Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: aneurysm

30 The Rupture Potential of Nerve Tissue Constrained Intracranial Saccular Aneurysm

Authors: M. Alam, P. Seshaiyer


The rupture predictability of intracranial aneurysm is one of the most important parameters for physicians in surgical treatment. As most of the intracranial aneurysms are asymptomatic, still the rupture potential of both symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions is relatively unknown. Moreover, an intracranial aneurysm constrained by a nerve tissue might be a common scenario for a physician to deal with during the treatment process. Here, we perform a computational modeling of nerve tissue constrained intracranial saccular aneurysm to show a protective role of constrained tissue on the aneurysm. A comparative parametric study of the model also performs taking long constraint, medium constraint, short constraint, point contact, narrow neck aneurysm, wide neck aneurysm as parameters for the analysis. Results show that contact constraint aneurysm generates less stress near the fundus compared to no constraint aneurysm, hence works as a protective wall for the aneurysm not to be ruptured.

Keywords: rupture potential, intracranial saccular aneurysm, anisotropic hyper-elastic material, finite element analysis

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29 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem M. Alargha, Mohammad O. Hamdan, Waseem H. Aziz


Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

Keywords: aneurysm, cfd, wall shear stress, gravity, fluid dynamics, bifurcation artery

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28 A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Riteesh Bookun


Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenmosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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27 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo


In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

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26 Case Report: A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by 21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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25 Hemodynamics of a Cerebral Aneurysm under Rest and Exercise Conditions

Authors: Shivam Patel, Abdullah Y. Usmani


Physiological flow under rest and exercise conditions in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models is numerically investigated. A finite-volume based code with BiCGStab as the linear equation solver is used to simulate unsteady three-dimensional flow field through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow characteristics are first established in a healthy cerebral artery for both physiological conditions. The effect of saccular aneurysm on cerebral hemodynamics is then explored through a comparative analysis of the velocity distribution, nature of flow patterns, wall pressure and wall shear stress (WSS) against the reference configuration. The efficacy of coil embolization as a potential strategy of surgical intervention is also examined by modelling coil as a homogeneous and isotropic porous medium where the extended Darcy’s law, including Forchheimer and Brinkman terms, is applicable. The Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian blood model is incorporated to capture the shear thinning behavior of blood. Rest and exercise conditions correspond to normotensive and hypertensive blood pressures respectively. The results indicate that the fluid impingement on the outer wall of the arterial bend leads to abnormality in the distribution of wall pressure and WSS, which is expected to be the primary cause of the localized aneurysm. Exercise correlates with elevated flow velocity, vortex strength, wall pressure and WSS inside the aneurysm sac. With the insertion of coils in the aneurysm cavity, the flow bypasses the dilatation, leading to a decline in flow velocities and WSS. Particle residence time is observed to be lower under exercise conditions, a factor favorable for arresting plaque deposition and combating atherosclerosis.

Keywords: 3D FVM, Cerebral aneurysm, hypertension, coil embolization, non-Newtonian fluid

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24 The Existence of a Sciatic Artery in Congenital Lower Limb Deformities

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


Persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical vascular variation resulting from a lack of regression of the embryonic dorsal axial artery. The axial artery is the main artery supplying the lower limb during development in the first trimester. The current research includes 206 sciatic artery cases in 171 patients between 1864 and 2012. It aims to identify the risk factor of sciatic artery aneurysm in congenital limb anomalies. Sciatic artery aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally in amniotic band syndrome (ABS) existing with no congenital anomaly in 0.7% or with double knee in 0.7%, with the tibia in 0.7% and with hemihypertrophy or soft tissue hypertrophy in 1.4%. Therefore, the current study indicates a relationship the same gene responsible for the congenital limb deformities may be responsible for non-regression of the sciatic artery. Furthermore, pediatricians should refer cases of congenital limb anomalies for vascular evaluation prior to corrective surgical intervention.

Keywords: amniotic band syndrome, congenital limb deformities, double knee, sciatic artery, sciatic artery aneurysm , soft tissue hypertrophy

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23 Determining the Threshold for Protective Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Aortic Structure in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome Associated Aortic Aneurysm

Authors: Christine P. Gibson, Ramona Alex, Michael Farney, Johana Vallejo-Elias, Mitra Esfandiarei


Aortic aneurysm is the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). MFS aneurysm is characterized by weakening of the aortic wall due to elastin fibers fragmentation and disorganization. The above-average height and distinct physical features make young adults with MFS desirable candidates for competitive sports; but little is known about the exercise limit at which they will be at risk for aortic rupture. On the other hand, aerobic cardiovascular exercise has been shown to have protective effects on the heart and aorta. We have previously reported that mild aerobic exercise can delay the formation of aortic aneurysm in a mouse model of MFS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of various levels of exercise intensity on the progression of aortic aneurysm in the mouse model. Starting at 4 weeks of age, we subjected control and MFS mice to different levels of exercise intensity (8m/min, 10m/min, 15m/min, and 20m/min, corresponding to 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of VO2 max, respectively) on a treadmill for 30 minutes per day, five days a week for the duration of the study. At 24 weeks of age, aortic tissue were isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies using histology and wire myography in order to evaluate the effects of different exercise routines on elastin fragmentation and organization and aortic wall elasticity/stiffness. Our data shows that exercise training at the intensity levels between 55%-75% significantly reduces elastin fragmentation and disorganization, with less recovery observed in 85% MFS group. The reversibility of elasticity was also significantly restored in MFS mice subjected to 55%-75% intensity; however, the recovery was less pronounced in MFS mice subjected to 85% intensity. Furthermore, our data shows that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contractilion in response to vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine (100nM) is significantly reduced in MFS aorta (54.84 ± 1.63 mN/mm2) as compared to control (95.85 ± 3.04 mN/mm2). At 55% of intensity, exercise did not rescue SMCs contraction (63.45 ± 1.70 mN/mm2), while at higher intensity levels, SMCs contraction in response to phenylephrine was restored to levels similar to control aorta [65% (81.88 ± 4.57 mN/mm2), 75% (86.22 ± 3.84 mN/mm2), and 85% (83.91 ± 5.42 mN/mm2)]. This study provides the first time evidence that high intensity exercise (e.g. 85%) may not provide the most beneficial effects on aortic function (vasoconstriction) and structure (elastin fragmentation, aortic wall elasticity) during the progression of aortic aneurysm in MFS mice. On the other hand, based on our observations, medium intensity exercise (e.g. 65%) seems to provide the utmost protective effects on aortic structure and function in MFS mice. These findings provide new insights into the potential capacity, in which MFS patients could participate in various aerobic exercise routines, especially in young adults affected by cardiovascular complications particularly aortic aneurysm. This work was funded by Midwestern University Research Fund.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, aortic aneurysm, aortic wall elasticity, elastin fragmentation, Marfan syndrome

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22 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effects of Mechanical Forces in Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem Al Argha


Cerebral Aneurysms are the ballooning and defect that occurs in the arteries of the brain. This ballooning might enlarge in size due to mechanical forces and could lead to rupture and death. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used in the recent years in creating a link between engineering sciences and medical sciences. In this paper, the effects of mechanical forces on cerebral aneurysms will be studied. Results of this study show that mechanical forces could lead to rupture of the aneurysm and could lead to death. High mechanical forces including stresses up to 1.7 MPa could pop aneurysms and lead to a brain hemorrhage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical, aneurysm, mechanical forces

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21 Splenic Artery Aneurysms: A Rare, Insidious Cause of Abdominal Pain

Authors: Christopher Oyediran, Nicola Ubayasiri, Christopher Gough


Splenic artery aneurysms are often clinically occult, occasionally identified incidentally with imaging. The pathogenesis of aneurysms is complex, but certain factors are thought to contribute to their development. Given the potential fatal complications of rupture, a high index of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of a 36-year-old female with a history of endometriosis and multiple sclerosis who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset epigastric pain and collapse. On arrival, she was pale and clammy with profound tachycardia and hypotension. An ultrasound done in the resuscitation department revealed abdominal free fluid. She was resuscitated with blood and transferred for emergent laparotomy. Laparotomy revealed massive haemoperitoneum from the spleen. She underwent emergency splenectomy and inspection of the spleen revealed a splenic artery aneurysm. She received our massive transfusion protocol followed by a short stay on ITU, making a good post-operative recovery and was discharged home a week later.

Keywords: aneurysm, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), resuscitation, laparotomy

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20 Traumatic Brachiocephalic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

Authors: Sally Shepherd, Jessica Wong, David Read


Traumatic brachiocephalic artery aneurysm is a rare injury that typically occurs as a result of a blunt chest injury. A 19-year-old female sustained a head-on, high speed motor vehicle crash into a tree. Upon release after 45 minutes of entrapment, she was tachycardic but normotensive, with a significant seatbelt sign across her chest and open deformed right thigh with weak pulses in bilateral lower limbs. A chest XR showed mild upper mediastinal widening. A CT trauma series plus gated CT chest revealed a grade 3a aortic arch transection with brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular repair of the brachiocephalic artery was attempted post-presentation but was unsuccessful as the first stent migrated to the infrarenal abdominal aorta and the second stent across the brachiocephalic artery origin had a persistent leak at the base. She was transferred to Intensive Care for strict blood pressure control. She returned to theatre 5 hours later for a median sternotomy, aortic arch repair with an 8mm graft extraction, and excision of the innominate artery pseudoaneurysm. She had an uncomplicated post-operative recovery. This case highlights that brachiocephalic artery injury is a rare but potentially lethal injury as a result of blunt chest trauma. Safe management requires a combined Vascular and Cardiothoracic team approach, as stenting alone may be insufficient.

Keywords: blunt chest injury, Brachiocephalic aneurysm, innominate artery, trauma

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19 Amsan Syndrome in Emergency Department

Authors: Okan Cakir, Okan Tatli


Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) syndrome usually occurs following a postviral infection in two to four weeks and is a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal and sensorial degeneration as a rare variant of Gullian-Barre syndrome. In our case, we wanted to mention that a rare case of AMSAN Syndrome due to prior surgery. A 61-year-old male case admitted to emergency department with complaints of weakness in feet, numbness and incapability to walk. In his history, it was learned that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) had applied for abdominal aort aneurysm two weeks ago before admission, his complaints had been for a couple of days increasingly and bilaterally, and there had been no infection disease history for four weeks. In physical examination, general status was good, vital signs were stable, and there was a mild paresis in dorsal flexion of feet in bilaterally lower extremities. No nuchal rigidity was determined. Other system examinations were normal. Urea:52 mg/dL (normal range: 15-44 mg/dL), creatinine: 1,05 mg/dL (normal range: 0,81-1,4 mg/dL), potassium: 3,68 mmol/L (normal range: 3,5-5,5 mmol/L), glycaemia: 142 mg/dL, calcium: 9,71 mg/dL (normal range: 8,5-10,5 mg/dL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): 74 mm/h (normal range: 0-15 mm/h) were determined in biochemical tests. The case was consulted to neurology department and hospitalized. In performing electromyography, it was reported as a bilateral significant axonal degeneration with sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Normal ranges of glycaemia and protein levels were detected in lumbal punction. Viral markers and bucella, toxoplasma, and rubella markers were in normal range. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was applied as a treatment, physical treatment programme was planned and the case discharged from neurology department. In our case, we mentioned that it should be considered polyneuropathy as an alternative diagnosis in cases admitting symptoms like weakness and numbness had a history of prior surgery.

Keywords: AMSAN Syndrome, emergency department, prior surgery, weakness

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18 Finite Element Analysis of the Anaconda Device: Efficiently Predicting the Location and Shape of a Deployed Stent

Authors: Faidon Kyriakou, William Dempster, David Nash


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a major life-threatening pathology for which modern approaches reduce the need for open surgery through the use of stenting. The success of stenting though is sometimes jeopardized by the final position of the stent graft inside the human artery which may result in migration, endoleaks or blood flow occlusion. Herein, a finite element (FE) model of the commercial medical device AnacondaTM (Vascutek, Terumo) has been developed and validated in order to create a numerical tool able to provide useful clinical insight before the surgical procedure takes place. The AnacondaTM device consists of a series of NiTi rings sewn onto woven polyester fabric, a structure that despite its column stiffness is flexible enough to be used in very tortuous geometries. For the purposes of this study, a FE model of the device was built in Abaqus® (version 6.13-2) with the combination of beam, shell and surface elements; the choice of these building blocks was made to keep the computational cost to a minimum. The validation of the numerical model was performed by comparing the deployed position of a full stent graft device inside a constructed AAA with a duplicate set-up in Abaqus®. Specifically, an AAA geometry was built in CAD software and included regions of both high and low tortuosity. Subsequently, the CAD model was 3D printed into a transparent aneurysm, and a stent was deployed in the lab following the steps of the clinical procedure. Images on the frontal and sagittal planes of the experiment allowed the comparison with the results of the numerical model. By overlapping the experimental and computational images, the mean and maximum distances between the rings of the two models were measured in the longitudinal, and the transverse direction and, a 5mm upper bound was set as a limit commonly used by clinicians when working with simulations. The two models showed very good agreement of their spatial positioning, especially in the less tortuous regions. As a result, and despite the inherent uncertainties of a surgical procedure, the FE model allows confidence that the final position of the stent graft, when deployed in vivo, can also be predicted with significant accuracy. Moreover, the numerical model run in just a few hours, an encouraging result for applications in the clinical routine. In conclusion, the efficient modelling of a complicated structure which combines thin scaffolding and fabric has been demonstrated to be feasible. Furthermore, the prediction capabilities of the location of each stent ring, as well as the global shape of the graft, has been shown. This can allow surgeons to better plan their procedures and medical device manufacturers to optimize their designs. The current model can further be used as a starting point for patient specific CFD analysis.

Keywords: AAA, efficiency, finite element analysis, stent deployment

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17 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani


Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system was introduced to accurately diagnose Aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. A novel approach by using an optimized Convolutional Neural Networks - CNN was employed. Three main areas, including the left lung, heart, and right lung were extracted from the original images. These three areas were then fed to a CNN. The accuracy of the system was evaluated on 1000 sample images by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 84% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

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16 Relationship between Matrix Metalloproteases and Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels and Elastic Moduli of Ascending Aneurysms

Authors: Khalil Khanafer


The objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the biological levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) and the elastic moduli of the ascending aortic wall in patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA). Methods: Circumferential specimens from twelve patients with ATAA were obtained from the greater curvature, and their tensile properties (maximum elastic modulus) were tested uniaxially. The levels of MMP2, 3, and 9, as well as TIMP1, were determined in these aortic wall specimens using MMP/TIMP antibodies array. Direct relations were found between MMP2 and the elastic modulus of the ascending aorta wall and between MMP9 and TIMP1.

Keywords: elastic modulus, MMPs/TIMPs levels, Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

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15 The Origin Variability of the Obturator Artery

Authors: Halimah Al Hifzi, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Hassan Al Mousa, Zainab Al-Hashim, Roger Soames


The obturator artery is one branches of anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It passes on the lateral wall of pelvis to escape into thigh region via obturator foremen. Based on previous research studies, it found to be extremely variable in origin and course. It may arise from internal or external iliac artery. The current study includes 82 dissected specimens to investigate the origin of the obturator artery and explain the clinical importance. The obturator artery arises from the internal iliac artery in 75% either from its anterior or posterior division in 46.9% or 25% respectively. Further, it arises neither from the anterior nor posterior division of the internal iliac artery but it arises between them in 3.1%. In 25%, the obturator artery arises from the external iliac artery. In case of aneurysmectomy of posterior division, carries a high risk of insufficient of vascular supply for demand structures such as proximal adductors attachment and hip joint. Therefore, vascular surgeons have to pay attention to the posterior division being an origin of the obturator artery beside its usual three classical branches: superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral arteries. Further, the obturator artery arising from the external iliac system is in great dangerous of laceration in case of anterior pelvic fracture. Therefore, it may lead to haemorrhagic shock threatening life.

Keywords: obturator artery, external iliac, internal iliac artery, anterior division, posterior division, superior gluteal, iliolumbar and lateral sacral, pubic fracture, aneurysm, shock

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14 Comparison of Two Anesthetic Methods during Interventional Neuroradiology Procedure: Propofol versus Sevoflurane Using Patient State Index

Authors: Ki Hwa Lee, Eunsu Kang, Jae Hong Park


Background: Interventional neuroradiology (INR) has been a rapidly growing and evolving neurosurgical part during the past few decades. Sevoflurane and propofol are both suitable anesthetics for INR procedure. Monitoring of depth of anesthesia is being used very widely. SEDLine™ monitor, a 4-channel processed EEG monitor, uses a proprietary algorithm to analyze the raw EEG signal and displays the Patient State Index (PSI) values. There are only a fewer studies examining the PSI in the neuro-anesthesia. We aimed to investigate the difference of PSI values and hemodynamic variables between sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia during INR procedure. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who scheduled to undergo embolization of non-ruptured intracranial aneurysm by a single operator from May 2013 to December 2014, retrospectively. Sixty-five patients were categorized into two groups; sevoflurane (n = 33) vs propofol (n = 32) group. The PSI values, hemodynamic variables, and the use of hemodynamic drugs were analyzed. Results: Significant differences were seen between PSI values obtained during different perioperative stages in both two groups (P < 0.0001). The PSI values of propofol group were lower than that of sevoflurane group during INR procedure (P < 0.01). The patients in propofol group had more prolonged time of extubation and more phenylephrine requirement than sevoflurane group (p < 0.05). Anti-hypertensive drug was more administered to the patients during extubation in sevoflurane group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The PSI can detect depth of anesthesia and changes of concentration of anesthetics during INR procedure. Extubation was faster in sevoflurane group, but smooth recovery was shown in propofol group.

Keywords: interventional neuroradiology, patient state index, propofol, sevoflurane

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13 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim


Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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12 Origin Variability of Superior Vesical Artery

Authors: Waseem Al-Talalwah


The superior vesical artery usually arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It may arise from the umbilical artery as three or four branches to supply the upper and middle parts of bladder. Current study focuses on the different origins of the superior vesical artery to provide a sufficient data for surgeons to disease iatrogenic fault. The superior vesical artery arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 24.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from umbilical artery in 83.7%. Further, it may arise from any branch of the anterior division as from the utrine and obturator arteries in 6.1% and in 6.3% respectively. It also shares the origin of the internal pudendal and inferior glutyeal artery as it arises from the gluteopudendal trunk in 4.1%. The superior vesical artery arises as a single, double, triple and quadruple in 69.4%, 20.4%, 8.2% and 2% respectively. In case of cystectomy for bladder cancer, surgeons have to be aware of the origin variability of superior vesical artery to prevent post-surgical complication such as intra-pelvic bleeding. Also, the as intra-pelvic bleeding has to be expected in case of hysterectomy therefore a great caution of the vesical branches arising from uterine artery has to be considered. In case of aneurysm resection of inferior gluteal artery arising from the gluteopudendal trunk, the surgeons have to be careful of the vascular supply of urinary bladder coming from above and below this common trunk as from superior and inferior vesical arteries respectively. Therefore, present study increases the awareness of clinical significance of superior vesical artery origin for surgeons to minimise the iatroginc errors.

Keywords: superior vesical artery, anterior division, internal iliac, internal pudendal, inferior glutyeal, intra-pelvic bleeding, hysterectomy, cystectomy

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11 Cerebral Venous Thrombosis at High Altitude: A Rare Presentation by Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage

Authors: Eman G. Alayad, Mazen G. Aleyad, Mohammed Alshahrani, Ibrahim Alnaami


Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of cerebrovascular disease that can occur at any age. Patients with CVT commonly present with headache, focal neurological deficit, decreased level of consciousness and seizures. Many etiologic risk factors have been reported for CVT, high altitude and oral contraceptive pill some of them. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old woman living in Abha city in the southeastern area of Saudi Arabia. (about 10,000 feet-3000 m) over the sea. complaining acute onset of severe diffuse headache and generalized tonic clonic convulsions. Followed by loss of consciousness. She was on contraceptive pills for the last 3 years. No significant Medical or surgical history. Brain CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, with MRI findings showing thrombosis in transvers sinus. There was no vascular malformations such as aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or dural arteriovenous fistula. A CVT with subarachnoid hemorrhage was our final diagnosis based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. Discussion: Patients with CVT had evidence of cortical SAH by 10 of 233, others found 3% of SAH was caused by CVT, indicating that the presence of cortical SAH without involvement of the basal cisterns may provide an early sign of underlying CVT. However, what is more interesting in this case, is the relationship of high altitude with CVT and SAH, which previously undescribed. Conclusion: High-altitude climbing per se was described as a risk factor for the development of CVT, though its occurrence was probably rare. Whether it is primary in etiology due to high altitude induced hypercoagulable state of unknown origin or due to cerebrovascular disturbances there is a need for further investigation especially at this unusual presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Keywords: cerebral venous thrombosis, high-altitude, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke

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10 Clinical and Radiological Outcome in 300 Patients with Non-Aneurysmal Sah

Authors: Ranjith Menon, Abathar Aladi, Hans-Christean Nahser, Maneesh Bhojak, Sacha Nevin, Paul Eldridge


Background: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) accounts for approximately 5% of all strokes. Patients with spontaneous SAH (as shown by CT or lumbar puncture) undergo investigations to identify or exclude an underlying structural cause, typically cerebral aneurysm. However in 10 - 20% of cases, no structural cause is found. This includes more than one imaging modality (intracranial MRA, CTA, 4DCTA and/or DSA) and in some spinal MRI. Objective: To determine; 1) If an underlying structural or vascular cause can be identified in non-aneurysmal SAH patients by comparing different imaging modalities at presentation and at follow-up. 2) If MRI spine in patients with non-aneurysmal SAH reveals an underlying SAH cause. 3)The functional outcome at discharge. Results: We performed a retrospective analysis of all non-traumatic SAH patients admitted to the Walton centre from January 2009 to December 2015. There were 1457 patients with non-traumatic SAH admitted to the Walton centre of whom 21.8% (n=300) patients were diagnosed with non-aneurysmal SAH. Males were 65.6% and females were 43.3%. The presenting symptoms were sudden onset headache (93.6%), the focal neurological deficit (12%), loss of consciousness (10.6%) and others (6%). About 285 patients received 2 modalities of imaging (CTA & DSA), 192 received 3 modalities of imaging (CTA, MRA & DSA) and 137 received MRI spine (51/137 whole spine). The modified Rankin Score at discharge were: mRS 0 = 292 (97.33%), mRS 1-2 = 6, mRS 6 = 1 (cardiac arrest in IHD patient) and unknown in 1. Follow-up imaging at 3 to 6 months in 190 (63.3%) patients did not identify an underlying cause. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis concludes that non-aneurysmal SAH has a good functional outcome. A single imaging modality (CTA (4DCTA) or MRA or DSA) was adequate to exclude an underlying cause of SAH and a delayed imaging failed to identify a cause. Routinely performing MRI spine in this group of patients appears not to be necessary according to this evidence.

Keywords: stroke, non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, neuroimaging, modified rankin score

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9 The Routine Use of a Negative Pressure Incision Management System in Vascular Surgery: A Case Series

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Angela Tan, Rachel Xuan, Linheng Zhao, Kejia Wang, Animesh Singla, David Kim, Christopher Loupos


Introduction: Incisional wound complications in vascular surgery patients represent a significant clinical and econometric burden of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to trial the feasibility of applying the Prevena negative pressure incision management system as a routine dressing in patients who had undergone arterial surgery. Conventionally, Prevena has been applied to groin incisions, but this study features applications on multiple wound sites such as the thigh or major amputation stumps. Method: This was a cross-sectional observational, single-centre case series of 12 patients who had undergone major vascular surgery. Their wounds were managed with the Prevena system being applied either intra-operatively or on the first post-operative day. Demographic and operative details were collated as well as the length of stay and complication rates. Results: There were 9 males (75%) with mean age of 66 years and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (92%), diabetes (42%), hypertension (100%), stage 4 or greater kidney impairment (17%) and current or ex-smoking (83%). The main indications were acute ischaemia (33%), claudication (25%), and gangrene (17%). There were single instances of an occluded popliteal artery aneurysm, diabetic foot infection, and rest pain. The majority of patients (50%) had hybrid operations with iliofemoral endarterectomies, patch arterioplasties, and further peripheral endovascular treatment. There were 4 complex arterial bypass operations and 2 major amputations. The mean length of stay was 17 ± 10 days, with a range of 4 to 35 days. A single complication, in the form of a lymphocoele, was encountered in the context of an iliofemoral endarterectomy and patch arterioplasty. This was managed conservatively. There were no deaths. Discussion: The Prevena wound management system shows that in conjunction with safe vascular surgery, absolute wound complication rates remain low and that it remains a valuable adjunct in the treatment of vasculopaths.

Keywords: wound care, negative pressure, vascular surgery, closed incision

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8 Spontaneous Rupture of Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm; A Rare Presentation of Acute Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department: Case Report

Authors: Zainab Elazab, Azhar Aziz


Background: Spontaneous Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare condition which is potentially life threatening, if not detected and managed early. We report a case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal free fluid, which turned out to be spontaneous rupture of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, and was treated with arterial embolization. Case presentation: A 28-year old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with a history of sudden onset upper abdominal pain and fainting attack. The patient denied any history of trauma or prior similar attacks. On examination, the patient had tachycardia and a low-normal BP (HR 110, BP 106/66) but his other vital signs were normal (Temp. 37.2, RR 18 and SpO2 100%). His abdomen was initially soft with mild tenderness in the upper region. Blood tests showed leukocytosis of 12.3 X109/L, Hb of 12.6 g/dl and lactic acid of 5.9 mmol/L. Ultrasound showed trace of free fluid in the perihepatic and perisplenic areas, and a splenic hypoechoic lesion. The patient remained stable; however, his abdomen became increasingly tender with guarding. We made a provisional diagnosis of a perforated viscus and the patient was started on IV fluids and IV antibiotics. An erect abdominal x-ray did not show any free air under the diaphragm so a CT abdomen was requested. Meanwhile, bedside ultrasound was repeated which showed increased amount of free fluid, suggesting intra-abdominal bleeding as the most probable etiology for the condition. His CT abdomen revealed a splenic injury with multiple lacerations, a focal intrasplenic enhancing area on venous phase scan (suggesting a pseudoaneurysm with associated splenic intraparenchymal, sub capsular and perisplenic hematomas). Free fluid in the subhepatic and intraperitoneal regions along the small bowel was also detected. Angiogram was done which confirmed a diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of intrasplenic arterial branch, and angio-embolization was done to control the bleeding. The patient was later discharged in good condition with a surgery follow-up. Conclusion: Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture is a rare cause of abdominal pain which should be considered in any case of abdominal pain with intraperitoneal bleeding. Early management is crucial as it carries a high mortality. Bedside ultrasound is a useful tool to help for early diagnosis of such cases.

Keywords: abdominal pain, pseudo aneurysm, rupture, splenic artery

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7 Evaluation of Occupational Doses in Interventional Radiology

Authors: Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Regina Moura, Diana Rodrigues De Pina


Interventional Radiology is the radiology modality that provides the highest dose values to medical staff. Recent researches show that personal dosimeters may underestimate dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities (hands and feet) and eye lens. The aim of this work was to study radiation exposure levels of medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures and estimate the annual maximum numbers of procedures (AMN) that each physician could perform without exceed the annual limits of dose established by normative. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were positioned in different body regions of the interventional physician (eye lens, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot) above the radiological protection vests as lead apron and thyroid shield. Attenuation values for lead protection vests were based on international guidelines. Based on these data were chosen as 90% attenuation of the lead vests and 60% attenuation of the protective glasses. 25 procedures were evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 10 angioplasty, and 5-aneurysm treatment. The AMN of diagnostic procedures was 641 for the primary interventional radiologist and 930 for the assisting interventional radiologist. For the angioplasty procedures, the AMN for primary interventional radiologist was 445 and for assisting interventional radiologist was 1202. As for the procedures of aneurism treatment, the AMN for the primary interventional radiologist was 113 and for the assisting interventional radiologist were 215. All AMN were limited by the eye lens doses already considering the use of protective glasses. In all categories evaluated, the higher dose values are found in gonads and in the lower regions of professionals, both for the primary interventionist and for the assisting, but the eyes lens dose limits are smaller than these regions. Additional protections as mobile barriers, which can be positioned between the interventionist and the patient, can decrease the exposures in the eye lens, providing a greater protection for the medical staff. The alternation of professionals to perform each type of procedure can reduce the dose values received by them over a period. The analysis of dose profiles proposed in this work showed that personal dosimeters positioned in chest might underestimate dose values in other body parts of the interventional physician, especially in extremities and eye lens. As each body region of the interventionist is subject to different levels of exposure, dose distribution in each region provides a better approach to what actions are necessary to ensure the radiological protection of medical staff.

Keywords: interventional radiology, radiation protection, occupationally exposed individual, hemodynamic

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6 Sweet to Bitter Perception Parageusia: Case of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Territory Diaschisis

Authors: I. S. Gandhi, D. N. Patel, M. Johnson, A. R. Hirsch


Although distortion of taste perception following a cerebrovascular event may seem to be a frivolous consequence of a classic stroke presentation, altered taste perception places patients at an increased risk for malnutrition, weight loss, and depression, all of which negatively impact the quality of life. Impaired taste perception can result from a wide variety of cerebrovascular lesions to various locations, including pons, insular cortices, and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Wallenberg syndrome, also known as a lateral medullary syndrome, has been described to impact taste; however, specific sweet to bitter taste dysgeusia from a territory infarction is an infrequent event; as such, a case is presented. One year prior to presentation, this 64-year-old right-handed woman, suffered a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm rupture with resultant infarction, culminating in a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. One and half months after this event, she noticed the gradual onset of lack of ability to taste sweet, to eventually all sweet food tasting bitter. Since the onset of her chemosensory problems, the patient has lost 60-pounds. Upon gustatory testing, the patient's taste threshold showed ageusia to sucrose and hydrochloric acid, while normogeusia to sodium chloride, urea, and phenylthiocarbamide. The gustatory cortex is made in part by the right insular cortex as well as the right anterior operculum, which are primarily involved in the sensory taste modalities. In this model, sweet is localized in the posterior-most along with the rostral aspect of the right insular cortex, notably adjacent to the region responsible for bitter taste. The sweet to bitter dysgeusia in our patient suggests the presence of a lesion in this localization. Although the primary lesion in this patient was located in the right medulla of the brainstem, neurodegeneration in the rostal and posterior-most aspect, of the right insular cortex may have occurred due to diaschisis. Diaschisis has been described as neurophysiological changes that occur in remote regions to a focal brain lesion. Although hydrocephalus and vasospasm due to aneurysmal rupture may explain the distal foci of impairment, the gradual onset of dysgeusia is more indicative of diaschisis. The perception of sweet, now tasting bitter, suggests that in the absence of sweet taste reception, the intrinsic bitter taste of food is now being stimulated rather than sweet. In the evaluation and treatment of taste parageusia secondary to cerebrovascular injury, prophylactic neuroprotective measures may be worthwhile. Further investigation is warranted.

Keywords: diaschisis, dysgeusia, stroke, taste

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5 A Comparative Study in Acute Pancreatitis to Find out the Effectiveness of Early Addition of Ulinastatin to Current Standard Care in Indian Subjects

Authors: Dr. Jenit Gandhi, Dr. Manojith SS, Dr. Nakul GV, Dr. Sharath Honnani, Dr. Shaurav Ghosh, Dr. Neel Shetty, Dr. Nagabhushan JS, Dr. Manish Joshi


Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which begins in pancreatic acinar cells and triggers local inflammation that may progress to systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and causing distant organ involvement and its function and ending up with multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). Aim: A comparative study in acute pancreatitis to find out the effectiveness of early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard care in Indian subjects . Methodology: A current prospective observational study is done during study period of 1year (Dec 2018 –Dec 2019) duration to evaluate the effect of early addition of Ulinastatin to the current standard treatment and its efficacy to reduce the early complication, analgesic requirement and duration of hospital stay in patients with Acute Pancreatitis. Results: In the control group 25 were males and 05 were females. In the test group 18 were males and 12 females. Majority was in the age group between 30 - 70 yrs of age with >50% in the 30-50yrs age group in both test and control groups. The VAS was median grade 3 in control group as compared to median grade 2 in test group , the pain was more in the initial 2 days in test group compared to 4 days in test group , the analgesic requirement was used for more in control group (median 6) to test group( median 3 days ). On follow up after 5 days for a period of 2 weeks none of the patients in the test group developed any complication. Where as in the control group 8 patients developed pleural effusion, 04-Pseudopancreatic cyst, 02 – patient developed portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, 02 patients – ventilator with ARDS which were treated symptomatically whereas in test group 02 patient developed pleural effusions and 01 pseudo pancreatic cyst with splenic artery aneurysm, 01 – patient with AKI and MODS symptomatically treated. The duration of hospital stay for a median period of 4 days (2 – 7 days) in test group and 7 days (4 -10 days) in control group. All patients were able to return to normal work on an average of 5days compared 8days in control group, the difference was significant. Conclusion:The study concluded that early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard treatment of acute Pancreatitis is effective in reducing pain, early complication and duration of hospital stay in Indian subject

Keywords: Ulinastatin, VAS – visual analogue score , AKI – acute kidney injury , ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome

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4 Kawasaki Disease in a Two Months Kuwaiti Girl: A Case Report ‎and Literature Review.‎

Authors: Hanan Bin Nakhi, Asaad M. Albadrawi, Maged Al Shahat, ‎Entesar Mandani


Background:‎ Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most common vasculitis of childhood. ‎It is considered the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. The ‎peak age of occurrence is 6 to 24 months, with 80% of affected children being ‎less than 5 years old. There are only a few reports of KD in infants younger ‎than 6 months. Infants had a higher incidence of atypical KD and of coronary ‎artery complications. This case report from Kuwait will reinforce considering ‎atypical KD in case of sepsis like condition with negative cultures and ‎unresponding to systemic antibiotics. Early diagnosis allows early treatment ‎with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and so decreases the incidence of ‎cardiac aneurysm.‎ Case Report:‎ A 2 month old female infant, product of full term normal delivery to ‎consanguineous parents, presented with fever and poor feeding. She was ‎admitted and treated as urinary tract infection as her urine routine revealed ‎pyurea. The baby continued to have persistent fever and hypoactivity inspite ‎of using intravenous antibiotics. Latter, she developed non purulent ‎conjunctivitis, skin mottling, oedema of the face / lower limb and was treated ‎in intensive care unit as a case of septic shock. In spite of her partial general ‎improvement, she continued to look unwell, hypoactive and had persistent ‎fever. Septic work up, metabolic, and immunologic screen were negative. KD ‎was suspected when the baby developed polymorphic erythematous rash and ‎noticed to have peeling of skin at perianal area and periangular area of the ‎fingers of the hand and feet. IVIG was given in dose of 2 gm/kg/day in single ‎dose and aspirin 100 mg/kg/day in four divided doses. The girl showed marked ‎clinical improvement. The fever subsided dramatically and the level acute ‎phase reactant markedly decreased but the platelets count increased to ‎‎1600000/mm3. Echo cardiography showed mild dilatation of mid right ‎coronary artery. Aspirin was continued in a dose of 5 mg/kg/d till repeating ‎cardiac echo. ‎Conclusion:‎ A high index of suspicion of KD must be maintained in young infants with ‎prolonged unexplained fever. Accepted criteria should be less restrictive to ‎allow early diagnosis of a typical KD in infants less than 6 months of age. ‎Timely appropriate treatment with IVIG is essential to avoid severe coronary ‎sequels.‎

Keywords: Kawasaki disease, atypical Kawasaki disease, infantile Kawasaki disease, hypo activity‎ ‎

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3 A Case of Prosthetic Vascular-Graft Infection Due to Mycobacterium fortuitum

Authors: Takaaki Nemoto


Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man presented with a low-grade fever and fatigue that had persisted for one month. The patient had an aortic dissection on the aortic arch 13 years prior, an abdominal aortic aneurysm seven years prior, and an aortic dissection on the distal aortic arch one year prior, which were all treated with artificial blood-vessel replacement surgery. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory response (CRP 7.61 mg/dl), high serum creatinine (Cr 1.4 mg/dL), and elevated transaminase (AST 47 IU/L, ALT 45 IU/L). The patient was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Following further workups on the inflammatory response, an enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) and a non-enhanced chest DWI (MRI) were performed. The patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary fistula and a prosthetic vascular graft infection on the distal aortic arch. After admission, the patient was administered Ceftriaxion and Vancomycine for 10 days, but his fever and inflammatory response did not improve. On day 13 of hospitalization, a lung fistula repair surgery and an omental filling operation were performed, and Meropenem and Vancomycine were administered. The fever and inflammatory response continued, and therefore we took repeated blood cultures. M. fortuitum was detected in a blood culture on day 16 of hospitalization. As a result, we changed the treatment regimen to Amikacin (400 mg/day), Meropenem (2 g/day), and Cefmetazole (4 g/day), and the fever and inflammatory response began to decrease gradually. We performed a test of sensitivity for Mycobacterium fortuitum, and found that the MIC was low for fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The clinical course was good, and the patient was discharged after a total of 8 weeks of intravenous drug administration. At discharge, we changed the treatment regimen to Levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and Clarithromycin (800 mg/day), and prescribed these two drugs as a long life suppressive therapy. Discussion: There are few cases of prosthetic vascular graft infection caused by mycobacteria, and a standard therapy remains to be established. For prosthetic vascular graft infections, it is ideal to provide surgical and medical treatment in parallel, but in this case, surgical treatment was difficult and, therefore, a conservative treatment was chosen. We attempted to increase the treatment success rate of this refractory disease by conducting a susceptibility test for mycobacteria and treating with different combinations of antimicrobial agents, which was ultimately effective. With our treatment approach, a good clinical course was obtained and continues at the present stage. Conclusion: Although prosthetic vascular graft infection resulting from mycobacteria is a refractory infectious disease, it may be curative to administer appropriate antibiotics based on the susceptibility test in addition to surgical treatment.

Keywords: prosthetic vascular graft infection, lung fistula, Mycobacterium fortuitum, conservative treatment

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2 An Australian Tertiary Centre Experience of Complex Endovascular Aortic Repairs

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Rachel Xuan, Angela Tan, Kejia Wang, Animesh Singla, David Kim, Christopher Loupos, Jim Iliopoulos


Introduction: Complex endovascular aortic aneursymal repairs with fenestrated and branched endografts require customised devices to exclude the pathology while reducing morbidity and mortality, which was historically associated with open repair of complex aneurysms. Such endovascular procedures have predominantly been performed in a large volume dedicated tertiary centres. We present here our nine year multidisciplinary experience with this technology in an Australian tertiary centre. Method: This was a cross-sectional, single-centre observational study of 670 patients who had undergone complex endovascular aortic aneurysmal repairs with conventional endografts, fenestrated endografts, and iliac-branched devices from January 2010 to July 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise our sample with regards to demographic and perioperative variables. Homogeneity of the sample was tested using multivariant regression, which did not identify any statistically significant confounding variables. Results: 670 patients of mean age 74, were included (592 males) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischemic heart disease (55%), diabetes (18%), hypertension (90%), stage four or greater kidney impairment (8%) and current or ex-smoking (78%). The main indications for surgery were elective aneurysms (86%), symptomatic aneurysms (5%), and rupture aneurysms (5%). 106 patients (16%) underwent fenestrated or branched endograft repairs. The mean length of stay was 7.6 days. 2 patients experienced reactionary bleeds, 11 patients had access wound complications (6 lymph fistulae, 5 haematoms), 11 patients had cardiac complications (5 arrhythmias, 3 acute myocadial infarctions, 3 exacerbation of congestive cardiac failure), 10 patients had respiratory complications, 8 patients had renal impairment, 4 patients had gastrointestinal complications, 2 patients suffered from paraplegia, 1 major stroke, 1 minor stroke, and 1 acute brain syndrome. There were 4 vascular occlusions requiring further arterial surgery, 4 type I endoleaks, 4 type II endoleaks, 3 episodes of thromboembolism, and 2 patients who required further arterial operations in the setting of patient vessels. There were 9 unplanned returns to the theatre. Discussion: Our numbers of 10 years suggest that we are not a dedicated high volume centre focusing on aortic repairs. However, we have achieved significantly low complication rates. This can be attributed to our multidisciplinary approach with the intraoperative involvement of skilled interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons as well as postoperative protocols with particular attention to spinal cord protection. Additionally, we have a ratified perioperative pathway that involves multidisciplinary team discussions of patient-related factors and lesion-centered characteristics, which allows for holistic, patient-centered care.

Keywords: aneurysm, aortic, endovascular, fenestrated

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1 Pathophysiological Implications in Immersion Treatment Methods of Icthyophthiriasis Disease in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Using Moringa oleifera Extract

Authors: Ikele Chika Bright, Mgbenka Bernard Obialo, Ikele Chioma Faith


Icthyophthiriasis is a prevalent protozoan (ectoparasite) mostly affecting cultured and aquarium fishes. The majority of the chemotherapeutants lack efficacy for completely eliminating Ich parasite without affecting the environment and they are not safe for human health. The present work is focused on the evaluating different immersion treatments of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) infected with ichthyophthiriasis and treated with a non-chemical and environmental friendly parasiticides Moringa oleifera. A total number of 800 apparently healthy parasites free (examined) post juvenile catfish were obtained from a reputable farm, disinfected with potassium permanganate in a quarantine tank to remove any possible external parasites. The fish were further challenged with approximately 44,000 infective stages of theronts which were obtained through serial passages by cohabitation. Seven groups (A-G) of post Juvenile were used for the experiment which was carried out into three stages; Dips (60minutes), short term treatment (24-96h) and prolong bath treatment (0-15 days). The concentrations selected were dependent on the outcome of the LC50 of the plant material from which dose-dependent factors were used to select various concentrations of the treatment. In Dips treatment, group D-G were treated with 1,500mg/L, 2500mg/L., 3500mg/L and 4500mg/L, short-term treatment was treated with 150mg/L, 250mg/L, 350mg/L and 450mg/L and prolong bath was treated with 15mg/L, 25mg/L, 35mg/L and 45mg/L of the plant extract whereas group A, B and C were normal control, Ich- infested not treated and Ich- infested treated with standard drug (Acriflavin), respectively. The various types of treatment applied with corresponding concentrations showed almost complete elimination of the adult parasites (trophonts) both in the gills and the body smear, thereby making M. oleifera a potential parasiticides. There were serious pathological alterations in the skin and gills which are usually the main point for Ich parasites invasion but no significant morphological characteristics was noted among the treated groups subjected to different immersion treatment patterns. Epitheliocystis, aneurysm, oedema, hemorrhage, and localization of the adult parasite in the gills were the overall common observations made in the gills whereas degeneration of muscle fibre, dermatitis, hemorrhage, oedema, abscess formation and keratinisation were observed in the skin. However, there are no pathological changes in the control group. Moreover, biochemical parameters such as urea, creatinine, albumin., globulin, total protein, ALT, AST), blood chemistry (sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate), antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, LPO), enzymatic activities (myeloperoxidase, thioreadoxin reductase), Inflammatory response (C-reactive protein), Stress markers (lactate dehydrogenase), heamatological parameters (RBC, PCV, WBC, HB and differential count), lipid profile (total cholesterol, tryglycerides , high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein) all showed various significant (P<0.05) and no significant (P>0.05) responses among the Ich-infested fish treated under three immersion treatments. It is suggested that M. oleifera may serve as an alternatives to chemotherapeutants for control of Ichthyophthiriasis in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

Keywords: Icthyophthirius multifilis, immersion treatment, pathophysiology, African catfish

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