Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1024

Search results for: Ahmed El Gendy

1024 Sustainability Assessment of Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Yousra Zakaria Ahmed, Ahmed El Gendy, Salah El Haggar

Abstract:

In this paper, our methodology to assess sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt is presented. The preliminary list of factors to be considered, as well as their ranking listed. The factors include, but are not limited to pollutants removal efficiency and energy consumption under the environmental dimension, construction cost, operation and maintenance costs and required land area cost under the economic dimension and public acceptance, noise and generating job opportunities for local residents. This methodology is intended to be a user-friendly screening tool to support the decision making process when investigating different wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt. Based on the research work results presented in this paper, it can be generally concluded that the categorization of some of the social and environmental aspects of sustainability is subjective and highly dependent on the local conditions and researchers’ background.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Sustainability, Egypt, sustainability assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1023 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Wastewater Using Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst

Authors: Ahmed S. El-Gendy, Ahmed K. Sharaby

Abstract:

Phenolic compounds (PCs) exist in the wastewater effluents of some industries such as oil refinery, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. Phenolic compounds are extremely hazardous pollutants that can cause severe problems to the aquatic life and human beings if disposed of without treatment. One of the most efficient treatment methods of PCs is photocatalytic degradation. The current work studies the performance of composite nanomaterial of titanium dioxide with magnetite as a photo-catalyst in the degradation of PCs. The current work aims at optimizing the synthesized photocatalyst dosage and contact time as part of the operational parameters at different initial concentrations of PCs and pH values in the wastewater. The study was performed in a lab-scale batch reactor under fixed conditions of light intensity and aeration rate. The initial concentrations of PCs and the pH values were in the range of (10-200 mg/l) and (3-9), respectively. Results of the study indicate that the dosage of the catalyst and contact time for total mineralization is proportional to the initial concentrations of PCs, while the optimum pH conditions for highly efficient degradation is at pH 3. Exceeding the concentration levels of the catalyst beyond certain limits leads to the decrease in the degradation efficiency due to the dissipation of light. The performance of the catalyst for degradation was also investigated in comparison to the pure TiO2 Degussa (P-25). The dosage required for the synthesized catalyst for photocatalytic degradation was approximately 1.5 times that needed from the pure titania.

Keywords: Industrial, Optimization, wastewater, photocatalysis, Phenolic Compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1022 Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopic Method with Multivariate Calibration for the Determination of Amlodipine and Olmesartan Implementing: Experimental Design

Authors: Noha Ibrahim, Eman S. Elzanfaly, Said A. Hassan, Ahmed E. El Gendy

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to develop a sensitive synchronous spectrofluorimetric method with multivariate calibration after studying and optimizing the different variables affecting the native fluorescence intensity of amlodipine and olmesartan implementing an experimental design approach. Method: In the first step, the fractional factorial design used to screen independent factors affecting the intensity of both drugs. The objective of the second step was to optimize the method performance using a Central Composite Face-centred (CCF) design. The optimal experimental conditions obtained from this study were; a temperature of (15°C ± 0.5), the solvent of 0.05N HCl and methanol with a ratio of (90:10, v/v respectively), Δλ of 42 and the addition of 1.48 % surfactant providing a sensitive measurement of amlodipine and olmesartan. The resolution of the binary mixture with a multivariate calibration method has been accomplished mainly by using partial least squares (PLS) model. Results: The recovery percentage for amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium in tablets dosage form were found to be (102 ± 0.24, 99.56 ± 0.10, for amlodipine and Olmesartan, respectively). Conclusion: Method is valid according to some International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, providing to be linear over a range of 200-300, 500-1500 ng mL⁻¹ for amlodipine and Olmesartan. The methods were successful to estimate amlodipine besylate and olmesartan in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation.

Keywords: Experimental Design, amlodipine, multivariate calibration, central composite face-centred design, fractional factorial design, olmesartan

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1021 Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

Authors: Ahmed Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ali Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ahmed Al-Shafie

Abstract:

In this study, genetic programming (GP) technique has been investigated in prediction of set of rainfall-runoff data. To assess the effect of input parameters on the model, the sensitivity analysis was adopted. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, three statistical indexes were used, namely; Correlation Coefficient (CC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Correlation of Efficiency (CE). The principle aim of this study is to develop a computationally efficient and robust approach for predict of rainfall-runoff which could reduce the cost and labour for measuring these parameters. This research concentrates on the Johor River in Johor State, Malaysia.

Keywords: Genetic Programming, prediction, Malaysia, rainfall-runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1020 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur

Abstract:

In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: LES, Ahmed body, near wake, bi-stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1019 Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes for Computations of Flow Around Three-Dimensional Ahmed Bodies

Authors: Maryam Mirzaei, Sinisa Krajnovic´

Abstract:

The paper reports a study about the prediction of flows around simplified vehicles using Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). Numerical simulations are performed for two simplified vehicles: A slanted-back Ahmed body at Re=30 000 and a square back Ahmed body at Re=300 000. A comparison of the resolved and modeled physical flow scales is made with corresponding LES and experimental data for a better understanding of the performance of the PANS model. The PANS model is compared for coarse and fine grid resolutions and it is indicated that even a coarse-grid PANS simulation is able to produce fairly close flow predictions to those from a well-resolved LES simulation. The results indicate the possibility of improvement of the predictions by employing a finer grid resolution.

Keywords: large eddy simulation, LES, partially-averaged Navier-Stokes, PANS, Ahmed body

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1018 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman

Abstract:

This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Stability, Sallen-Key, fractance, low-pass filter, analog filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
1017 Organochlorine Residues in Cuttlefish from the Arabian Gulf

Authors: A. El-Gendy, S. Al-Farraj, S. Al Kahtani, M. El-Hedeny

Abstract:

Contaminations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as, dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and chlordane (CHLs) were examined in the edible mantle tissues of the commercial cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg 1831, collected from the marine water of the Arabian Gulf. The mean concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH were in the ranges of 29.4 - 56 ng/g, 47.4 - 100 ng/g and 1 - 4 ng/g, respectively. Among the POPs analyzed, HCH showed the lowest concentrations ranging between 1 to 5 ng/g lipid wt. However, concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH, detected in this study, were generally comparable or lower than those found in studies of similar cephalopod species from other areas subject to a high anthropogenic impact. Relationships between total body lengths and/or dorsal mantle lengths of the organisms and the concentration values of the studied POPs were also considered. Compared with recommendations of the international organizations, there are no potential risks associated with consuming the studied cuttlefish species.

Keywords: organochlorine, cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, DDT, CHLs, HCH, Arabian Gulf

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1016 Optimization of Scheduling through Altering Layout Using Pro-Model

Authors: Zouhair Issa Ahmed, Ahmed Abdulrasool Ahmed, Falah Hassan Abdulsada

Abstract:

This paper presents a layout of a factory using Pro-Model simulation by choosing the best layout that gives the highest productivity and least work in process. The general problem is to find the best sequence in which jobs pass between the machines which are compatible with the technological constraints and optimal with respect to some performance criteria. The best simulation with Pro-Model program increased productivity and reduced work in process by balancing lines of production compared with the current layout of factory when productivity increased from 45 products to 180 products through 720 hours.

Keywords: Simulation, Scheduling, Pro-Model, balancing lines of production, layout planning, WIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1015 Passive Aeration of Wastewater: Analytical Model

Authors: Ayman M. El-Zahaby, Ahmed S. El-Gendy

Abstract:

Aeration for wastewater is essential for the proper operation of aerobic treatment units where the wastewater normally has zero dissolved oxygen. This is due to the need of oxygen by the aerobic microorganisms to grow and survive. Typical aeration units for wastewater treatment require electric energy for their operation such as mechanical aerators or diffused aerators. The passive units are units that operate without the need of electric energy such as cascade aerators, spray aerators and tray aerators. In contrary to the cascade aerators and spray aerators, tray aerators require much smaller area foot print for their installation as the treatment stages are arranged vertically. To the extent of the authors knowledge, the design of tray aerators for the aeration purpose has not been presented in the literature. The current research concerns with an analytical study for the design of tray aerators for the purpose of increasing the dissolved oxygen in wastewater treatment systems, including an investigation on different design parameters and their impact on the aeration efficiency. The studied aerator shall act as an intermediate stage between an anaerobic primary treatment unit and an aerobic treatment unit for small scale treatment systems. Different free falling flow regimes were investigated, and the thresholds for transition between regimes were obtained from the literature. The study focused on the jetting flow regime between trays. Starting from the two film theory, an equation that relates the dissolved oxygen concentration effluent from the system was derived as a function of the flow rate, number of trays, tray area, spacing between trays, number and diameter of holes and the water temperature. A MATLab ® model was developed for the derived equation. The expected aeration efficiency under different tray configurations and operating conditions were illustrated through running the model with varying the design parameters. The impact of each parameter was illustrated. The overall system efficiency was found to increase by decreasing the hole diameter. On the other side, increasing the number of trays, tray area, flow rate per hole or tray spacing had positive effect on the system efficiency.

Keywords: Analytical, wastewater, aeration, passive

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1014 Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Arched Structures Considering Soil-Structure Interaction

Authors: Omar A. Kandil, Mohamed M. El Gendy, Ibrahim A. El Arabi, Rafeek W. Abdel-Missih

Abstract:

Nonlinear analysis is one of the most important design and safety tools in structural engineering. Based on the finite-element method, a geometrical and material nonlinear analysis of large span reinforced concrete arches is carried out considering soil-structure interaction. The concrete section details and reinforcement distribution are taken into account. The behavior of soil is considered via Winkler's and continuum models. A computer program (NARC II) is specially developed in order to follow the structural behavior of large span reinforced concrete arches up to failure. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with available literature for verification. This work confirmed that the geometrical and material nonlinearities, as well as soil structure interaction, have considerable influence on the structural response of reinforced concrete arches.

Keywords: Geotechnical Engineering, Nonlinear Analysis, Soil-Structure Interaction, reinforced concrete arched structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1013 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa

Abstract:

Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: glaucoma, Endoscopy, Ahmed valve, ocular fundus

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1012 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Finite Element Method, Ahemd vehicle, backlight angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
1011 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: A. N. Ouda, Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: Modeling, UAV, Equations of motion, linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
1010 Comparative Study for Power Systems Transient Stability Improvement Using SFCL ,SVC,TCBR

Authors: Sabir Messalti, Ahmed Gherbi, Ahmed Bouchlaghem

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative study for power systems transient stability improvement using three FACTS devices: the SVC(Static Var Compensator), the Thyristor Control Breaking Resistor (TCBR) and superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL)The transient stability is assessed by the criterion of relative rotor angles. Critical Clearing Time (CCT) is used as an index for evaluated transient stability. The present study is tested on the WSCC3 nine-bus system in the case of three-phase short circuit fault on one transmission line.

Keywords: SVC, TCBR, SFCL, power systems transient stability improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
1009 Microscopic Examination of the Pre-Hatching Development of the Chicken Ovary

Authors: Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-Gendy, Ashraf Karkoura, Doha Shokry

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the development of the chicken ovary. One hundred fertilized egg of Alexandria breed of chicken used. The whole embryo has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH20 (E.3), HH21 (E.3.5), HH23 (E.4), HH29 (E.6) and HH34 (E.8). The ovary has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16), SEM at HH26 (E.5), HH29 (E.6), HH36 (E.10), HH38 (E.12), HH39 (E.13) and HH42 (E.16), TEM at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16). The genital ridge appeared by a thickening of the coelomic epithelium medioventral surface of the developing mesonephroi at HH20 (E.3). The boundaries of the undifferentiating gonads defined clearly separated from the mesonephroi. The undifferentiated gonads bulged as a distinct organ in the coelomic cavity at HH23 (E.4). At the initial stages of the gonadogenesis, the germinal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium. The PGCs appeared at the genital ridge at HH21 (E.3.5). The PGCs observed at the dorsal mesentery with few microvilli and showed positive PAS reaction due to the glycogen content in their cytoplasm. The left-right gonadal asymmetry firstly detected by the number of PGCs migrating toward the left gonadal ridge more than the right at HH20 (E.3) and the macroscopic examination of gonadal asymmetry began at HH34 (E.8). The left ovary appeared a smooth rod-shape, its stroma showed lipid droplets, and its parenchyma showed an extensive arrangement of interstitial cords at HH42 (E.16).

Keywords: Light Microscopy, Ovary, SEM, TEM, Alexandria chicken

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1008 Investigating the Influence of Roof Fairing on Aerodynamic Drag of a Bluff Body

Authors: Kushal Kumar Chode

Abstract:

Increase in demand for fuel saving and demand for faster vehicles with decent fuel economy, researchers around the world started investigating in various passive flow control devices to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles. In this paper, A roof fairing was investigated for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff body. The bluff body considered for this work is Ahmed model with a rake angle of 25deg was and subjected to flow with a velocity of 40m/s having Reynolds number of 2.68million was analysed using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code Star CCM+. It was evident that pressure drag is the main source of drag on an Ahmed body from the initial study. Adding a roof fairing has delayed the flow separation and resulted in delaying wake formation, thus improving the pressure in near weak and reducing the wake region. Adding a roof fairing of height and length equal to 1/7H and 1/3L respectively has shown a drag reduction by 9%. However, an optimised fairing, which was obtained by changing height, length and width by 5% increase, recorded a drag reduction close 12%.

Keywords: passive flow control, aerodynamic drag, Ahmed model, roof fairing, wake formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1007 Anatomical, Light and Scanning Electron Microscopical Study of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Integument

Authors: Samir El-Gendy, Doaa Zaghloul

Abstract:

The current study dealt with the gross and microscopic anatomy of the integument of male ostrich in addition to the histological features of different areas of skin by light and SEM. The ostrich skin is characterized by prominent feather follicles and bristles. The number of feather follicles was determined per cm2 in different regions. The integument of ostrich had many modifications which appeared as callosities and scales, nail and toe pads. They were sternal, pubic and Achilles tendon callosities. The vacuolated epidermal cells were seen mainly in the skin of legs and to a lesser extent in the skin of back and Achilles areas. Higher lipogenic potential was expressed by epidermis from glabrous areas of ostrich skin. The dermal papillae were found in the skin of feathered area of neck and back and this was not a common finding in bird's skin which may give resistance against shearing forces in these regions of ostrich skin. The thickness of the keratin layer of ostrich varied, being thick and characteristically loose in the skin at legs, very thin and wavy at neck, while at Achilles skin area, scale and toe pad were thick and more compact, with the thickest very dense and wavy keratin layer at the nail. The dermis consisted of superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue characterized by presence of many vacuoles of different sizes just under the basal lamina of the epithelium of epidermis and deep layer of dense regular connective tissue. This result suggested presence of fat droplets in this layer which may be to overcome the lack of good barrier of cutaneous water loss in epidermis.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Light Microscopy, ostrich, integument, skin modifications

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1006 Optimal Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm Technique

Authors: Ahmed A. Helal, Ahmed Z. Gabr, Hussein E. Said

Abstract:

With the incessant increase of power systems capacity and voltage grade, the safety of grounding grid becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, the designing substation grounding grid is presented by means of genetic algorithm (GA). This approach purposes to control the grounding cost of the power system with the aid of controlling grounding rod number and conductor lengths under the same safety limitations. The proposed technique is used for the design of the substation grounding grid in Khalda Petroleum Company “El-Qasr” power plant and the design was simulated by using CYMGRD software for results verification. The result of the design is highly complying with IEEE 80-2000 standard requirements.

Keywords: Power system protection, Power system analysis, Genetic Algorithm, Substation, optimum grounding grid design, single layer model

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1005 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Nasir Shafiq, Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Ali Elheber Ahmed

Abstract:

Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1004 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T. Sayed

Abstract:

Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving in- sights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: floor, CORDIC, logarithms, log2, iterative, Taylor series

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1003 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed M. Shaban, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty

Abstract:

In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: Water Quality, Pretreatment, river nile, NF membrane, UF membrane

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1002 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: Dispersion, Semiconductor Laser, bit error rate, frequency chirp, fiber communications

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1001 Mathematical Induction as a Strong Proof Technique for Proving New Results

Authors: Ahmed Tarek, Ahmed Alveed

Abstract:

In the world of computing, there exists a wide variety of direct and indirect proof techniques for proving new results and propositions. However, the mathematical induction stands out as a very powerful proof technique for proving hypotheses, theorems, and new results. There are a wide variety of mathematical induction techniques, such as the weak induction, the strong induction, the reverse induction, etc. In this expository paper, several varieties of mathematical inductions are explored, and the scenarios are discussed where a specific induction technique will be more advantageous to apply to solve a given problem compared to the other induction types. Also, the essential differences among the variations of the inductions are represented. The differences among induction, recursion, and deduction are analyzed, and the relationship between the indirect recursion and the strong induction is also being established.

Keywords: deduction, mathematical induction, proof techniques, recursion, reverse induction, strong induction, weak induction

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1000 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: modulation, Semiconductor Laser, optical feedback, harmonic distortion

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999 Reliability of Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns: Part 1

Authors: Metwally Abdel Aziz Ahmed, Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr, Inas Mohamed Saleh

Abstract:

The main objective of structural design is to ensure safety and functional performance requirements of a structural system for its target reliability levels. In this study, the reliability index for the reinforcement concrete slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the loads, the concrete compressive strength, the steel yield strength, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, the reinforcement ratio, and the location of steel placement. Risk analysis program was used to perform the analytical study. The effect of load eccentricity on the reliability index of reinforced concrete slender column was studied and presented. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, Reinforced Concrete, slender column

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998 A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data

Authors: Bernardo Cedano, Ahmed H. Eltom, Bob Hay, Jim Glass, Raga Ahmed

Abstract:

The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.

Keywords: Smart Grid, electric power grid, disturbance automation, smart switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
997 Evaluation of Dynamic Log Files for Different Dose Rates in IMRT Plans

Authors: Amjad Hussain, Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Shahbaz Ahmed

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate dynamic log files (Dynalogs) at different dose rates by dose-volume histograms (DVH) and used as a (QA) procedure of IMRT. Seven patients of phase one head and neck cancer with similar OAR`s are selected randomly. Reference plans of dose rate 300 and 600 MU/Min with prescribed dose of 50Gy in 25 fractions for each patient is made. Dynalogs produced by delivery of reference plans processed by in-house MATLAB program which produces new field files contain actual positions of multi-leaf collimators (MLC`s) instead of planned positions in reference plans. Copies of reference plans are used to import new field files generated by MATLAB program and renamed as Dyn.plan. After dose calculations of Dyn.plans for different dose rates, DVH, and multiple linear regression tools are used to evaluate reference and Dyn.plans. The results indicate good agreement of correlation between different dose rate plans. The maximum dose difference among PTV and OAR`s are found to be less than 5% and 9% respectively. The study indicates the potential of dynalogs to be used as patient-specific QA of IMRT at different dose rate.

Keywords: IMRT, dose rate, dynalogs, DVH

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996 RNA-Seq Analysis of the Wild Barley (H. spontaneum) Leaf Transcriptome under Salt Stress

Authors: Jamal S. M. Sabir, Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Nour O. Gadalla, Sherif Edris, Ahmed M. Alzohairy, Nezar A. Radhwan, Mohammed N. Baeshen, Ahmed M. Ramadan, Hala F. Eissa, Sabah M. Hassan, Nabih A. Baeshen, Osama Abuzinadah, Magdy A. Al-Kordy, Fotouh M. El-Domyati, Robert K. Jansen

Abstract:

Wild salt-tolerant barley (Hordeum spontaneum) is the ancestor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare or H. vulgare). Although the cultivated barley genome is well studied, little is known about genome structure and function of its wild ancestor. In the present study, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on young leaves of wild barley treated with salt (500 mM NaCl) at four different time intervals. Transcriptome sequencing yielded 103 to 115 million reads for all replicates of each treatment, corresponding to over 10 billion nucleotides per sample. Of the total reads, between 74.8 and 80.3% could be mapped and 77.4 to 81.7% of the transcripts were found in the H. vulgare unigene database (unigene-mapped). The unmapped wild barley reads for all treatments and replicates were assembled de novo and the resulting contigs were used as a new reference genome. This resultedin94.3 to 95.3%oftheunmapped reads mapping to the new reference. The number of differentially expressed transcripts was 9277, 3861 of which were uni gene-mapped. The annotated unigene- and de novo-mapped transcripts (5100) were utilized to generate expression clusters across time of salt stress treatment. Two-dimensional hierarchical clustering classified differential expression profiles into nine expression clusters, four of which were selected for further analysis. Differentially expressed transcripts were assigned to the main functional categories. The most important groups were ‘response to external stimulus’ and ‘electron-carrier activity’. Highly expressed transcripts are involved in several biological processes, including electron transport and exchanger mechanisms, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, ethylene production, signaling network and protein refolding. The comparisons demonstrated that mRNA-Seq is an efficient method for the analysis of differentially expressed genes and biological processes under salt stress.

Keywords: Electron Transport, reactive oxygen species, RNAseq, flavonoid biosynthesis

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995 A Coordinate-Based Heuristic Search Algorithm for Delivery Truck Routing Problem

Authors: Ahmed Tarek, Ahmed Alveed

Abstract:

Vehicle routing problem is a well-known research area in computing. Modern vehicle routing is more focused with the GPS-based coordinate system, as the state-of-the-art vehicle and trucking systems are equipped with digital navigations. In this expository paper, a new two dimensional coordinate-based algorithm for addressing the vehicle routing problem for a supply chain network is proposed and explored, and the algorithm is compared to other available, and recently devised heuristics. For each one of the algorithms discussed, which includes the proposed coordinate-based search heuristic as well, the advantages and the disadvantages associated with the algorithm are explored. The proposed algorithm is studied from the stand point of a small supermarket chain store that supplies to its stores around Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and Ohio area, and is trying to optimize its delivery cost. Minimizing the delivery cost for the supply network of a supermarket chain is important to all tiers of its business success.

Keywords: Vehicle Routing Problem, heuristic algorithm, traveling salesman problem, coordinate-based optimal routing, Hamiltonian circuit

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