Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: linearization

46 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu


In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

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45 Optimal Feedback Linearization Control of PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: E. Shahsavari, R. Ghasemi, A. Akramizadeh


This paper presents a new method to design nonlinear feedback linearization controller for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A nonlinear controller is designed based on nonlinear model to prolong the stack life of PEM fuel cells. Since it is known that large deviations between hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures can cause severe membrane damage in the fuel cell, feedback linearization is applied to the PEM fuel cell system so that the deviation can be kept as small as possible during disturbances or load variations. To obtain an accurate feedback linearization controller, tuning the linear parameters are always important. So in proposed study NSGA_II method was used to tune the designed controller in aim to decrease the controller tracking error. The simulation result showed that the proposed method tuned the controller efficiently.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic model, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, feedback linearization, optimal control, NSGA_II

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44 Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization

Authors: Omid Heydarnia, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, M. R. Sayyed Noorani


Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.

Keywords: underactuated system, biped robot, fuzzy control, partial feedback linearization

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43 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang


A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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42 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.

Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearization

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41 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood


Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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40 Stabilization of Displaced Periodic Orbit Using Feedback Linearization Control Scheme

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav, Badam Singh Kushvah


In the present work, we investigated displaced periodic orbits in the linear order in the circular restricted three-body Sun-Jupiter system, where the third mass-less body utilizes solar electric sail. The electric solar sail is a new space propulsion concept which uses the solar wind momentum for producing thrust, and it is somewhat like to the more well-known solar radiation pressure sail which is often called simply the solar sail. Moreover, we implement the feedback linearization control scheme to perform the stabilization and trajectory tracking for the nonlinear system. Further, we derived periodic orbits analytically in linear order by introducing a first order approximation. These approximate analytic solutions are utilized in a numerical search to determine displaced periodic orbit in the full nonlinear model. We found the displaced periodic orbit for the defined non-linear model and stabilized the model.

Keywords: solar electric sail, circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP), displaced orbit, feedback linearization control

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39 A Comparative Study of Various Control Methods for Rendezvous of a Satellite Couple

Authors: Hasan Basaran, Emre Unal


Formation flying of satellites is a mission that involves a relative position keeping of different satellites in the constellation. In this study, different control algorithms are compared with one another in terms of ΔV, velocity increment, and tracking error. Various control methods, covering continuous and impulsive approaches are implemented and tested for satellites flying in low Earth orbit. Feedback linearization, sliding mode control, and model predictive control are designed and compared with an impulsive feedback law, which is based on mean orbital elements. Feedback linearization and sliding mode control approaches have identical mathematical models that include second order Earth oblateness effects. The model predictive control, on the other hand, does not include any perturbations and assumes circular chief orbit. The comparison is done with 4 different initial errors and achieved with velocity increment, root mean square error, maximum steady state error, and settling time. It was observed that impulsive law consumed the least ΔV, while produced the highest maximum error in the steady state. The continuous control laws, however, consumed higher velocity increments and produced lower amounts of tracking errors. Finally, the inversely proportional relationship between tracking error and velocity increment was established.

Keywords: chief-deputy satellites, feedback linearization, follower-leader satellites, formation flight, fuel consumption, model predictive control, rendezvous, sliding mode

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38 Autonomous Flight Control for Multirotor by Alternative Input Output State Linearization with Nested Saturations

Authors: Yong Eun Yoon, Eric N. Johnson, Liling Ren


Multirotor is one of the most popular types of small unmanned aircraft systems and has already been used in many areas including transport, military, surveillance, and leisure. Together with its popularity, the needs for proper flight control is growing because in most applications it is required to conduct its missions autonomously, which is in many aspects based on autonomous flight control. There have been many studies about the flight control for multirotor, but there is still room for enhancements in terms of performance and efficiency. This paper presents an autonomous flight control method for multirotor based on alternative input output linearization coupled with nested saturations. With alternative choice of the output of the multirotor flight control system, we can reduce computational cost regarding Lie algebra, and the linearized system can be stabilized with the introduction of nested saturations with real poles of our own design. Stabilization of internal dynamics is also based on the nested saturations and accompanies the determination of part of desired states. In particular, outer control loops involving state variables which originally are not included in the output of the flight control system is naturally rendered through this internal dynamics stabilization. We can also observe that desired tilting angles are determined by error dynamics from outer loops. Simulation results show that in any tracking situations multirotor stabilizes itself with small time constants, preceded by tuning process for control parameters with relatively low degree of complexity. Future study includes control of piecewise linear behavior of multirotor with actuator saturations, and the optimal determination of desired states while tracking multiple waypoints.

Keywords: automatic flight control, input output linearization, multirotor, nested saturations

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37 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, A. N. Ouda, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader


Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: UAV, equations of motion, modeling, linearization

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36 Influence of Convective Boundary Condition on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over a Truncated Cone Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chitteti


This article analyzes the mixed convection flow of chemically reacting micropolar fluid over a truncated cone embedded in non-Darcy porous medium with convective boundary condition. In addition, heat generation/absorption and Joule heating effects are taken into consideration. The similarity solution does not exist for this complex fluid flow problem, and hence non-similarity transformations are used to convert the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions into a set of nondimensional partial differential equations. Many authors have been applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters namely, Biot number, mixed convection parameter, heat generation/absorption, Joule heating, Forchheimer number, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, mixed convection, spectral quasi-linearization method

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35 Identification and Control the Yaw Motion Dynamics of Open Frame Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Mirza Mohibulla Baig, Imil Hamda Imran, Tri Bagus Susilo, Sami El Ferik


The paper deals with system identification and control a nonlinear model of semi-autonomous underwater vehicle (UUV). The input-output data is first generated using the experimental values of the model parameters and then this data is used to compute the estimated parameter values. In this study, we use the semi-autonomous UUV LAURS model, which is developed by the Sensors and Actuators Laboratory in University of Sao Paolo. We applied three methods to identify the parameters: integral method, which is a classical least square method, recursive least square, and weighted recursive least square. In this paper, we also apply three different inputs (step input, sine wave input and random input) to each identification method. After the identification stage, we investigate the control performance of yaw motion of nonlinear semi-autonomous Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) using feedback linearization-based controller. In addition, we compare the performance of the control with an integral and a non-integral part along with state feedback. Finally, disturbance rejection and resilience of the controller is tested. The results demonstrate the ability of the system to recover from such fault.

Keywords: system identification, underwater vehicle, integral method, recursive least square, weighted recursive least square, feedback linearization, integral error

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34 Effect of Joule Heating on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over Truncated Cone with Convective Boundary Condition Using Spectral Quasilinearization Method

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chetteti


This work emphasizes the effects of heat generation/absorption and Joule heating on chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow over a truncated cone with convective boundary condition. For this complex fluid flow problem, the similarity solution does not exist and hence using non-similarity transformations, the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of non-dimensional partial differential equations. Several authors have applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The influence of pertinent parameters namely Biot number, Joule heating, heat generation/absorption, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: chemical reaction, convective boundary condition, joule heating, micropolar fluid, spectral quasilinearization method

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33 Heuristic Algorithms for Time Based Weapon-Target Assignment Problem

Authors: Hyun Seop Uhm, Yong Ho Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Young Hoon Lee


Weapon-target assignment (WTA) is a problem that assigns available launchers to appropriate targets in order to defend assets. Various algorithms for WTA have been developed over past years for both in the static and dynamic environment (denoted by SWTA and DWTA respectively). Due to the problem requirement to be solved in a relevant computational time, WTA has suffered from the solution efficiency. As a result, SWTA and DWTA problems have been solved in the limited situation of the battlefield. In this paper, the general situation under continuous time is considered by Time based Weapon Target Assignment (TWTA) problem. TWTA are studied using the mixed integer programming model, and three heuristic algorithms; decomposed opt-opt, decomposed opt-greedy, and greedy algorithms are suggested. Although the TWTA optimization model works inefficiently when it is characterized by a large size, the decomposed opt-opt algorithm based on the linearization and decomposition method extracted efficient solutions in a reasonable computation time. Because the computation time of the scheduling part is too long to solve by the optimization model, several algorithms based on greedy is proposed. The models show lower performance value than that of the decomposed opt-opt algorithm, but very short time is needed to compute. Hence, this paper proposes an improved method by applying decomposition to TWTA, and more practical and effectual methods can be developed for using TWTA on the battlefield.

Keywords: air and missile defense, weapon target assignment, mixed integer programming, piecewise linearization, decomposition algorithm, military operations research

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32 Numerical Iteration Method to Find New Formulas for Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Kholod Mohammad Abualnaja


A new algorithm is presented to find some new iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations F(x)=0 by using the variational iteration method. The efficiency of the considered method is illustrated by example. The results show that the proposed iteration technique, without linearization or small perturbation, is very effective and convenient.

Keywords: variational iteration method, nonlinear equations, Lagrange multiplier, algorithms

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31 Non-Linear Control in Positioning of PMLSM by Estimates of the Load Force by MRAS Method

Authors: Maamar Yahiaoui, Abdelrrahmene Kechich, Ismail Elkhallile Bousserhene


This article presents a study in simulation by means of MATLAB/Simulink software of the nonlinear control in positioning of a linear synchronous machine with the esteemed force of load, to have effective control in the estimator in all tests the wished trajectory follows and the disturbance of load start. The results of simulation prove clearly that the control proposed can detect the reference of positioning the value estimates of load force equal to the actual value.

Keywords: mathematical model, Matlab, PMLSM, control, linearization, estimator, force, load, current

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30 A Dynamical Study of Fractional Order Obesity Model by a Combined Legendre Wavelet Method

Authors: Hakiki Kheira, Belhamiti Omar


In this paper, we propose a new compartmental fractional order model for the simulation of epidemic obesity dynamics. Using the Legendre wavelet method combined with the decoupling and quasi-linearization technique, we demonstrate the validity and applicability of our model. We also present some fractional differential illustrative examples to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the method. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.

Keywords: Caputo derivative, epidemiology, Legendre wavelet method, obesity

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29 Low Power, Highly Linear, Wideband LNA in Wireless SOC

Authors: Amir Mahdavi


In this paper a highly linear CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed. The proposed LNA uses a linearization technique to improve second and third-order intercept points (IIP3). The linearity is cured by repealing the common-mode section of all intermodulation components from the cascade topology current with optimization of biasing current use symmetrical and asymmetrical circuits for biasing. Simulation results show that maximum gain and noise figure are 6.9dB and 3.03-4.1dB over a 3.1–10.6 GHz, respectively. Power consumption of the LNA core and IIP3 are 2.64 mW and +4.9dBm respectively. The wideband input impedance matching of LNA is obtained by employing a degenerating inductor (|S11|<-9.1 dB). The circuit proposed UWB LNA is implemented using 0.18 μm based CMOS technology.

Keywords: highly linear LNA, low-power LNA, optimal bias techniques

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28 Residual Power Series Method for System of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Zuhier Altawallbeh


This paper investigates the approximate analytical solutions of general form of Volterra integro-differential equations system by using the residual power series method (for short RPSM). The proposed method produces the solutions in terms of convergent series requires no linearization or small perturbation and reproduces the exact solution when the solution is polynomial. Some examples are given to demonstrate the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed method. Comparisons with the Laplace decomposition algorithm verify that the new method is very effective and convenient for solving system of pantograph equations.

Keywords: integro-differential equation, pantograph equations, system of initial value problems, residual power series method

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27 Magnetohydrodynamic Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Sheet

Authors: Raj Nandkeolyar, Precious Sibanda


The flow of a viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid under the influence of aligned magnetic field acting along the direction of fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated numerically. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the flow model is transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation and the solution is obtained using a local linearization method followed by the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The effects of various parameters affecting the flow and heat transfer as well as the induced magnetic field are discussed using suitable graphs and tables.

Keywords: aligned magnetic field, exponentially stretching sheet, induced magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic flow

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26 Design of an Augmented Automatic Choosing Control with Constrained Input by Lyapunov Functions Using Gradient Optimization Automatic Choosing Functions

Authors: Toshinori Nawata


In this paper a nonlinear feedback control called augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for a class of nonlinear systems with constrained input is presented. When designing the control, a constant term which arises from linearization of a given nonlinear system is treated as a coefficient of a stable zero dynamics. Parameters of the control are suboptimally selected by maximizing the stable region in the sense of Lyapunov with the aid of a genetic algorithm. This approach is applied to a field excitation control problem of power system to demonstrate the splendidness of the AACC. Simulation results show that the new controller can improve performance remarkably well.

Keywords: augmented automatic choosing control, nonlinear control, genetic algorithm, zero dynamics

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25 A Filtering Algorithm for a Nonlinear State-Space Model

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei


Kalman filter is a famous algorithm that utilizes to estimate the state in the linear systems. It has numerous applications in technology and science. Since of the most of applications in real life can be described by nonlinear systems. So, Kalman filter does not work with the nonlinear systems because it is suitable to linear systems only. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is presented which is suitable to use with the special kinds of nonlinear systems. This filter generalizes the Kalman filter. This means that this filter also can be used for the linear systems. Our algorithm depends on a special linearization of the second degree. We introduced the nonlinear algorithm with a bilinear state-space model. A simulation example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: Kalman filter, filtering algorithm, nonlinear systems, state-space model

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24 Multi-Agent Coverage Control with Bounded Gain Forgetting Composite Adaptive Controller

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas


In this paper, we present an adaptive controller for decentralized coordination problem of multiple non-holonomic agents. The performance of the presented Multi-Agent Bounded Gain Forgetting (BGF) Composite Adaptive controller is compared against the tracking error criterion with a Feedback Linearization controller. By using the method, the sensor nodes move and reconfigure themselves in a coordinated way in response to a sensed environment. The multi-agent coordination is achieved through Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations and Coverage Control. Also, a consensus protocol is used for synchronization of the parameter vectors. The two controllers are given with their Lyapunov stability analysis and their stability is verified with simulation results. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB and ROS environments. Better performance is obtained with BGF Adaptive Controller.

Keywords: adaptive control, centroidal voronoi tessellations, composite adaptation, coordination, multi robots

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23 A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments

Authors: Haijie Li, Xuping Zhang


This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.

Keywords: flexible manipulator, transfer matrix method, linearization, finite segment method

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22 Modelling the Effect of Distancing and Wearing of Face Masks on Transmission of COVID-19 Infection Dynamics

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi


The COVID-19 is an infection caused by coronavirus, which has been designated as a pandemic in the world. In this paper, we proposed a model to study the effect of distancing and wearing masks on the transmission of COVID-19 infection dynamics. The invariant region of the model is established. The COVID-19 free equilibrium and the reproduction number of the model were obtained. The local and global stability of the model is determined using the linearization technique method and Lyapunov method. It was found that COVID-19 free equilibrium state is locally asymptotically stable in feasible region Ω if R₀ < 1 and globally asymptomatically stable if R₀ < 1, otherwise unstable if R₀ > 1. More so, numerical analysis and simulations of the dynamics of the COVID-19 infection are presented.

Keywords: distancing, reproduction number, wearing of mask, local and global stability, modelling, transmission

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21 Design and Simulation of Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning System Based on Improved Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Abbas Anser, Ahmad Irfan


The main purpose of the VAV (Variable Air Volume) in Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to reduce energy consumption and make the buildings comfortable for the occupants. For better performance of the air conditioning system, different control techniques have been developed. In this paper, an Improved Sliding Mode Control (ISMC), based on Power Rate Exponential Reaching Law (PRERL), has been implemented on a VAV air conditioning system. Through the proposed technique, fast response and robustness have been achieved. To verify the efficacy of ISMC, a comparison of the suggested control technique has been made with Exponential Reaching Law (ERL) based SMC. And secondly, chattering, which is unfavorable as it deteriorates the mechanical parts of the air conditioning system by the continuous movement of the mechanical parts and consequently it increases the energy loss in the air conditioning system, has been alleviated. MATLAB/SIMULINK results show the effectiveness of the utilized scheme, which ensures the enhancement of the energy efficiency of the VAV air conditioning system.

Keywords: PID, SMC, HVAC, PRERL, feedback linearization, VAV, chattering

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20 Research on Development and Accuracy Improvement of an Explosion Proof Combustible Gas Leak Detector Using an IR Sensor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Seungho Han, Byungduk Kim, Youngdo Jo, Yongsop Shim, Yeonjae Lee, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park


In this paper, we presented not only development technology of an explosion proof type and portable combustible gas leak detector but also algorithm to improve accuracy for measuring gas concentrations. The presented techniques are to apply the flame-proof enclosure and intrinsic safe explosion proof to an infrared gas leak detector at first in Korea and to improve accuracy using linearization recursion equation and Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Together, we tested sensor characteristics and calibrated suitable input gases and output voltages. Then, we advanced the performances of combustible gaseous detectors through reflecting demands of gas safety management fields. To check performances of two company's detectors, we achieved the measurement tests with eight standard gases made by Korea Gas Safety Corporation. We demonstrated our instruments better in detecting accuracy other than detectors through experimental results.

Keywords: accuracy improvement, IR gas sensor, gas leak, detector

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19 Interactive Solutions for the Multi-Objective Capacitated Transportation Problem with Mixed Constraints under Fuzziness

Authors: Aquil Ahmed, Srikant Gupta, Irfan Ali


In this paper, we study a multi-objective capacitated transportation problem (MOCTP) with mixed constraints. This paper is comprised of the modelling and optimisation of an MOCTP in a fuzzy environment in which some goals are fractional and some are linear. In real life application of the fuzzy goal programming (FGP) problem with multiple objectives, it is difficult for the decision maker(s) to determine the goal value of each objective precisely as the goal values are imprecise or uncertain. Also, we developed the concept of linearization of fractional goal for solving the MOCTP. In this paper, imprecision of the parameter is handled by the concept of fuzzy set theory by considering these parameters as a trapezoidal fuzzy number. α-cut approach is used to get the crisp value of the parameters. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the method for solving MOCTP.

Keywords: capacitated transportation problem, multi objective linear programming, multi-objective fractional programming, fuzzy goal programming, fuzzy sets, trapezoidal fuzzy number

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18 Effects of Daily Temperature Changes on Transient Heat and Moisture Transport in Unsaturated Soils

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Ali Pak, Mehrdad Jafarzadeh


This research contains the formulation of a two-dimensional analytical solution to transient heat, and moisture flow in a semi-infinite unsaturated soil environment under the influence of daily temperature changes. For this purpose, coupled energy conservation and mass fluid continuity equations governing hydrothermal behavior of unsaturated soil media are presented in terms of temperature and volumetric moisture content. In consideration of the soil environment as an infinite half-space and by linearization of the governing equations, Laplace–Fourier transformation is conducted to convert differential equations with partial derivatives (PDEs) to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The obtained ODEs are solved, and the inverse transformations are calculated to determine the solution to the system of equations. Results indicate that heat variation induces moisture transport in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Keywords: analytical solution, heat conduction, hydrothermal analysis, laplace–fourier transformation, two-dimensional

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17 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park


This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented Kalman filter

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