Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Banu Nergis

31 Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics

Authors: Merve Kucukali Ozturk, Yesim Beceren, Banu Nergis


The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.

Keywords: color change, dimensional properties, drying method, fabric tightness, physical properties

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30 [Keynote Talk]: A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures

Authors: M. Kucukali Ozturk, B. Nergis, C. Candan


Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.

Keywords: air permeability, mass per unit area, nonwoven structure, polypropylene nonwoven, thickness

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29 Neutralization of Sulphurous Waste (AMD) Using Recycled Waste Concrete

Authors: Ercument Koc, Banu Yaylali, Gulsen Tozsin, Haci Deveci


Re-using of concrete waste materials for the neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) can protect the environment and contribute the national economy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of AMD formation and heavy metal release using concrete wastes which are alkaline and generated by demolition of buildings within the urban renewal process. Shake flask test was conducted to determine the neutralization effects. Concrete wastes are rich in CaCO3 and they are used as a pH regulator for AMD neutralization. The results showed that pH of the AMD increased from 3.33 to 6.84 with the application of concrete waste materials.

Keywords: AMD, neutralization, sulphurous waste, urban renewal

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28 Education Function of Botanical Gardens

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Ocak, Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan


Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of a botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and opinions were suggested about the subject.

Keywords: botanical garden, environment, environmental education, recreation

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27 Investigating the Problems in Landscape Design Education in Selcuk University Agriculture Faculty Landscape Architecture Department (Konya-Turkey)

Authors: Banu Ozturk Kurtaslan, Ruhugul Ozge Ocak


In this study, educational problems related to landscape design education which is an important study area of landscape architecture discipline. It is important to research about the problems in S.U. Agriculture Faculty Landscape Architecture Department which is a new department, started its B.Sc. education in 2011; and developing some suggestions on this issue in terms of future of the department. In the context of the study a questionnaire has been developed to conduct to the B.Sc. students. The questions has been prepared under the topics of education program, instructor, student, physical infrastructure and other problems.

Keywords: landscape design, landscape design education, problems, Selcuk University Landscape Architecture Department

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26 Regional Disparities in the Level of Education in West Bengal

Authors: Nafisa Banu


The present study is an attempt to analyze the regional disparities in the level of education in West Bengal. The data based on secondary sources obtained from a census of India. The study is divided into four sections. The first section presents introductions, objectives and brief descriptions of the study area, second part discuss the methodology and data base, while third and fourth comprise the empirical results, interpretation, and conclusion respectively. For showing the level of educational development, 8 indicators have been selected and Z- score and composite score techniques have been applied. The present study finds out there are large variations of educational level due to various historical, economical, socio-cultural factors of the study area.

Keywords: education, regional disparity, literacy rate, Z-score, composite score

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25 Parameters of Minimalistic Mosque in India within Minimalism

Authors: Hafila Banu


Minimalism is a postmodern style movement which emerged in the 50s of the twentieth century, but it was rapidly growing in the years of 60s and 70s. Minimalism is defined as the concept of minimizing distractions from what is truly valuable or essential. On the same grounds, works of minimalism offer a direct view at and raises questions about the true nature of the subject or object inviting the viewer to consider it for it for the real shape, a thought, a movement reminding us to focus on what is really important. The Architecture of Minimalism is characterized by an economy with materials , focusing on building quality with considerations for ‘essences’ as light, form, detail of material, texture, space and scale, place and human conditions . The research of this paper is mainly into the basis of designing a minimalistic mosque in India while analysing the parameters for the design from the matching characteristics of Islamic architecture in specific to a mosque and the minimalism. Therefore, the paper is about the mosque architecture and minimalism and of their underlying principles, matching characteristics and design goals.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, minimalism, minimalistic mosque, mosque in India

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24 Smart Multifunctionalized and Responsive Polymersomes as Targeted and Selective Recognition Systems

Authors: Silvia Moreno, Banu Iyisan, Hannes Gumz, Brigitte Voit, Dietmar Appelhans


Polymersomes are materials which are considered as artificial counterparts of natural vesicles. The nanotechnology of such smart nanovesicles is very useful to enhance the efficiency of many therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Those compounds show a higher stability, flexibility, and mechanical strength to the membrane compared to natural liposomes. In addition, they can be designed in detail, the permeability of the membrane can be controlled by different stimuli, and the surface can be functionalized with different biological molecules to facilitate monitoring and target. For this purpose, this study demonstrates the formation of multifunctional and pH sensitive polymersomes and their functionalization with different reactive groups or biomolecules inside and outside of polymersomes´ membrane providing by crossing the membrane and docking/undocking processes for biomedical applications. Overall, they are highly versatile and thus present new opportunities for the design of targeted and selective recognition systems, for example, in mimicking cell functions and in synthetic biology.

Keywords: multifunctionalized, pH stimulus, controllable release, cellular uptake

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23 Examination of Forged Signatures Printed by Means of Fabrication in Terms of Their Relation to the Perpetrator

Authors: Salim Yaren, Nergis Canturk


Signatures are signs that are handwritten by person in order to confirm values such as information, amount, meaning, time and undertaking that bear on a document. It is understood that the signature of a document and the accuracy of the information on the signature is accepted and approved. Forged signatures are formed by forger without knowing and seeing original signature of person that forger will imitate and as a result of his/her effort for hiding typical characteristics of his/her own signatures. Forged signatures are often signed by starting with the initials of the first and last name or persons of the persons whose fake signature will be signed. The similarities in the signatures are completely random. Within the scope of the study, forged signatures are collected from 100 people both their original signatures and forged signatures signed referring to 5 imaginary people. These signatures are compared for 14 signature analyzing criteria by 2 signature analyzing experts except the researcher. 1 numbered analyzing expert who is 9 year experience in his/her field evaluated signatures of 39 (39%) people right and of 25 (25%) people wrong and he /she made any evaluations for signatures of 36 (36%) people. 2 numbered analyzing expert who is 16 year experienced in his/her field evaluated signatures of 49 (49%) people right and 28 (28%) people wrong and he /she made any evaluations for signatures of 23 (23%) people. Forged signatures that are signed by 24 (24%) people are matched by two analyzing experts properly, forged signatures that are signed by 8 (8%) people are matched wrongfully and made up signatures that are signed by 12 (12%) people couldn't be decided by both analyzing experts. Signatures analyzing is a subjective topic so that analyzing and comparisons take form according to education, knowledge and experience of the expert. Consequently, due to the fact that 39% success is achieved by analyzing expert who has 9 year professional experience and 49% success is achieved by analyzing expert who has 16 year professional experience, it is seen that success rate is directly proportionate to knowledge and experience of the expert.

Keywords: forensic signature, forensic signature analysis, signature analysis criteria, forged signature

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22 Learning from Small Amount of Medical Data with Noisy Labels: A Meta-Learning Approach

Authors: Gorkem Algan, Ilkay Ulusoy, Saban Gonul, Banu Turgut, Berker Bakbak


Computer vision systems recently made a big leap thanks to deep neural networks. However, these systems require correctly labeled large datasets in order to be trained properly, which is very difficult to obtain for medical applications. Two main reasons for label noise in medical applications are the high complexity of the data and conflicting opinions of experts. Moreover, medical imaging datasets are commonly tiny, which makes each data very important in learning. As a result, if not handled properly, label noise significantly degrades the performance. Therefore, a label-noise-robust learning algorithm that makes use of the meta-learning paradigm is proposed in this article. The proposed solution is tested on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) dataset with a very high label noise of 68%. Results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the classification algorithm's performance in the presence of noisy labels.

Keywords: deep learning, label noise, robust learning, meta-learning, retinopathy of prematurity

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21 Multiloop Fractional Order PID Controller Tuned Using Cuckoo Algorithm for Two Interacting Conical Tank Process

Authors: U. Sabura Banu, S. K. Lakshmanaprabu


The improvement of meta-heuristic algorithm encourages control engineer to design an optimal controller for industrial process. Most real-world industrial processes are non-linear multivariable process with high interaction. Even in sub-process unit, thousands of loops are available mostly interacting in nature. Optimal controller design for such process are still challenging task. Closed loop controller design by multiloop PID involves a tedious procedure by performing interaction study and then PID auto-tuning the loop with higher interaction. Finally, detuning the controller to accommodate the effects of the other process variables. Fractional order PID controllers are replacing integer order PID controllers recently. Design of Multiloop Fractional Order (MFO) PID controller is still more complicated. Cuckoo algorithm, a swarm intelligence technique is used to optimally tune the MFO PID controller with easiness minimizing Integral Time Absolute Error. The closed loop performance is tested under servo, regulatory and servo-regulatory conditions.

Keywords: Cuckoo algorithm, mutliloop fractional order PID controller, two Interacting conical tank process

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20 Green Roofs and Xeriscape Planting that Contribute to Sustainable Urban Green Space

Authors: Derya Sarı, Banu Karasah


In the recent years, urban green areas decrease dramatically as a result of increasing industrialization and population growth. At the same time, green spaces provide many ecosystem services such as controls of air pollution, noise reduction, prevents flooding and reduces the stress in the urban areas. Therefore, the plants help to these areas to get more livable and active, and also plants are one of the most significant identity elements in these open spaces. Roof gardens comes significant design comprehension as a result of global warming and also they contribute to cities with regard to ecological, economic, visual and recreational aspects. This study is mainly based on evaluation potential of green roofs and xeriscape planting design approach of Artvin (Turkey) known that generally has a remarkable floristic richness. Artvin is located on a sloping terrain, and the amount of green spaces that can be used is very limited in this city. Therefore, green roofs approach should be evaluated to supply urban green space sustainability. This study shows that it is appropriate about 20 perennial plants for green roofs and xeriscape planting design in Artvin city center. Usage of native plant species would be support to sustainable urban green spaces.

Keywords: Artvin, green roofs, urban green spaces, xeriscape planting

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19 A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus

Authors: Nisa Özge Önal, Kamil Karaçuha, Göksu Hazar Erdinç, Banu Bahar Karaçuha, Ertuğrul Karaçuha


The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.

Keywords: children growth percentile, children physical development, fractional calculus, linear and polynomial model

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18 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi


Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: salinity, stress, vitamin c, antioxidant, NaCl, enzyme

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17 Landscape Assessment of the Dam and Motorway Networks that Provide Visual and Recreational Opportunities: Case Study of Artvin (Turkey)

Authors: Banu Karasah, Derya Sarı


Nature changes as a result of human necessities constantly. This change mostly feels in natural water sources which are reconstructed with an effect of dams and motorways. On the other hand, dams and motorways demolish and re-shape nature while the visual quality of landscape gets a new character. Changing and specialization new landscapes will be very important to protection-usage balance to explore sustainable usage facilities. The main cause of the selection of Artvin city is, it has very important geographical location and one of the most attraction points in the World with its biodiversity, conservation areas and natural landscape characteristics. Coruh River is one of the most significant landscape identity element of Artvin. This river begins with Erzurum and falls into the Black Sea in Batumi in Georgia, many dams, and hydroelectric station are located during this basin. Borcka, Muratli and Deriner dams have already been built. Moreover, Deriner is 6th highest dams all over the world. As a result of dams, motorways route were re-shaped and the ways which have already changed because of elevation is directly affected several of natural destruction. In contrast, many different reservoirs in Coruh Basin provide new vista point that has high visual quality. In this study, we would like to evaluate with sustainable landscape design in 76 km river corridor, which is mainly based on Deriner, Borcka and Muratli Dams and determination of their basin-lakes recreational potential and opportunities. Lastly, we are going to give some suggestion about the potential of the corridor.

Keywords: Artvin, dam reservoirs, landscape assessment, river corridor, visual quality

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16 Implementing 3D Printed Structures as the Newest Textile Form

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın


From the oldest production methods with yarns used to weave, knit, braid and knot to the newest production methods with fibres used to stitch, bond or structures of innovative technologies, laminates, nanoparticles, composites or 3D printing systems, textile industry advanced through materials, processes and context mostly within the last five decades. The creative momentum of fabric like 3D printed structures have come to the point of transforming as for the newest form of textile applications. Moreover, pioneering studies on the applications of 3D Printing Technology and Additive Manufacturing have been focusing on fashion and apparel sector from the last two decades beginning with fashion designers. After the advent of chain-mail like structures and flexible micro or meso structures created by SLS rapid manufacturing a more textile-like behavior is achieved. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to discuss the most important properties of traditional fabrics that are to be expected of future fabrics. For this reason, this study deals primarily with the physical properties like softness, hand, flexibility, drapability and wearability of 3D Printed structures necessary to identify the possible ways in which it can be used instead of contemporary textile structures, namely knitted and woven fabrics. The aim of this study is to compare the physical properties of 3D printed fabrics regarding different rapid manufacturing methods (FDM and SLS). The implemented method was Material Driven Design (MDD), which comprise the use of innovative materials according to the production techniques such as 3D printing system. As a result, advanced textile processes and materials enable to the creation of new types of fabric structures and rapid solutions in the field of textiles and 3D fabrics on the other hand, are to be used in this regard.

Keywords: 3D printing technology, FDM, SLS, textile structure

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15 Baseline Data from Specialist Obesity Clinic in a Large Tertiary Care Facility, Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Ahmed, Farah Khalid, Sahlah Sohail, Saira Banusokwalla, Sabiha Banu, Inaara Akbar, Safia Awan, Syed Iqbal Azam


Background and Objectives: The level of knowledge regarding obesity as a disease condition and health-seeking behavior regarding its management is grossly lacking. We present data from our multidisciplinary obesity clinic at the large tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan, to provide baseline profiles and outcomes of patients attending these clinics. Methods: 260 who attended the obesity clinic between June 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled in this study. The analysis included descriptive and ROC analysis to identify the best cut-offs of theanthropometric measurements to diagnose obesity-related comorbid conditions. Results: The majority of the studied population were women (72.3%) and employed(43.7%) with a mean age of 35.5 years. Mean BMIwas 37.4, waist circumference was 112.4 cm, visceral fat was 11.7%, and HbA1C was 6.9%. The most common comorbidities were HTN & D.M (33 &31%, respectively). The prevalence of MetS was 16.3% in patients and was slightly higher in males. Visceral fat was the main factor in predicting D.M (0.750; 95% CI: 0.665, 0.836) and MetS (0.709; 95% CI: 0.590, 0.838) compared to total body fat, waist circumference, and BMI. The risk of predicting DM &MetS for the visceral fat above 9.5% in women had the highest sensitivity (80% for D.M & 79% for MetS) and an NPV (92.75% for D.M & 95% for MetS). Conclusions: This study describes and establishes characteristics of these obese individuals, which can help inform clinical practices. These practices may involve using visceral fat for earlier identification and counseling-based interventions to prevent more severe surgical interventions down the line.

Keywords: obesity, metabolic syndrome, tertiary care facility, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat

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14 The Importance of Artificial Intelligence in Various Healthcare Applications

Authors: Joshna Rani S, Ahmadi Banu


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has a significant task to carry out in the medical care contributions of things to come. As AI, it is the essential capacity behind the advancement of accuracy medication, generally consented to be a painfully required development in care. Albeit early endeavors at giving analysis and treatment proposals have demonstrated testing, we anticipate that AI will at last dominate that area too. Given the quick propels in AI for imaging examination, it appears to be likely that most radiology, what's more, pathology pictures will be inspected eventually by a machine. Discourse and text acknowledgment are now utilized for assignments like patient correspondence and catch of clinical notes, and their utilization will increment. The best test to AI in these medical services areas isn't regardless of whether the innovations will be sufficiently skilled to be valuable, but instead guaranteeing their appropriation in day by day clinical practice. For far reaching selection to happen, AI frameworks should be affirmed by controllers, coordinated with EHR frameworks, normalized to an adequate degree that comparative items work likewise, instructed to clinicians, paid for by open or private payer associations, and refreshed over the long haul in the field. These difficulties will, at last, be survived, yet they will take any longer to do as such than it will take for the actual innovations to develop. Therefore, we hope to see restricted utilization of AI in clinical practice inside 5 years and more broad use inside 10 years. It likewise appears to be progressively evident that AI frameworks won't supplant human clinicians for a huge scope, yet rather will increase their endeavors to really focus on patients. Over the long haul, human clinicians may advance toward errands and work plans that draw on remarkably human abilities like sympathy, influence, and higher perspective mix. Maybe the lone medical services suppliers who will chance their professions over the long run might be the individuals who will not work close by AI

Keywords: artificial intellogence, health care, breast cancer, AI applications

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13 The Effect of Inulin on Aflatoxin M1 Binding Ability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yoghurt

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Banu Sancak, Mevlude Kizil


Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) represents mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties, and shows adverse effect on human health. Recently the use of probiotics are focused on AFM1 detoxification because of the fact that probiotic strains have a binding ability to AFM1. Moreover, inulin is a prebiotic to improve the ability of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inulin on AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria. Yoghurt samples were manufactured by using skim milk powder artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml. Different samples were prepared for the study as: first sample consists of yoghurt starter bacteria (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus), the second sample consists of starter and L. plantarum, starter and B. bifidum ATCC were added to the third sample, starter and B. animalis ATCC 27672 were added to the forth sample, and the fifth sample is a binary culture consisted of starter and B. bifidum and B. animalis. Moreover, the same work groups were prepared with inulin (4%). The samples were incubated at 42°C for 4 hours, then stored for three different time interval (1,5 and 10 days). The toxin was measured by the ELISA. When inulin was added to work groups, there was significant change on AFM1 binding ability at least one sample in all groups except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (68.7%) in samples with inulin were found in the group which B. bifidum was added, whereas the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (44.4%) in samples with inulin was found in the fifth sample. The most impressive effect of inulin was found on B.bifidum. In this study, it was obtained that there was a significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in the all groups with inulin except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). Consequently, results show that AFM1 detoxification by probiotics have a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Besides, inulin has different effects on AFM1 binding ability of each probiotic bacteria strain.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, inulin, probiotics, storage

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12 Digi-Buddy: A Smart Cane with Artificial Intelligence and Real-Time Assistance

Authors: Amaladhithyan Krishnamoorthy, Ruvaitha Banu


Vision is considered as the most important sense in humans, without which leading a normal can be often difficult. There are many existing smart canes for visually impaired with obstacle detection using ultrasonic transducer to help them navigate. Though the basic smart cane increases the safety of the users, it does not help in filling the void of visual loss. This paper introduces the concept of Digi-Buddy which is an evolved smart cane for visually impaired. The cane consists for several modules, apart from the basic obstacle detection features; the Digi-Buddy assists the user by capturing video/images and streams them to the server using a wide-angled camera, which then detects the objects using Deep Convolutional Neural Network. In addition to determining what the particular image/object is, the distance of the object is assessed by the ultrasonic transducer. The sound generation application, modelled with the help of Natural Language Processing is used to convert the processed images/object into audio. The object detected is signified by its name which is transmitted to the user with the help of Bluetooth hear phones. The object detection is extended to facial recognition which maps the faces of the person the user meets in the database of face images and alerts the user about the person. One of other crucial function consists of an automatic-intimation-alarm which is triggered when the user is in an emergency. If the user recovers within a set time, a button is provisioned in the cane to stop the alarm. Else an automatic intimation is sent to friends and family about the whereabouts of the user using GPS. In addition to safety and security by the existing smart canes, the proposed concept devices to be implemented as a prototype helping visually-impaired visualize their surroundings through audio more in an amicable way.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, facial recognition, natural language processing, internet of things

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11 Anticancer and Anti-Apoptotic Potential of Tridham and 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: R. Stalin, D. Karthick, H. Haseena Banu, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi


Background: Breast cancer is emerging as one of the leading cause of cancer related deaths and hence there arises the need to look out for drugs which are more targets specific with minimal side effects. In recent times, there is a shift towards alternative medicine due to low cost and less side effects. Siddha system of medicine is one the oldest system of medicine practiced against various ailments. Tridham (TD) is a herbal formulation prepared in our laboratory consisting of Terminalia chebula, Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Prosopis cineraria in a definite ratio (TD) and its anticancer potential is evaluated in terms of induction of apoptosis. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the anti proliferative effect of TD and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose (PGG), a pure compound isolated from TD on human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Materials and Methods: Cell viability was studied using MTT analysis and trypan blue staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was studied using DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti- apoptotic markers namely Bax, Bad, Bcl-2 and caspases were also assessed by Western Blotting and RT PCR. Results: Viability studies of TD and PGG treated MCF-7 cells showed an inhibition in cell growth in time and dose dependent manner. The alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential was restored through treatment with TD and PGG which was confirmed by DAPI staining. The protein and mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic markers was found to be significantly increased in TD and PGG treated cells with a concomitant decrease in anti-apoptotic markers. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that TD and PGG exhibit their anticancer effect through its membrane stabilizing property and activation of apoptotic cascade in MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, mammary carcinoma, MCF-7, penta galloyl glucose, Tridham

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10 Bisphenol-A Concentrations in Urine and Drinking Water Samples of Adults Living in Ankara

Authors: Hasan Atakan Sengul, Nergis Canturk, Bahar Erbas


Drinking water is indispensable for life. With increasing awareness of communities, the content of drinking water and tap water has been a matter of curiosity. The presence of Bisphenol-A is the top one when content curiosity is concerned. The most used chemical worldwide for production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is Bisphenol-A. People are exposed to Bisphenol-A chemical, which disrupts the endocrine system, almost every day. Each year it is manufactured an average of 5.4 billion kilograms of Bisphenol-A. Linear formula of Bisphenol-A is (CH₃)₂C(C₆H₄OH)₂, its molecular weight is 228.29 and CAS number is 80-05-7. Bisphenol-A is known to be used in the manufacturing of plastics, along with various chemicals. Bisphenol-A, an industrial chemical, is used in the raw materials of packaging mate-rials in the monomers of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. The pass through the nutrients of Bisphenol-A substance happens by packaging. This substance contaminates with nutrition and penetrates into body by consuming. International researches show that BPA is transported through body fluids, leading to hormonal disorders in animals. Experimental studies on animals report that BPA exposure also affects the gender of the newborn and its time to reach adolescence. The extent to what similar endocrine disrupting effects are on humans is a debate topic in many researches. In our country, detailed studies on BPA have not been done. However, it is observed that 'BPA-free' phrases are beginning to appear on plastic packaging such as baby products and water carboys. Accordingly, this situation increases the interest of the society about the subject; yet it causes information pollution. In our country, all national and international studies on exposure to BPA have been examined and Ankara province has been designated as testing region. To assess the effects of plastic use in daily habits of people and the plastic amounts removed out of the body, the results of the survey conducted with volunteers who live in Ankara has been analyzed with Sciex appliance by means of LC-MS/MS in the laboratory and the amount of exposure and BPA removal have been detected by comparing the results elicited before. The results have been compared with similar studies done in international arena and the relation between them has been exhibited. Consequently, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine. This has also revealed that environmental exposure and the habits of daily plastic use have also direct effects a human body. When the amount of BPA in drinking water is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 1.136 µg/L, mean 0.29194 µg/L and SD(standard deviation)= 0.199 have been detected. When the amount of BPA in urine is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 0.48 µg/L, mean 0.19181 µg/L and SD= 0.099 have been detected. In conclusion, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine (r= -0.151). The p value of the comparison between drinking water’s and urine’s BPA amounts is 0.004 which shows that there is a significant change and the amounts of BPA in urine is dependent on the amounts in drinking waters (p < 0.05). This has revealed that environmental exposure and daily plastic habits have also direct effects on the human body.

Keywords: analyze of bisphenol-A, BPA, BPA in drinking water, BPA in urine

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9 Determination of the Effectiveness of Some Methods Used in Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L.) in Honeycombs

Authors: Neslihan Ozsoy Taskiran, Miray Dayioglu, Belgin Gunbey, Banu Yucel, Cigdem Takma, Unal Karik, Tugce Olgun, Levent Aydin


A greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.), which is one of the most important pests after Varroa, plays a role in the transportation of many pathogens into the hive as well as damage to the honeycombs, and beekeepers suffer economically. Due to the risk that some of the methods against this pest may cause residue in bee products, and it can be harmful to the health of people who consume these products. Therefore, the most appropriate, most economical, and effective method should be applied in the moth control. For this purpose, in the first phase of the project (2017-2018), planned to be 2-stage in the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in 2017-2020, the honeycombs, certified with good agricultural practice, were kept in a favorable condition for moths. Later, applications (Sulfur - B401 - Walnut (Leaf & Smoker) - lavender essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - laurel essential oil (1cc & 2cc & 3cc & 4cc) - control) were applied to the honeycombs with moths. In 2017, the B401 group had the highest wax moth damage area, and the group with the lowest wax moth damage area was determined as lavender 1cc; In 2018, the highest wax moth damage area was found in the walnut smoker group, while the lowest wax moth damage area was found in sulfur, walnut leaves, laurel 1cc - 2cc - 4cc, lavender 1cc - 2cc - 3cc - 4cc and control groups. In addition, sulfur residue amount (mean 128,18 mg/kg) in honeycomb was measured in the sulfur-treated group. Phase 1 of the project was completed, and the most important sub-groups among walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc) groups were identified. Accordingly, it is planned to carry out these treatments ((sulfur - B401 - walnut (leaf) - lavender (1cc) and laurel (4cc)) on honeycombs with do not contain moths, and later, it is planned to examine the effects of the treatment on the offspring area and honey yield by giving these honeycombs to the hives, in the 2nd stage of the project (2019-2020).

Keywords: honey bee, lavender essential oil, laurel essential oil, walnut, wax moth

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8 Micro RNAs (194 and 135a) as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: H. Haseena Banu, D. Karthick, R. Stalin, E. Nandha Kumar, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi


Background of the study: Type 2 diabetes is emerging as the predominant metabolic disorder in the world among adults characterized mainly by the resistance of the insulin sensitive tissues towards insulin followed by the decrease in the insulin secretion. The treatment for this disease usually involves treatment with oral synthetic drugs which are known to cause several side effects. Therefore, identification of new biomarkers as therapeutic target is the need of the hour. miRNAs are small, non–protein-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by promoting degradation and/or inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and have emerged as biomarkers in predicting diabetes mellitus. Objective of the study: To elucidate the therapeutic role of gallic acid in modulating the alterations in glucose metabolism induced by miRNAs 194 and 135a in Type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: T2D was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg/body weight (b.wt.) of streptozotocin. Microarrays were used to assess the expression of miRNAs in control, diabetic and gallic acid treated rats. Gene expression studies were carried out by RT PCR analysis. Results: Forty one miRNAs were differentially expressed in Type 2 diabetic rats. Among these, the expression of miRNA 194 was significantly decreased whereas miRNA 135a was significantly increased in Type 2 diabetic rats. The glucose metabolism was also altered significantly in skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: T2D is associated with alterations in the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Both these miRNAs 194 and 135a play an important role in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Gallic acid effectively ameliorated the alterations in glucose metabolism. Hence, both these miRNAs can serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diabetes mellitus. The study also establishes the role of gallic acid as therapeutic agent. Acknowledgment: The financial assistance provided in the form of ICMR women scientist by ICMR DHR INDIA is gratefully acknowledged here.

Keywords: gallic acid, high fat diet, type 2 diabetes mellitus, miRNAs

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7 Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor - a Review

Authors: P. Geetha, R. S. D. Wahida Banu


The crowning advances in Silicon based electronic technology have dominated the computation world for the past decades. The captivating performance of Si devices lies in sustainable scaling down of the physical dimensions, by that increasing device density and improved performance. But, the fundamental limitations due to physical, technological, economical, and manufacture features restrict further miniaturization of Si based devices. The pit falls are due to scaling down of the devices such as process variation, short channel effects, high leakage currents, and reliability concerns. To fix the above-said problems, it is needed either to follow a new concept that will manage the current hitches or to support the available concept with different materials. The new concept is to design spintronics, quantum computation or two terminal molecular devices. Otherwise, presently used well known three terminal devices can be modified with different materials that suits to address the scaling down difficulties. The first approach will occupy in the far future since it needs considerable effort; the second path is a bright light towards the travel. Modelling paves way to know not only the current-voltage characteristics but also the performance of new devices. So, it is desirable to model a new device of suitable gate control and project the its abilities towards capability of handling high current, high power, high frequency, short delay, and high velocity with excellent electronic and optical properties. Carbon nanotube became a thriving material to replace silicon in nano devices. A well-planned optimized utilization of the carbon material leads to many more advantages. The unique nature of this organic material allows the recent developments in almost all fields of applications from an automobile industry to medical science, especially in electronics field-on which the automation industry depends. More research works were being done in this area. This paper reviews the carbon nanotube field effect transistor with various gate configurations, number of channel element, CNT wall configurations and different modelling techniques.

Keywords: array of channels, carbon nanotube field effect transistor, double gate transistor, gate wrap around transistor, modelling, multi-walled CNT, single-walled CNT

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6 Defining the Customers' Color Preference for the Apparel Industry in Terms of Chromaticity Coordinates

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın


Fashion designers create lots of dresses, suits, shoes, and other clothing and accessories, which are purchased every year by consumers. Fashion trends, sketches of designs, accessories affect the apparel goods, but colors make the finishing touches to an outfit. In all fields of apparel men's, women's, and children's wear, including casual wear, suits, sportswear, formal wear, outerwear, maternity, and intimate apparel, color sells. Thus, specialization in color in apparel is a basic concern each season. The perception of color is the key to sales for every sector in textile business. Mechanism of color perception, cognition in brain and color emotion are unique subjects, which scientists have been investigating for many years. The parameters of color may not be corresponding to visual scales since human emotions induced by color are completely subjective. However, with a very few exception each manufacturer concern their top selling colors for each season through seasonal sales reports of apparel companies. This paper examines sensory and instrumental methods for quantifying color of fabrics and investigates the relationship between fabric color and sale numbers. 5 top selling colors for each season from 10 leading apparel companies in the same segment are taken. The compilation is based according to the sales of the companies for 5 to 10 years. The research’s main concern is the corelation with the magnitude of seasonal color selling figures and the CIE chromaticity coordinates. The colors are chosen from the globally accepted Pantone Textile Color System and the three-dimentional measurement system CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB) is used, L* representing the degree of lightness of color, a* the degree of color ranging from magenta to green, and b* the degree of color ranging from blue to yellow. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of relating color perceptance to a laboratory instrument yielding measurements in the CIELAB system. Our approach is to obtain a total of a hundred reference fabrics to be measured on a laboratory spectrophotometer calibrated to the CIELAB color system. Relationships between the CIE tristimulus (X, Y, Z) and CIELAB (L*, a*, b*) are examined and are reported herein.

Keywords: CIELAB, CIE tristimulus, color preference, fashion

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5 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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4 (Mis) Communication across the Borders: Politics, Media, and Public Opinion in Turkey

Authors: Banu Baybars Hawks


To date, academic attention in social sciences remains inadequate with regard to research and analysis of public opinion in Turkey. Most of the existing research has assessed the public opinion during political election periods. Therefore, it is of great interest to find out what the public thinks about current issues in Turkey, and how to interpret the results to be able to reveal whether they may have any reflections on social, political, and cultural structure of the country. Accordingly, the current study seeks to fill the gap in the social sciences literature in English regarding Turkey’s social and political stand which may be perceived to be very different by other nations. Without timely feedback from public surveys, various programs for improving different services and institutions functioning in the country might not achieve their expected goal, nor can decisions about which programs to implement be made rationally. Additionally, the information gathered may not only yield important insights into public’s opinion regarding current agenda in Turkey, but also into the correlates shaping public policies. Agenda-setting studies including agenda-building, agenda melding, reversed agenda-setting and information diffusion studies will be used to explain the roles of factors and actors in the formation of public opinion in Turkey. Knowing the importance of public agenda in the agenda setting and building process, this paper aims to reveal the social and political tendencies of the Turkish public. For that purpose, a survey will be carried out in December of 2014 to determine the social and political trends in Turkey for that same year. The subjects for the study, which utilize a questionairre in one-on-one interviews, will include 1,000 individuals aged 18 years and older from 26 cities representing general population. A stratified random sampling frame will be used. The topics covered by the survey include: The most important current problem in Turkey; the Economy; Terror; Approaches to the Kurdish Issue; Evaluations of the Government and Opposition Parties; Evaluations of Institutional Efficiency; Foreign Policy; the Judicial System/Constitution; Democracy and the Media; and, Social Relations/Life in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Turkey has been undergoing a rapid transformation. The reflections of the changes can be seen in all areas from economics to politics. It is my hope that findings of this study may shed light on the important aspects of institutions, variables setting the agenda, and formation process of public opinion in Turkey.

Keywords: public opinion, media, agenda setting, information diffusion, government, freedom, Turkey

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3 Biodegradation Ability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) Degrading Bacillus cereus Strain JMG-01 Isolated from PAHs Contaminated Soil

Authors: Momita Das, Sofia Banu, Jibon Kotoky


Environmental contamination of natural resources with persistent organic pollutants is of great world-wide apprehension. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the organic pollutants, released due to various anthropogenic activities. Due to their toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, PAHs are of environmental and human concern. Presently, bioremediation has evolved as the most promising biotechnology for cleanup of such contaminants because of its economical and less cost effectiveness. In the present study, distribution of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined in the soil samples collected from fifteen different sites of Guwahati City, the Gateway of the North East Region of India. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (Σ16 PAHs) ranged from 42.7-742.3 µg/g. Higher concentration of total PAHs was found more in the Industrial areas compared to all the sites (742.3 µg/g and 628 µg/g). It is noted that among all the PAHs, Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Chrysene and Benzo(a)Pyrene were the most available and contain the higher concentration of all the PAHs. Since microbial activity has been deemed the most influential and significant cause of PAH removal; further, twenty-three bacteria were isolated from the most contaminated sites using the enrichment process. These strains were acclimatized to utilize naphthalene and anthracene, each at 100 µg/g concentration as sole carbon source. Among them, one Gram-positive strain (JMG-01) was selected, and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of PAHs degradation were investigated. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, the isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01. Topographic images obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at scheduled time intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, determined the variation in cell morphology during the period of degradation. AFM and SEM micrograph of biomass showed high filamentous growth leading to aggregation of cells in the form of biofilm with reference to the incubation period. The percentage degradation analysis using gas chromatography and mass analyses (GC-MS) suggested that more than 95% of the PAHs degraded when the concentration was at 500 µg/g. Naphthalene, naphthalene-2-methy, benzaldehyde-4-propyl, 1, 2, benzene di-carboxylic acid and benzene acetic acid were the major metabolites produced after degradation. Moreover, PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes, ndo B and Cat A suggested that JMG-01 possess genes for PAHs degradation. Thus, the study concludes that Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01 has efficient biodegrading ability and can trigger the clean-up of PAHs contaminated soil.

Keywords: AFM, Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01, degradation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, SEM

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2 Antineoplastic Effect of Tridham and Penta Galloyl Glucose in Experimental Mammary Carcinoma Bearing Rats

Authors: Karthick Dharmalingam, Stalin Ramakrishnan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah Khan, Sachidanandanam Thiruvaiyaru Panchanadham, Shanthi Palanivelu


Background: Breast cancer is arising as the most dreadful cancer affecting women worldwide. Hence, there arises a need to search and test for new drugs. Herbal formulations used in Siddha preparations are proved to be effective against various types of cancer. They also offer advantage through synergistic amplification and diminish any possible adverse effects. Tridham (TD) is a herbal formulation prepared in our laboratory consisting of Terminalia chebula, Elaeocarpus ganitrus and Prosopis cineraria in a definite ratio and has been used for the treatment of mammary carcinoma. Objective: To study the restorative effect of Tridham and penta galloyl glucose (a component of TD) on DMBA induced mammary carcinoma in female Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (Control) received corn oil. Group II– mammary carcinoma was induced by DMBA dissolved in corn oil single dose orally. Group III and Group IV were induced with DMBA and subsequently treated with Tridham and penta galloyl glucose, respectively for 48 days. Group V was treated with DMBA and subsequently with a standard drug, cyclophosphamide. Group VI and Group VII were given Tridham and penta galloyl glucose alone, respectively for 48 days. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The mammary gland tissue was excised and levels of antioxidants were determined by biochemical assay. p53 and PCNA expression were accessed using immunohistochemistry. Nrf-2, Cox-2 and caspase-3 protein expression were studied by Western Blotting analysis. p21, Bcl-2, Bax, Bad and caspase-8 gene expression were studied by RT-PCR. Results: Histopathological studies confirmed induction of mammary carcinoma in DMBA induced rats and treatment with TD and PGG resulted in regression of tumour. The levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were decreased in DMBA induced rats when compared to control rats. The levels of cell cycle inhibitory markers and apoptotic markers were decreased in DMBA induced rats when compared to control rats. These parameters were restored to near normal levels on treatment with Tridham and PGG. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate the antineoplastic effect of Tridham and PGG are exerted through the modulation of antioxidant status and expression of cell cycle regulatory markers as well as apoptotic markers. Acknowledgment: Financial assistance provided in the form of ICMR-SRF by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), India is gratefully acknowledged here.

Keywords: antioxidants, Mammary carcinoma, pentaGalloyl glucose, Tridham

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