Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Azadeh Noori Hoshyar

34 Hotel and Service Industry in USA: Is It Leveraged? Case Study of Seven Important Hotel Chains

Authors: Azadeh Shahbazi

Abstract:

This study tries to find out the determinants of capital structure in hotel industry in 7 important hotel chains in USA within the period of 12 years of 2000 to 2012. The study is used a panel pooled regression to realize the relation among different variables. Results show that the variables which could make changes in the capital structure of firms are Non-Debt Tax Shield and Tangibility.

Keywords: capital structure, service industry, hospitality, finance

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33 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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32 The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method

Authors: F. Ghafoori-Najafabadi, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori

Abstract:

In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.

Keywords: nanoparticle, combustion synthesis, CeO2-MgO, nano-powder

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31 TiN/TiO2 Nanostructure Coating on Glass Substrate

Authors: F. Dabir, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori

Abstract:

In this work, a nanostructured TiO2 layer was coated onto a FTO-less glass substrate using screen printing technique for back contact DSSC application. Then, titanium nitride thin film was applied on TiO2 layer by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) as charge collector layer. The microstructure of prepared TiO2 layer was characterized by SEM. The sheet resistance, microstructure and elemental composition of titanium nitride thin films were analysed by four point probe, SEM, and EDS, respectively. TiO2 layer had porous nanostructure. The EDS analysis of TiN thin film showed presence of chlorine impurity. Sheet resistance of TiN thin film was 30 Ω/sq. With respect to the results, PACVD TiN can be a good candidate as a charge collector layer in back contacts DSSC.

Keywords: TiO2, TiN, charge collector, DSSC

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30 Augmented Reality in Teaching Children with Autism

Authors: Azadeh Afrasyabi, Ali Khaleghi, Aliakbar Alijarahi

Abstract:

Training at an early age is so important, because of tremendous changes in adolescence, including the formation of character, physical changes and other factors. One of the most sensitive sectors in this field is the children with a disability and are somehow special children who have trouble in communicating with their environment. One of the emerging technologies in the field of education that can be effectively profitable called augmented reality, where the combination of real world and virtual images in real time produces new concepts that can facilitate learning. The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective training method for special and disabled children based on augmented reality. Of course, in particular, the efficiency of augmented reality in teaching children with autism will consider, also examine the various aspect of this disease and different learning methods in this area.

Keywords: technology in education, augmented reality, special education, teaching methods

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29 Numerical Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Authors: Alibakhsh Kasaeian, Mohammad Sameti, Zahra Noori, Mona Rastgoo Bahambari

Abstract:

Nowadays, the parabolic trough solar collector technology has become the most promising large-scale technology among various solar thermal generations. In this paper, a detailed numerical heat transfer model for a parabolic trough collector with nanofluid is presented based on the finite difference approach for which a MATLAB code was developed. The model was used to simulate the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector’s linear receiver, called a heat collector element (HCE). In this model, the heat collector element of the receiver was discretized into several segments in axial directions and energy balances were used for each control volume. All the heat transfer correlations, the thermodynamic equations and the optical properties were considered in details and the set of algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using iterative numerical solutions. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, numerical analysis, trough

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28 Study of Nanocrystalline Scintillator for Alpha Particles Detection

Authors: Azadeh Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza Abdi, A. Quaranta, Matteo Dalla Palma, Seyedshahram Mortazavi

Abstract:

We report on the synthesis of cesium-iodide nanoparticles using sol-gel technique. The structural properties of CsI nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Also, optical properties were followed by optical absorption and UV–vis fluorescence. Intense photoluminescence is also observed, with some spectral tuning possible with ripening time getting a range of emission photon wavelength approximately from 366 to 350 nm. The size effect on CsI luminescence leads to an increase in scintillation light yield, a redshift of the emission bands of the on_center and off_center self_trapped excitons (STEs) and an increase in the contribution of the off_center STEs to the net intrinsic emission yield. The energy transfer from the matrix to CsI nanoparticles is a key characteristic for scintillation detectors. So the scintillation spectra to alpha particles of sample were monitored.

Keywords: nanoparticles, luminescence, sol gel, scintillator

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27 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

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26 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita Endemic in Khorasan-Iran

Authors: V. Hakimzadeh, M. Noori, M. maleki

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Mentha piperita essential oil in "in-vitro" condition. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 28 compounds in which the main components were menthol (32%), mentone (13.4), menthyl acetate (12%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%) and neomenthol (4%) representing 69.6 % of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 30.4% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that the MIC values for Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris was respectively 50, 200 and 100 µg/ml and the MBC was determined at 200, 400 and 200 µg/ml respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Mentha piperita essential oil had significant antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition, Mentha piperita

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25 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati

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One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: nanofabrication, cement replacement materials, activation, concrete

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24 The Effects of Various Curing Compounds on the Mechanical Characteristics of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements (RCCP)

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parmida Hayati, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami

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Curing is a very important factor in the ultimate strength and durability of roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Curing involves keeping the concrete is saturated or close to saturation point. Since maintaining concrete moisture has a significant impact on its mechanical properties, permeability and durability, curing is important. The most common procedure for curing of roller compacted concrete is using a white pigmented curing compound. This method is effective, economical and fast. In the present study, different curing compounds were applied on concrete specimens and the results of their effects on the mechanical properties were compared with each other and usual methods of curing in order to select appropriate materials and methods of curing for RCCP construction.

Keywords: curing compounds, roller compacted concrete pavements, mechanical properties, durability

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23 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar

Abstract:

Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

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22 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

Abstract:

Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: population growth, sustainable development, Turkey, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws

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21 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, knowledge discovery, extract

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20 Developing an Audit Quality Model for an Emerging Market

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Azadeh Maddahi, Arash Tahriri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is developing a model for audit quality, with regard to the contextual and environmental attributes of the audit profession in Iran. For this purpose, using an exploratory approach, and because of the special attributes of the auditing profession in Iran in terms of the legal environment, regulatory and supervisory mechanisms, audit firms size, and etc., we used grounded theory approach as a qualitative research method. Therefore, we got the opinions of the experts in the auditing and capital market areas through unstructured interviews. As a result, the authors revealed the determinants of audit quality, and by using these determinants, developed an Integrated Audit Quality Model, including causal conditions, intervening conditions, context, as well as action strategies related to AQ and their consequences. In this research, audit quality is studied using a systemic approach. According to this approach, the quality of inputs, processes, and outputs of auditing determines the quality of auditing, therefore, the quality of all different parts of this system is considered.

Keywords: audit quality, integrated audit quality model, demand for audit service, supply of audit, grounded theory

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19 Application of Artificial Neural Network Technique for Diagnosing Asthma

Authors: Azadeh Bashiri

Abstract:

Introduction: Lack of proper diagnosis and inadequate treatment of asthma leads to physical and financial complications. This study aimed to use data mining techniques and creating a neural network intelligent system for diagnosis of asthma. Methods: The study population is the patients who had visited one of the Lung Clinics in Tehran. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical tool and the chi-square Pearson's coefficient was the basis of decision making for data ranking. The considered neural network is trained using back propagation learning technique. Results: According to the analysis performed by means of SPSS to select the top factors, 13 effective factors were selected, in different performances, data was mixed in various forms, so the different models were made for training the data and testing networks and in all different modes, the network was able to predict correctly 100% of all cases. Conclusion: Using data mining methods before the design structure of system, aimed to reduce the data dimension and the optimum choice of the data, will lead to a more accurate system. Therefore, considering the data mining approaches due to the nature of medical data is necessary.

Keywords: asthma, data mining, Artificial Neural Network, intelligent system

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18 Naltrexone and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Brief Review

Authors: Azadeh Moghaddas, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Padideh Ghaeli

Abstract:

The main characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are instable regulation of affect and self-image, impulsive behavior, and lack of interpersonal relationships. Clinically, emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression, repeated self-injury, and suicidal thought are noted with this disorder. Proper management of patients with BPD is a difficult challenge due to the complex features of this disorder. Pharmacotherapy of BPD in order to control impulsive behavior and to stabilize affect in patients with BPD has been receiving a lot of attention. Anticonvulsant agents such as topiramate, valproate, or lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole and olanzapine and antidepressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluvoxamine have been implicated in the treatment of BPD. Unfortunately, none of these medications can be used alone or even in combination as sole treatment of BPD. Medications may be used mostly to resolve or reduce impulsivity and aggression in these patients. Naltrexone (NTX), a nonspecific competitive opiate antagonist has been suggested, in the literature, to control self-injurious behavior (SIB) and dissociative symptoms in patients with BPD. This brief review has been intended to look at all documented evidence on the use of NTX in the management of BPD and to reach a comprehensive conclusion.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, naltrexone, self-injurious behavior, dissociative symptoms

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17 Effect of Different Plan Shapes on the Load Carrying Capacity of a Steel Frame under Extreme Loading

Authors: Omid Khandel, Azadeh Parvin

Abstract:

An increase in accidental explosions in recent years has increased the interest on investigating the response and behavior of structures in more details. The present work focused on finite element analysis of multistory steel frame structures with different plan shapes subjected to blast loadings. In order to study the effect of the geometry of the building, three different shapes for the plan of the building were modeled and studied; Rectangular, Square and L shape plans. The nonlinear dynamic analysis was considered in this study. The relocation technique was also used to improve the behavior of structure. The accuracy of the multistory frame model was confirmed with those of the existing study in the literature and they were in good agreement. The effect of span length of the buildings was also considered. Finite element analysis of various scenarios for relocating the plastic hinges and improving the response of the structure was performed. The base shear versus displacement curves were compared to reveal the best possible scenarios to provide recommendations to designers and practitioners.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic analysis, plastic hinge relocation, Retrofit, SAP2000

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16 Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Improving Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rehabilitation

Authors: Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Azadeh Bashiri

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Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in early childhood that in addition to its main symptoms provide significant deficits in the areas of educational, social and individual relationship. Considering the importance of rehabilitation in ADHD patients to control these problems, this study investigated the advantages of computer-based cognitive training in these patients. Methods: This review article has been conducted by searching articles since 2005 in scientific databases and e-Journals and by using keywords including computerized cognitive rehabilitation, computer-based training and ADHD. Results: Since drugs have short term effects and also they have many side effects in the rehabilitation of ADHD patients, using supplementary methods such as computer-based cognitive training is one of the best solutions. This approach has quick feedback and also has no side effects. So, it provides promising results in cognitive rehabilitation of ADHD especially on the working memory and attention. Conclusion: Considering different cognitive dysfunctions in ADHD patients, application of the computerized cognitive training has the potential to improve cognitive functions and consequently social, academic and behavioral performances in patients with this disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, computer-based cognitive training, cognitive functions, rehabilitation

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15 Sustainable Design for Building Envelope in Hot Climates: A Case Study for the Role of the Dome as a Component of an Envelope in Heat Exchange

Authors: Akeel Noori Almulla Hwaish

Abstract:

Architectural design is influenced by the actual thermal behaviour of building components, and this in turn depends not only on their steady and periodic thermal characteristics, but also on exposure effects, orientation, surface colour, and climatic fluctuations at the given location. Design data and environmental parameters should be produced in an accurate way for specified locations, so that architects and engineers can confidently apply them in their design calculations that enable precise evaluation of the influence of various parameters relating to each component of the envelope, which indicates overall thermal performance of building. The present paper will be carried out with an objective of thermal behaviour assessment and characteristics of the opaque and transparent parts of one of the very unique components used as a symbolic distinguished element of building envelope, its thermal behaviour under the impact of solar temperatures, and its role in heat exchange related to a specific U-value of specified construction materials alternatives. The research method will consider the specified Hot-Dry weather and new mosque in Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Also, data will be presented in light of the criteria of indoor thermal comfort in terms of design parameters and thermal assessment for a“model dome”. Design alternatives and considerations of energy conservation, will be discussed as well using comparative computer simulations. Findings will be incorporated to outline the conclusions clarifying the important role of the dome in heat exchange of the whole building envelope for approaching an indoor thermal comfort level and further research in the future.

Keywords: building envelope, sustainable design, dome impact, hot-climates, heat exchange

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14 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir

Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder

Abstract:

22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.

Keywords: drinking water reservoir, multivariate analysis, physico-chemical parameters, water quality

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13 Optimum Performance of the Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Statistical Analysis

Authors: Thamir K. Ibrahim, M. M. Rahman, Marwah Noori Mohammed

Abstract:

This study deals with modeling and performance enhancements of a gas-turbine combined cycle power plant. A clean and safe energy is the greatest challenges to meet the requirements of the green environment. These requirements have given way the long-time governing authority of steam turbine (ST) in the world power generation, and the gas turbine (GT) will replace it. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the characteristics of the GT system and optimize its operating strategy by developing a simulation system. The integrated model and simulation code for exploiting the performance of gas turbine power plant are developed utilizing MATLAB code. The performance code for heavy-duty GT and CCGT power plants are validated with the real power plant of Baiji GT and MARAFIQ CCGT plants the results have been satisfactory. A new technology of correlation was considered for all types of simulation data; whose coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated as 0.9825. Some of the latest launched correlations were checked on the Baiji GT plant and apply error analysis. The GT performance was judged by particular parameters opted from the simulation model and also utilized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) an advanced new optimization technology. The best thermal efficiency and power output attained were about 56% and 345MW respectively. Thus, the operation conditions and ambient temperature are strongly influenced on the overall performance of the GT. The optimum efficiency and power are found at higher turbine inlet temperatures. It can be comprehended that the developed models are powerful tools for estimating the overall performance of the GT plants.

Keywords: gas turbine, optimization, ANFIS, performance, operating conditions

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12 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek

Abstract:

Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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11 Predicting the Quality of Life on the Basis of Perceived Social Support among Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Azadeh Yaraghchi, Reza Bagherian Sararoodi, Niknaz Salehi Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein Mandegar, Adis Kraskian Mujembari, Omid Rezaei

Abstract:

Background: Quality of life is one of the most important consequences of disease in psychosomatic disorders. Many psychological factors are considered in predicting quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The present study was aimed to determine the relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: The population included 82 patients who had undergone CABG from October 2014 to May 2015 in four different hospitals in Tehran. The patients were evaluated with Multi-dimension scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and after three months follow up were evaluated by Short-Form quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). The obtained data were analyzed through Pearson correlation test and multiple variable regression models. Findings: A relationship between perceived social support and quality of life in patients with CABG was observed (r=0.374, p<0.01). The results showed that 22.4% of variation in quality of life is predicted by perceived social support components (p<0.01, R2 =0.224). Conclusion: Based on the results, perceived social support is one of the predictors of quality of life in patients with coronary artery bypass graft. Accordingly, these results can be useful in conceiving proactive policies, detecting high risk patients and planning for psychological interventions.

Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft, perceived social support, psychological factors, quality of life

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10 Sustainable and Aesthetic Features of Traditional Architectures in Central Part of Iran

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar

Abstract:

Iran is one of the oldest countries with traditional culture in the world. All over the history Iranians had traditional architectural designs, which were at the same time sustainable, ecological, functional and environmental consistent. These human scale architectures were built for maximum use, comfort, climate adaptation with available resources and techniques. Climate variability of the country caused developing of variety design methods. More of these methods such as windcatchers in Yazd City or Panam (Insulation) were scientific solutions at the same time. Renewable energy resources were used in these methods that featured in them. While climate and ecological issues were dominant parts of these traditional designs, aesthetic and beauty issues were not ignored. Conformity with the community’s culture caused more compact designs that the visual aesthetics of them can be seen inside of them. Different organizations of space were used for these visual aesthetic issues inside the houses as well as historical urban designs. For example dry and hot climates in central parts of the country designed with centralized organization. Most central parts of these designs functioned as a courtyard for temperate the air in the summer. This paper will give summary descriptive information about traditional Iranian architectural style by figures all around the country with different climate conditions, while focus of the paper is traditional architectural design of the central part of the country, with dry and hot climate condition. This information may be useful for contemporary architectural designs, which are designed without noticing to the vernacular condition and caused cities look like each other.

Keywords: architectural design, traditional design, Iran, sustainability

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9 Effect of 10 Weeks of Aerobic Exercise Training on Serum Concentrations of Surfactant Protein D and Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Azadeh Jamali

Abstract:

Background and purpose: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a lung-specific protein that is detectable in human plasma. Effect of exercise training on SP-D levels as well as its relation to metabolic indices is not known. The present study then aimed to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of SP-D and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Twenty-two overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited through deliberate sampling and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (11 in each group). The intervention group underwent a progressive aerobic training program for 10 weeks, 3 days per week, 30-55 min/day at 50-75% heart rate reserve (HRR). Control group continued with its everyday routine. Blood samples were obtained before and after training for biochemical analysis. Within-group and between-group differences were analyzed with paired and independent t-tests in spss software, respectively, and the relation between variables was analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (all at P = 0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups in leptin, glucose, waist circumference and VO2 max after training. SP-D was decreased and VO2 max was increased significantly in intervention group. However, no significant correlation was observed between SP-D and other variables. Conclusion: Since there was no corresponding decrease in insulin resistance with decreased levels of SP-D, it seems unlikely for SP-D to mediate the association between obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics.

Keywords: exercise training, SP-D, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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8 Sensory Evaluation and Microbiological Properties of Gouda Cheese Affected by Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Essential Oil

Authors: N. Noori, P. Taherkhani, A. Akhondzadeh Basti, H. Gandomi, M. Alimohammadi

Abstract:

Research on natural antimicrobial agents, especially of plant origin, highly noticed in recent years and evaluation of antimicrobial effects of native plants such as Bunium persicum Boiss. is especially important. In the present study, sensory characteristics and microbiological properties of Gouda cheese affected by different concentrations of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were investigated. Extraction of the essential oil was performed by hydro distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC using flame ionization (FID) and GC/ MS for detection. The antimicrobial effects were determined against various microbial groups (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lactococcus and yeasts). Microbial groups were counted during ripening period using plate count on specific culture media. Organoleptic evaluation including teture, flavor, odor, color and total acceptability were determined at the end of aging. According to results, the essential oil yield was 4/1 % ( W/ W). Twenty- six compounds were identified in the oil that concluded 99.7 % of the total oil. The major components of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were γ- terpinene- 7- al (26.9 %) and cuminaldehyde (23.3 %). Generally, the increase of Black Cumin essential oil concentration led to reduction in microbial counts in different groups. The maximum antimicrobial effect was seen in yeast that reduced by 2 log compared to the control group at EO concentration of 4µl/ ml at day 90.The minimum reduction was observed in enterobacteriaceae that showed only 0.75 log decreese compared to the control at the same concentration of EO. Addition of EO improved organoleptic properties of Gouda cheese especially in the case of flavor and odor characteristic. However, no significant differences were observed in texture and color between treatment and control groups. Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil could be used as preservative material and flavoring agent in some kinds of food such as cheese and also could be provided consumers health.

Keywords: Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil, Microbiological properties, sensory evaluation, gouda cheese

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7 Quantification of Soft Tissue Artefacts Using Motion Capture Data and Ultrasound Depth Measurements

Authors: Azadeh Rouhandeh, Chris Joslin, Zhen Qu, Yuu Ono

Abstract:

The centre of rotation of the hip joint is needed for an accurate simulation of the joint performance in many applications such as pre-operative planning simulation, human gait analysis, and hip joint disorders. In human movement analysis, the hip joint center can be estimated using a functional method based on the relative motion of the femur to pelvis measured using reflective markers attached to the skin surface. The principal source of errors in estimation of hip joint centre location using functional methods is soft tissue artefacts due to the relative motion between the markers and bone. One of the main objectives in human movement analysis is the assessment of soft tissue artefact as the accuracy of functional methods depends upon it. Various studies have described the movement of soft tissue artefact invasively, such as intra-cortical pins, external fixators, percutaneous skeletal trackers, and Roentgen photogrammetry. The goal of this study is to present a non-invasive method to assess the displacements of the markers relative to the underlying bone using optical motion capture data and tissue thickness from ultrasound measurements during flexion, extension, and abduction (all with knee extended) of the hip joint. Results show that the artefact skin marker displacements are non-linear and larger in areas closer to the hip joint. Also marker displacements are dependent on the movement type and relatively larger in abduction movement. The quantification of soft tissue artefacts can be used as a basis for a correction procedure for hip joint kinematics.

Keywords: hip joint center, motion capture, soft tissue artefact, ultrasound depth measurement

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6 Effect of Concurrent Training and Detraining on Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Authors: Kaveh Azadeh, Saeid Fazelifar

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks (3 days/week) concurrent training followed by 4 weeks detraining on insulin resistance in obese boys without dietary intervention. Methods: 24 obese children boys (body mass index> 28, age= 11- 13year old) voluntarily participated in the study. Biochemical factors, body composition, and functional physical fitness were assessed in three stages [baseline, after 12 week’s combined endurance and resistance training and 4 week’s detraining in the experimental group (n=12); baseline and after 12 weeks in control group (n=12)]. Results: Indepented - Sample T test revealed that in experimental group after 12weeks trainings the insulin resistance, and body fat mass were significantly declined, whereas endurance and strength of abdominal muscles significantly increased compared to control group (p<0/05). One-way ANOVA for three different periods showed that insulin resistance, body fat mass, strength of abdominal muscles after 12week training was significantly improved in the experimental group compared with the baseline. Following 4weeks detraining insulin resistance again significantly increased (p<0/05). After detraining disturbances of physiological adaptation in obese children have more rapid course in comparison with those anthropological and functional indices. Conclusion: Results showed that participation in the regular concurrent trainings provides a decrease of insulin resistance in obese children. It may serve as a strategy in treatment of obesity and management on insulin resistance, as well as to increase endurance and strength muscles in obese children. Adaptations resulting from regular exercises following detraining are reversible.

Keywords: endurance and resistance trainings, detraining, insulin resistance, obese children

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5 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens

Abstract:

In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 282