Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3859

Search results for: thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC)

3859 Failure Analysis Using Rtds for a Power System Equipped with Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor in Korea

Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Jae in Lee, Minh Chau Diah, Jong Su Yoon, Seung Wan Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) analysis about effects of transmission lines failure in power system equipped with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitance (TCSC) in Korea. The TCSC is firstly applied in Korea to compensate real power in case of 765 kV line faults. Therefore, It is important to analyze with TCSC replica using RTDS. In this test, all systems in Korea, other than those near TCSC, were abbreviated to Thevenin equivalent. The replica was tested in the case of a line failure near the TCSC, a generator failure, and a 765-kV line failure. The effects of conventional operated STATCOM, SVC and TCSC were also analyzed. The test results will be used for the actual TCSC operational impact analysis.

Keywords: failure analysis, power system, RTDS, TCSC

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
3858 Active Power Flow Control Using a TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC), backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3857 Power System Stability Enhancement Using Self Tuning Fuzzy PI Controller for TCSC

Authors: Salman Hameed

Abstract:

In this paper, a self-tuning fuzzy PI controller (STFPIC) is proposed for thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) to improve power system dynamic performance. In a STFPIC controller, the output scaling factor is adjusted on-line by an updating factor (α). The value of α is determined from a fuzzy rule-base defined on error (e) and change of error (Δe) of the controlled variable. The proposed self-tuning controller is designed using a very simple control rule-base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions (MFs) (symmetric triangles with equal base and 50% overlap with neighboring MFs). The comparative performances of the proposed STFPIC and the standard fuzzy PI controller (FPIC) have been investigated on a multi-machine power system (namely, 4 machine two area system) through detailed non-linear simulation studies using MATLAB/SIMULINK. From the simulation studies it has been found out that for damping oscillations, the performance of the proposed STFPIC is better than that obtained by the standard FPIC. Moreover, the proposed STFPIC as well as the FPIC have been found to be quite effective in damping oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions and are quite effective in enhancing the power carrying capability of the power system significantly.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, power system stability, self-tuning fuzzy controller, thyristor controlled series capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
3856 A Data-Mining Model for Protection of FACTS-Based Transmission Line

Authors: Ashok Kalagura

Abstract:

This paper presents a data-mining model for fault-zone identification of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS)-based transmission line including a thyristor-controlled series compensator (TCSC) and unified power-flow controller (UPFC), using ensemble decision trees. Given the randomness in the ensemble of decision trees stacked inside the random forests model, it provides an effective decision on the fault-zone identification. Half-cycle post-fault current and voltage samples from the fault inception are used as an input vector against target output ‘1’ for the fault after TCSC/UPFC and ‘1’ for the fault before TCSC/UPFC for fault-zone identification. The algorithm is tested on simulated fault data with wide variations in operating parameters of the power system network, including noisy environment providing a reliability measure of 99% with faster response time (3/4th cycle from fault inception). The results of the presented approach using the RF model indicate the reliable identification of the fault zone in FACTS-based transmission lines.

Keywords: distance relaying, fault-zone identification, random forests, RFs, support vector machine, SVM, thyristor-controlled series compensator, TCSC, unified power-flow controller, UPFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
3855 Optimal Control of Generators and Series Compensators within Multi-Space-Time Frame

Authors: Qian Chen, Lin Xu, Ping Ju, Zhuoran Li, Yiping Yu, Yuqing Jin

Abstract:

The operation of power grid is becoming more and more complex and difficult due to its rapid development towards high voltage, long distance, and large capacity. For instance, many large-scale wind farms have connected to power grid, where their fluctuation and randomness is very likely to affect the stability and safety of the grid. Fortunately, many new-type equipments based on power electronics have been applied to power grid, such as UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller), TCSC (Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation), STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) and so on, which can help to deal with the problem above. Compared with traditional equipment such as generator, new-type controllable devices, represented by the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System), have more accurate control ability and respond faster. But they are too expensive to use widely. Therefore, on the basis of the comparison and analysis of the controlling characteristics between traditional control equipment and new-type controllable equipment in both time and space scale, a coordinated optimizing control method within mutil-time-space frame is proposed in this paper to bring both kinds of advantages into play, which can better both control ability and economical efficiency. Firstly, the coordination of different space sizes of grid is studied focused on the fluctuation caused by large-scale wind farms connected to power grid. With generator, FSC (Fixed Series Compensation) and TCSC, the coordination method on two-layer regional power grid vs. its sub grid is studied in detail. The coordination control model is built, the corresponding scheme is promoted, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. By analysis, interface power flow can be controlled by generator and the specific line power flow between two-layer regions can be adjusted by FSC and TCSC. The smaller the interface power flow adjusted by generator, the bigger the control margin of TCSC, instead, the total consumption of generator is much higher. Secondly, the coordination of different time sizes is studied to further the amount of the total consumption of generator and the control margin of TCSC, where the minimum control cost can be acquired. The coordination method on two-layer ultra short-term correction vs. AGC (Automatic Generation Control) is studied with generator, FSC and TCSC. The optimal control model is founded, genetic algorithm is selected to solve the problem, and the conclusion is verified by simulation. Finally, the aforementioned method within multi-time-space scale is analyzed with practical cases, and simulated on PSASP (Power System Analysis Software Package) platform. The correctness and effectiveness are verified by the simulation result. Moreover, this coordinated optimizing control method can contribute to the decrease of control cost and will provide reference to the following studies in this field.

Keywords: FACTS, multi-space-time frame, optimal control, TCSC

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3854 Performance Analysis of a 6-Phase PMG Exciter with Rotating Thyristor-Controlled Rectification Topologies

Authors: Jonas Kristiansen Nøland, Karina Hjelmervik, Urban Lundin

Abstract:

The thyristor bridge rectifier is often used for control of excitation equipment for synchronous generators. However, on the rotating shaft of brushless exciters, the diode bridge rectifier is mostly used. The step response of a conventional brushless rotating excitation system is slow compared to static excitation systems. This paper investigates the performance of different thyristor-controlled rectification topologies applied on the shaft of a 6-phase PMG exciter connected to a synchronous generator. One of the important issues is the steady-state torque ripple produced by the thyristor bridges.

Keywords: brushless exciters, rotating exciters, permanent magnet machines, synchronous generators

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3853 High Voltage Magnetic Pulse Generation Using Capacitor Discharge Technique

Authors: Mohamed Adel Abdallah

Abstract:

A high voltage magnetic pulse is designed by applying an electrical pulse to the coil. Capacitor banks are developed to generate a pulse current. Switching circuit consisting of DPDT switches, thyristor, and triggering circuit is built and tested. The coil current is measured using a Hall-effect current sensor. The magnetic pulse created is measured and tabulated in the graph. Simulation using FEMM is done to compare the results obtained between experiment and simulation. This technology can be applied to area such as medical equipment, measuring instrument, and military equipment.

Keywords: high voltage, magnetic pulse, capacitor discharge, coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
3852 Behaviour of an RC Circuit near Extreme Point

Authors: Tribhuvan N. Soorya

Abstract:

Charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor can be shown as exponential curve. Theoretically, it takes infinite time to fully charge or discharge a capacitor. The flow of charge is due to electrons having finite and fixed value of charge. If we carefully examine the charging and discharging process after several time constants, the points on q vs t graph become discrete and curve become discontinuous. Moreover for all practical purposes capacitor with charge (q0-e) can be taken as fully charged, as it introduces an error less than one part per million. Similar is the case for discharge of a capacitor, where the capacitor with the last electron (charge e) can be taken as fully discharged. With this, we can estimate the finite value of time for fully charging and discharging a capacitor.

Keywords: charging, discharging, RC Circuit, capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
3851 Innovative Three Wire Capacitor Circuit System for Efficiency and Comfort Improvement of Ceiling Fans

Authors: R. K. Saket, K. S. Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system used to increase the efficiency and comfort improvement of permanent split-capacitor ceiling fan. In this innovative circuit, current has been reduced to save electrical power. The system could be used to replace standard single phase motor 2-wire capacitor configuration by cost effective split value X rated of optimized AC capacitors with the auxiliary winding to provide reliable ceiling fan operation and improved machine performance to save power. In basic system operations, comparisons with conventional ceiling fan are described.

Keywords: permanent split-capacitor motor, innovative 3-wire capacitor circuit system, standard 2-wire capacitor circuit system, metalized film X-rated capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
3850 Generalized Mathematical Description and Simulation of Grid-Tied Thyristor Converters

Authors: V. S. Klimash, Ye Min Thu

Abstract:

Thyristor rectifiers, inverters grid-tied, and AC voltage regulators are widely used in industry, and on electrified transport, they have a lot in common both in the power circuit and in the control system. They have a common mathematical structure and switching processes. At the same time, the rectifier, but the inverter units and thyristor regulators of alternating voltage are considered separately both theoretically and practically. They are written about in different books as completely different devices. The aim of this work is to combine them into one class based on the unity of the equations describing electromagnetic processes, and then, to show this unity on the mathematical model and experimental setup. Based on research from mathematics to the product, a conclusion is made about the methodology for the rapid conduct of research and experimental design work, preparation for production and serial production of converters with a unified bundle. In recent years, there has been a transition from thyristor circuits and transistor in modular design. Showing the example of thyristor rectifiers and AC voltage regulators, we can conclude that there is a unity of mathematical structures and grid-tied thyristor converters.

Keywords: direct current, alternating current, rectifier, AC voltage regulator, generalized mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
3849 A CMOS Capacitor Array for ESPAR with Fast Switching Time

Authors: Jin-Sup Kim, Se-Hwan Choi, Jae-Young Lee

Abstract:

A 8-bit CMOS capacitor array is designed for using in electrically steerable passive array radiator (ESPAR). The proposed capacitor array shows the fast response time in rising and falling characteristics. Compared to other works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technologies, it shows a comparable tuning range and switching time with low power consumption. Using the 0.18um CMOS, the capacitor array features a tuning range of 1.5 to 12.9 pF at 2.4GHz. Including the 2X4 decoder for control interface, the Chip size is 350um X 145um. Current consumption is about 80 nA at 1.8 V operation.

Keywords: CMOS capacitor array, ESPAR, SOI, SOS, switching time

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
3848 Electrolytic Capacitor-Less Transformer-Less AC-DC LED Driver with Current Ripple Canceller

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Li Quan, Shu Wu, Nizam Mohyar, Zachary Nosker, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors which capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the typical current of 350 mA. We are now making the proposed circuit on a universal board in order to measure the experimental characteristics.

Keywords: LED driver, electrolytic, capacitor-less, AC-DC converter, buck-boost converter, current ripple canceller

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
3847 Ultracapacitor State-of-Energy Monitoring System with On-Line Parameter Identification

Authors: N. Reichbach, A. Kuperman

Abstract:

The paper describes a design of a monitoring system for super capacitor packs in propulsion systems, allowing determining the instantaneous energy capacity under power loading. The system contains real-time recursive-least-squares identification mechanism, estimating the values of pack capacitance and equivalent series resistance. These values are required for accurate calculation of the state-of-energy.

Keywords: real-time monitoring, RLS identification algorithm, state-of-energy, super capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
3846 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
3845 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, pre-insertion resistor, standalone wind farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3844 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
3843 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3842 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti

Abstract:

Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3841 Using Power Flow Analysis for Understanding UPQC’s Behaviors

Authors: O. Abdelkhalek, A. Naimi, M. Rami, M. N. Tandjaoui, A. Kechich

Abstract:

This paper deals with the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) during several cases. The UPQC is a combination of shunt and series active power filter (APF). It is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage sags and swells problems on distribution network. This analysis can provide the helpful information to well understanding the interaction between the series filter, the shunt filter, the DC bus link and electrical network. The mathematical analysis is based on active and reactive power flow through the shunt and series active power filter. Wherein series APF can absorb or deliver the active power to mitigate a swell or sage voltage where in the both cases it absorbs a small reactive power quantity whereas the shunt active power absorbs or releases the active power for stabilizing the storage capacitor’s voltage as well as the power factor correction. The voltage sag and voltage swell are usually interpreted through the DC bus voltage curves. These two phenomena are introduced in this paper with a new interpretation based on the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the UPQC. For simplifying this study, a linear load is supposed in this digital simulation. The simulation results are carried out to confirm the analysis done.

Keywords: UPQC, Power flow analysis, shunt filter, series filter.

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
3840 Improved Multilevel Inverter with Hybrid Power Selector and Solar Panel Cleaner in a Solar System

Authors: S. Oladoyinbo, A. A. Tijani

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters (MLI) are used at high power application based on their operation. There are 3 main types of multilevel inverters (MLI); diode clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded MLI. A cascaded MLI requires the least number of components to achieve same number of voltage levels when compared to other types of MLI while the flying capacitor has the minimum harmonic distortion. However, maximizing the advantage of cascaded H-bridge MLI and flying capacitor MLI, an improved MLI can be achieved with fewer components and better performance. In this paper an improved MLI is presented by asymmetrically integrating a flying capacitor to a cascaded H-bridge MLI also integrating an auxiliary transformer to the main transformer to decrease the total harmonics distortion (THD) with increased number of output voltage levels. Furthermore, the system is incorporated with a hybrid time and climate based solar panel cleaner and power selector which intelligently manage the input of the MLI and clean the solar panel weekly ensuring the environmental factor effect on the panel is reduced to minimum.

Keywords: multilevel inverter, total harmonics distortion, cascaded h-bridge inverter, flying capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
3839 Single-Inductor Multi-Output Converters with Four-Level Output Voltages

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Murong Li, Feng Zhao, Shu Wu, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors with capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the average of LED current of 350 mA.

Keywords: DC-DC buck converter, four-level output voltage, single inductor multi output (SIMO), switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
3838 A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, Zinelaabidine Boudjema, Adil Yahdou

Abstract:

Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.

Keywords: flying capacitor inverter, multicarrier sinusoidal pulse width modulation, space vector modulation, total harmonic distortion, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
3837 150 KVA Multifunction Laboratory Test Unit Based on Power-Frequency Converter

Authors: Bartosz Kedra, Robert Malkowski

Abstract:

This paper provides description and presentation of laboratory test unit built basing on 150 kVA power frequency converter and Simulink RealTime platform. Assumptions, based on criteria which load and generator types may be simulated using discussed device, are presented, as well as control algorithm structure. As laboratory setup contains transformer with thyristor controlled tap changer, a wider scope of setup capabilities is presented. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance, and storage solution as well as used Simulink real-time features is presented. List and description of all measurements are provided. Potential of laboratory setup modifications is evaluated. For purposes of Rapid Control Prototyping, a dedicated environment was used Simulink RealTime. Therefore, load model Functional Unit Controller is based on a PC computer with I/O cards and Simulink RealTime software. Simulink RealTime was used to create real-time applications directly from Simulink models. In the next step, applications were loaded on a target computer connected to physical devices that provided opportunity to perform Hardware in the Loop (HIL) tests, as well as the mentioned Rapid Control Prototyping process. With Simulink RealTime, Simulink models were extended with I/O cards driver blocks that made automatic generation of real-time applications and performing interactive or automated runs on a dedicated target computer equipped with a real-time kernel, multicore CPU, and I/O cards possible. Results of performed laboratory tests are presented. Different load configurations are described and experimental results are presented. This includes simulation of under frequency load shedding, frequency and voltage dependent characteristics of groups of load units, time characteristics of group of different load units in a chosen area and arbitrary active and reactive power regulation basing on defined schedule.

Keywords: MATLAB, power converter, Simulink Real-Time, thyristor-controlled tap changer

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3836 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ali Ravangard, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Shunt Capacitors have several uses in the electric power systems. They are utilized as sources of reactive power by connecting them in line-to-neutral. Electric utilities have also connected capacitors in series with long lines in order to reduce its impedance. This is particularly common in the transmission level, where the lines have length in several hundreds of kilometers. However, this post will generally discuss shunt capacitors. In distribution systems, shunt capacitors are used to reduce power losses, to improve voltage profile, and to increase the maximum flow through cables and transformers. This paper presents a new method to determine the optimal locations and economical sizing of fixed and/or switched shunt capacitors with a view to power losses reduction and voltage stability enhancement. For solving the problem, a new enhanced cuckoo optimization algorithm is presented.The proposed method is tested on distribution test system and the results show that the algorithm suitable for practical implementation on real systems with any size.

Keywords: capacitor placement, power losses, voltage stability, radial distribution systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
3835 Content Analysis and Attitude of Thai Students towards Thai Series “Hormones: Season 2”

Authors: Siriporn Meenanan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the attitude of Thai students towards the Thai series "Hormones the Series Season 2". This study was conducted in the quantitative research, and the questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 people of the sample group. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The findings reveal that most participants have positive comments regarding the series. They strongly agreed that the series reflects on the way of life and problems of teenagers in Thailand. Hence, the participants believe that if adults have a chance to watch the series, they will have the better understanding of the teenagers. In addition, the participants also agreed that the contents of the play are appropriate and satisfiable as the contents of “Hormones the Series Season 2” will raise awareness among the teens and use it as a guide to prevent problems that might happen during their teenage life.

Keywords: content analysis, attitude, Thai series, hormones the Series

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
3834 An Approach For Evolving a Relaible Low Power Ultra Wide Band Transmitter with Capacitve Sensing

Authors: N.Revathy, C.Gomathi

Abstract:

This work aims for a tunable capacitor as a sensor which can vary the control voltage of a voltage control oscillator in a ultra wide band (UWB) transmitter. In this paper power consumption is concentrated. The reason for choosing a capacitive sensing is it give slow temperature drift, high sensitivity and robustness. Previous works report a resistive sensing in a voltage control oscillator (VCO) not aiming at power consumption. But this work aims for power consumption of a capacitive sensing in ultra wide band transmitter. The ultra wide band transmitter to be used is a direct modulation of pulses. The VCO which is the heart of pulse generator of UWB transmitter works on the principle of voltage to frequency conversion. The VCO has and odd number of inverter stages which works on the control voltage input this input is now from a variable capacitor and the buffer stages is reduced from the previous work to maintain the oscillating frequency. The VCO is also aimed to consume low power. Then the concentration in choosing a variable capacitor is aimed. A compact model of a capacitor with the transient characteristics is to be designed with a movable dielectric and multi metal membranes. Previous modeling of the capacitor transient characteristics is with a movable membrane and a fixed membrane. This work aims at a membrane with a wide tuning suitable for ultra wide band transmitter.This is used in this work because a capacitive in a ultra wide transmitter need to be tuned in such a way that all satisfies FCC regulations.

Keywords: capacitive sensing, ultra wide band transmitter, voltage control oscillator, FCC regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
3833 Jacobson Semisimple Skew Inverse Laurent Series Rings

Authors: Ahmad Moussavi

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the Jacobson semisimple skew inverse Laurent series rings R((x−1; α, δ)) and the skew Laurent power series rings R[[x, x−1; α]], where R is an associative ring equipped with an automorphism α and an α-derivation δ. Examples to illustrate and delimit the theory are provided.

Keywords: skew polynomial rings, Laurent series, skew inverse Laurent series rings

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
3832 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman

Abstract:

In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: battery, charger, energy, storage, super capacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3831 Series "H154M" as a Unit Area of the Region between the Lines and Curves

Authors: Hisyam Hidayatullah

Abstract:

This world events consciously or not realize everything has a pattern, until the events of the universe according to the Big Bang theory of the solar system which makes so regular in the rotation. The author would like to create a results curve area between the quadratic function y=kx2 and line y=ka2 using GeoGebra application version 4.2. This paper can provide a series that is no less interesting with Fourier series, so that will add new material about the series can be calculated with sigma notation. In addition, the ranks of the unique natural numbers of extensive changes in established areas. Finally, this paper provides analytical and geometric proof of the vast area in between the lines and curves that give the area is formed by y=ka2 dan kurva y=kx2, x-axis, line x=√a and x=-√a make a series of numbers for k=1 and a ∈ original numbers. ∑_(i=0)^n=(4n√n)/3=0+4/3+(8√2)/3+4√3+⋯+(4n√n)/3. The author calls the series “H154M”.

Keywords: sequence, series, sigma notation, application GeoGebra

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3830 A Study on Hierarchy and Popularity of Foreign TV Series with Different Origin Countries among Chinese Audiences from a Uses and Gratification Perspective

Authors: Terigele

Abstract:

Cultural products are always shelved into different classes of a hierarchy that separates so-called highbrow and lowbrow cultures. This study illustrated that audiences might even construct a hierarchy according to the origin countries when consuming certain products. Chinese audiences now have access to TV series from all around the world thanks to the internet. TV series from different origin countries show some particular features in terms of length, theme, plots, accessibility, seriousness etc. Their audiences were therefore stereotyped because of what they watch. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 participants, this research has following findings: 1) Most popular origin countries of foreign TV series in China are Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and European countries in a descending order. Korean TV series are most popular because they are less serious and more accessible compared to others. 2) In the hierarchy of the TV series, European TV series stand on the top followed by British and American TV series. Japanese TV series are also categorized into highbrow class. Korean TV series are at the bottom and always seen as lowbrow cultural products. 3) Most audiences consume TV series from more than one origin countries and have different needs when watching them. Participants reported that they watch European TV series because those TV series are more artistic than their counterparts and of great quality. They watch British and American TV series mainly to improve their English and to learn about the culture. They find Japanese TV series very enjoyable with a large variety of themes and impressive lines. Audiences watch Korean TV series mostly to entertain and kill time. 4) Audiences do care about cultural taste. Especially those who watch European, British and American TV series usually tend to consider audiences who watch nothing but Korean TV series to be shallow. On the other hand, Korean TV series’ audiences seem to care less about the hierarchy of the TV series. Even when they discuss the hierarchy, they tend to accept the judgments with ironies and jokes. Future studies can dig deeply into the genre and content of TV series with different origin countries and also investigate more about the psychology of audiences regarding the gender, age, education, socioeconomic status etc.

Keywords: foreign TV series, hierarchy, popularity, uses and gratification

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