Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6264

Search results for: color change

6264 Evaluating the Performance of Color Constancy Algorithm

Authors: Damanjit Kaur, Avani Bhatia


Color constancy is significant for human vision since color is a pictorial cue that helps in solving different visions tasks such as tracking, object recognition, or categorization. Therefore, several computational methods have tried to simulate human color constancy abilities to stabilize machine color representations. Two different kinds of methods have been used, i.e., normalization and constancy. While color normalization creates a new representation of the image by canceling illuminant effects, color constancy directly estimates the color of the illuminant in order to map the image colors to a canonical version. Color constancy is the capability to determine colors of objects independent of the color of the light source. This research work studies the most of the well-known color constancy algorithms like white point and gray world.

Keywords: color constancy, gray world, white patch, modified white patch

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6263 Thermochromic Behavior of Fluoran-Based Mixtures Containing Liquid-Crystalline 4-N-Alkylbenzoic Acids as Color Developers

Authors: Magdalena Wilk-Kozubek, Jakub Pawłów, Maciej Czajkowski, Maria Zdończyk, Katarzyna Ślepokura, Joanna Cybińska


Thermochromic materials belong to the family of intelligent materials that change their color in response to temperature changes; this ability is called thermochromism. Thermochromic behavior can be displayed by both isolated compounds and multicomponent mixtures. Fluoran leuco dye-based mixtures are well-known thermochromic systems used, for example, in heat-sensitive FAX paper. Weak acids often serve as color developers for such systems. As the temperature increases, the acids melt, and the mixtures become colored. The objective of this research is to determine the influence of acids showing a liquid crystalline nematic phase on the development of the fluoran dye. For this purpose, fluoran-based mixtures with 4-n-alkylbenzoic acids were prepared. The mixtures are colored at room temperature, but they become colorless upon melting the acids. The melting of acids is associated not only with a change in the color of the mixtures but also with a change in their emission color. Phase transitions were investigated by temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry; nematic phases were visualized by polarized optical microscopy, color and emission changes were studied by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopies, respectively. When 4-n-alkylbenzoic acids are used as color developers, the fluoran-based mixtures become colorless after melting the acids. This is because the melting of acids is accompanied by the transition from the crystalline phase to the nematic phase, in which the molecular arrangement of the acids does not allow the fluoran dye to be developed.

Keywords: color developer, leuco dye, liquid crystal, thermochromism

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6262 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind: Applying to the part of the Tokyo Subway Map

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa


This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: color-blind, JPEG, monochrome image, denoise

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
6261 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim


Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: depigmentation, lentigine, quality switched ruby laser, skin color

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6260 Production of Plum (Prunus Cerasifera) Concentrate as Edible Color and Evaluation of Color Change Kinetics

Authors: Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei, Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Sakineh Alizadeh, Adeleh Maghsoudlou


Improvement of color, as a quality attribute of Plum Concentrate, has been made possible by the increase in knowledge of kinetic of color change. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for the production of pPlum juice concentrate. The Plum juice was concentrated to a final 55 °Bx from an initial °Bx of 15 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final Plum juice concentration of 55 °Bx was achieved in 17, 24 and 57 min by using the microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models, and parameters L, a and b followed only combined model. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of plum juice.

Keywords: colour, kinetics, concentration, plum juice

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
6259 Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection

Authors: Mohd Zamri Osman, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mohd Foad Rohani


Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.

Keywords: color space, neural network, random forest, skin detection, statistical feature

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6258 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu


Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

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6257 Invisible Aircraft Using Plasma Display

Authors: C. Ramamoorthy, R. Ranga Raj


In olden days the Ramayana epic depicts the usage of invisible and fuel less aircraft named pushpavimana. The change of color in the reptile family chameleon paves way for the concept of color change phenomenon available in nature. In present scenario the aircrafts are visible so it is easily identified. So there are too many problems from the threatening. Research is still going on about this problem by using Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Objective of this paper is to find much better to use the concept of invisible aircraft using plasma display through Couple Charged Device camera (CCD), which has a high resolution and can be used for many purposes like spying, defense, etc. Moreover it is cost wise cheap then, escaping the foe viewing.

Keywords: CCD camera, chameleon, invisible, plasma display

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
6256 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui


In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

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6255 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang


Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

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6254 Costume Design Influenced by Seventeenth Century Color Palettes on a Contemporary Stage

Authors: Michele L. Dormaier


The purpose of the research was to design costumes based on historic colors used by artists during the seventeenth century. The researcher investigated European art, primarily paintings and portraiture, as well as the color palettes used by the artists. The methodology examined the artists, their work, the color palettes used in their work, and the practices of color usage within their palettes. By examining portraits of historic figures, as well as paintings of ordinary scenes, subjects, and people, further information about color palettes was revealed. Related to the color palettes, was the use of ‘broken colors’ which was a relatively new practice, dating from the sixteenth century. The color palettes used by the artists of the seventeenth century had their limitations due to available pigments. With an examination of not only their artwork, and with a closer look at their palettes, the researcher discovered the exciting choices they made, despite those restrictions. The research was also initiated with the historical elements of the era’s clothing, as well as that of available materials and dyes. These dyes were also limited in much the same manner as the pigments which the artist had at their disposal. The color palettes of the paintings have much to tell us about the lives, status, conditions, and relationships from the past. From this research, informed decisions regarding color choices for a production on a contemporary stage of a period piece could then be made. The designer’s choices were a historic gesture to the colors which might have been worn by the character’s real-life counterparts of the era.

Keywords: broken color palette, costume color research, costume design, costume history, seventeenth century color palette, sixteenth century color palette

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6253 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom


Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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6252 Reactive Dyed Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabric Production by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Kuddis Büyükakıllı


The pretreated and bleached mercerized cotton fabric was dyed with reactive Everzol Brilliant Yellow 4GR (C.I. Yellow 160) dyestuff. Superhydrophobicity is provided to white and reactive dyed fabrics by using a nanotechnological sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and fluorcarbon water repellent agents by the two-step method. The effect of coating on color yield, fastness and functional properties of fabric was investigated. It was observed that water drop contact angles were higher in colorless coated fabrics compared to colored coated fabrics, there was no significant color change in colored superhydrophobic fabric and high color fastness values. Although there are no significant color losses in the fabrics after multiple washing and dry cleaning processes, water drop contact angles are greatly reduced.

Keywords: fluorcarbon water repellent agent, colored cotton fabric, sol-gel, superhydrophobic

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6251 An Efficient Encryption Scheme Using DWT and Arnold Transforms

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The color image is decomposed into red, green, and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using a key image that has same original size and is generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours of color image recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using Canny edge detector. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D color image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. It has shown that the color image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: color image, wavelet transform, edge detector, Arnold transform, lossy image encryption

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6250 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
6249 Parallel Version of Reinhard’s Color Transfer Algorithm

Authors: Abhishek Bhardwaj, Manish Kumar Bajpai


An image with its content and schema of colors presents an effective mode of information sharing and processing. By changing its color schema different visions and prospect are discovered by the users. This phenomenon of color transfer is being used by Social media and other channel of entertainment. Reinhard et al’s algorithm was the first one to solve this problem of color transfer. In this paper, we make this algorithm efficient by introducing domain parallelism among different processors. We also comment on the factors that affect the speedup of this problem. In the end by analyzing the experimental data we claim to propose a novel and efficient parallel Reinhard’s algorithm.

Keywords: Reinhard et al’s algorithm, color transferring, parallelism, speedup

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6248 Content-Based Image Retrieval Using HSV Color Space Features

Authors: Hamed Qazanfari, Hamid Hassanpour, Kazem Qazanfari


In this paper, a method is provided for content-based image retrieval. Content-based image retrieval system searches query an image based on its visual content in an image database to retrieve similar images. In this paper, with the aim of simulating the human visual system sensitivity to image's edges and color features, the concept of color difference histogram (CDH) is used. CDH includes the perceptually color difference between two neighboring pixels with regard to colors and edge orientations. Since the HSV color space is close to the human visual system, the CDH is calculated in this color space. In addition, to improve the color features, the color histogram in HSV color space is also used as a feature. Among the extracted features, efficient features are selected using entropy and correlation criteria. The final features extract the content of images most efficiently. The proposed method has been evaluated on three standard databases Corel 5k, Corel 10k and UKBench. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed image retrieval method is significantly improved compared to the recently developed methods.

Keywords: content-based image retrieval, color difference histogram, efficient features selection, entropy, correlation

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6247 The Role of Metallic Mordant in Natural Dyeing Process: Experimental and Quantum Study on Color Fastness

Authors: Bo-Gaun Chen, Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ching Chiang, Kuo-Hsing Lee, Chia-Chen Ho, Chin-Ping Huang, Chin-Heng Tien


It is known that the natural dyeing of cloth results moderate color, but with poor color fastness. This study points out the correlation between the macroscopic color fastness of natural dye to the cotton fiber and the microscopic binding energy of dye molecule to the cellulose. With the additive metallic mordant, the new-formed coordination bond bridges the dye to the fiber surface and thus affects the color fastness as well as the color appearance. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation is therefore used to explore the most possible mechanism during the dyeing process. Finally, the experimental results reflect the strong effect of three different metal ions on the natural dyeing clothes.

Keywords: binding energy, color fastness, density functional theory (DFT), natural dyeing, metallic mordant

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6246 User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production

Authors: Joshua Kaufman, Felix Tan, Morgan Monroe, Ayman Abouraddy


Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.

Keywords: activation, appearance, color, manufacturing

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6245 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana


Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: HSV space, histology, enhancement, image

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
6244 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: A.Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė


Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: color, color index, ripening, tomato

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6243 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farnaz Alaeimoghadam, Farzad Alaeimoghadam


In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning, natural antioxidant

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6242 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi


Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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6241 Design and Development of 5-DOF Color Sorting Manipulator for Industrial Applications

Authors: Atef A. Ata, Sohair F. Rezeka, Ahmed El-Shenawy, Mohammed Diab


Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system applications which consists of two integrated stations of processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing color sorting techniques use a set of inductive, capacitive, and optical sensors to differentiate object color. This research presents a mechatronics color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. A 5-DOF robot arm is designed and developed with pick and place operation to be main part of the color sorting system. Image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in real time by a webcam attached at the end-effector then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator that has pick-and-place mechanism. Performance analysis proves that this color based object sorting system works very accurate under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are red, green and blue. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

Keywords: robotics manipulator, 5-DOF manipulator, image processing, color sorting, pick-and-place

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6240 The Effect of TiO₂ and SiO₂ Nanoparticles Addition to Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement on Compressive Strength, Microhardness, Setting Time and Color change

Authors: Amal Magdi El Shahawi, Mai Mahmoud Elbatanony


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) with their low wear, low mechanical strength properties, extended setting rate, and high initial moisture sensitivity; represent major obstacles for their extensive clinical use. Such deficiencies limit their use in stressbearing areas and contribute to restoration failure. Hence, various alterations have been introduced to enhance the physicomechanical properties of GICs. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding TiO₂ and SiO₂ nanoparticles on compressive strength (CS), surface microhardness, setting time and color change of conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: Conventional glass ionomer (GC Gold Label Luting& Lining Cement. Tokyo, Japan), TiO₂ powder (32 nm in size)( Alfa Aesar, Germany), and SiO₂ nanofillers ( Sigma Aldrich, USA) were used. TiO₂ (2.5 wt%) and SiO2 (2.5 wt%) were added to the conventional glass ionomer and samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The tested properties of the experimental group were compared with that of the conventional GIC. Surface microhardness was tested using Vicker’s Hardness tester (NEXUS 4000 TM, INNOVATEST, model no.4503, Netherlands), while compressive strength was tested using universal testing machine (Shimadzu 5KN Autograph AG-Xplus, Japan). The effect on setting time was evaluated according to ASTM C266, using Gillmore Needle Apparatus, while color change was evaluated by using spectrophotometer( Cary 5000 UV-VIS-NIR, USA ). Results: A higher statistically significant mean Hardness value was revealed by the experimental group (95.368±17.84), in comparison to control group (35.922±1.64) (p=0.00). Regarding the compressive strength a higher statistically significant mean value was revealed by the control group (115.936±9.61), in comparison to experimental group (35.922±)(p=0.00). Longer setting time was recorded for the experimental group, meanwhile there was no change in color for experimental group (E= 2.13). Conclusions: addition of 2.5 wt% TiO₂ and 2.5 wt% SiO₂ to the conventional glass ionomer increased surface microhardness, increased setting time and decreased the compressive strength. The additives used has no effect on color of the tested GIC. Conventional glass ionomer loaded with TiO₂ and SiO₂ nanofillers showed higher surface hardness results compared to the conventional glass ionomer while regarding compressive strength, the conventional type showed higher compressive results, there was no change in colour but the experimental samples recorded longer setting time compared to the conventional glass ionomer.

Keywords: glass ionomer, hardness, compressive strength, setting time

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6239 Clustering Color Space, Time Interest Points for Moving Objects

Authors: Insaf Bellamine, Hamid Tairi


Detecting moving objects in sequences is an essential step for video analysis. This paper mainly contributes to the Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) extraction and detection. We propose a new method for detection of moving objects. Two main steps compose the proposed method. First, we suggest to apply the algorithm of the detection of Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) on both components of the Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition which is based on a Partial Differential Equation (PDE): a color geometric structure component and a color texture component. A descriptor is associated to each of these points. In a second stage, we address the problem of grouping the points (CSTIP) into clusters. Experiments and comparison to other motion detection methods on challenging sequences show the performance of the proposed method and its utility for video analysis. Experimental results are obtained from very different types of videos, namely sport videos and animation movies.

Keywords: Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP), Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition, Motion Detection, clustering

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6238 FISCEAPP: FIsh Skin Color Evaluation APPlication

Authors: J. Urban, Á. S. Botella, L. E. Robaina, A. Bárta, P. Souček, P. Císař, Š. Papáček, L. M. Domínguez


Skin coloration in fish is of great physiological, behavioral and ecological importance and can be considered as an index of animal welfare in aquaculture as well as an important quality factor in the retail value. Currently, in order to compare color in animals fed on different diets, biochemical analysis, and colorimetry of fished, mildly anesthetized or dead body, are very accurate and meaningful measurements. The noninvasive method using digital images of the fish body was developed as a standalone application. This application deals with the computation burden and memory consumption of large input files, optimizing piece wise processing and analysis with the memory/computation time ratio. For the comparison of color distributions of various experiments and different color spaces (RGB, CIE L*a*b*) the comparable semi-equidistant binning of multi channels representation is introduced. It is derived from the knowledge of quantization levels and Freedman-Diaconis rule. The color calibrations and camera responsivity function were necessary part of the measurement process.

Keywords: color distribution, fish skin color, piecewise transformation, object to background segmentation

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6237 Color Image Compression/Encryption/Contour Extraction using 3L-DWT and SSPCE Method

Authors: Ali A. Ukasha, Majdi F. Elbireki, Mohammad F. Abdullah


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. This paper is divided into two parts. This work interests with the color image which is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using the key image that has same original size and are generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours from color images recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Color images and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm has extremely large security against some attacks like salt and pepper and Jpeg compression. Its proof that the color images can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression and salt and peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, color image, wavelet transform, lossless image encryption

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6236 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga


Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, coastline, color, sea-land segmentation

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6235 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler


When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: color effect, comfort, towel, weaving technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 74