Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17023

Search results for: single layer model

17023 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), tungsten oxide, WO₃, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
17022 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya

Abstract:

The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
17021 The Gradient Complex Protective Coatings for Single Crystal Nickel Alloys

Authors: Evgeniya Popova, Vladimir Lesnikov, Nikolay Popov

Abstract:

High yield complex coatings have been designed for thermally stressed cooled HP turbine blades from single crystal alloys ZHS32-VI-VI and ZHS36 with crystallographic orientation [001]. These coatings provide long-term protection of single crystal blades during operation. The three-layer coatings were prepared as follows: the diffusion barrier layer formation on the alloy surface, the subsequent deposition of the condensed bilayer coatings consisting of an inner layer based on Ni-Cr-Al-Y systems and an outer layer based on the alloyed β-phase. The structure, phase composition of complex coatings and reaction zone interaction with the single-crystal alloys ZHS32-VI and ZHS36-VI were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of complex protective coatings on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys was studied.

Keywords: single crystal nickel alloys, complex heat-resistant coatings, structure, phase composition, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
17020 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
17019 Double Layer Security Model for Identification Friend or Foe

Authors: Buse T. Aydın, Enver Ozdemir

Abstract:

In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircraft from introducing themselves as friends. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or foe according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as a friend. In this method, even if embedded key is captured by the enemy aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the enemy can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a more reliable system by adding a physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
17018 Approach to Study the Workability of Concrete with the Fractal Model

Authors: Achouri Fatima, Chouicha Kaddour

Abstract:

The main parameters affecting the workability are the water content, particle size, and the total surface of the grains, as long as the mixing water begins by wetting the surface of the grains and then fills the voids between the grains to form entrapped water, the quantity of water remaining is called free water. The aim is to undertake a fractal approach through the relationship between the concrete formulation parameters and workability, to develop this approach a series of concrete taken from the literature was investigated by varying formulation parameters such as G / S, the quantity of cement C and the quantity of mixing water E. We also call on other model as the model for the thickness of the water layer and model of the thickness of the paste layer to judge their relevance, hence the following results : the relevance of the model of the thickness of the water layer is considered relevant when there is a variation in the water quantity, the model of the thickness of the layer of the paste is only applicable if we consider that the paste is made with the grain value Dmax = 2.85: value from which we see a stable model.

Keywords: concrete, fractal method, paste thickness, water thickness, workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
17017 MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: phase locked loop, voltage source inverter, single phase inverter, model predictive control, Matlab/Simulink

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
17016 Number of Parameters of Anantharam's Model with Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the parametrization of Anantharam’s model within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters of Anantharam’s model. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: linear systems, parametrization, coprime factorization, number of parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
17015 A Meso Macro Model Prediction of Laminated Composite Damage Elastic Behaviour

Authors: A. Hocine, A. Ghouaoula, S. M. Medjdoub, M. Cherifi

Abstract:

The present paper proposed a meso–macro model describing the mechanical behaviour composite laminates of staking sequence [+θ/-θ]s under tensil loading. The behaviour of a layer is ex-pressed through elasticity coupled to damage. The elastic strain is due to the elasticity of the layer and can be modeled by using the classical laminate theory, and the laminate is considered as an orthotropic material. This means that no coupling effect between strain and curvature is considered. In the present work, the damage is associated to cracking of the matrix and parallel to the fibers and it being taken into account by the changes in the stiffness of the layers. The anisotropic damage is completely described by a single scalar variable and its evolution law is specified from the principle of maximum dissipation. The stress/strain relationship is investigated in plane stress loading.

Keywords: damage, behavior modeling, meso-macro model, composite laminate, membrane loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
17014 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution

Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero

Abstract:

The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.

Keywords: activation energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer models

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
17013 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield stress of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigate that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
17012 A New Mathematical Model of Human Olfaction

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan

Abstract:

It is known that in humans, the adaptation to a given odor occurs within a quite short span of time (typically one minute) after the odor is presented to the brain. Different models of human olfaction have been developed by scientists but none of these models consider the diffusion phenomenon in olfaction. A novel microscopic model of the human olfaction is presented in this paper. We develop this model by incorporating the transient diffusivity. In fact, the mathematical model is written based on diffusion of the odorant within the mucus layer. By the use of the model developed in this paper, it becomes possible to provide quantification of the objective strength of odor.

Keywords: diffusion, microscopic model, mucus layer, olfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
17011 Mechanical Behavior of PVD Single Layer and Multilayer under Indentation Tests

Authors: K. Kaouther, D. Hafedh, A. Ben Cheikh Larbi

Abstract:

Various structures and compositions thin films were deposited on 100C6 (AISI 52100) steel substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The morphological proprieties were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vickers microindentation tests were performed with a Shimadzu HMV-2000 hardness testing machine. Hardness measurement was carried out using Jonsson and Hogmark model. The results show that the coatings topography was dominated by domes and craters. Mechanical behavior and failure modes under microindentation were depending of coatings structure and composition. TiAlN multilayer showed exception in the microindentation resistance compared to TiN single layer and TiAlN/TiAlN nanolayer. Piled structure provides an increase of failure resistance and a decrease in cracks propagation.

Keywords: PVD thin films, multilayer, microindentation, cracking, damage mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
17010 Unsupervised Feature Learning by Pre-Route Simulation of Auto-Encoder Behavior Model

Authors: Youngjae Jin, Daeshik Kim

Abstract:

This paper describes a cycle accurate simulation results of weight values learned by an auto-encoder behavior model in terms of pre-route simulation. Given the results we visualized the first layer representations with natural images. Many common deep learning threads have focused on learning high-level abstraction of unlabeled raw data by unsupervised feature learning. However, in the process of handling such a huge amount of data, the learning method’s computation complexity and time limited advanced research. These limitations came from the fact these algorithms were computed by using only single core CPUs. For this reason, parallel-based hardware, FPGAs, was seen as a possible solution to overcome these limitations. We adopted and simulated the ready-made auto-encoder to design a behavior model in Verilog HDL before designing hardware. With the auto-encoder behavior model pre-route simulation, we obtained the cycle accurate results of the parameter of each hidden layer by using MODELSIM. The cycle accurate results are very important factor in designing a parallel-based digital hardware. Finally this paper shows an appropriate operation of behavior model based pre-route simulation. Moreover, we visualized learning latent representations of the first hidden layer with Kyoto natural image dataset.

Keywords: auto-encoder, behavior model simulation, digital hardware design, pre-route simulation, Unsupervised feature learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
17009 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
17008 Single-Crystal Kerfless 2D Array Transducer for Volumetric Medical Imaging: Theoretical Study

Authors: Jurij Tasinkiewicz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of a 2D ultrasound transducer comprised of crossed arrays of metal strips placed on both sides of thin piezoelectric layer (a). Such a structure is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave beam both in elevation and azimuth. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of the considered transducer is developed. It is based on generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. Specifically, applying the electrostatic approximation, the electric field components on the surface of the layer are expanded into fast converging series of double periodic spatial harmonics with corresponding amplitudes represented by the properly chosen Legendre polynomials. The problem is reduced to numerical solving of certain system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients.

Keywords: beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion, piezoelectric layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
17007 Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: R. Pilafkan, M. Kaffash Irzarahimi, S. F. Asbaghian Namin

Abstract:

The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.

Keywords: biaxial buckling, single-layered graphene sheets, nonlocal elasticity, molecular dynamics simulation, classical plate theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
17006 Bonding Characteristics Between FRP and Concrete Substrates

Authors: Houssam A. Toutanji, Meng Han

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development of a fracture mechanics based-model that predicts the debonding behavior of FRP strengthened RC beams. In this study, a database includes 351 concrete prisms bonded with FRP plates tested in single and double shear were prepared. The existing fracture-mechanics-based models are applied to this database. Unfortunately the properties of adhesive layer, especially a soft adhesive layer, used on the specimens in the existing studies were not always able to found. Thus, the new model’s proposal was based on fifteen newly conducted pullout tests and twenty four data selected from two independent existing studies with the application of a soft adhesive layers and the availability of adhesive properties.

Keywords: carbon fiber composite materials, interface response, fracture characteristics, maximum shear stress, ultimate transferable load

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
17005 The Temperature Effects on the Microstructure and Profile in Laser Cladding

Authors: P. C. Chiu, Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In this study, a 50-W CO2 laser was used for the clad of 304L powders on the stainless steel substrate with a temperature sensor and image monitoring system. The laser power and cladding speed and focal position were modified to achieve the requirement of the workpiece flatness and mechanical properties. The numerical calculation is based on ANSYS to analyze the temperature change of the moving heat source at different surface positions when coating the workpiece, and the effect of the process parameters on the bath size was discussed. The temperature of stainless steel powder in the nozzle outlet reacting with the laser was simulated as a process parameter. In the experiment, the difference of the thermal conductivity in three-dimensional space is compared with single-layer cladding and multi-layer cladding. The heat dissipation pattern of the single-layer cladding is the steel plate and the multi-layer coating is the workpiece itself. The relationship between the multi-clad temperature and the profile was analyzed by the temperature signal from an IR pyrometer.

Keywords: laser cladding, temperature, profile, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
17004 Stress Analysis of Tubular Bonded Joints under Torsion and Hygrothermal Effects Using DQM

Authors: Mansour Mohieddin Ghomshei, Reza Shahi

Abstract:

Laminated composite tubes with adhesively bonded joints are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries as well as oil and gas industries. In this research, adhesively tubular single lap joints subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The analysis is based on the classical shell theory. At first, an approximate closed form solution is developed by omitting the lateral deflections in the connecting tubes. Using the analytical model, the circumferential displacements in tubes and the shear stresses in the interfacing adhesive layer are determined. Then, a numerical formulation is presented using DQM in which the lateral deflections are taken into account. By using the DQM formulation, the circumferential and radial displacements in tubes as well as shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer are calculated. Results obtained from the proposed DQM solutions are compared well with those of the approximate analytical model and those of some published references. Finally using the DQM model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters such as adhesive layer thickness, torsional loading, overlap length, tubes radii, relative humidity, and temperature.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joint, differential quadrature method (DQM), hygrothermal, laminated composite tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
17003 Local Image Features Emerging from Brain Inspired Multi-Layer Neural Network

Authors: Hui Wei, Zheng Dong

Abstract:

Object recognition has long been a challenging task in computer vision. Yet the human brain, with the ability to rapidly and accurately recognize visual stimuli, manages this task effortlessly. In the past decades, advances in neuroscience have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying visual processing. In this paper, we present a novel model inspired by the visual pathway in primate brains. This multi-layer neural network model imitates the hierarchical convergent processing mechanism in the visual pathway. We show that local image features generated by this model exhibit robust discrimination and even better generalization ability compared with some existing image descriptors. We also demonstrate the application of this model in an object recognition task on image data sets. The result provides strong support for the potential of this model.

Keywords: biological model, feature extraction, multi-layer neural network, object recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
17002 Nice Stadium: Design of a Flat Single Layer ETFE Roof

Authors: A. Escoffier, A. Albrecht, F. Consigny

Abstract:

In order to host the Football Euro in 2016, many French cities have launched architectural competitions in recent years to improve the quality of their stadiums. The winning project in Nice was designed by Wilmotte architects together with Elioth structural engineers. It has a capacity of 35,000 seats. Its roof structure consists of a complex 3D shape timber and steel lattice and is covered by 25,000m² of ETFE, 10,500m² of PES-PVC fabric and 8,500m² of photovoltaic panels. This paper focuses on the ETFE part of the cover. The stadium is one of the first constructions to use flat single layer ETFE on such a big area. Due to its relatively recent appearance in France, ETFE structures are not yet covered by any regulations and the existing codes for fabric structures cannot be strictly applied. Rather, they are considered as cladding systems and therefore have to be approved by an “Appréciation Technique d’Expérimentation” (ATEx), during which experimental tests have to be performed. We explain the method that we developed to justify the ETFE, which eventually led to bi-axial tests to clarify the allowable stress in the film.

Keywords: biaxial test, creep, ETFE, single layer, stadium roof

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
17001 Characterizing the Diffused Double Layer Properties of Clay Minerals

Authors: N. Saranya

Abstract:

The difference in characteristic behavior of clay minerals for different electrolyte solution is dictated by the corresponding variation occurring at its diffused double layer thickness (DDL). The diffused double layer of clay mineral has two distinct regions; the inner region is termed as ‘Stern layer’ where ions are strongly attached to the clay surface. In the outer region, the ions are not strongly bonded with the clay surface, and this region is termed as ‘diffuse layer’. Within the diffuse layer, there is a plane that forms a boundary between the moving ions and the ions attached to the clay surface, which is termed as slipping or shear plane, and the potential of this plane is defined as zeta potential (ζ). Therefore, the variation in diffused double layer properties of clay mineral for different electrolyte solutions can be modeled if the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential are computed. In view of this, the present study has attempted to characterize the diffused double layer properties of three different clay minerals interacting with different pore fluids by measuring the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential. Further, the obtained variation in the diffused double layer property is compared with the Gouy-Chapman model, which is the widely accepted theoretical model to characterize the diffused double layer properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: DDL, surface charge, surface potential, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
17000 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
16999 Modelling and Optimisation of Floating Drum Biogas Reactor

Authors: L. Rakesh, T. Y. Heblekar

Abstract:

This study entails the development and optimization of a mathematical model for a floating drum biogas reactor from first principles using thermal and empirical considerations. The model was derived on the basis of mass conservation, lumped mass heat transfer formulations and empirical biogas formation laws. The treatment leads to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose solution mapped four-time independent controllable parameters to five output variables which adequately serve to describe the reactor performance. These equations were solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method for a range of input parameter values. Using the data so obtained an Artificial Neural Network with a single hidden layer was trained using Levenberg-Marquardt Damped Least Squares (DLS) algorithm. This network was then fine-tuned for optimal mapping by varying hidden layer size. This fast forward model was then employed as a health score generator in the Bacterial Foraging Optimization code. The optimal operating state of the simplified Biogas reactor was thus obtained.

Keywords: biogas, floating drum reactor, neural network model, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
16998 Double Layer Security Authentication Model for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast

Authors: Buse T. Aydin, Enver Ozdemir

Abstract:

An automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system has serious security problems. In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and ground station, aircraft to aircraft, ground station to ATC tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircrafts from introducing themselves as friends. This method can be used as a solution to the problem of authentication. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or unknown according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as friend. As a result, the ADS-B messages coming from this authenticated friendly aircraft will be processed. In this method, even if the embedded key is captured by the unknown aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the unknown aircraft can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a reliable system by adding physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, authentication, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
16997 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
16996 Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Shamsher Sadiq, Meer H. Khan

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.

Keywords: effective stress, excess pore pressure ratio, pore pressure model, site response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
16995 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao

Abstract:

Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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16994 Two Layer Photo-Thermal Deflection Model to Investigate the Electronic Properties in BGaAs/GaAs Alloys

Authors: S. Ilahi, M. Baira, F. Saidi, N. Yacoubi, L. Auvray, H. Maaref

Abstract:

Photo-thermal deflection technique (PTD) is used to study the nonradiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloy with boron composition of 3% and 8% grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A two layer theoretical model has been developed taking into account both thermal and electronic contribution in the photothermal signal allowing to extract the electronic parameters namely electronic diffusivity, surface and interface recombination. It is found that the increase of boron composition alters the BGaAs epilayers transport properties.

Keywords: photothermal defelction technique, two layer model, BGaAs/GaAs alloys, boron composition

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