pigeon pea used in bread production towards enhancing its utility. Pigeon pea was obtained at a local market and processed into the flour using three processing methods: soaking, sprouting and roasting and were used to bake bread in different proportions. Chemical composition and sensory attributes of the breads were thereafter determined. The highest values of protein and ash contents were obtained from 20 % substitution of sprouted pigeon pea in wheat flour and may be attributable to complex biochemical changes occurring during hydration, to invariably lead to protein constituent being broken down. Hydrolytic activities of the enzymes from the sprouted sample resulted in improvement in the constituent of total protein probably due to reduction in the carbohydrate content. Sensory qualities analyses showed that bread produced with soaked and roasted pigeon pea flours at 5 and 10% inclusion, respectively were mostly accepted than other blends, and products with sprouted pigeon pea flour were least accepted. The findings of this research suggest that supplementing wheat flour with sprouted pigeon peas have more nutritional potentials. However, with sensory analysis indices, the soaked and roasted pigeon peas up to 10% are majorly accepted, and also can improve the nutritional status. Overall, this will be very beneficial to population dependent on plant protein in order to combat malnutrition problems.

Keywords: pigeon pea, processing, protein, malnutrition

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17 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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16 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Fed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: Nnennaya Samuel Okoro

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PPSM). The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that haematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P<0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23 g/d) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: haematology, internal organs, pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
15 Molecular Genetic Purity Test Using SSR Markers in Pigeon Pea

Authors: Rakesh C. Mathad, G. Y. Lokesh, Basavegowda

Abstract:

In agriculture using quality seeds of improved varieties is very important to ensure higher productivity thereby food security and sustainability. To ensure good productivity, seeds should have characters as described by the breeder. To know whether the characters as described by the breeder are expressing in a variety such as genuineness or genetic purity, field grow out test (GOT) is done. In pigeon pea which is long durational crop, conducting a GOT may take very long time and expensive also. Since in pigeon pea flower character is a most distinguishing character from the contaminants, conducting a field grow out test require 120-130 days or till flower emergence, which may increase cost of storage and seed production. This will also delay the distribution of seed inventory to the pigeon pea growing areas. In this view during 2014-15 with financial support of Govt. of Karnataka, India, a project to develop a molecular genetic test for newly developed variety of pigeon pea cv.TS3R was commissioned at Seed Unit, UAS, Raichur. A molecular test was developed with the help SSR markers to identify pure variety from possible off types in newly released pigeon pea variety TS3R. In the investigation, 44 primer pairs were screened to identify the specific marker associated with this variety. Pigeon pea cv. TS3R could be clearly identified by using the primer CCM 293 based on the banding pattern resolved on gel electrophoresis and PCR reactions. However some of the markers like AHSSR 46, CCM 82 and CCM 57 can be used to test other popular varieties in the region like Asha, GRG-811 and Maruti respectively. Further to develop this in to a lab test, the seed sample size was standardized to 200 seeds and a grow out matrix was developed. This matrix was used to sample 12 days old leaves to extract DNA. The lab test results were validated with actual field GOT test results and found variations within the acceptable limit of 1%. This molecular method can now be employed to test the genetic purity in pigeon pea cv TS3R which reduces the time and can be a cheaper alternative method for field GOT.

Keywords: genuineness, grow-out matrix, molecular genetic purity, SSR markers

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14 Effect of Sex and Breed on Live Weight of Adult Iranian Pigeons

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the live weight of adult pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, their mutual effects and some auxiliary variables in 4 races of Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy, and Namebar. In this paper, 152 pieces of pigeons as 76 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. Then the birds were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. Software was used for statistical analysis. Mean live weight of adult male and female pigeons in 4 races (Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy and Namebar with (15, 20, 20, 21) and (20, 21, 18, 17) records were, (530±56, 388.75±32, 392±34, 552±48) and (446±34, 342±32, 341±46, 457±57) gr, respectively. Difference weight of adult live of male with female was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of male adult pigeon was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05). Different live weight of female adult pigeon between Kabood, Parvazy and Tizpar races were significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) but mean live weight Kabood race with Namebar race and Parvazy with Tizpar were not significant. The results showed that most and least mean live weights belonged to Namebar of the male pigeon race and Parvazy of the female pigeon race.

Keywords: Iranian Native Pigeons, adult weight, live weight, adult pigeons

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13 Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Content of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ready-to-Eat Snack

Authors: Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Oluwatoyin Oluwole

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Pigeon pea is one of the minor leguminous plants; though underutilised, it is used traditionally by farmers to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. Pigeon pea is cultivated in Nigeria by subsistence farmers. It is rich in protein and minerals, however, its utilisation as food is only common among the poor and rural populace who cannot afford expensive sources of protein. One of the factors contributing to its limited use is the high antinutrient content which makes it indigestible, especially when eaten by children. The development of value-added products that can reduce the antinutrient content and make the nutrients more bioavailable will increase the utilisation of the crop and contribute to reduction of malnutrition. This research, therefore, determined the effects of different roasting temperatures (130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C) on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient component of a pigeon pea snack. The brown variety of pigeon pea seeds were purchased from a local market- Otto in Lagos, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, washed, and soaked in 50 ml of water containing sugar and salt (4:1) for 15 minutes, and thereafter the seeds were roasted at 130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C in an electric oven for 10 minutes. Proximate, minerals, phytate, tannin and alkaloid content analyses were carried out in triplicates following standard procedures. The results of the three replicates were polled and expressed as mean±standard deviation; a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significance Difference (LSD) were carried out. The roasting temperatures significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of the snack. Ready-to-eat snack prepared by roasting at 150 0C significantly had the highest protein (23.42±0.47%) compared the ones roasted at 130 0C and 140 0C (18.38±1.25% and 20.63±0.45%, respectively). The same trend was observed for the ash content (3.91±0.11 for 150 0C, 2.36±0.15 for 140 0C and 2.26±0.25 for 130 0C), while the fibre and carbohydrate contents were highest at roasting temperature of 130 0C. Iron, zinc, and calcium were not significantly (P<0.5) affected by the different roasting temperatures. Antinutrients decreased with increasing temperature. Phytate levels recorded were 0.02±0.00, 0.06±0.00, and 0.07±0.00 mg/g; tannin levels were 0.50±0.00, 0.57±0.00, and 0.68±0.00 mg/g, while alkaloids levels were 0.51±0.01, 0.78±0.01, and 0.82±0.01 mg/g for 150 0C, 140 0C, and 130 0C, respectively. These results show that roasting at high temperature (150 0C) can be utilised as a processing technique for increasing protein and decreasing antinutrient content of pigeon pea.

Keywords: antinutrients, pigeon pea, protein, roasting, underutilised species

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12 Preliminary Studies on the Potentials of Bambara nut (Voandzeia substerranea) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as Imitation Milk

Authors: Onuoha Gideon

Abstract:

The preliminary studies on the potentials of Bambara nut and pigeon pea as imitation milk were investigated. Bambara nut and Pigeon pea milk were produced from two separate unit operations; Bambara nut seed was cooked, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (BCM) and another batch was toasted at moderate temperature, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (BTM). Pigeon pea seed was cooked, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (PCM) and another batch was toasted at moderate temperature, dehulled, milled and strained to milk (PTM). The result of the proximate analysis on the milk samples on wet basis showed that the protein content ranged from 28.56 – 26.77, the crude fibre ranged from 6.28 – 1.85, the ash content ranged from 5.22 – 1.17, the fat content ranged from 2.71 – 1.12, the moisture content ranged from 95.93 – 93.83, the carbohydrate content ranged from 67.62 – 58.83. The functional analysis on the milk samples showed that emulsification capacity ranged from 43.21 – 38.66, emulsion stability ranged from 34.10 – 25.00, the specific gravity ranged from 997.50 – 945.00, the foaming capacity ranged from 3,500 to 2,250, the measurement of viscosity ranged from 0.017 – 0.007, the pH range from 5.55 – 5.25, the measurement of dispersibility range from 11.00 – 7.00, the total soluble solid ranged from 4.00 to 1.75, the total titratable acidity ranged from 0.314 – 0.328. The sensory evaluation report showed that in terms of flavor, sample BCM and PCM value were significantly different from sample BTM and PTM. In terms of colour, sample BCM showed a significant difference from samples BTM, PCM and PTM. In term of texture, sample BCM was significantly different from samples BTM, PCM and PTM. The general acceptability shows that sample BCM was significantly different from other the samples and was the most accepted. The microbial analysis indicated that the microbial load increases with time. Bacterial count ranged from 1.3 x 105 – 1.20 x 106 to 1.6 x 105 – 1.06 x 106, fungal count ranged from 4.0 x 105 – 8.0 x 105 to 4.0 x 105 – 7.0 x 105. The studies showed that BCM was the most preferred.

Keywords: imitation milk, Bambara nut, Pigeon pea, proximate composition

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11 Nutritional Composition of Crackers Produced from Blend of Sprouted Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan), Unripe Plantain (Musa parasidiaca), and Brewers’ Spent Grain Flour and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Fed the Biscuit

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu, Charles N. Ishiwu

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The nutritional composition and hypoglycaemic effect of crackers produced from a blend of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain, and brewers’ spent grain and fed to Alloxan induced diabetic rat was investigated. Crackers were produced from different blends of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain. The crackers were evaluated for proximate composition, amino acid profile and antinutritional factors. Blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rats fed with the control sample and different formulations of cracker were measured. The protein content of the samples were significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other with sample A having the lowest value and sample B with the highest value. The values obtained showed that the samples contained most of the amino acids that are found in plant proteins. The levels of antinutritional factor determined were generally low. Administration of the formulated cracker meals led to a significant reduction in the fasting blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. The present study concluded that consumption of crackers produced from this composite flour can be recommended for the diabetics and those who are sceptical about the disease.

Keywords: crackers, diabetics rat, sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain

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10 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel

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Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
9 Effect of Band Application of Organic Manures on Growth and Yield of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

Authors: S. B. Kalaghatagi, A. K. Guggari, Pallavi S. Manikashetti

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A field experiment to study the effect of band application of organic manures on growth and yield of pigeon pea was conducted during 2016-17 at Kharif Seed Farm, College of Agriculture, Vijayapura. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with thirteen treatments viz., T1 to T6 were band application of vermicompost at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 t ha⁻¹, respectively. The treatments T7 to T12 include band application of sieved FYM at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 t ha⁻¹, respectively and were compared with already recommended practice of broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha⁻¹ (T13); and recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:0 NPK kg ha⁻¹) was applied commonly to all the treatments. The results revealed that band application of vermicompost (VC) at 3 t ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher number of pods plant⁻¹ (116), grain weight plant⁻¹ (37.35 g), grain yield (1,647 kg ha⁻¹), stalk yield (2,920 kg ha⁻¹) and harvest index (0.36) and was on par with the band application of VC at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4.0 and 5.0 t ha⁻¹ as compared to broadcasting of FYM at 6 t ha-1 (99.33, 24.07 g, 1,061 kg ha⁻¹, 2,920 kg ha⁻¹ and 0.36, respectively). Significantly higher net return (Rupees 59,410 ha⁻¹) and benefit cost ratio of 2.92 recorded with band application of VC at 3 t ha⁻¹ over broadcasting of FYM at 6 tonnes per ha (Rupees 25,401 ha⁻¹ and 1.78, respectively). It indicates from the above results that, growing of pigeon pea with band application of VC at 2, 2.5 and 3 t ha⁻¹ and sieved FYM at 4 and 5 t ha⁻¹ leads to saving of 1 tonne of VC and 2 tonnes of FYM per ha.

Keywords: organic manures, rainfed pigeonpea, sieved FYM, vermicompost

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8 Consumer Acceptability of Crackers Produced from Blend of Sprouted Pigeon Pea, Unripe Plantain and Brewers’ Spent Grain and Its Hypoglycemic Effect in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu

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Physical, sensory properties and hypoglycemic effect of crackers produced from sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain fed to diabetic rats were investigated. Different composite flours were used to produce crackers. Physical and sensory properties of the crackers, the blood serum of the rats and changes in the rat body weight were measured. Spread ratio and break strength of the crackers from different flour blends ranges from 7.01 g to 8.51 g and 1.87 g to 3.01 g respectively. The acceptability of the crackers revealed that Sample A (100% wheat crackers) was not significantly (p>0.05) different from Samples C and D. Feeding the rats with formulated crackers caused an increase in the body weight of the rats but a reduced body weight was observed in diabetic rats fed with normal rat feed. The result indicated that cracker produced from the formulated flour blends caused a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and led to a reduction of measured biochemical indices. Therefore, this work showed that consumption of crackers from the above formulated flour blend was able to decrease hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

Keywords: hypoglyceamia, hyperlipidimia, total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol

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7 Comparision of Neospora caninum Experimental Infection in Pigeons and Chickens Embryonated Eggs

Authors: S. Bahrami, A. Rezaie, Z. Boroumand, S. Ghavami

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Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite which can cause a serious disease in dogs and cattle. It has been shown that birds may be a permissive intermediate host for N. caninum since parasite DNA has been detected in tissues from birds. It is showed that embryonated chicken egg can be used as an animal model for experimental infection. The aim of present study was to compare experimental infection of Neospora in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs. An infection with N. caninum Nc1 isolate was conducted in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs to evaluate LD50. After calculation of LD50, 2LD50 of tachyzoites were injected to eggs. Macroscopic changes of each embryo were noticed and to investigate the parasite distribution in tissues immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular methods were used. In the present study, histopathological changes were considered and sections to those used for histopathological examination including heart, liver, brain and chorioallantoic (CA) membrane were subjected to IHC, too. For PCR procedure, primer pair Np21/Np6 was used for amplification of the Nc5 gene. Pigeon's embryo showed more macroscopic changes than chicken embryo. A hemorrhage of the CA was the main grass lesion. All the infected tissues had histopathological changes. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute neosporosis due to hemorrhage, necrosis and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Based on IHC and molecular results, the parasite aggregation in the heart was more predominant than in the other tissues. These results reinforce that there is genetic susceptibility to N. caninum in pigeons embryonated eggs like chickens embryonated eggs and provide new insights to research an inexpensive and available animal model for N. caninum.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry, Neospora caninum, PCR, pigeon embryonated egg

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6 Understanding the Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance among Wild Animals, Livestock and Associated Environment in a Rural Ecosystem in Sri Lanka

Authors: B. M. Y. I. Basnayake, G. G. T. Nisansala, P. I. J. B. Wijewickrama, U. S. Weerathunga, K. W. M. Y. D. Gunasekara, N. K. Jayasekera, A. W. Kalupahana, R. S. Kalupahana, A. Silva- Fletcher, K. S. A. Kottawatta

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has attracted significant attention worldwide as an emerging threat to public health. Understanding the role of livestock and wildlife with the shared environment in the maintenance and transmission of AMR is of utmost importance due to its interactions with humans for combating the issue in one health approach. This study aims to investigate the extent of AMR distribution among wild animals, livestock, and environment cohabiting in a rural ecosystem in Sri Lanka: Hambegamuwa. One square km area at Hambegamuwa was mapped using GPS as the sampling area. The study was conducted for a period of five months from November 2020. Voided fecal samples were collected from 130 wild animals, 123 livestock: buffalo, cattle, chicken, and turkey, with 36 soil and 30 water samples associated with livestock and wildlife. From the samples, Escherichia coli (E. coli) was isolated, and their AMR profiles were investigated for 12 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method following the CLSI standard. Seventy percent (91/130) of wild animals, 93% (115/123) of livestock, 89% (32/36) of soil, and 63% (19/30) of water samples were positive for E. coli. Maximum of two E. coli from each sample to a total of 467 were tested for the sensitivity of which 157, 208, 62, and 40 were from wild animals, livestock, soil, and water, respectively. The highest resistance in E. coli from livestock (13.9%) and wild animals (13.3%) was for ampicillin, followed by streptomycin. Apart from that, E. coli from livestock and wild animals revealed resistance mainly against tetracycline, cefotaxime, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid at levels less than 10%. Ten cefotaxime resistant E. coli were reported from wild animals, including four elephants, two land monitors, a pigeon, a spotted dove, and a monkey which was a significant finding. E. coli from soil samples reflected resistance primarily against ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline at levels less than in livestock/wildlife. Two water samples had cefotaxime resistant E. coli as the only resistant isolates out of 30 water samples tested. Of the total E. coli isolates, 6.4% (30/467) was multi-drug resistant (MDR) which included 18, 9, and 3 isolates from livestock, wild animals, and soil, respectively. Among 18 livestock MDRs, the highest (13/ 18) was from poultry. Nine wild animal MDRs were from spotted dove, pigeon, land monitor, and elephant. Based on CLSI standard criteria, 60 E. coli isolates, of which 40, 16, and 4 from livestock, wild animal, and environment, respectively, were screened for Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers. Despite being a rural ecosystem, AMR and MDR are prevalent even at low levels. E. coli from livestock, wild animals, and the environment reflected a similar spectrum of AMR where ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and cefotaxime being the predominant antimicrobials of resistance. Wild animals may have acquired AMR via direct contact with livestock or via the environment, as antimicrobials are rarely used in wild animals. A source attribution study including the effects of the natural environment to study AMR can be proposed as this less contaminated rural ecosystem alarms the presence of AMR.

Keywords: AMR, Escherichia coli, livestock, wildlife

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5 Host Range and Taxonomy of Hairy Caterpillars (Erebidae: Lepidoptera) in Different Cropping Ecosystems

Authors: Mallikarjun Warad, C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, P. R. Shashank

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Studies were conducted to record the occurrence of different species of hairy caterpillar on different host plants in and around Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. Twelve genera of hairy caterpillars belonging to Arctiinae and Lymantriinae were recorded on different host plants and reared to adults in laboratory on their respective hosts. The Porthesia sp. feed on castor, Creatonotus gangis on cocoa, Perina nuda on fig, Pericalia ricini on pigeon pea, Utetheisa pulchella on sunhemp and Euproctis sp. on paddy and banana. Illustrations of immature and adults were made to associate them. Along with this, light traps were also set during the rainy season, to capture adults of hairy caterpillars. An illustrated identification key was provided for easy and accurate identification of adult of hairy caterpillars based on their morphological (male genitalial) characters. The study through a light on the existence of sexual dimorphism, polyphagous nature and diapause are the major hindrance in taxonomic identification. Hence, attempts were made to address these issues in the study.

Keywords: Erebidae, hairy caterpillars, male genitalia, taxonomy

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4 A Study to Assess the Energy Saving Potential and Economic Analysis of an Agro Based Industry in Karnataka, India

Authors: Sangamesh G. Sakri, Akash N. Patil, Sadashivappa M. Kotli

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Agro based industries in India are considered as the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME). In India, MSMEs contribute approximately 8 percent of the country’s GDP, 42 percent of the manufacturing output and 40 percent of exports. The toor dal (scientific name Cajanus cajan, commonly known as yellow gram, pigeon pea) is the second largest pulse crop in India accounting for about 20% of total pulse production. The toor dal milling industry in India is one of the major agro-processing industries in the country. Most of the dal mills are concentrated in pulse producing areas, which are spread all over the country. In Karnataka state, Gulbarga is a district, where toor dal is the main crop and is grown extensively. There are more than 500 dal mills in and around the Gulbarga district to process dal. However, the majority of these dal milling units use traditional methods of processing which are energy and capital intensive. There exists a huge energy saving potential in these mills. An energy audit is conducted on a dal mill in Gulbarga to understand the energy consumption pattern to assess the energy saving potential, and an economic analysis is conducted to identify energy conservation opportunities.

Keywords: conservation, demand side management, load curve, toor dal

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3 Effect of Dimensional Reinforcement Probability on Discrimination of Visual Compound Stimuli by Pigeons

Authors: O. V. Vyazovska

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Behavioral efficiency is one of the main principles to be successful in nature. Accuracy of visual discrimination is determined by the attention, learning experience, and memory. In the experimental condition, pigeons’ responses to visual stimuli presented on the screen of the monitor are behaviorally manifested by pecking or not pecking the stimulus, by the number of pecking, reaction time, etc. The higher the probability of rewarding is, the more likely pigeons will respond to the stimulus. We trained 8 pigeons (Columba livia) on a stagewise go/no-go visual discrimination task.16 visual stimuli were created from all possible combinations of four binary dimensions: brightness (dark/bright), size (large/small), line orientation (vertical/horizontal), and shape (circle/square). In the first stage, we presented S+ and 4 S-stimuli: the first that differed in all 4-dimensional values from S+, the second with brightness dimension sharing with S+, the third sharing brightness and orientation with S+, the fourth sharing brightness, orientation and size. Then all 16 stimuli were added. Pigeons rejected correctly 6-8 of 11 new added S-stimuli at the beginning of the second stage. The results revealed that pigeons’ behavior at the beginning of the second stage was controlled by probabilities of rewarding for 4 dimensions learned in the first stage. More or fewer mistakes with dimension discrimination at the beginning of the second stage depended on the number S- stimuli sharing the dimension with S+ in the first stage. A significant inverse correlation between the number of S- stimuli sharing dimension values with S+ in the first stage and the dimensional learning rate at the beginning of the second stage was found. Pigeons were more confident in discrimination of shape and size dimensions. They made mistakes at the beginning of the second stage, which were not associated with these dimensions. Thus, the received results help elucidate the principles of dimensional stimulus control during learning compound multidimensional visual stimuli.

Keywords: visual go/no go discrimination, selective attention, dimensional stimulus control, pigeon

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2 Alternative Seed System for Enhanced Availability of Quality Seeds and Seed/Varietal Replacement Rate - An Experience

Authors: Basave Gowda, Lokesh K., Prasanth S. M., Bellad S. B., Radha J., Lokesh G. Y., Patil S. B., Vijayakumar D. K., Ganigar B. S., Rakesh C. Mathad

Abstract:

Quality seed plays an important role in enhancing the crop productivity. It was reported and confirmed by large scale verification research trials that by use of quality seeds alone, the crop yield can be enhanced by 15 to 20 per cent. At present, the quality seed production and distribution through organised sectors comprising both public and private seed sector was only 20-25% of the requirement and the remaining quantity is met through unorganised sector which include the farmer to farmers saved seeds. With an objective of developing an alternative seed system, the University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur in Karnataka state has implemented Seed Village Programme in more than 100 villages covering around 5000 farmers every year since 2009-10 and in the selected seed villages, a group of 50-150 farmers were supplied the foundation seeds of new varieties to an extent of 0.4 ha at 50 % subsidy. And two to three training programmes were conducted in the targeted villages for quality seed production and the seed produced in the target group was processed locally in the university seed processing units and arranged for distribution in the local villages by the seed growers themselves. By this new innovative and modified seed system, the university can able to replace old varieties of pigeon pea and green gram by producing 1482, 2978, 2729, 2560, and 4581 tonnes of seeds of new varieties on large scale under farmers and scientists participatory seed village programmes respectively during 2009-10, 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. From this new alternate model of seed system, there should be large scale promotion of regional seed system involving farmers, NGO and voluntary organisation for quick and effective replacement of old, low yielding, disease susceptible varieties with new high yielding, disease resistant for enhanced food production and food security.

Keywords: seed system, seed village, seed replacement, varietal replacement

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1 Species Profiling of Scarab Beetles with the Help of Light Trap in Western Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), locally known as Kurmula, Pagra, Chinchu, is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India. Various crops like cereals (up land paddy, wheat, and barley), vegetables (capsicum, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, carrot etc) and some pulse (like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram) are grown with limited availability of primary resources. Among the various limitations in successful cultivation of these crops, white grub has been proved a major constraint in for all crops grown in hilly area. The losses incurred due to white grubs are huge in case of commercial crops like sugarcane, groundnut, potato, maize and upland rice. Moreover, it has been proved major constraint in potato production in mid and higher hills of India. Adults emerge in May-June following the onset of monsoon and thereafter defoliate the apple, apricot, plum, and walnut during night while 2nd and 3rd instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non cultivated crops from August to January. Survey was conducted in hilly (Pauri and Tehri) as well as plain area (Haridwar district) of Uttarakhand state. Collection of beetle was done from various locations from August to September of five consecutive years with the help of light trap and directly from host plant. The grub was also collected by excavating one square meter area from different locations and reared in laboratory to find out adult. During the collection, the diseased or dead cadaver were also collected and brought in the laboratory and identified the causal organisms. Total 25 species of white grub was identified out of which Holotrichia longipennis, Anomala dimidiata, Holotrichia lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis, Brahmina sp. make complex problem in different area of Uttarakhand where they cause severe damage to various crops. During the survey, it was observed that white grubs beetles have variation in preference of host plant, even in choice of fruit and leaves of host plant. It was observed that, a white grub species, which identified as Lepidiota mansueta Burmeister., was causing severe havoc to sugarcane crop grown in major sugarcane growing belt of Haridwar district. The study also revealed that Bacillus cereus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis are major disease causing agents in immature stage of white grub under rain-fed condition of Uttarakhand which caused 15.55 to 21.63 percent natural mortality of grubs with an average of 18.91 percent. However, among the microorganisms, B. cereus found to be significantly more efficient (7.03 percent mortality) then the entomopathogenic fungi (3.80 percent mortality) and nematodes (3.20 percent mortality).

Keywords: Lepidiota, profiling, Uttarakhand, whitegrub

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