Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: satellites

110 Collocation Assessment between GEO and GSO Satellites

Authors: A. E. Emam, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

The change in orbit evolution between collocated satellites (X, Y) inside +/-0.09 ° E/W and +/- 0.07 ° N/S cluster, after one of these satellites is placed in an inclined orbit (satellite X) and the effect of this change in the collocation safety inside the cluster window has been studied and evaluated. Several collocation scenarios had been studied in order to adjust the location of both satellites inside their cluster to maximize the separation between them and safe the mission.

Keywords: satellite, GEO, collocation, risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
109 Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration Based on Novel Approaches

Authors: Alex Ellery

Abstract:

Solar power satellites (SPS), despite their promise as a clean energy source, have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current $20,000/kg to < $200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to $2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to ~$1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies – in-situ resource utilization and 3D printing. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities for providing additional options for combating climate change whilst meeting demands for global energy. From the constraints imposed by in-situ resource utilization, a novel approach to solar energy conversion in SPS may be realized.

Keywords: clean energy sources, in-situ resource utilisation, solar power satellites, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
108 Some Aspects on Formation Initialization and Its Maintenance of Leo Satellites

Authors: Y. Johnson

Abstract:

Study of multi-satellite formation flight systems has drawn wide attention recently due to so many potential advantages. The present work aims to model the relative motion dynamics in terms of change in classical orbital parameters between the two satellites-chief and deputy- under Earth’s oblateness effect. The required impulsive thrust control is calculated to minimize these orbital parameter changes. The formation configuration is initialized by selecting a set of orbital parameters for the chief and deputy satellites such that bounded motion is maintained for a long time in a J_2-invariant relative non-circular orbit between the satellites. The solution of J_2-modified Hill’s equations is also derived in this paper.

Keywords: satellite, formation flight, j2 effect, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
107 Design of a Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Radio-Frequency Receiver for Small Satellites Based on Commercial Off-The-Shelf Components

Authors: A. Lovascio, A. D’Orazio, V. Centonze

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From several years till now the aerospace industry is developing more and more small satellites for Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) missions. Such satellites have a low cost of making and launching since they have a size and weight smaller than other types of satellites. However, because of size limitations, small satellites need integrated electronic equipment based on digital logic. Moreover, the LEOs require telecommunication modules with high throughput to transmit to earth a big amount of data in a short time. In order to meet such requirements, in this paper we propose a Telemetry, Tracking & Command module optimized through the use of the Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The proposed approach exploits the major flexibility offered by these components in reducing costs and optimizing the performance. The method has been applied in detail for the design of the front-end receiver, which has a low noise figure (1.5 dB) and DC power consumption (smaller than 2 W). Such a performance is particularly attractive since it allows fulfilling the energy budget stringent constraints that are typical for LEO small platforms.

Keywords: COTS, LEO, small-satellite, TT&C

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
106 Time Optimal Control Mode Switching between Detumbling and Pointing in the Early Orbit Phase

Authors: W. M. Ng, O. B. Iskender, L. Simonini, J. M. Gonzalez

Abstract:

A multitude of factors, including mechanical imperfections of the deployment system and separation instance of satellites from launchers, oftentimes results in highly uncontrolled initial tumbling motion immediately after deployment. In particular, small satellites which are characteristically launched as a piggyback to a large rocket, are generally allocated a large time window to complete detumbling within the early orbit phase. Because of the saturation risk of the actuators, current algorithms are conservative to avoid draining excessive power in the detumbling phase. This work aims to enable time-optimal switching of control modes during the early phase, reducing the time required to transit from launch to sun-pointing mode for power budget conscious satellites. This assumes the usage of B-dot controller for detumbling and PD controller for pointing. Nonlinear Euler's rotation equations are used to represent the attitude dynamics of satellites and Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) reaction wheels and magnetorquers are used to perform the manoeuver. Simulation results will be based on a spacecraft attitude simulator and the use case will be for multiple orbits of launch deployment general to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites.

Keywords: attitude control, detumbling, small satellites, spacecraft autonomy, time optimal control

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105 Heat Pipe Production and Life Performance Tests in Geosynchronous Telecom Satellites

Authors: Erkam Arslantas

Abstract:

Heat pipes one of the thermal control elements are used in communication satellites. A selection of the heat pipes of satellite thermal design will be emphasized how important and effective it is. In this article, manufacturing and performance control tests of heat pipes are reviewed from the current literature. The heat pipe is expected to function efficiently during all missions of the spacecraft from Beginning of Life (BOL) to End of Life (EOL). There are many parameters that are evaluated in manufacturing and performance control tests of the heat pipes which are used in satellites. These parameters are pressure design, leakage, noncondensable gas level (N.C.G), sine vibration, shock and static load capabilities, aging, bending, proof, final test etc. These parameters will be explained separately for the heat pipes in this review article and young researches working on the thermal control system of Geosynchronous Satellites systems can find easily related information in this article.

Keywords: communication satellite, heat pipe, performance test, thermal control

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
104 Designing and Costing the Concept of Servicer Satellites That Can Be Used to De-Orbit Space Debris

Authors: Paras Adlakha

Abstract:

Today the major threat to our existing and future satellites is space debris; the collision of bodies like defunct satellites with any other objects in space, including the new age ASAT (anti-satellite) weaponry system, are the main causes of the increasing amount of space debris every year. After analyzing the current situation of space debris, low earth orbit is found to be having a large density of debris as compared to any other orbit range; that's why it is selected as the target orbit for space debris removal mission. In this paper, the complete data of 24000 debris is studied based on size, altitude, inclination, mass, number of existing satellites threaten by each debris from which the rocket bodies are the type of wreckage found to be most suited for removal. The optimal method of active debris removal using a robotic arm for capturing the body to attach a de-orbit kit is used to move the debris from its orbit without making the actual contact of servicer with the debris to reduce the further the threat of collision with defunct material. The major factors which are brought into consideration while designing the concept of debris removal are tumbling, removal of debris under a low-cost mission and decreasing the factor of collisions during the mission.

Keywords: de-orbit, debris, servicer, satellite, space junk

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103 Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System

Authors: Celal Dudak, Aslı Utku, Burak Yağlioğlu

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Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.

Keywords: communication, GEO satellite, data relay system, coverage

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
102 Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Kazuma Okada, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara

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Recently, the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for linear feedback control systems has been shown in several papers. However, the random dither quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators. Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites using discrete-level actuators.

Keywords: quantized control, nonlinear systems, random dither quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
101 Tailoring of ECSS Standard for Space Qualification Test of CubeSat Nano-Satellite

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, G. Sisinni

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There is an increasing demand of nano-satellite development among universities, small companies, and emerging countries. Low-cost and fast-delivery are the main advantages of such class of satellites achieved by the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components. On the other side, the loss of reliability and the poor success rate are limiting the use of nano-satellite to educational and technology demonstration and not to the commercial purpose. Standardization of nano-satellite environmental testing by tailoring the existing test standard for medium/large satellites is then a crucial step for their market growth. Thus, it is fundamental to find the right trade-off between the improvement of reliability and the need to keep their low-cost/fast-delivery advantages. This is particularly even more essential for satellites of CubeSat family. Such miniaturized and standardized satellites have 10 cm cubic form and mass no more than 1.33 kilograms per 1 unit (1U). For this class of nano-satellites, the qualification process is mandatory to reduce the risk of failure during a space mission. This paper reports the description and results of the space qualification test campaign performed on Endurosat’s CubeSat nano-satellite and modules. Mechanical and environmental tests have been carried out step by step: from the testing of the single subsystem up to the assembled CubeSat nano-satellite. Functional tests have been performed during all the test campaign to verify the functionalities of the systems. The test duration and levels have been selected by tailoring the European Space Agency standard ECSS-E-ST-10-03C and GEVS: GSFC-STD-7000A.

Keywords: CubeSat, nano-satellite, shock, testing, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
100 A Comparative Study of Various Control Methods for Rendezvous of a Satellite Couple

Authors: Hasan Basaran, Emre Unal

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Formation flying of satellites is a mission that involves a relative position keeping of different satellites in the constellation. In this study, different control algorithms are compared with one another in terms of ΔV, velocity increment, and tracking error. Various control methods, covering continuous and impulsive approaches are implemented and tested for satellites flying in low Earth orbit. Feedback linearization, sliding mode control, and model predictive control are designed and compared with an impulsive feedback law, which is based on mean orbital elements. Feedback linearization and sliding mode control approaches have identical mathematical models that include second order Earth oblateness effects. The model predictive control, on the other hand, does not include any perturbations and assumes circular chief orbit. The comparison is done with 4 different initial errors and achieved with velocity increment, root mean square error, maximum steady state error, and settling time. It was observed that impulsive law consumed the least ΔV, while produced the highest maximum error in the steady state. The continuous control laws, however, consumed higher velocity increments and produced lower amounts of tracking errors. Finally, the inversely proportional relationship between tracking error and velocity increment was established.

Keywords: chief-deputy satellites, feedback linearization, follower-leader satellites, formation flight, fuel consumption, model predictive control, rendezvous, sliding mode

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99 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park

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This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented Kalman filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
98 Flywheel Energy Storage Control Using SVPWM for Small Satellites Application

Authors: Noha El-Gohary, Thanaa El-Shater, A. A. Mahfouz, M. M. Sakr

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Searching for high power conversion efficiency and long lifetime are important goals when designing a power supply subsystem for satellite applications. To fulfill these goals, this paper presents a power supply subsystem for small satellites in which flywheel energy storage system is used as a secondary power source instead of chemical battery. In this paper, the model of flywheel energy storage system is introduced; a DC bus regulation control algorithm for charging and discharging of flywheel based on space vector pulse width modulation technique and motor current control is also introduced. Simulation results showed the operation of the flywheel for charging and discharging mode during illumination and shadowed period. The advantages of the proposed system are confirmed by the simulation results of the power supply system.

Keywords: small-satellites, flywheel energy storage system, space vector pulse width modulation, power conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
97 Regulatory Guidelines to Support the Design of Nanosatellite Projects in Mexican Academic Contexts

Authors: Alvaro Armenta-Ramade, Arturo Serrano-Santoyo, Veronica Rojas-Mendizabal, Roberto Conte-Galvan

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The availability and affordability of commercial off-the-shell products have brought a major impetus in the development of university projects related to the design, construction and launching of small satellites on a global scale. Universities in emerging economies as well as in least developed countries have been able to develop prototypes of small satellites (cubesats and cansats) with limited budgets. The experience gained in the development of small satellites gives rise to capacity building for designing more complex aerospace systems. This trend has significantly increased the pace and number of aerospace university projects around the world. In the case of Mexico, projects funded by different agencies have been very effective in accelerating the capacity building and technology transfer initiatives in the aerospace ecosystem. However, many of this initiatives have centered their efforts in technology development matters with minimum or no considerations of key regulatory issues related to frequency assignment, management and licensing, as well as launching requirements and measures of mitigation of space debris. These regulatory concerns are fundamental to accomplish successful missions that take into account the complete value chain of an aerospace project. The purpose of this paper is to develop a regulatory framework to support the efforts of educational institutions working on the development of small satellites in Mexico. We base our framework on recommendations from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and other major actors of the Mexican regulatory ecosystem. In order to develop an integrated and cohesive framework, we draw on complexity science to identify the agents, their role and interactions. Our goal is to create a guiding instrument available both in print and online that can also be used in other regions of the world

Keywords: capacity building, complexity science, cubesats, space regulations, small satellites

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
96 Comparison of Extended Kalman Filter and Unscented Kalman Filter for Autonomous Orbit Determination of Lagrangian Navigation Constellation

Authors: Youtao Gao, Bingyu Jin, Tanran Zhao, Bo Xu

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The history of satellite navigation can be dated back to the 1960s. From the U.S. Transit system and the Russian Tsikada system to the modern Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS), performance of satellite navigation has been greatly improved. Nowadays, the navigation accuracy and coverage of these existing systems have already fully fulfilled the requirement of near-Earth users, but these systems are still beyond the reach of deep space targets. Due to the renewed interest in space exploration, a novel high-precision satellite navigation system is becoming even more important. The increasing demand for such a deep space navigation system has contributed to the emergence of a variety of new constellation architectures, such as the Lunar Global Positioning System. Apart from a Walker constellation which is similar to the one adopted by GPS on Earth, a novel constellation architecture which consists of libration point satellites in the Earth-Moon system is also available to construct the lunar navigation system, which can be called accordingly, the libration point satellite navigation system. The concept of using Earth-Moon libration point satellites for lunar navigation was first proposed by Farquhar and then followed by many other researchers. Moreover, due to the special characteristics of Libration point orbits, an autonomous orbit determination technique, which is called ‘Liaison navigation’, can be adopted by the libration point satellites. Using only scalar satellite-to-satellite tracking data, both the orbits of the user and libration point satellites can be determined autonomously. In this way, the extensive Earth-based tracking measurement can be eliminated, and an autonomous satellite navigation system can be developed for future space exploration missions. The method of state estimate is an unnegligible factor which impacts on the orbit determination accuracy besides type of orbit, initial state accuracy and measurement accuracy. We apply the extended Kalman filter(EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter(UKF) to determinate the orbits of Lagrangian navigation satellites. The autonomous orbit determination errors are compared. The simulation results illustrate that UKF can improve the accuracy and z-axis convergence to some extent.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, autonomous orbit determination, unscented Kalman filter, navigation constellation

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95 Oil-Spill Monitoring in Istanbul Strait and Marmara Sea by RASAT Remote Sensing Images

Authors: Ozgun Oktar, Sevilay Can, Cengiz V. Ekici

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The oil spill is a form of pollution caused by releasing of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the marine environment. Considering the growth of ship traffic, increasing of off-shore oil drilling and seaside refineries affect the risk of oil spill upward. The oil spill is easy to spread to large areas when occurs especially on the sea surface. Remote sensing technology offers the easiest way to control/monitor the area of the oil spill in a large region. It’s usually easy to detect pollution when occurs by the ship accidents, however monitoring non-accidental pollution could be possible by remote sensing. It is also needed to observe specific regions daily and continuously by satellite solutions. Remote sensing satellites mostly and effectively used for monitoring oil pollution are RADARSAT, ENVISAT and MODIS. Spectral coverage and transition period of these satellites are not proper to monitor Marmara Sea and Istanbul Strait continuously. In this study, RASAT and GOKTURK-2 are suggested to use for monitoring Marmara Sea and Istanbul Strait. RASAT, with spectral resolution 420 – 730 nm, is the first Turkish-built satellite. GOKTURK-2’s resolution can reach up to 2,5 meters. This study aims to analyze the images from both satellites and produce maps to show the regions which have potentially affected by spills from shipping traffic.

Keywords: Marmara Sea, monitoring, oil spill, satellite remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
94 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai

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Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
93 Influence of High-Resolution Satellites Attitude Parameters on Image Quality

Authors: Walid Wahballah, Taher Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy

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One of the important functions of the satellite attitude control system is to provide the required pointing accuracy and attitude stability for optical remote sensing satellites to achieve good image quality. Although offering noise reduction and increased sensitivity, time delay and integration (TDI) charge coupled devices (CCDs) utilized in high-resolution satellites (HRS) are prone to introduce large amounts of pixel smear due to the instability of the line of sight. During on-orbit imaging, as a result of the Earth’s rotation and the satellite platform instability, the moving direction of the TDI-CCD linear array and the imaging direction of the camera become different. The speed of the image moving on the image plane (focal plane) represents the image motion velocity whereas the angle between the two directions is known as the drift angle (β). The drift angle occurs due to the rotation of the earth around its axis during satellite imaging; affecting the geometric accuracy and, consequently, causing image quality degradation. Therefore, the image motion velocity vector and the drift angle are two important factors used in the assessment of the image quality of TDI-CCD based optical remote sensing satellites. A model for estimating the image motion velocity and the drift angle in HRS is derived. The six satellite attitude control parameters represented in the derived model are the (roll angle φ, pitch angle θ, yaw angle ψ, roll angular velocity φ֗, pitch angular velocity θ֗ and yaw angular velocity ψ֗ ). The influence of these attitude parameters on the image quality is analyzed by establishing a relationship between the image motion velocity vector, drift angle and the six satellite attitude parameters. The influence of the satellite attitude parameters on the image quality is assessed by the presented model in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) in both cross- and along-track directions. Three different cases representing the effect of pointing accuracy (φ, θ, ψ) bias are considered using four different sets of pointing accuracy typical values, while the satellite attitude stability parameters are ideal. In the same manner, the influence of satellite attitude stability (φ֗, θ֗, ψ֗) on image quality is also analysed for ideal pointing accuracy parameters. The results reveal that cross-track image quality is influenced seriously by the yaw angle bias and the roll angular velocity bias, while along-track image quality is influenced only by the pitch angular velocity bias.

Keywords: high-resolution satellites, pointing accuracy, attitude stability, TDI-CCD, smear, MTF

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
92 Error Detection and Correction for Onboard Satellite Computers Using Hamming Code

Authors: Rafsan Al Mamun, Md. Motaharul Islam, Rabana Tajrin, Nabiha Noor, Shafinaz Qader

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In an attempt to enrich the lives of billions of people by providing proper information, security and a way of communicating with others, the need for efficient and improved satellites is constantly growing. Thus, there is an increasing demand for better error detection and correction (EDAC) schemes, which are capable of protecting the data onboard the satellites. The paper is aimed towards detecting and correcting such errors using a special algorithm called the Hamming Code, which uses the concept of parity and parity bits to prevent single-bit errors onboard a satellite in Low Earth Orbit. This paper focuses on the study of Low Earth Orbit satellites and the process of generating the Hamming Code matrix to be used for EDAC using computer programs. The most effective version of Hamming Code generated was the Hamming (16, 11, 4) version using MATLAB, and the paper compares this particular scheme with other EDAC mechanisms, including other versions of Hamming Codes and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and the limitations of this scheme. This particular version of the Hamming Code guarantees single-bit error corrections as well as double-bit error detections. Furthermore, this version of Hamming Code has proved to be fast with a checking time of 5.669 nanoseconds, that has a relatively higher code rate and lower bit overhead compared to the other versions and can detect a greater percentage of errors per length of code than other EDAC schemes with similar capabilities. In conclusion, with the proper implementation of the system, it is quite possible to ensure a relatively uncorrupted satellite storage system.

Keywords: bit-flips, Hamming code, low earth orbit, parity bits, satellite, single error upset

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
91 An Automated Approach to Consolidate Galileo System Availability

Authors: Marie Bieber, Fabrice Cosson, Olivier Schmitt

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Europe's Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, provides worldwide positioning and navigation services. The satellites in space are only one part of the Galileo system. An extensive ground infrastructure is essential to oversee the satellites and ensure accurate navigation signals. High reliability and availability of the entire Galileo system are crucial to continuously provide positioning information of high quality to users. Outages are tracked, and operational availability is regularly assessed. A highly flexible and adaptive tool has been developed to automate the Galileo system availability analysis. Not only does it enable a quick availability consolidation, but it also provides first steps towards improving the data quality of maintenance tickets used for the analysis. This includes data import and data preparation, with a focus on processing strings used for classification and identifying faulty data. Furthermore, the tool allows to handle a low amount of data, which is a major constraint when the aim is to provide accurate statistics.

Keywords: availability, data quality, system performance, Galileo, aerospace

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90 Optimal Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints

Authors: Jing Yu, Hongyang Liu, Dong Hao

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On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending space crafts' lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.

Keywords: mission planning, orbital rendezvous, on-orbit refueling, space mission

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89 Health Percentage Evaluation for Satellite Electrical Power System Based on Linear Stresses Accumulation Damage Theory

Authors: Lin Wenli, Fu Linchun, Zhang Yi, Wu Ming

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To meet the demands of long-life and high-intelligence for satellites, the electrical power system should be provided with self-health condition evaluation capability. Any over-stress events in operations should be recorded. Based on Linear stresses accumulation damage theory, accumulative damage analysis was performed on thermal-mechanical-electrical united stresses for three components including the solar array, the batteries and the power conditioning unit. Then an overall health percentage evaluation model for satellite electrical power system was built. To obtain the accurate quantity for system health percentage, an automatic feedback closed-loop correction method for all coefficients in the evaluation model was present. The evaluation outputs could be referred as taking earlier fault-forecast and interventions for Ground Control Center or Satellites self.

Keywords: satellite electrical power system, health percentage, linear stresses accumulation damage, evaluation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
88 Failure Statistics Analysis of China’s Spacecraft in Full-Life

Authors: Xin-Yan Ji

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The historical failures data of the spacecraft is very useful to improve the spacecraft design and the test philosophies and reduce the spacecraft flight risk. A study of spacecraft failures data was performed, which is the most comprehensive statistics of spacecrafts in China. 2593 on-orbit failures data and 1298 ground data that occurred on 150 spacecraft launched from 2000 to 2016 were identified and collected, which covered the navigation satellites, communication satellites, remote sensing deep space exploration manned spaceflight platforms. In this paper, the failures were analyzed to compare different spacecraft subsystem and estimate their impact on the mission, then the development of spacecraft in China was evaluated from design, software, workmanship, management, parts, and materials. Finally, the lessons learned from the past years show that electrical and mechanical failures are responsible for the largest parts, and the key solution to reduce in-orbit failures is improving design technology, enough redundancy, adequate space environment protection measures, and adequate ground testing.

Keywords: spacecraft anomalies, anomalies mechanism, failure cause, spacecraft testing

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87 Design and Simulation of an Inter-Satellite Optical Wireless Communication System Using Diversity Techniques

Authors: Sridhar Rapuru, D. Mallikarjunreddy, Rajanarendra Sai

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In this reign of the internet, the access of any multimedia file to the users at any time with a superior quality is needed. To achieve this goal, it is very important to have a good network without any interruptions between the satellites along with various earth stations. For that purpose, a high speed inter-satellite optical wireless communication system (IsOWC) is designed with space and polarization diversity techniques. IsOWC offers a high bandwidth, small size, less power requirement and affordable when compared with the present microwave satellite systems. To improve the efficiency and to reduce the propagation delay, inter-satellite link is established between the satellites. High accurate tracking systems are required to establish the reliable connection between the satellites as they have their own orbits. The only disadvantage of this IsOWC system is laser beam width is narrower than the RF because of this highly accurate tracking system to meet this requirement. The satellite uses the 'ephemerides data' for rough pointing and tracking system for fine pointing to the other satellite. In this proposed IsOWC system, laser light is used as a wireless connectedness between the source and destination and free space acts as the channel to carry the message. The proposed system will be designed, simulated and analyzed for 6000km with an improvement of data rate over previously existing systems. The performance parameters of the system are Q-factor, eye opening, bit error rate, etc., The proposed system for Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication System Design Using Diversity Techniques finds huge scope of applications in future generation communication purposes.

Keywords: inter-satellite optical wireless system, space and polarization diversity techniques, line of sight, bit error rate, Q-factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
86 Scalable Cloud-Based LEO Satellite Constellation Simulator

Authors: Karim Sobh, Khaled El-Ayat, Fady Morcos, Amr El-Kadi

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Distributed applications deployed on LEO satellites and ground stations require substantial communication between different members in a constellation to overcome the earth coverage barriers imposed by GEOs. Applications running on LEO constellations suffer the earth line-of-sight blockage effect. They need adequate lab testing before launching to space. We propose a scalable cloud-based net-work simulation framework to simulate problems created by the earth line-of-sight blockage. The framework utilized cloud IaaS virtual machines to simulate LEO satellites and ground stations distributed software. A factorial ANOVA statistical analysis is conducted to measure simulator overhead on overall communication performance. The results showed a very low simulator communication overhead. Consequently, the simulation framework is proposed as a candidate for testing LEO constellations with distributed software in the lab before space launch.

Keywords: LEO, cloud computing, constellation, satellite, network simulation, netfilter

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
85 Studies on Space-Based Laser Targeting System for the Removal of Orbital Space Debris

Authors: Krima M. Rohela, Raja Sabarinath Sundaralingam

Abstract:

Humans have been launching rockets since the beginning of the space age in the late 1950s. We have come a long way since then, and the success rate for the launch of rockets has increased considerably. With every successful launch, there is a large amount of junk or debris which is released into the upper layers of the atmosphere. Space debris has been a huge concern for a very long time now. This includes the rocket shells released from the launch and the parts of defunct satellites. Some of this junk will come to fall towards the Earth and burn in the atmosphere. But most of the junk goes into orbit around the Earth, and they remain in orbits for at least 100 years. This can cause a lot of problems to other functioning satellites and may affect the future manned missions to space. The main concern of the space-debris is the increase in space activities, which leads to risks of collisions if not taken care of soon. These collisions may result in what is known as Kessler Syndrome. This debris can be removed by a space-based laser targeting system. Hence, the matter is investigated and discussed. The first step in this involves launching a satellite with a high-power laser device into space, above the debris belt. Then the target material is ablated with a focussed laser beam. This step of the process is highly dependent on the attitude and orientation of the debris with respect to the Earth and the device. The laser beam will cause a jet of vapour and plasma to be expelled from the material. Hence, the force is applied in the opposite direction, and in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion, this will cause the material to move towards the Earth and get pulled down due to gravity, where it will get disintegrated in the upper layers of the atmosphere. The larger pieces of the debris can be directed towards the oceans. This method of removal of the orbital debris will enable safer passage for future human-crewed missions into space.

Keywords: altitude, Kessler syndrome, laser ablation, Newton’s third law of motion, satellites, Space debris

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84 A Cooperative Signaling Scheme for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Recently, the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) such as Galileo and GPS is employing more satellites to provide a higher degree of accuracy for the location service, thus calling for a more efficient signaling scheme among the satellites used in the overall GNSS network. In that the network throughput is improved, the spatial diversity can be one of the efficient signaling schemes; however, it requires multiple antenna that could cause a significant increase in the complexity of the GNSS. Thus, a diversity scheme called the cooperative signaling was proposed, where the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signaling is realized with using only a single antenna in the transmit satellite of interest and with modeling the neighboring satellites as relay nodes. The main drawback of the cooperative signaling is that the relay nodes receive the transmitted signal at different time instants, i.e., they operate in an asynchronous way, and thus, the overall performance of the GNSS network could degrade severely. To tackle the problem, several modified cooperative signaling schemes were proposed; however, all of them are difficult to implement due to a signal decoding at the relay nodes. Although the implementation at the relay nodes could be simpler to some degree by employing the time-reversal and conjugation operations instead of the signal decoding, it would be more efficient if we could implement the operations of the relay nodes at the source node having more resources than the relay nodes. So, in this paper, we propose a novel cooperative signaling scheme, where the data signals are combined in a unique way at the source node, thus obviating the need of the complex operations such as signal decoding, time-reversal and conjugation at the relay nodes. The numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme provides the same performance in the cooperative diversity and the bit error rate (BER) as the conventional scheme, while reducing the complexity at the relay nodes significantly. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.

Keywords: global navigation satellite network, cooperative signaling, data combining, nodes

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83 Real-Time Web Map Service Based on Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Sunghun Jung

Abstract:

The existing web map service providers contract with the satellite operators to update their maps by paying an astronomical amount of money, but the cost could be minimized by operating a cheap and small UAV. In contrast to the satellites, we only need to replace aged battery packs from time to time for the usage of UAVs. Utilizing both a regular camera and an infrared camera mounted on a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV, daytime ground surface photographs, and nighttime infrared photographs will be continuously and repeatedly uploaded to the web map server and overlapped with the existing ground surface photographs in real-time. The real-time web map service using a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV can also be applied to the surveillance missions, in particular, to detect border area intruders. The improved real-time image stitching algorithm is developed for the graphic map data overlapping. Also, a small home server will be developed to manage the huge size of incoming map data. The map photographs taken at tens or hundreds of kilometers by a UAV would improve the map graphic resolution compared to the map photographs taken at thousands of kilometers by satellites since the satellite photographs are limited by weather conditions.

Keywords: long-endurance, real-time web map service (RWMS), solar-powered, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

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82 A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities

Authors: Mohammed Dabboor

Abstract:

Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.

Keywords: compact polarimetry, RADARSAT, SAR mission, SAR applications

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81 Comparative Study between Inertial Navigation System and GPS in Flight Management System Application

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Matouk Elamari, M. Rgeai, Fateh Alej

Abstract:

In modern avionics the main fundamental component is the flight management system (FMS). An FMS is a specialized computer system that automates a wide variety of in-flight tasks, reducing the workload on the flight crew to the point that modern civilian aircraft no longer carry flight engineers or navigators. The main function of the FMS is in-flight management of the flight plan using various sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) to determine the aircraft's position and guide the aircraft along the flight plan. GPS which is satellite based navigation system, and INS which generally consists of inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes). GPS is used to locate positions anywhere on earth, it consists of satellites, control stations, and receivers. GPS receivers take information transmitted from the satellites and uses triangulation to calculate a user’s exact location. The basic principle of an INS is based on the integration of accelerations observed by the accelerometers on board the moving platform, the system will accomplish this task through appropriate processing of the data obtained from the specific force and angular velocity measurements. Thus, an appropriately initialized inertial navigation system is capable of continuous determination of vehicle position, velocity and attitude without the use of the external information. The main objective of article is to introduce a comparative study between the two systems under different conditions and scenarios using MATLAB with SIMULINK software.

Keywords: flight management system, GPS, IMU, inertial navigation system

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