Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel

60 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: apis melifera l, dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen

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59 Assessing the Impact of Quinoa Cultivation Adopted to Produce a Secure Food Crop and Poverty Reduction by Farmers in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Ejaz Ashraf, Raheel Babar, Muhammad Yaseen, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Nosheen Fatima

Abstract:

Main purpose of this study was to assess adoption level of farmers for quinoa cultivation after they had been taught through training and visit extension approach. At this time of the 21st century, population structure, climate change, food requirements and eating habits of people are changing rapidly. In this scenario, farmers must play their key role in sustainable crop development and production through adoption of new crops that may also be helpful to overcome the issue of food insecurity as well as reducing poverty in rural areas. Its cultivation in Pakistan is at the early stages and there is a need to raise awareness among farmers to grow quinoa crops. In the middle of the 2015, a training and visit extension approach was used to raise awareness and convince farmers to grow quinoa in the area. During training and visit extension program, 80 farmers were randomly selected for the training of quinoa cultivation. Later on, these farmers trained 60 more farmers living into their neighborhood. After six months, a survey was conducted with all 140 farmers to assess the impact of the training and visit program on adoption level of respondents for the quinoa crop. The survey instrument was developed with the help of literature review and other experts of the crop. Validity and reliability of the instrument were checked before complete data collection. The data were analyzed by using SPSS. Multiple regression analysis was used for interpretation of the results from the survey, which indicated that factors like information/ training, change in agronomic and plant protection practices play a key role in the adoption of quinoa cultivation by respondents. In addition, the model explains more than 50% of variation in the adoption level of respondents. It is concluded that farmers need timely information for improved knowledge of agronomic and plant protection practices to adopt cultivation of the quinoa crop in the area.

Keywords: farmers, quinoa, adoption, contact, training and visit

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
58 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
57 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fibres, durability, construction, geological engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
56 Parallel Hybrid Honeypot and IDS Architecture to Detect Network Attacks

Authors: Hafiz Gulfam Ahmad, Chuangdong Li, Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a parallel IDS and honeypot based approach to detect and analyze the unknown and known attack taxonomy for improving the IDS performance and protecting the network from intruders. The main theme of our approach is to record and analyze the intruder activities by using both the low and high interaction honeypots. Our architecture aims to achieve the required goals by combing signature based IDS, honeypots and generate the new signatures. The paper describes the basic component, design and implementation of this approach and also demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach reducing the probability of network attacks.

Keywords: network security, intrusion detection, honeypot, snort, nmap

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
55 Visualization of Malaysia Universities Websites Based On Social Network Analysis

Authors: N. A. Ismail, Abdul Arif, Sharul Hafiz, Lu S. J., Tham W. S., Wong S. K.

Abstract:

This paper investigates the visulization of Malaysia universities websites. Twenty (20) public universities websites in Malaysia has been chosen as samples to explore and visualize the link relationship between their academic websites using social network analysis methods such as inlink, degree, weight, betweenness and modularity class. All of the connection and relation demonstrate the power to influence, comprehensive strength and also the variety of subject types that are present in universities. The experimental results also show that University Malaysia Sabah (UMS) is the biggest back links provider.

Keywords: academic websites, link analysis, social network analysis, experimental result

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54 Artiodactyl Fossil Remains from Middle Miocene Locality of Lava, District Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Khizar Samiullah, Khurram Faroz, Riffat Yasin, Mehwish Iftekhar, Saleem Akhtar

Abstract:

The fossil site Lava is highly fossiliferous locality in the Chinji Formation, Lower Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. The studied mammalian fossil fauna from this locality consists of Suids, Giraffids and Bovids. The presence of these groups indicates that this Miocene locality has age of approximately 14-11 Ma. Sedimentologically this site is characterized by sandstone and reddish shale which also represents Chinji Formation of the Siwaliks, it consists of shales, siltstones, sandstones and there sediments show large variations in their degree of cementation. Few scientists worked at this locality, as it was first time discovered in 2011. The outcrops of lava locality were selected to explore in detail and comparison with European mammalian assemblages. The main focus was on artiodactyl’s mammalian fauna and four different species have been recovered during field work, in which Giraffokeryx punjabiensis is dominant. Different aspect like biogeographic distribution, evolution and taxonomy of discovered fossils fauna has been discussed in detail in this research work.

Keywords: fossil remains, lava, Chinji Formation, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
53 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan, M. N. Akhtar

Abstract:

Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: packaging, food safety, antimicrobial, food losses

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52 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib

Abstract:

Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

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51 The Effect of Job Insecurity on Attitude towards Change and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

Authors: Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is to examine the direct and interactive effects of job insecurity and Islamic work ethics on employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The data was collected from 171 male and female university teachers of Pakistan. Self administered, close ended questionnaires were used to collect the data. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Findings: Through the analysis of data, it was found that job insecurity has a strong negative effect on the attitude towards change of university teachers. On the contrary, job insecurity has no significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior of university teachers. Our results also show that Islamic work ethics does not moderate the relationship of job insecurity and attitude towards change, while a strong moderation effect of Islamic wok ethics is found on the relationship of job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value: This study for the first time examines the relationship of job insecurity with employee’s attitude towards change and organizational citizenship behavior with the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics.

Keywords: job security, islamic work ethics, attitude towards change, organizational citizenship behavior

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50 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

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49 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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48 Information Theoretic Approach for Beamforming in Wireless Communications

Authors: Syed Khurram Mahmud, Athar Naveed, Shoaib Arif

Abstract:

Beamforming is a signal processing technique extensively utilized in wireless communications and radars for desired signal intensification and interference signal minimization through spatial selectivity. In this paper, we present a method for calculation of optimal weight vectors for smart antenna array, to achieve a directive pattern during transmission and selective reception in interference prone environment. In proposed scheme, Mutual Information (MI) extrema are evaluated through an energy constrained objective function, which is based on a-priori information of interference source and desired array factor. Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) performance is evaluated for both transmission and reception. In our scheme, MI is presented as an index to identify trade-off between information gain, SINR, illumination time and spatial selectivity in an energy constrained optimization problem. The employed method yields lesser computational complexity, which is presented through comparative analysis with conventional methods in vogue. MI based beamforming offers enhancement of signal integrity in degraded environment while reducing computational intricacy and correlating key performance indicators.

Keywords: beamforming, interference, mutual information, wireless communications

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47 Characteristics of Pakistani Business Leaders: A Psychological Perspective

Authors: Hafiz Haseeb Nisar, Maryam Bilal

Abstract:

This qualitative study was conducted to investigate the underlying dynamics, key success factors and characteristics of Pakistani business leaders. The sample included 5 top businessmen from different business sectors. They were approached through the magazine “Manager Today” office in Lahore. Semi-structured interview technique was used to understand their experiences, attitudes, styles of management and key factors in their business success. Grounded theory was employed to analyze data. The following themes emerged as characteristics of business leaders: optimism, assertiveness, professionalism, effective management style, business knowledge/ excellence, supportive family and strong faith in God. It was noted that all these were interlinked, which leads the businessmen to become a successful business tycoon of this country. The importance of this study rests in its eastern contribution to the theoretical framework of the psychology of business leaders and particularly these findings will help to realize the basic key factors of success behind a business leader in Pakistan.

Keywords: business psychology, characteristics, key personality factors, leadership

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46 Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Quality Parameters of Yogurt during Storage

Authors: Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, Sabahat Yaqub, Ayesha Sameen, Muhammad Imran, Sarfraz Ahmad

Abstract:

Yoghurt is one of the famous nutritious fermented milk products which have myriad of positive health effects on human beings and curable against different intestinal diseases. This research was conducted to observe effects of different artificial sweeteners on the quality parameters of yoghurt with relation to storage. Some people are allergic to natural sweeteners so artificial sweetener will be helpful for them. Physical-chemical, Microbiology and various sensory evaluation tests were carried out with the interval of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. It was outcome from this study that addition of artificial sweeteners in yoghurt has shown much harmful effects on the yoghurt microorganisms and other physicochemical parameters from quality point of view. Best results for acceptance were obtained when aspartame was added in yoghurt at level of 0.022 percent. In addition, growth of beneficial microorganisms in yoghurt was also improved as well as other sensory attributes were enhanced by the addition of aspartame.

Keywords: yoghurt, artificial sweetener, storage, quality parameters

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45 Graphene Reinforced Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Khurram Munir, Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li

Abstract:

Magnesium (Mg) metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have been developed by powder metallurgy (PM). In this study, GNPs with different concentrations (0.1-0.3 wt.%) were dispersed into Mg powders by high-energy ball-milling processes. The microstructure and resultant mechanical properties of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), compression and nano-wear tests. The corrosion resistance of the fabricated composites was evaluated by electrochemical tests and hydrogen evolution measurements. Finally, the biological response of Mg-GNPs composites was assessed using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The results indicate that GNPs are excellent candidates as reinforcements in Mg matrices for the manufacture of biodegradable Mg-based composite implants. GNP addition improved the mechanical properties of Mg via synergetic strengthening modes. Moreover, retaining the structural integrity of GNPs during PM processing improved the ductility, compressive strength, and corrosion resistance of the Mg-GNP composites as compared to monolithic Mg. Cytotoxicity assessments did not reveal any significant toxicity with the addition of GNPs to Mg matrices. This study demonstrates that Mg-xGNPs with x < 0.3 wt.%, may constitute novel biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications.

Keywords: magnesium-graphene composites, strengthening mechanisms, In vitro cytotoxicity, biocorrosion

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44 Electrochemical Behavior of Iron (III) Complexes with Catechol at Different pH

Authors: K. M. Salim Reza, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Aziz, M. A. Motin, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Hasem

Abstract:

The redox behavior of Fe (III) in presence of Catechol (Cc) has been carried out in buffer solution of different pH, scan rate, variation of Fe (III) concentration and Cc concentration. Uncoordinated Fe(III) or Cc has been found to undergo reversible electrode reaction whereas coordinated Fe-Cc is irreversible. The peak positions of the voltammogram of Fe- Cc shifted with respect to that of free Fe (III) or Cc and also developed a new peak at 0.12 V. The peak current of Fe-Cc decreases significantly compared with that of free Fe(III) or Cc in the same experimental conditions. These behaviors ascribed the formation of complex of Fe with Cc. The complex was formed either by the addition of Cc into Fe(III) or by the addition of Fe(III) into Cc. The effect of pH of Fe-Cc complex was studied by varying pH from 2 to 8.5. The electro chemical oxidation of Fe-Cc is facilitated in lower pH media. The slope of the plots of anodic peak current, Ep against pH of Fe-Cc complexe is 30 mV, indicates that the oxidation of Fe-Cc complexes proceeded via the 2e−/2H+ processes. The proportionality of the anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate of suggests that the peak current of the different complexes at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, Fe-Cc Complex, pH effect, redox interaction

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43 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

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42 Reformed Curricula for the Religious Educational Institutions in Pakistan and the Muslim World

Authors: Hafiz Khubaib Ur Rehman Awan

Abstract:

Education used to play a central role in the formation and transfiguration of society since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the human circles. According to the Islamic purpose of education, its pivotal contribution in the society is to produce a balanced growth of the entire persona of an individual through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings, and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality. The purpose of this study is to attempt the exploration of the development of the Islamic religious curriculum in the Islamic world with an emphasis on Pakistan because this homeland came into existence under the name of Islam. This study persists of necessary historical background on the curricular reform of religious education in Pakistan and their impact on it and the suburban countries. However, the mainstay of this paper bases on reform in the religious education curriculum and the challenges faced by Pakistan and the Islamic world. Some suggestions are positioned at the end for areas of Islamic religious education and the improvement of Islamic curricular reform, especially in Pakistan and generally in Muslim countries.

Keywords: curricula, religious educational institutions, Pakistan, Muslim world, educational, religious , curricula

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41 Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste in Thermal Power Production: A Techno-Economic Study of Kasur City, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Umer Aslam, Mohammad Rafiq Khan

Abstract:

This techno-economic study reports the feasibility of generating thermoelectric power from municipal solid waste (MSW) of Kasur City by incineration process. The data was gathered from different establishments of Kasur, through appropriate permission from their heads, and processed to design different alternative projects for installation of a thermal power plant in the city of Kasur. A technique of discounted cash flow was used to evaluate alternative projects so that their Benefit to Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return and Payback Period can be determined. The study revealed that Kasur City currently consumes 18MWh electricity and generates 179 tons/day MSW. The generated waste has the ability to produce 2.1MWh electricity at the cost of USD 0.0581/unit with an expenditure of USD 3,907,692 as initial fixed investment of forming about 1/7th of consumption of Kasur. The cost from this source, when compared to current rate of electricity in Pakistan (USD 0.1346), is roughly half.

Keywords: Kasur City, resource recovery, thermoelectric power, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
40 Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Peshawar Using Mathematical Modelling and GIS with Focus on Incineration

Authors: Usman Jilani, Ibad Khurram, Irshad Hussain

Abstract:

Environmentally sustainable waste management is a challenging task as it involves multiple and diverse economic, environmental, technical and regulatory issues. Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is more challenging in developing countries like Pakistan due to lack of awareness, technology and human resources, insufficient funding, inefficient collection and transport mechanism resulting in the lack of a comprehensive waste management system. This work presents an overview of current MSWM practices in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and proposes a better and sustainable integrated solid waste management system with incineration (Waste to Energy) option. The diverted waste would otherwise generate revenue; minimize land fill requirement and negative impact on the environment. The proposed optimized solution utilizing scientific techniques (like mathematical modeling, optimization algorithms and GIS) as decision support tools enhances the technical & institutional efficiency leading towards a more sustainable waste management system through incorporating: - Improved collection mechanisms through optimized transportation / routing and, - Resource recovery through incineration and selection of most feasible sites for transfer stations, landfills and incineration plant. These proposed methods shift the linear waste management system towards a cyclic system and can also be used as a decision support tool by the WSSP (Water and Sanitation Services Peshawar), agency responsible for the MSWM in Peshawar.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, incineration, mathematical modeling, optimization, GIS, Peshawar

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39 Performance Analysis of Compression Socks Strips

Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Adnan Ahmed Mazari, Antonin Havelka

Abstract:

Compression socks are highly recommended textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of leg. The extent of compression that a patient can easily manage depends on stage (limb size and shape) of venous disease and his activities (mobility, age). Due to dynamic mechanical influence, the socks destroy their extent of pressure exertion around the leg. The main aim of this research is to investigate how the performance of compression socks is deteriorated due to expected induced wearing mechanical impacts. Wearing mechanical impacts influence the durability parameter i.e. tensile energy loss. For tensile energy loss, cut-strip samples were interacted to constant rate of loading and un-loading, cyclic-loading upto 15th cycles for ±5mm extension (considering muscles expansion and relaxation) and were dwelled (stayed) for 3 minutes at 25%, 50% and 75% extension levels, simultaneously. Statistical validation of tensile energy loss was performed by introducing measures of correlation, p-value (≤ 0.05), R-square values using MINITAB 17 software.

Keywords: compression socks, loading and unloading, 15th cyclic loading, Dwell time effect

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38 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

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37 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmala

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36 Kelantan Malay Cultural Landscape: The Concept of Kota Bharu Islamic City

Authors: Mohammad Rusdi Mohd Nasir, Ismail Hafiz Salleh

Abstract:

Kota Bharu, as an Islamic City, represents a symbolic icon in the urban development of the Islamic state of Kelantan, Malaysia. This research seeks to provide a basis for new approaches to landscape planning that shows greater respect for the traditional vernacular landscape. In addition, this research also intends to distinguish the prospects for the future Kelantan Malay cultural landscape, building upon the multiple historical influences in the evolution of the cultural landscape using multiple methods including literature review, observation, document analysis and content analysis. The study of the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape is particularly important in view of its distinctive contribution to Malay heritage by identifying the elements, characteristics, history and their influences. As a result, this research recognizes the importance of incorporating the existing heritage alongside contemporary design as well as further research on the Kelantan Malay cultural landscape. Optimistically, there will be better landscape practices in the future to understand the past, the present and the future prospects of the vernacular tradition, in order to ensure that our architecture, landscape and urbanism practices express its values.

Keywords: Malay culture, Malay heritage, cultural landscape, Islamic concept

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35 Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a 13-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Bayan Hafiz, Ashwaq Al-Qarni, Abdulelah AlMalki, Esraa Kaheel

Abstract:

Hydatid disease is caused by genus Echinococcus, it is transmitted to human through sheep and cattle. People who lived in an endemic area should be suspected to have the disease. Pulmonary hydatid disease can be presented by respiratory manifestations as in our case. We report a case of child, 13 years old, who was presented by shortness of breath and non-productive cough 2 months ago. The patient had an attack of hemoptysis 3 months ago but there is no history of fever, other constitutional symptoms or any medical illness. The patient has had a close contact with a horse. On examination, the patient was oriented and vitally stable. Both side of chest were moving equally with decrease air entry on the left side of the chest. Cervical lymph node enlargement was also detected. The case was provisionally diagnosed as tuberculosis. The x-ray was normal, while CT scan showed two cysts in the left side. The patient was treated surgically with resection of both cysts without lobectomy. Broncho-alveolar lavage was done and together with plural effusion and both cysts were sent for histopathology. The patient received the following medication: albendazole 200MG/BID/Orally for 30 days and Cefuroxime 250MG/Q12H/Orally for 10 days.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid disease, pediatrics, pulmonary hydatid cyst

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34 Creativity in Development of Multimedia Presentation

Authors: Mahathir Sarjan, Ramos Radzly, Noor Baiti Jamaluddin, Mohd Hafiz Zakaria, Hisham Suhadi

Abstract:

Creativity is marked by the ability or power, to produce through imaginative skill and create something anew. The University is one of the great places to improve the talent in imaginative skill. Thus, it is important that for the student have a creativity to adapt the multimedia element in the development of presentation products for learning and teaching the process. The purpose of this study was to identify a creativity of the student in presentation product development. Two hundred seventeen Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn had chosen as a respondent. This study is to survey the level of creativity which is focused on knowledge, skills, presentation style and character of creative personnel. The level of creativity was measured based on the scale at low, medium and high followed by mean score level. The data collected by questionnaire then analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The result of the study indicated that the students showed a higher of creativity (mean score in Knowledge = 4.12 and Skills= 4.02). In conjunction with the findings s implications and recommendations were suggested forward like to ensconce the research and improve with a more creativity concept in presentation product of development for learning and teaching the process.

Keywords: creativity, technical, vocational education, presentation products and development for learning and teaching process

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33 Political Discourse Used in the TV Talk Shows of Pakistani Media

Authors: Hafiz Sajjad Hussain, Asad Razzaq

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the relationship between application of speech and discourse used by the political workers and their leaders for maintaining authoritative approach and dialog power. The representation of these relationships between ideology and language in the analysis of discourse and spoken text following Van Dijk Socio-Cognitive model. Media and political leaders are two pillars of a state and their role is so important for development and effects on the society. Media has become an industry in the recent years in the globe, and especially, the private sector developed a lot in the last decade in Pakistan. Media is the easiest way of communication with the large community in a short time and used discourse independently. The prime time of the news channels in Pakistan presents the political programs on most favorite story or incident of the day. The current program broadcasted by a private channel ARY News July 6, 2014 covered the most top story of the day. The son of Ex. CJ Arslan Iftikhar moves an application to Election Commission of Pakistan about the daughter of the most popular political leader and chairman PTI Imran Khan. This movement turns the whole scenario of the political parties and media got a hot issue form discussion. This study also shows that the ideology and meanings which are presented by the TV channels not always obvious for readers.

Keywords: electronic media, political discourse, ideology of media, power, authoritative approach

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32 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

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31 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: salinity, hybrids, maize, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 593