Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17500

Search results for: direct method

17500 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual


Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: biosensor, diffraction, ferritin, immunoassay

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17499 The Solution of the Direct Problem of Electrical Prospecting with Direct Current Under Conditions of Ground Surface Relief

Authors: Balgaisha Mukanova, Tolkyn Mirgalikyzy


Theory of interpretation of electromagnetic fields studied in the electrical prospecting with direct current is mainly developed for the case of a horizontal surface observation. However in practice we often have to work in difficult terrain surface. Conducting interpretation without the influence of topography can cause non-existent anomalies on sections. This raises the problem of studying the impact of different shapes of ground surface relief on the results of electrical prospecting's research. This research examines the numerical solutions of the direct problem of electrical prospecting for two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, taking into account the terrain. The problem is solved using the method of integral equations. The density of secondary currents on the relief surface is obtained.

Keywords: ground surface relief, method of integral equations, numerical method, electromagnetic

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17498 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani


In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor

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17497 A New Approach to Image Stitching of Radiographic Images

Authors: Somaya Adwan, Rasha Majed, Lamya'a Majed, Hamzah Arof


In order to produce images with whole body parts, X-ray of different portions of the body parts is assembled using image stitching methods. A new method for image stitching that exploits mutually feature based method and direct based method to identify and merge pairs of X-ray medical images is presented in this paper. The performance of the proposed method based on this hybrid approach is investigated in this paper. The ability of the proposed method to stitch and merge the overlapping pairs of images is demonstrated. Our proposed method display comparable if not superior performance to other feature based methods that are mentioned in the literature on the standard databases. These results are promising and demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for further development to tackle more advanced stitching problems.

Keywords: image stitching, direct based method, panoramic image, X-ray

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17496 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

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17495 Assessment of Aminopolyether on 18F-FDG Samples

Authors: Renata L. C. Leão, João E. Nascimento, Natalia C. E. S. Nascimento, Elaine S. Vasconcelos, Mércia L. Oliveira


The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopeias consists of a thin layer chromatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) preparations. The approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and they showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in 18F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the reference method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of 18F-FDG.

Keywords: chemical purity, Kryptofix 222, thin layer chromatography, validation

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17494 High Performance Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive Fed from Photovoltaic System

Authors: E. E. EL-Kholy, Ahamed Kalas, Mahmoud Fauzy, M. El-Shahat Dessouki, Abdou M. El-refay, Mohammed El-Zefery


Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an AC drive control method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses. In this paper a progressive algorithm for direct torque control of three-phase induction drive system supplied by photovoltaic arrays using voltage source inverter to control motor torque and flux with maximum power point tracking at different level of insolation is presented. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented. Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching frequencies.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) array, direct torque control (DTC), constant switching frequency, induction motor, maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

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17493 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh


In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: spectral decomposition, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems, eigenvalues of the Jacobian

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17492 A Comparison Study of Different Methods Used in the Detection of Giardia lamblia on Fecal Specimen of Children

Authors: Muhammad Farooq Baig


Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for O&P examination, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and two conventional staining methods. Design: Hundred and fifty children fecal specimens were collected and examined by each method. The O&P and the DFA were used as the reference method. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Patients or Other Participants: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Main Outcome Measures: The amount of agreement and disagreement between methods.1) Presence of giardiasis in our population. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45(30%) positive 105 (70%) negative on DFA, 41 (27.4%) positive 109 (72.6%) negative on iodine and 34 (22.6%) positive 116(77.4%) on saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparision to iodine were 92.2%, 92.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparisoin to saline method were 91.2%, 87.9% respectively. The sensitivity of iodine method and saline method in compariosn to DFA were 82.2%, 68.8% respectively. There is mark diffrence in sensitivity of DFA to conventional method. Conclusion: The study supported findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method have the greater sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O&P method.

Keywords: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), ova and parasite (O&P), Giardia lamblia, children, medical science

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17491 Stress Corrosion Crack Identification with Direct Assessment Method in Pipeline Downstream from a Compressor Station

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour


Stress Corrosion Crack (SCC) in pipeline is a type of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), since its discovery in 1965 as a possible cause of failure in pipeline, SCC has caused, on average, one of two failures per year in the U.S, According to the NACE SCC DA a pipe line segment is considered susceptible to SCC if all of the following factors are met: The operating stress exceeds 60% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the operating temperature exceeds 38°C, the segment is less than 32 km downstream from a compressor station, the age of the pipeline is greater than 10 years and the coating type is other than Fusion Bonded Epoxy(FBE). In this paper as a practical experience in NISOC, Direct Assessment (DA) Method is used for identification SCC defect in unpiggable pipeline located downstream of compressor station.

Keywords: stress corrosion crack, direct assessment, disbondment, transgranular SCC, compressor station

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17490 Direct Displacement-Based Design Procedure for Performance-Based Seismic Design of Structures

Authors: Haleh Hamidpour


Since the seismic damageability of structures is controlled by the inelastic deformation capacities of structural elements, seismic design of structure based on force analogy methods is not appropriate. In recent year, the basic approach of design codes have been changed from force-based approach to displacement-based. In this regard, a Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) and a Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method are proposed. In this study, the efficiency of these two methods on seismic performance of structures is evaluated through a sample 12-story reinforced concrete moment frame. The building is designed separately based on the DDBD and the PBPD methods. Once again the structure is designed by the traditional force analogy method according to the FEMA P695 regulation. Different design method results in different structural elements. Seismic performance of these three structures is evaluated through nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The results show that the displacement-based design methods accommodate the intended performance objectives better than the traditional force analogy method.

Keywords: direct performance-based design, ductility demands, inelastic seismic performance, yield mechanism

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17489 Direct Democracy: The Best Administrative System for Nigeria

Authors: Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim


The research assessed representative democracy as an administrative system in Nigeria, by highlighting the failure of the state. It also looked at some components of direct democracy in Switzerland. Therefore, the paper focused on direct democracy, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research offers direct democracy as a solution to the failure of the Nigerian administrative system especially as it affects participation, developmental programmes and institutionalized corruption.

Keywords: corruption, direct democracy, national development, Nigeria, participation

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17488 Direct Strength Method Approach for Indian Cold Formed Steel Sections with and Without Perforation for Compression Member

Authors: K. Raghu, Altafhusen P. Pinjar


Cold-formed steel section are extensively used in industry and many other non-industry constructions worldwide, it is relatively a new concept in India. Cold-formed steel sections have been developed as more economical building solutions to the alternative heavier hot-rolled sections in the commercial and residential markets. Cold‐formed steel (CFS) structural members are commonly manufactured with perforations to accommodate plumbing, electrical, and heating conduits in the walls and ceilings of buildings. Current design methods available to engineers for predicting the strength of CFS members with perforations are prescriptive and limited to specific perforation locations, spacing, and sizes. The Direct Strength Method (DSM), a relatively new design method for CFS members validated for members with and without perforations, predicts the ultimate strength of general CFS members with the elastic buckling properties of the member cross section. The design compression strength and flexural strength of Indian (IS 811-1987) standard sections is calculated as per North American Specification (AISI-S100 2007) and software CUFSM 4.05.

Keywords: direct strength, cold formed, perforations, CUFSM

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17487 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar


We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis

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17486 Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis

Authors: Boo-Sung Koh, Seung-Eock Kim


In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.

Keywords: direct design, nonlinear inelastic analysis, residual stress, initial geometric imperfection

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17485 Direct CP Violation in Baryonic B-Hadron Decays

Authors: C. Q. Geng, Y. K. Hsiao


We study direct CP-violating asymmetries (CPAs) in the baryonic B decays of B- -> p\bar{p}M and Λb decays of Λb ®pM andΛb -> J/ΨpM with M=π-, K-,ρ-,K*- based on the generalized factorization method in the standard model (SM). In particular, we show that the CPAs in the vector modes of B-®p\bar{p}K* and Λb -> p K*- can be as large as 20%. We also discuss the simplest purely baryonic decays of Λb-> p\bar{p}n, p\bar{p}Λ, Λ\bar{p}Λ, and Λ\bar{Λ}Λ. We point out that some of CPAs are promising to be measured by the current as well as future B facilities.

Keywords: CP violation, B decays, baryonic decays, Λb decays

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17484 Photoluminescence in Cerium Doped Fluorides Prepared by Slow Precipitation Method

Authors: Aarti Muley, S. J. Dhoblae


CaF₂ and BaF₂ doped with cerium were prepared by slow precipitation method with different molar concentration and different cerium concentration. Both the samples were also prepared by direct method for comparison. The XRD of BaF₂:Ce shows that it crystallizes to BCC structure. The peak matches with JCPDS file no. 4-0452. Also, The XRD pattern of CaF₂:Ce matches well with the JCPDS file number 75- 0363 and crystallized to BCC phase. In CaF₂, the double-humped photoluminescence spectra were observed at 320nm and 340nm when the sample was prepared by the direct precipitation method, and the ratio between these peaks is unity. However when the sample prepared by slow precipitation method the double-humped emission spectra of CaF₂:Ce was observed at 323nm and 340nm. The ratio between these peaks is 0.58, and the optimum concentration is obtained for 0.1 molar CaF₂ with Ce concentration 1.5%. When the cerium concentration is increased by 2% the peak at 323nm vanishes, and the emission was observed at 342nm with the shoulder at 360nm. In this case, the intensity reduces drastically. The excitation is observed at 305nm with a small peak at 254nm. One molar BaF₂ doped with 0.1% of cerium was synthesized by direct precipitation method gives double humped spectra at 308nm and 320nm, when it is prepared with slow precipitation method with the cerium concentration 0.05m%, 0.1m%, 0.15m%, 0.2m% the broad emission is observed around 325nm with the shoulder at 350nm. The excitation spectra are narrow and observed at 290nm. As the percentage of cerium is increased further again shift is observed. The emission spectra were observed at 360nm with a small peak at 330nm. The phenomenon of shifting of emission spectra at low concentration of cerium can directly relate with the particle size and reported for nanomaterials also.

Keywords: calcium fluoride, barium fluoride, photoluminescence, slow precipitation method

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17483 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara


This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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17482 Calibration of Discrete Element Method Parameters for Modelling DRI Pellets Flow

Authors: A. Hossein Madadi-Najafabadi, Masoud Nasiri


The discrete element method is a powerful technique for numerical modeling the flow of granular materials such as direct reduced iron. It would enable us to study processes and equipment related to the production and handling of the material. However, the characteristics and properties of the granules have to be adjusted precisely to achieve reliable results in a DEM simulation. The main properties for DEM simulation are size distribution, density, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and the contact coefficients of restitution, rolling friction and sliding friction. In the present paper, the mentioned properties are determined for DEM simulation of DRI pellets. A reliable DEM simulation would contribute to optimizing the handling system of DRIs in an iron-making plant. Among the mentioned properties, Young's modulus is the most important parameter, which is usually hard to get for particulate solids. Here, an especial method is utilized to precisely determine this parameter for DRI.

Keywords: discrete element method, direct reduced iron, simulation parameters, granular material

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17481 An Inverse Heat Transfer Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Properties of Tumors during Cryosurgery

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix


This study aimed at developing an inverse heat transfer approach for predicting the time-varying freezing front and the temperature distribution of tumors during cryosurgery. Using a temperature probe pressed against the layer of tumor, the inverse approach is able to predict simultaneously the metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion rate of the tumor. Once these parameters are predicted, the temperature-field and time-varying freezing fronts are determined with the direct model. The direct model rests on one-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation. The phase change problem is handled with the enthalpy method. The Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined to the Broyden Method (BM) is used to solve the inverse model. The effect (a) of the thermal properties of the diseased tissues; (b) of the initial guesses for the unknown thermal properties; (c) of the data capture frequency; and (d) of the noise on the recorded temperatures is examined. It is shown that the proposed inverse approach remains accurate for all the cases investigated.

Keywords: cryosurgery, inverse heat transfer, Levenberg-Marquardt method, thermal properties, Pennes model, enthalpy method

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17480 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

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17479 Impacts of Exchange Rate and Inflation Rate on Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir


The study identifies the impact of inflation and foreign exchange rate on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. Inflation and exchange rates are used as independent variables and foreign direct investment is taken as dependent variable. Discreet time series data has been used from the period of 1999 to 2009. The results of regression analysis reveal that high inflation has negative impact on foreign direct investment and higher exchange rates has positive impact on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. The inflation and foreign exchange rates both are insignificant in the analysis.

Keywords: inflation rate, foreign exchange rate, foreign direct investment, foreign assets

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17478 Direct Blind Separation Methods for Convolutive Images Mixtures

Authors: Ahmed Hammed, Wady Naanaa


In this paper, we propose a general approach to deal with the problem of a convolutive mixture of images. We use a direct blind source separation method by adding only one non-statistical justified constraint describing the relationships between different mixing matrix at the aim to make its resolution easy. This method can be applied, provided that this constraint is known, to degraded document affected by the overlapping of text-patterns and images. This is due to chemical and physical reactions of the materials (paper, inks,...) occurring during the documents aging, and other unpredictable causes such as humidity, microorganism infestation, human handling, etc. We will demonstrate that this problem corresponds to a convolutive mixture of images. Subsequently, we will show how the validation of our method through numerical examples. We can so obtain clear images from unreadable ones which can be caused by pages superposition, a phenomenon similar to that we find every often in archival documents.

Keywords: blind source separation, convoluted mixture, degraded documents, text-patterns overlapping

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17477 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix


This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, levenberg–marquardt method

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17476 The System Dynamics Research of China-Africa Trade, Investment and Economic Growth

Authors: Emma Serwaa Obobisaa, Haibo Chen


International trade and outward foreign direct investment are important factors which are generally recognized in the economic growth and development. Though several scholars have struggled to reveal the influence of trade and outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth, most studies utilized common econometric models such as vector autoregression and aggregated the variables, which for the most part prompts, however, contradictory and mixed results. Thus, there is an exigent need for the precise study of the trade and FDI effect of economic growth while applying strong econometric models and disaggregating the variables into its separate individual variables to explicate their respective effects on economic growth. This will guarantee the provision of policies and strategies that are geared towards individual variables to ensure sustainable development and growth. This study, therefore, seeks to examine the causal effect of China-Africa trade and Outward Foreign Direct Investment on the economic growth of Africa using a robust and recent econometric approach such as system dynamics model. Our study impanels and tests an ensemble of a group of vital variables predominant in recent studies on trade-FDI-economic growth causality: Foreign direct ınvestment, international trade and economic growth. Our results showed that the system dynamics method provides accurate statistical inference regarding the direction of the causality among the variables than the conventional method such as OLS and Granger Causality predominantly used in the literature as it is more robust and provides accurate, critical values.

Keywords: economic growth, outward foreign direct investment, system dynamics model, international trade

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17475 Comparison of the Material Response Based on Production Technologies of Metal Foams

Authors: Tamas Mankovits


Lightweight cellular-type structures like metal foams have excellent mechanical properties, therefore the interest in these materials is widely spreading as load-bearing structural elements, e.g. as implants. Numerous technologies are available to produce metal foams. In this paper the material response of closed cell foam structures produced by direct foaming and additive technology is compared. The production technology circumstances are also investigated. Geometrical variations are developed for foam structures produced by additive manufacturing and simulated by finite element method to be able to predict the mechanical behavior.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, direct foaming, finite element method, metal foam

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17474 Simulation of a Pressure Driven Based Subsonic Steady Gaseous Flow inside a Micro Channel Using Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo Method

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimi, Elyas Lakzian


For the analysis of flow inside micro geometries, classical CFD methods can not accurately predict the behavior of flow. Alternatively, the gas flow through micro geometries can be investigated precisely using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In the present paper, a pressure boundary condition is utilized to simulate a gaseous flow inside a micro channel using the DSMC method. Accuracy of simulation is guaranteed by choosing proper cell dimension and number of particle per cell analysis. Also, results of simulation are compared with the results of reliable references. Good agreement with results certifies the correctness of new boundary condition implemented on the micro channel.

Keywords: pressure boundary condition, DSMC, micro channel, cell dimension, particle per cell

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17473 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali


In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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17472 An Elbow Biomechanical Model and Its Coefficients Adjustment

Authors: Jie Bai, Yongsheng Gao, Shengxin Wang, Jie Zhao


Through the establishment of the elbow biomechanical model, it can provide theoretical guide for rehabilitation therapy on the upper limb of the human body. A biomechanical model of the elbow joint can be built by the connection of muscle force model and elbow dynamics. But there are many undetermined coefficients in the model like the optimal joint angle and optimal muscle force which are usually specified as the experimental parameters of other workers. Because of the individual differences, there is a certain deviation of the final result. To this end, the RMS value of the deviation between the actual angle and calculated angle is considered. A set of coefficients which lead to the minimum RMS value will be chosen to be the optimal parameters. The direct search method and the conjugacy search method are used to get the optimal parameters, thus the model can be more accurate and mode adaptability.

Keywords: elbow biomechanical model, RMS, direct search, conjugacy search

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17471 Pinch Technology for Minimization of Water Consumption at a Refinery

Authors: W. Mughees, M. Alahmad


Water is the most significant entity that controls local and global development. For the Gulf region, especially Saudi Arabia, with its limited potable water resources, the potential of the fresh water problem is highly considerable. In this research, the study involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks. Multiple water/wastewater networks were developed using pinch analysis involving direct recycle/material recycle method. Property-integration technique was adopted to carry out direct recycle method. Particularly, a petroleum refinery was considered as a case study. In direct recycle methodology, minimum water discharge and minimum fresh water resource targets were estimated. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and hardness properties were taken as pollutants. This research was based on single and double contaminant approach for COD and hardness and the amount of fresh water was reduced from 340.0 m3/h to 149.0 m3/h (43.8%), 208.0 m3/h (61.18%) respectively. While regarding double contaminant approach, reduction in fresh water demand was 132.0 m3/h (38.8%). The required analysis was also carried out using mathematical programming technique. Operating software such as LINGO was used for these studies which have verified the graphical method results in a valuable and accurate way. Among the multiple water networks, the one possible water allocation network was developed based on mass exchange.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

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