Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5574

Search results for: surface plasmons

5574 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah


This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical

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5573 Dipole and Quadrupole Scattering of Ultra Short Pulses on Metal Nanospheres

Authors: Sergey Svita, Valeriy Astapenko


The presentation is devoted to the theoretical analysis of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses (USP) scattering on metallic nanospheres in a dielectric medium in the vicinity of surface plasmon resonance due to excitation of dipole and quadrupole surface plasmons.

Keywords: surface plasmon, scattering, metallic nanosphere

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5572 Light Emission Enhancement of Silicon Nanocrystals by Gold Layer

Authors: R. Karmouch


A thin gold metal layer was deposited on the top of silicon oxide films containing embedded Si nanocrystals (Si-nc). The sample was annealed in gas containing nitrogen, and subsequently characterized by photoluminescence. We obtained 3-fold enhancement of photon emission from the Si-nc embedded in silicon dioxide covered with a Gold layer as compared with an uncovered sample. We attribute this enhancement to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate caused by the coupling of the Si-nc emitters with the surface plasmons (SP). The evolution of PL emission with laser irradiated time was also collected from covered samples, and compared to that from uncovered samples. In an uncovered sample, the PL intensity decreases with time, approximately with two decay constants. Although the decrease of the initial PL intensity associated with the increase of sample temperature under CW pumping is still observed in samples covered with a gold layer, this film significantly contributes to reduce the permanent deterioration of the PL intensity. The resistance to degradation of light-emitting silicon nanocrystals can be increased by SP coupling to suppress the permanent deterioration. Controlling the permanent photodeterioration can allow to perform a reliable optical gain measurement.

Keywords: photodeterioration, silicon nanocrystals, ion implantation, photoluminescence, surface plasmons

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5571 Terahertz Surface Plasmon in Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Interface via Amplitude Modulated Laser

Authors: Monika Singh


A carbon nanotube thin film coated on dielectric interface is employed to produce THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The carbon nanotube has its plasmon frequency in the THz range. The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. An amplitude modulated laser pulse normally incident, from free space on slow wave structure, exert a modulation frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the CNT film and resonantly excite the THz surface plasma wave at the modulation frequency. Carbon nanotube based plasmonic nano-structure materials provides potentially more versatile approach to tightly confined surface modes in the THz range in comparison to noble metals.

Keywords: surface plasmons, surface waves, thin films, THz radiation

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5570 Ultrastrong Coupling of CdZnS/ZnS Quantum Dots and Breathing Plasmons in Aluminum Metal-Insulator-Metal Nanocavities in Near-Ultraviolet Spectrum

Authors: Li Li, Lei Wang, Chenglin Du, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Wei Cai, Jingjun Xu


Strong coupling between excitons of quantum dots and plasmons in nanocavites can be realized at room temperature due to the strong confinement of the plasmon fields, which offers building blocks for quantum information systems or ultralow-power switches and lasers. In this work, by using cathodoluminescence, ultrastrong coupling with Rabi splitting above 1 eV between breathing plasmons in Aluminum metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and excited state of CdZnS/ZnS quantum dots was reported in near-UV spectrum. Analytic analysis and full-wave electromagnetic simulations provide the evidence for the strong coupling and confirm the hybridization of the QDs exciton and LSP breathing mode. This study opens the way for new emerging applications based on strongly coupled light-matter states all over the visible region down to ultra-violet frequencies.

Keywords: breathing mode, plasmonics, quantum dot, strong coupling, ultraviolet

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5569 Nanofocusing of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Partially Metal- Coated Dielectric Conical Probe: Optimal Asymmetric Distance

Authors: Ngo Thi Thu, Kazuo Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka, Dao Ngoc Chien


Nanometric superfocusing of optical intensity near the tip of partially metal- coated dielectric conical probe of the convergent surface plasmon polariton wave is investigated by the volume integral equation method. It is possible to perform nanofocusing using this probe by using both linearly and radially polarized Gaussian beams as the incident waves. Strongly localized and enhanced optical near-fields can be created on the tip of this probe for the cases of both incident Gaussian beams. However the intensity distribution near the probe tip was found to be very sensitive to the shape of the probe tip.

Keywords: waveguide, surface plasmons, electromagnetic theory

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5568 Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure

Authors: A. Arya, R. Laha, V. R. Dantham


We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.

Keywords: localized surface plasmons, photonic nanojet, SERS, whispering gallery mode

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5567 Reflection Phase Tuning of Graphene Plasmons by Substrate Design

Authors: Xiaojie Jiang, Wei Cai, Yinxiao Xiang, Ni Zhang, Mengxin Ren, Xinzheng Zhang, Jingjun Xu


Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Reflection phase of graphene plasmons (GPs) at an abrupt interface is very important, which determines the plasmon resonance of graphene structures of deep sub-wavelength scales. However, at an abrupt graphene edge, the reflection phase is always a constant, ΦR ≈ π/4. In this work, we show that the reflection phase of GPs can be efficiently changed through substrate design. Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides another way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.Specifically, the reflection phase is no longer π/4 at the interface formed by placing a graphene sheet on different substrates. Moreover, tailorable reflection phase of GPs up to 2π variation can be further achieved by scattering GPs at a junction consisting of two such dielectric interfaces with various gap width acting as a Fabry-Perot cavity. Besides, the evolution of plasmon mode in graphene ribbons based on the interface reflection phase tuning is predicted, which is expected to be observed in near-field experiments with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Our work provides a new way for in-plane plasmon control, which should find applications for integrated plasmon devices design using graphene.

Keywords: graphene plasmons, reflection phase tuning, plasmon mode tuning, Fabry-Perot cavity

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5566 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi


Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

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5565 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee


An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

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5564 Surface Modification of Polycarbonate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Staining with Methylene Blue

Authors: Haruka Kaji, Jae-Ho Kim, Yonezawa Susumu


The surface of polycarbonate (PC) was modified with fluorine gas at 25℃ and 10-380 Torr for one h. The surface roughness of the fluorinated PC samples was approximately five times larger than that (1.2 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds (e.g., -C=O and C-Hx) derived from raw PC decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) after surface fluorination. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. Fluorinated PC could be strained with the methylene blue basic dye because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: dyeable layer, polycarbonate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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5563 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: surface roughness, fused deposition modelling (FDM), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), orientation

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5562 Surface Modification of Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates via Direct Fluorination to Promote the Ag+ Ions Adsorption

Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified with fluorine gas at 25 ℃ and 100 Torr for one h. Moreover, the effect of ethanol washing on surface modification was investigated in this study. The surface roughness of the fluorinated and washed PET samples was approximately six times larger than that (0.6 nm) of the untreated thing. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the bonds such as -C=O and -C-Hx derived from raw PET decreased and were converted into fluorinated bonds such as -CFx after surface fluorination. Even after washing with ethanol, the fluorinated bonds stably existed on the surface. These fluorinated bonds showed higher electronegativity according to the zeta potential results. The negative surface charges were increased by washing the ethanol, and it caused to increase in the number of polar groups such as -CHF- and -C-Fx. The fluorinated and washed surface of PET could promote the adsorption of Ag+ ions in AgNO₃ solution because of the increased surface roughness and the negatively charged surface.

Keywords: Ag+ ions adsorption, polyethylene terephthalate, surface fluorination, zeta potential

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5561 The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of SCM440 Steel

Authors: C. Han, H. Kim, S. Park


The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life of SCM440 steel. Two groups of specimens were made from SCM440 steel with and without surface polished after forging process and resulted in different values of surface roughness. The difference of the surface roughness between two groups was clearly distinguished even to the naked eye. Surface roughness of both groups of the specimens was quantitatively measured by a roughness measuring device, Talysurf series2 (Taylor-Hobson Co., USA). Average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were obtained by scanning 45 mm with a speed of 0.25 mm/s. Fatigue tests were conducted using a three-point bending method with a cyclic sinusoidal profile of 5 Hz, stress ratio of R = 0.1 and reference life for fatigue limit of 1 × 106 cycles. Ra and Rmax without surface polished were 10.497 ± 1.721 μm and 87.936 ± 16.210 μm, respectively while those values with surface polished were much smaller (ongoing measurements). Fatigue lives of the surface-polished specimens achieved approximately 1 × 106 cycles under the maximum stress of 900 MPa, which was 10 times longer than those of the surface-untreated specimens with an average roughness of 10.082 μm. The results showed that an increase in surface roughness values led to a decrease in fatigue lives.

Keywords: surface roughness, fatigue test, fatigue life, SCM440 steel

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5560 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič


For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

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5559 The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

Authors: Szymon Wojciechowski, Damian Przestacki, Tadeusz Chwalczuk


The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).

Keywords: Inconel 718, laser assisted machining, surface integrity, turning

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5558 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli


Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

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5557 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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5556 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah


Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

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5555 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari


We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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5554 Effect of Mercerization on Coconut Fiber Surface Condition

Authors: Sphiwe Simelane, Daniel Madyira


The use of natural fibers requires that they should be treated in preparation for their use in Natural Fiber-reinforced polymer composites. This paper reports on the effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on the surface of coconut fibers. The fibers were subjected to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% NaOH concentrations and soaked for 4 hours and thoroughly rinsed and allowed to dry in the open air for seven days, after which time they were dried in an oven for 30 minutes. Untreated and treated coconut fibers were observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope and it was noted that the surface structure of the fibers was modified differently by the different NaOH concentrations, and the resultant colour of the treated fibers got darker as the solution concentration increased, and the texture felt rougher to the touch as a result of the erosion of the fiber surface. Further, the increase in alkali concentration striped the surface of more constituents, thus exposing “pits” and other surface components rendering the surface rough.

Keywords: coconut fiber, scanning electron microscope, sodium hydroxide, surface treatment

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5553 A Molding Surface Auto-inspection System

Authors: Ssu-Han Chen, Der-Baau Perng


Molding process in IC manufacturing secures chips against the harms done by hot, moisture or other external forces. While a chip was being molded, defects like cracks, dilapidation, or voids may be embedding on the molding surface. The molding surfaces the study poises to treat and the ones on the market, though, differ in the surface where texture similar to defects is everywhere. Manual inspection usually passes over low-contrast cracks or voids; hence an automatic optical inspection system for molding surface is necessary. The proposed system is consisted of a CCD, a coaxial light, a back light as well as a motion control unit. Based on the property of statistical textures of the molding surface, a series of digital image processing and classification procedure is carried out. After training of the parameter associated with above algorithm, result of the experiment suggests that the accuracy rate is up to 93.75%, contributing to the inspection quality of IC molding surface.

Keywords: molding surface, machine vision, statistical texture, discrete Fourier transformation

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5552 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova


In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: coating, surface, annual plant, composites, particleboard

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5551 Comparative Study of the Earth Land Surface Temperature Signatures over Ota, South-West Nigeria

Authors: Moses E. Emetere, M. L. Akinyemi


Agricultural activities in the South–West Nigeria are mitigated by the global increase in temperature. The unpredictive surface temperature of the area had increased health challenges amongst other social influence. The satellite data of surface temperatures were compared with the ground station Davis weather station. The differential heating of the lower atmosphere were represented mathematically. A numerical predictive model was propounded to forecast future surface temperature.

Keywords: numerical predictive model, surface temperature, satellite date, ground data

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5550 Voltage Polarity in Electrospinning: Way to Control Surface Properties of Polymer Fibers

Authors: Urszula Stachewicz


Surface properties of materials are the key parameter in many applications, especially in the biomedical field, to control cell-material interactions. In our work, we want to achieve the controllability of surface properties of polymer fibers via a single-step electrospinning process by alternating voltage polarities. Voltage polarity defines the charge accumulated on the surface of the liquid jet and the surface of the fibers. Positive polarity attracts negatively charged groups to fibers’ surface, whereas negative polarity moves the negatively charged functional groups away from the surface. This way, we can control the surface chemistry, wettability, and additionally surface potential of electrospun fibers. Within our research, we characterized surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and surface potential with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on electrospun fibers of commonly used polymers such as PCL, PVDF, and PMMA, often used as biomaterials. We proved the significant effect of fibers' surface potential on cell integration with the scaffolds and further cells development for the regeneration processes based on the osteoblast and fibroblast culture studies. Acknowledgments: The study was conducted within ‘Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment’ project, which is carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: cell attachment, fibers, fibroblasts, osteoblast, proliferation, surface potential

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5549 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

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5548 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness and near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.


In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor Hobson Talysurf tester, micro Vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.

Keywords: hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness

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5547 Nozzle-to-Surface Distances Effect on Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Impinging Jets

Authors: Aspen W. Glaspell, Victoria J. Rouse, Brian K. Friedrich, Kyosung Choo


Heat transfer of two-phase impinging jet on a flat plate surface are experimentally investigated. The effects of the nozzle-to-surface distance and volumetric quality on the Nusselt number are considered. The results show that the normalized stagnation Nusselt number drastically increase with decreasing the nozzle-to-surface distance due to the jet deflection effect. Based on the experimental results, new correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number are developed as a function of the nozzle-to-surface distance.

Keywords: jet impingement, water jet, air assisted, circular jet

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5546 Self-Assembled Laser-Activated Plasmonic Substrates for High-Throughput, High-Efficiency Intracellular Delivery

Authors: Marinna Madrid, Nabiha Saklayen, Marinus Huber, Nicolas Vogel, Christos Boutopoulos, Michel Meunier, Eric Mazur


Delivering material into cells is important for a diverse range of biological applications, including gene therapy, cellular engineering and imaging. We present a plasmonic substrate for delivering membrane-impermeable material into cells at high throughput and high efficiency while maintaining cell viability. The substrate fabrication is based on an affordable and fast colloidal self-assembly process. When illuminated with a femtosecond laser, the light interacts with the electrons at the surface of the metal substrate, creating localized surface plasmons that form bubbles via energy dissipation in the surrounding medium. These bubbles come into close contact with the cell membrane to form transient pores and enable entry of membrane-impermeable material via diffusion. We use fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to verify delivery of membrane-impermeable material into HeLa CCL-2 cells. We show delivery efficiency and cell viability data for a range of membrane-impermeable cargo, including dyes and biologically relevant material such as siRNA. We estimate the effective pore size by determining delivery efficiency for hard fluorescent spheres with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 2 um. To provide insight to the cell poration mechanism, we relate the poration data to pump-probe measurements of micro- and nano-bubble formation on the plasmonic substrate. Finally, we investigate substrate stability and reusability by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to inspect for damage on the substrate after laser treatment. SEM images show no visible damage. Our findings indicate that self-assembled plasmonic substrates are an affordable tool for high-throughput, high-efficiency delivery of material into mammalian cells.

Keywords: femtosecond laser, intracellular delivery, plasmonic, self-assembly

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5545 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury


Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: aluminium, milling operation, peltier cooling effect, surface roughness

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