Search results for: Benin
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Benin

41 Colonial Racism and the Benin Bronze Artefacts, 1862-1960

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo


This research is on colonial racism and the Benin bronze artefacts between 1862 and 1960. It analyses the British racial sentiments against the Benin people that heralded colonial rule and how they influenced the perceptions of the artworks during the period. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of colonial rule in Benin by bringing to the fore its impacts on the perception and interpretation of the Benin bronze artefacts during the period. Primary and secondary sources were utilised and the historical method was adopted. The findings reveal that the first British racial propaganda against the Benin people started in 1862 and that it was consciously orchestrated to manoeuvre public opinion for the ill-conceived colonial project. The research also reveals that the Benin people were not alone in this, as other peoples of Africa that were targeted for British colonial domination suffered the same fate. Findings also show that racial propaganda was actually used to rationalised colonial rule in Benin and that it later influenced the interpretations and perception of the Benin bronze artefacts throughout the colonial period and beyond.

Keywords: Benin, Bronzes, colonial, racism

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40 The Right Hand in Indigenous African Economic Thought: The Case of the Benin People of Southern Nigeria

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo


The paper analyses the right hand in indigenous African economic thought using the Benin people of Southern Nigeria as a case study. The Benin people esteemed handiwork and industriousness and embodied it with the right hand, which was regarded as the ultimate bringer of material wellbeing and societal status. The paper aims to contribute to African economic thought by analysing the conception of the hand in pre-colonial Benin society as the source of material wherewithal and to reveal how the hand was epitomised as the ultimate purveyor of economic providence and class status. The study adopts the historical method, and the interpretive design was used. Primary and secondary sources were utilised, and the findings confirm that the conception of the hand as the giver of material wellbeing was calculatingly done to recompense an industrious and productive lifestyle worthy of accolades and emulations. Findings also show that the people of Benin thought that the right hand is the ultimate bringer of material prosperity and therefore placed tremendous value on it up to the point of veneration. The paper also reveals that the Benin people thought that the fruits of one’s labour outvalued other possessions like an inheritance. The paper also shows that the Benin economic thought, on the hand, as signifying productiveness, intensely encouraged productivity and disdained indolence in the society.

Keywords: Benin, economic thought, hand, industriousness

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39 A Multilevel Analysis of Predictors of Early Antenatal Care Visits among Women of Reproductive Age in Benin: 2017/2018 Benin Demographic and Health Survey

Authors: Ebenezer Kwesi Armah-Ansah, Kenneth Fosu Oteng, Esther Selasi Avinu, Eugene Budu, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw


Background: Maternal mortality, particularly in Benin, is a major public health concern in Sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a positive pregnancy experience and reduce maternal morbidities, all pregnant women must get appropriate and timely prenatal support. However, many pregnant women in developing countries, including Benin, begin antenatal care late. There is a paucity of empirical literature on the prevalence and predictors of early antenatal care visits in Benin. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of early antenatal care visits among women of productive age in Benin. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the 2017/2018 Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data. The study involved 6,919 eligible women. Data analysis was conducted using Stata version 14.2 for Mac OS. We adopted a multilevel logistic regression to examine the predictors of early ANC visits in Benin. The results were presented as odds ratios (ORs) associated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-value <0.05 to determine the significant associations. Results: The prevalence of early ANC visits among pregnant women in Benin was 57.03% [95% CI: 55.41-58.64]. In the final multilevel logistic regression, early ANC visit was higher among women aged 30-34 [aOR=1.60, 95% CI=1.17-2.18] compared to those aged 15-19, women with primary education [aOR=1.22, 95% CI=1.06-142] compared to the non-educated women, women who were covered by health insurance [aOR=3.03, 95% CI=1.35-6.76], women without a big problem in getting the money needed for treatment [aOR=1.31, 95% CI=1.16-1.49], distance to the health facility, not a big problem [aOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.41], and women whose partners had secondary/higher education [aOR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.57] compared with those who were not covered by health insurance, had big problem in getting money needed for treatment, distance to health facility is a big problem and whose partners had no education respectively. However, women who had four or more births [aOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.48-0.74] and those in Atacora Region [aOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.37-0.68] had lower odds of early ANC visit. Conclusion: This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of early ANC visits among women of reproductive age in Benin. Women's age, educational status of women and their partners, parity, health insurance coverage, distance to health facilities, and region were all associated with early ANC visits among women of reproductive in Benin. These factors ought to be taken into account when developing ANC policies and strategies in order to boost early ANC visits among women in Benin. This will significantly reduce maternal and newborn mortality and help achieve the World Health Organization’s recommendation that all pregnant women should initiate early ANC visits within the first three months of pregnancy.

Keywords: antenatal care, Benin, maternal health, pregnancy, DHS, public health

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38 Analysis of Access Pattern to School and Travel Risks among School Children in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Barry Aifesehi Aiworo, Henry Oriakhi


This paper, examines the analysis of access pattern to school and travel risks among school children in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The risk includes accident, molestation (sexually) and kidnapping. The objective of this paper are to examine the various means (modes) of transport to school; determine the type and incidences of risk experienced by school children in the study area; examine the risk incidences and ages of school children in the study area. Hypothesis which states that the types of risks encountered by school children are independent of means of transport was tested using the chi-square test (X2). A sampling ratio of twelve percent (12%) was taken from 396 schools in Benin City. By implication, 49 schools were randomly selected in Benin City for this research. A total of 42,053 students in the 49 schools constitute the sample frame for the research. Two percent (2%), 841 students were taken as the sample size. The use of stratified sampling method was applied by stratifying the study area (Benin City) into local governments- Egor, Ikpoba-Okha and Oredo. Thereafter, the lists of schools in the various local governments were obtained from the Ministry of Education before the schools for research were randomly chosen from each local government area. The analysis revealed that 6.7% of the total students interviewed have been involved in road accidents. 1.04% of the total respondents said at one time or the other that they have been kidnapped. Finally, the research found that travel is comparatively safe and believes this may be partly attributable to safer route to schools and school children being more familiar with the school journey. The research indicates that children aged between eleven and fifteen are most at risk of hit or knocked down on Benin City’s roads. These findings may help in planning and targeting road safety initiative (education, campaigns) in Benin City.

Keywords: accident, molestation (sexually), kidnapping, pedophile, pedestrian

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37 Understanding Human Trafficking in Benin City: Implications for Social Work Intervention

Authors: Tracy B. E. Omorogiuwa


Human trafficking also known as modern-day slavery can be seen as an effort by some privileged and criminally minded persons to take advantage of vulnerable individuals for their economic gains. Some factors; poverty, unemployment, poor educational opportunities, ignorance and traditional attitudes are attributed as causes and psychological, sexual, moral and health problems as impacts of human trafficking. This study examines the phenomenon of human trafficking in Benin City, one of the cities in Nigeria, situated as a source of trafficked persons for exploitation in Europe and African countries. Even though the Nigerian government and Non-governmental organizations have made considerable efforts in the past to reduce the incidence of human trafficking, the result has been an adjustment in the personality of the trafficked persons rather than professional measures to combat the issue. Hence, the study adopts the focused group discussions as a method for data collection; to sort the opinions of community members towards the understanding of the phenomenon. In addition, this paper provides social work implications to address the issue of human trafficking in the Benin City, Nigeria.

Keywords: human trafficking, trafficking in persons, modern-day slavery, social work implication

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36 Tourism Challenges and Prospects: The Nigerian Experience: A Case Study of Benin City

Authors: Olawale-Olakunle Olajumoke Elizabeth


There are many challenges which are been encountered in the area of tourism in Nigeria. This research work on Tourism Challenges and Prospects: The Nigerian Experience with a case study of Benin City, was carried out so as to identify the various challenges. Questionnaires were designed and administered in the various locations of Benin City, using the designed objectives and hypothesis. Use is made of both primary and secondary data collections, to gather information. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis where results were obtained for discussion. The results obtained showed that Tourism in the area is grossly affected by factors such as lack of preferred destination, lack of consistency in policy, erratic power-supply, bad road networks, insecurity in the city and perennial conflicts, no enabling environment for investors or tourists among others. It was revealed that touristic activities in the area are at low level due to economic hardship and this is rubbing the city of its contribution to the national economy. It is however recommended that the government should create an enabling environment for both investors and tourists, as this will fasten the development of tourism in the city.

Keywords: destination, network, tourists and investors, Nigeria, industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
35 Territorialisation and Elections: Land and Politics in Benin

Authors: Kamal Donko


In the frontier zone of Benin Republic, land seems to be a fundamental political resource as it is used as a tool for socio-political mobilization, blackmail, inclusion and exclusion, conquest and political control. This paper seeks to examine the complex and intriguing interlinks between land, identity and politics in central Benin. It aims to investigate what roles territorialisation and land ownership are playing in the electioneering process in central Benin. It employs ethnographic multi-sited approach to data collections including observations, interviews and focused group discussions. Research findings reveal a complex and intriguing relationship between land ownership and politics in central Benin. Land is found to be playing a key role in the electioneering process in the region. The study has also discovered many emerging socio-spatial patterns of controlling and maintaining political power in the zone which are tied to land politics. These include identity reconstruction and integration mechanism through intermarriages, socio-political initiatives and construction of infrastructure of sovereignty. It was also found that ‘Diaspora organizations’ and identity issues; strategic creation of administrative units; alliance building strategy; gerrymandering local political field, etc. These emerging socio-spatial patterns of territorialisation for maintaining political power affect migrant and native communities’ relationships. It was also found that ‘Diaspora organizations’ and identity issues; strategic creation of administrative units; alliance building strategy; gerrymandering local political field, etc. are currently affecting migrant’s and natives’ relationships. The study argues that territorialisation is not only about national boundaries and the demarcation between different nation states, but more importantly, it serves as a powerful tool of domination and political control at the grass root level. Furthermore, this study seems to provide another perspective from which the political situation in Africa can be studied. Investigating how the dynamics of land ownership is influencing politics at the grass root or micro level, this study is fundamental to understanding spatial issues in the frontier zone.

Keywords: land, migration, politics, territorialisation

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34 Prevalence and Factors Associated to Work Accidents in the Construction Sector in Benin: Cases of CFIR – Consulting

Authors: Antoine Vikkey Hinson, Menonli Adjobimey, Gemayel Ahmed Biokou, Rose Mikponhoue


Introduction: Construction industry is a critical concern with regard to Health and Safety Service worldwide. World health Organization revealed that work-related disease and trauma were held responsible for the death of one million nine hundred thousand people in 2016. The aim of this study it was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of work accidents in a construction industry in Benin. Method: It was a descriptive cross-sectional and analytical study. Data analysis was performed with R software 4.1.1. In multivariate analysis, we performed a binary logistic regression. OR adjusted (ORa) association measures and their 95% confidence interval [CI95%] were presented for the explanatory variables used in the final model. The significance threshold for all tests selected was 5% (p < 0.05) Result: In this study, 472 workers were included, and, of these, 452 (95.7%) were men corresponding to a sex ratio of 22.6. The average age of the workers was 33 years ± 8.8 years. Workers were mostly laborers (84.7%), and had declared having inadequate personal protective equipment (50.6%, n=239). The prevalence of work accidents is 50.8%. Collision with a rolling stock (25.8%), cut (16.2%), and stumbling (16.2%) were the main types of work accidents on the construction site. Four factors were associated with contributing to work accidents. Fatigue or exhaustion (ORa : 1.53[1.03 ; 2.28]); The use of dangerous tools (ORa : 1.81 [1.22 ; 2.71]); The various laborers’ jobs (ORa : 4.78 [2.62 ; 9.21]); and seniority in the company ≥ 4 years (ORa : 2.00 [1.35 ; 2.96]). Conclusion: This study allowed us to identify the associated factors. It is imperative to implement a rigorous policy of occupational health and security mostly the continuing training for workers safe, the supply of appropriate work tools and protective

Keywords: prevalence, work accident, associated factors, construction, benin

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33 Use of Benin Laterites for the Mix Design of Structural Concrete

Authors: Yemalin D. Agossou, Andre Lecomte, Remi Boissiere, Edmond C. Adjovi, Abdelouahab Khelil


This paper presents a mixed design trial of structural concretes with laterites from Benin. These materials are often the only granular resources readily available in many tropical regions. In the first step, concretes were designed with raw laterites, but the performances obtained were rather disappointing in spite of high cement dosages. A detailed physical characterization of these materials then showed that they contained a significant proportion of fine clays and that the coarsest fraction (gravel) contained a variety of facies, some of which were not very dense or indurated. Washing these laterites, and even the elimination of the most friable grains of the gravel fraction, made it possible to obtain concretes with satisfactory properties in terms of workability, density and mechanical strength. However, they were found to be slightly less stiff than concretes made with more traditional aggregates. It is, therefore, possible to obtain structural concretes with only laterites and cement but at the cost of eliminating some of their granular constituents.

Keywords: laterites, aggregates, concretes, mix design, mechanical properties

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32 Fractional Integration in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

Authors: Hector Carcel Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana


This paper examines the time series behavior of three variables (GDP, Price level of Consumption and Population) in the eight countries that belong to the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), which are Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. The reason for carrying out this study lies in the considerable heterogeneity that can be perceived in the data from these countries. We conduct a long memory and fractional integration modeling framework and we also identify potential breaks in the data. The aim of the study is to perceive up to which degree the eight West African countries that belong to the same monetary union follow the same economic patterns of stability. Testing for mean reversion, we only found strong evidence of it in the case of Senegal for the Price level of Consumption, and in the cases of Benin, Burkina Faso and Senegal for GDP.

Keywords: West Africa, Monetary Union, fractional integration, economic patterns

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31 Comparative study of the technical efficiency of the cotton farms in the towns of Banikoara and Savalou

Authors: Boukari Abdou Wakilou


Benin is one of West Africa's major cotton-producing countries. Cotton is the country's main source of foreign currency and employment. But it is also one of the sources of soil degradation. The search for good agricultural practices is therefore, a constant preoccupation. The aim of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of cotton growers by comparing those who constantly grow cotton on the same land with those who practice crop rotation. The one-step estimation approach of the stochastic production frontier, including determinants of technical inefficiency, was applied to a stratified random sample of 261 cotton producers. Overall, the growers had a high average technical efficiency level of 90%. However, there was no significant difference in the level of technical efficiency between the two groups of growers studied. All the factors linked to compliance with the technical production itinerary had a positive influence on the growers' level of efficiency. It is, therefore, important to continue raising awareness of the importance of respecting the technical production itinerary and of integrated soil fertility management techniques.

Keywords: technical efficiency, soil fertility, cotton, crop rotation, benin

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30 Diversity and Phylogenetic Placement of Seven Inocybe (Inocybaceae, Fungi) from Benin

Authors: Hyppolite Aignon, Souleymane Yorou, Martin Ryberg, Anneli Svanholm


Climate change and human actions cause the extinction of wild mushrooms. In Benin, the diversity of fungi is large and may still contain species new to science but the inventory effort remains low and focuses on particularly edible species (Russula, Lactarius, Lactifluus, and also Amanita). In addition, inventories have started recently and some groups of fungi are not sufficiently sampled, however, the degradation of fungal habitat continues to increase and some species are already disappearing. (Yorou and De Kesel, 2011), however, the degradation of fungi habitat continues to increase and some species may disappear without being known. This genus (Inocybe) overlooked has a worldwide distribution and includes more than 700 species with many undiscovered or poorly known species worldwide and particularly in tropical Africa. It is therefore important to orient the inventory to other genera or important families such as Inocybe (Fungi, Agaricales) in order to highlight their diversity and also to know their phylogenetic positions with a combined approach of gene regions. This study aims to evaluate the species richness and phylogenetic position of Inocybe species and affiliated taxa in West Africa. Thus, in North Benin, we visited the Forest Reserve of Ouémé Supérieur, the Okpara forest and the Alibori Supérieur Forest Reserve. In the center, we targeted the Forest Reserve of Toui-Kilibo. The surveys have been carried during the raining season in the study area meaning from June to October. A total of 24 taxa were collected, photographed and described. The DNA was extracted, the Polymerase Chain Reaction was carried out using primers (ITS1-F, ITS4-B) for Internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (LROR, LWRB, LR7, LR5) for nuclear ribosomal (LSU), (RPB2-f5F, RPB2-b6F, RPB2- b6R2, RPB2-b7R) for RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) and sequenced. The ITS sequences of the 24 collections of Inocybaceae were edited in Staden and all the sequences were aligned and edited with Aliview v1.17. The sequences were examined by eye for sufficient similarity to be considered the same species. 13 different species were present in the collections. In addition, sequences similar to the ITS sequences of the thirteen final species were searched using BLAST. The nLSU and RPB2 markers for these species have been inserted in a complete alignment, where species from all major Inocybaceae clades as well as from all continents except Antarctica are present. Our new sequences for nLSU and RPB2 have been manually aligned in this dataset. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the RAxML v7.2.6 maximum likelihood software. Bootstrap replications have been set to 100 and no partitioning of the dataset has been performed. The resulting tree was viewed and edited with FigTree v1.4.3. The preliminary tree resulting from the analysis of maximum likelihood shows us that these species coming from Benin are much diversified and are distributed in four different clades (Inosperma, Inocybe, Mallocybe and Pseudosperma) on the seven clades of Inocybaceae but the phylogeny position of 7 is currently known. This study marks the diversity of Inocybe in Benin and the investigations will continue and a protection plan will be developed in the coming years.

Keywords: Benin, diversity, Inocybe, phylogeny placement

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29 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Testimony of Selected Sub-Saharan Africa Countries

Authors: Alfred Quarcoo


The main purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa using panel data techniques. An annual data on energy consumption and Economic Growth (proxied by real gross domestic product per capita) spanning from 1990 to 2016 from the World bank index database was used. The results of the Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test shows that the series for all countries are not stationary at levels. However, the log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and Log of economic growth in Kenya and Zimbabwe were found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the panel series. The findings of the Johansen cointegration test demonstrate that the variables Log of Energy Consumption and Log of economic growth are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables were established in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causal linkage between Energy consumption and economic growth in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

Keywords: Cointegration, Granger Causality, Sub-Sahara Africa, World Bank Development Indicators

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28 Prevalence and Associated Factors with Burnout Among Secondary School Teachers in the City of Cotonou in Benin in 2022

Authors: Antoine Vikkey Hinson, Ranty Jolianelle Dassi, Menonli Adjobimey, Rose Mikponhoue, Paul Ayelo


Introduction: The psychological hardship of the teaching profession maintains a chronic stress that inevitably evolves into burnout (BO) in the absence of adequate preventive measures. The objective of this study is to study the prevalence and factors associated with burnout among secondary school teachers in the city of Cotonou in 2022. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with an analytical aim and prospective data collection that took place over a period of 2 months, from July 19 to August 19 and from October 1 to October 31, 2022. Sampling was done using a three-stage probability sampling technique. Data analysis was performed using R 4.1.1 software. Bivariate logistic regression was used to identify associated factors. The significance level chosen was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: A total of 270 teachers were included in the study, of whom 208 (77.00%) were men. The mean age of the workers was 38.03 ± 8.30 years. According to the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 58.51% of the teachers had burnout, with 41.10% of teachers in emotional exhaustion, 27.40% in depersonalization and 21.90% in loss of personal accomplishment. The severity of the syndrome was low to moderate in almost all teachers. The occurrence of BO was associated with), not practicing sports (ORa= 2,38 [1,32; 4,28]), jobs training (ORa= 1,86 [1,04; 3,34]) and an imbalance of effort/reward (ORa= 5,98 [2,24;15,98]). Conclusion: The prevalence of BO is high among secondary school teachers in the city of Cotonou. A larger scale study, including research on its consequences on the teacher and the learner, is necessary in order to act quickly to implement a prevention program.

Keywords: burnout, teachers, Maslach burnout inventory, associated factors, Benin

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27 The Traditional Roles and Place of Indigenous Musical Practices in Contemporary African Society

Authors: Benjamin Obeghare Izu


In Africa, indigenous musical practices are the focal point in which most cultural practices revolve, and they are the conduit mainly used in transmitting Indigenous knowledge and values. They serve as a means of documenting, preserving, transmitting indigenous knowledge, and re-enacting their historical, social, and cultural affinity. Indigenous musical practices also serve as a repository for indigenous knowledge and artistic traditions. However, these indigenous musical practices and the resulting cultural ideals are confronted with substantial challenges in the twenty-first century from contemporary cultural influence. Additionally, indigenous musical practices' educational and cultural purposes have been impacted by the broad monetisation of the arts in contemporary society. They are seen as objects of entertainment. Some young people are today unaware of their cultural roots and are losing their cultural identity due to these influences and challenges. In order to help policymakers raise awareness of and encourage the use of indigenous knowledge and musical practices among African youth and scholars, this study is in response to the need to explore the components and functions of the indigenous knowledge system, values, and musical tradition in Africa. The study employed qualitative research methods, utilising interviews, participant observation, and conducting related literature as data collection methods. It examines the indigenous musical practices in the Oba of Benin Royal Igue festival among the Benin people in Edo state, Nigeria, and the Ovwuwve festival observed by the Abraka people in Delta state, Nigeria. The extent to which the indigenous musical practices convey and protect indigenous knowledge and cultural values are reflected in the musical practices of the cultural festivals. The study looks at how indigenous musical arts are related to one another and how that affects how indigenous knowledge is transmitted and preserved. It makes recommendations for how to increase the use of indigenous knowledge and values and their fusion with contemporary culture. The study contributes significantly to ethnomusicology by showing how African traditional music traditions support other facets of culture and how indigenous knowledge might be helpful in contemporary society.

Keywords: African musical practices, African music and dance, African society, indigenous musical practices

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26 Indoor Air Assessment and Health Risk of Volatile Organic Compounds in Secondary School Classrooms in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Osayomwanbor E. Oghama, John O. Olomukoro


The school environment, apart from home, is probably the most important indoor environment for children. Children spend as much as 80-90% of their indoor time either at school or at home; an average of 35 - 40 hours per week in schools, hence are at the risk of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Concentrations of VOCs vary widely but are generally higher indoors than outdoors. This research was, therefore, carried out to evaluate the levels of VOCs in secondary school classrooms in Benin City, Edo State. Samples were obtained from a total of 18 classrooms in 6 secondary schools. Samples were collected 3 times from each school and from 3 different classrooms in each school using Draeger ORSA 5 tubes. Samplers were left to stay for a school-week (5 days). The VOCs detected and analyzed were benzene, ethlybenzene, isopropylbenzene, naphthalene, n-butylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,2-dichloropropane, tetrachloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, isopropyl acetate, α-pinene, and camphene. The results showed that chloroform, o-xylene, and styrene were the most abundant while α-pinene and camphene were the least abundant. The health risk assessment was done in terms of carcinogenic (CRI) and non-carcinogenic risks (THR). The CRI values of the schools ranged from 1.03 × 10-5 to 1.36 × 10-5 μg/m³ (a mean of 1.16 × 10-5 μg/m³) with School 6 and School 3 having the highest and lowest values respectively. The THR values of the study schools ranged from 0.071-0.086 μg/m³ (a mean of 0.078 μg/m³) with School 3 and School 2 having the highest and lowest values respectively. The results show that all the schools pose a potential carcinogenic risks having CRI values greater than the recommended limit of 1 × 10-6 µg/m³ and no non-carcinogenic risk having THR values less than the USEPA hazard quotient of 1 µg/m³. It is recommended that school authorities should ensure adequate ventilation in their schools, supplementing natural ventilation with mechanical sources, where necessary. In addition, indoor air quality should be taken into consideration in the design and construction of classrooms.

Keywords: carcinogenic risk indicator, health risk, indoor air, non-carcinogenic risk indicator, secondary schools, volatile organic compounds

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25 Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Accessions of Black Fonio Millet (Digitaria Iburua Stapf) Grown in Selected Regions in Nigeria

Authors: Nwogiji Cletus Olando, Oselebe Happiness Ogba, Enoch Achigan-Dako


Digitaria iburua, commonly known as black fonio, is a cereal crop native to Africa and extensively cultivated by smallholder farmers in Northern Benin, Togo, and Nigeria. This crop holds immense nutritional and socio-cultural value. Unfortunately, limited knowledge about its genetic diversity exists due to a lack of scientific attention. As a result, its potential for improvement in food and agriculture remains largely untapped. To address this gap, a study was conducted using 41 accessions of D. iburua stored in the genebank of the Laboratory of Genetics, Biotechnology, and Seed Science at Abomey-Calavi University, Benin. The study employed both morphological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to evaluate the genetic variability of the accessions. Agro-morphological assessments were carried out during the 2020 cropping season, utilizing an alpha lattice design with three replications. The collected data encompassed qualitative and quantitative traits. Additionally, molecular variability was assessed using eleven SSR markers. The results revealed significant phenotypic variability among the evaluated accessions, leading to their classification into three main clusters. Furthermore, the eleven SSR markers identified a total of 50 alleles, averaging 4.55 alleles per locus. The primers exhibited an average polymorphic information content value of 0.43, with the DE-ARC019 primer displaying the highest value (0.59). These findings suggest a substantial degree of genetic heterogeneity within the evaluated accessions, and the SSR markers employed in the study proved highly effective in detecting and characterizing this genetic variability. In conclusion, this study highlights the presence of significant genetic diversity in black fonio and provides valuable insights for future efforts aimed at its genetic improvement and conservation.

Keywords: genetic diversity, digitaria iburua, genetic improvement, simple sequence repeat markers, Nigeria, conservation

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24 Determination of Genotypic Relationship among 12 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Varieties

Authors: Faith Eweluegim Enahoro-Ofagbe, Alika Eke Joseph


Information on genetic variation within a population is crucial for utilizing heterozygosity for breeding programs that aim to improve crop species. The study was conducted to ascertain the genotypic similarities among twelve sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) varieties to group them for purposes of hybridizations for cane yield improvement. The experiment was conducted at the University of Benin, Faculty of Agriculture Teaching and Research Farm, Benin City. Twelve sugarcane varieties obtained from National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria, were planted in three replications in a randomized complete block design. Each variety was planted on a five-row plot of 5.0 m in length. Data were collected on 12 agronomic traits, including; the number of millable cane, cane girth, internode length, number of male and female flowers (fuss), days to flag leaf, days to flowering, brix%, cane yield, and others. There were significant differences, according to the findings among the twelve genotypes for the number of days to flag leaf, number of male and female flowers (fuss), and cane yield. The relationship between the twelve sugarcane varieties was expressed using hierarchical cluster analysis. The twelve genotypes were grouped into three major clusters based on hierarchical classification. Cluster I had five genotypes, cluster II had four, and cluster III had three. Cluster III was dominated by varieties characterized by higher cane yield, number of leaves, internode length, brix%, number of millable stalks, stalk/stool, cane girth, and cane length. Cluster II contained genotypes with early maturity characteristics, such as early flowering, early flag leaf development, growth rate, and the number of female and male flowers (fuss). The maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and I indicated higher genetic diversity between the two groups. Hybridization between the two groups could result in transgressive recombinants for agronomically important traits.

Keywords: sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum, genotype, cluster analysis, principal components analysis

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23 Monitoring of Spectrum Usage and Signal Identification Using Cognitive Radio

Authors: O. S. Omorogiuwa, E. J. Omozusi


The monitoring of spectrum usage and signal identification, using cognitive radio, is done to identify frequencies that are vacant for reuse. It has been established that ‘internet of things’ device uses secondary frequency which is free, thereby facing the challenge of interference from other users, where some primary frequencies are not being utilised. The design was done by analysing a specific frequency spectrum, checking if all the frequency stations that range from 87.5-108 MHz are presently being used in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. From the results, it was noticed that by using Software Defined Radio/Simulink, we were able to identify vacant frequencies in the range of frequency under consideration. Also, we were able to use the significance of energy detection threshold to reuse this vacant frequency spectrum, when the cognitive radio displays a zero output (that is decision H0), meaning that the channel is unoccupied. Hence, the analysis was able to find the spectrum hole and identify how it can be reused.

Keywords: spectrum, interference, telecommunication, cognitive radio, frequency

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22 Issues and Challenges in Social Work Field Education: The Field Coordinator's Perspective

Authors: Tracy B.E. Omorogiuwa


Understanding the role of social work in improving societal well-being cannot be separated from the place of field education, which is an integral aspect of social work education. Field learning provides students with knowledge and opportunities to experience solving issues in the field and giving them a clue of the practice situation. Despite being a crucial component in social work curriculum, field education occupies a large space in learning outcome, given the issues and challenges pertaining to its purpose and significance in the society. The drive of this paper is to provide insight on the specific ways in which field education has been conceived, realized and valued in the society. Emphasis is on the significance of field instruction; the link with classroom learning; and the structure of field experience in social work education. Given documented analysis and experience, this study intends to contribute to the development of social work curriculum, by analyzing the pattern, issues and challenges fronting the social work field education in the University of Benin, Nigeria.

Keywords: challenges, curriculum, field education, social work education

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21 The Need for the Inclusion of Museum Studies at All Levels of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Stephany Inalegwu


Museums play a very critical role in understanding the cultural values and the history of any given society in Nigeria and the world at large. The role of Museums as an avenue through which artefacts are collected, preserved and exhibited cannot be over emphasized as they are now seen as not only with the above stated aims but also as a creator of employment and revenue generation if properly harnessed. Interestingly, despite its importance, museum studies have been limited to University curriculum alone causing a dearth of information for the younger generation up until they attain the University age. It is against this background that this paper carefully analyses the definitions of museums, the state of museums and museum studies in Nigeria today and the need to include its studies at all the levels of Education in Nigeria from the primary, to secondary and tertiary levels. It should reflect a study of all ages, as this is vital in the development of individuals. It concludes by harping on the need for a better appreciation of the Nigerian culture ranging from the famous Nok Terracotta, Benin Bronze works etc and its importance of museums as an avenue to display the rich Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: culture, curriculum, education, museum

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20 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Nigeria Coastal Waters; lmpacts, Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Efe Ogidiaka-Obende, Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa, John Atadiose, Ewoma O. Oduma


Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is a native of South America, is believed to have found its way into Nigeria waters through Pot-Novo creek, Benin Republic, in September 1984. This study attempts to review the impacts, challenges, and prospects of water hyacinths in Nigeria's coastal waters. Water hyacinth possesses a very high proliferation rate, and its infestation in Nigeria's coastal waters poses severe problems to the fishing, recreational, transportation, and health sector, amongst other activities. The weed has been reported to disrupt aquatic ecosystems, clog waterways, and create associated problems with water supply, irrigation, and drainage. To curb this menace, a huge amount of money is used yearly for its management, which is not sustainable. There is, however, a positive twist to this plant as it has the potential to be used as fertilizers, feed for fish, craft materials, biogas, and many more. Due to its high population and related economic importance and implications in Nigeria's coastal waters, it is highly recommended that more research works be carried out on the of making optimal use of this plant.

Keywords: waste to wealth, environmental pollution, water hyacinth, biogas, sustainable development goals

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19 Community Perception of Dynamics and Drivers of Land Cover Change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Northern Benin

Authors: Jesugnon E. A. Kpodo, Aurlus D. Ouindeyama, Jan H. Sommer, Fifanou G. Vodouhe, Kolo Yeo


Local communities are recognized as key actors for sustainable land use and to some extent actors driving land use land cover (LULC) change around protected areas. Understanding drivers responsible for these changes are very crucial for better policy decisions making. This study analyzed perception of 425 local people in 28 villages towards land cover change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve using semi-structured questionnaire. 72.9% of local communities perceive land cover as degrading while 24.5% as improving and only 2.6% as stable during the five last years. Women perceived more land cover degradation than men do (84.1 vs. 67.1%). Local communities identified cultivated land expansion, logging, firewood collection, charcoal production, population growth, and poverty as the key drivers of declined LULC in the study area. Education has emerged as a significant factor influencing respondents’ perceptions of these drivers of LULC changes. Appropriate management measures and government policies should be implemented around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve to control drivers of LULC change.

Keywords: local perceptions, LULC drivers, LULC dynamics, Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, rural livelihoods, sustainable resource management

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18 Diabetes Diagnosis Model Using Rough Set and K- Nearest Neighbor Classifier

Authors: Usiobaifo Agharese Rosemary, Osaseri Roseline Oghogho


Diabetes is a complex group of disease with a variety of causes; it is a disorder of the body metabolism in the digestion of carbohydrates food. The application of machine learning in the field of medical diagnosis has been the focus of many researchers and the use of recognition and classification model as a decision support tools has help the medical expert in diagnosis of diseases. Considering the large volume of medical data which require special techniques, experience, and high diagnostic skill in the diagnosis of diseases, the application of an artificial intelligent system to assist medical personnel in order to enhance their efficiency and accuracy in diagnosis will be an invaluable tool. In this study will propose a diabetes diagnosis model using rough set and K-nearest Neighbor classifier algorithm. The system consists of two modules: the feature extraction module and predictor module, rough data set is used to preprocess the attributes while K-nearest neighbor classifier is used to classify the given data. The dataset used for this model was taken for University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) database. Half of the data was used in the training while the other half was used in testing the system. The proposed model was able to achieve over 80% accuracy.

Keywords: classifier algorithm, diabetes, diagnostic model, machine learning

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17 Bacteriological Safety of Sachet Drinking Water Sold in Benin City, Nigeria

Authors: Stephen Olusanmi Akintayo


Access to safe drinking water remains a major challenge in Nigeria, and where available, the quality of the water is often in doubt. An alternative to the inadequate clean drinking water is being found in treated drinking water packaged in electrically heated sealed nylon and commonly referred to as “sachet water”. “Sachet water” is a common thing in Nigeria as the selling price is within the reach of members of the low socio- economic class and the setting up of a production unit does not require huge capital input. The bacteriological quality of selected “sachet water” stored at room temperature over a period of 56 days was determined to evaluate the safety of the sachet drinking water. Test for the detection of coliform bacteria was performed, and the result showed no coliform bacteria that indicates the absence of fecal contamination throughout 56 days. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) was done at an interval 14 days, and the samples showed HPC between 0 cfu/mL and 64 cfu/mL. The highest count was observed on day 1. The count decreased between day 1 and 28, while no growths were observed between day 42 and 56. The decrease in HPC suggested the presence of residual disinfectant in the water. The organisms isolated were identified as Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus. The presence of these microorganisms in sachet water is indicative for contamination during processing and handling.

Keywords: coliform, heterotrophic plate count, sachet water, Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus epidermidis

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16 Features of Calculating Structures for Frequent Weak Earthquakes

Authors: M. S. Belashov, A. V. Benin, Lin Hong, Sh. Sh. Nazarova, O. B. Sabirova, A. M. Uzdin, Lin Hong


The features of calculating structures for the action of weak earthquakes are analyzed. Earthquakes with a recurrence of 30 years and 50 years are considered. In the first case, the structure is to operate normally without damage after the earthquake. In the second case, damages are allowed that do not affect the possibility of the structure operation. Three issues are emphasized: setting elastic and damping characteristics of reinforced concrete, formalization of limit states, and combinations of loads. The dependence of damping on the reinforcement coefficient is estimated. When evaluating limit states, in addition to calculations for crack resistance and strength, a human factor, i.e., the possibility of panic among people, was considered. To avoid it, it is proposed to limit a floor-by-floor speed level in certain octave ranges. Proposals have been developed for estimating the coefficients of the combination of various loads with the seismic one. As an example, coefficients of combinations of seismic and ice loads are estimated. It is shown that for strong actions, the combination coefficients for different regions turn out to be close, while for weak actions, they may differ.

Keywords: weak earthquake, frequent earthquake, damage, limit state, reinforcement, crack resistance, strength resistance, a floor-by-floor velocity, combination coefficients

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15 Limiting Factors to Gender Identity in the Irene Salami-Agunloye’s Emotan

Authors: Adebayo John Badeji


This study examines some limiting factors in the dramaturgy of Irene Salami- Agunloye's Emotan. These factors are cultural, socio-political, and religious beliefs that play significant roles in gender balance, such that it establishes inequality between the sexes, giving male attributes greater value than that female ones subconsciously. This work draws its findings from the textual analysis method, and Stiwanism was employed as our theoretical framework. The theory is further discussed in the body of the work. By analysis, we subject this work to critical content analysis. Our findings revealed that most African feminist ideologies employ the ideology of revolt, which may not work on African soil. The play projects women's and men's issues in politics. This study exposes us to the fact that gender inequality is created by the male’s dominance in society. Also, the African women’s imitation of the cultural dictates of their fellow counterparts abroad is also affecting their own perspective on African soil. The study concludes that the African woman is looking at her freedom from the view of her counterparts in Europe and America, which is not right. As argued by Irene salami, women were active in societal development in Africa. This study, therefore, recommends that she should look at African women from the African perspective. This is because Queen Amina of Zazzau, Queen Idia of Benin, and Queen Moremi of Ife ruled when there were men, and they excelled.

Keywords: gender, identity, Emotan, factors

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14 The Use of Computers in Improving the Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics

Authors: Uwaruile Austin Obuh


This research work focuses on the use of computers in improving the academic performance of students in mathematics in Benin City, Edo State. To guide this study, two research questions were raised, and two corresponding hypotheses were formulated. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were randomly selected from four schools in the city (60 boys and 60 girls). The instrument employed for the collation of data for the study was the multiple-choice test items on geometry (MCTIOG), drawn from past senior school certificate examinations (SSCE) questions. The instrument was validated by an expert in mathematics and measurement and evaluation. The data obtained from the pre and post-test were analysed using the mean, standard deviation, and T-test. The study revealed a non-significant difference between the experimental and control group in the pre-test, and the two groups were found to be the same before treatment began. The study also revealed that the experimental group performed better than the control group. One can, therefore, conclude that the use of computers for mathematics instruction has improved the performance of students in Geometry. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. The study finally revealed that there was no significant difference between the boys and girls taught mathematics using a computer. Therefore, the hypothesis which states there will be no significant difference in the performance of boys and girls taught mathematics using the computer was not rejected. Consequent upon the findings of this study, a number of recommendations were postulated that would enhance the performance of teachers in the use of computer-aided instruction.

Keywords: computer, teaching, learning, mathematics

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13 Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire

Authors: Julius Ilawe Osayi, Peter Osifo


Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.

Keywords: catalytic pyrolysis, fossil fuel, kaolin, pyrolytic oil, used tyres, Zeolite NaY

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12 Setting the Baseline for a Sentinel System for the Identification of Occupational Risk Factors in Africa

Authors: Menouni Aziza, Chbihi Kaoutar, Duca Radu Corneliu, Gilissen Liesbeth, Bounou Salim, Godderis Lode, El Jaafari Samir


In Africa, environmental and occupational health risks are mostly underreported. The aim of this research is to develop and implement a sentinel surveillance system comprising training and guidance of occupational physicians (OC) who will report new work-related diseases in African countries. A group of 30 OC are recruited and trained in each of the partner countries (Morocco, Benin and Ethiopia). Each committed OC is asked to recruit 50 workers during a consultation in a time-frame of 6 months (1500 workers per country). Workers are asked to fill out an online questionnaire about their health status and work conditions, including exposure to 20 chemicals. Urine and blood samples are then collected for human biomonitoring of common exposures. Some preliminary results showed that 92% of the employees surveyed are exposed to physical constraints, 44% to chemical agents, and 24% to biological agents. The most common physical constraints are manual handling of loads, noise pollution and thermal pollution. The most frequent chemical risks are exposure to pesticides and fuels. This project will allow a better understanding of effective sentinel systems as a promising method to gather high quality data, which can support policy-making in terms of preventing emerging work-related diseases.

Keywords: sentinel system, occupational diseases, human biomonitoring, Africa

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