Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: SnO2

38 Eu³⁺ Ions Doped-SnO₂ for Effective Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

Authors: Ritu Malik, Vijay K. Tomer, Satya P. Nehra, Anshu Nehra

Abstract:

Visible light sensitive Eu³⁺ doped-SnO₂ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method and extensively characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated using Malachite Green (MG) as decomposition objective by varying the concentration of Eu³⁺ in SnO₂. The XRD analysis showed that lanthanides phase was not observed on lower loadings of Eu³⁺ ions doped-SnO₂. Eu³⁺ ions can enhance the photocatalytic activity of SnO₂ to some extent as compared with pure SnO₂, and it was found that 3 wt% Eu³⁺ -doped SnO₂ is the most effective photocatalyst due to its lowest band gap, crystallite size and also the highest surface area. The photocatalytic tests indicate that at the optimum conditions, illumination time 40 min, pH 65, 0.3 g/L photocatalyst loading and 50 ppm dye concentration, the dye removal efficiency was 98%.

Keywords: photocatalyst, visible light, lanthanide, SnO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
37 Adsorbed Probe Molecules on Surface for Analyzing the Properties of Cu/SnO2 Supported Catalysts

Authors: Neha Thakur, Pravin S. More

Abstract:

The interaction of CO, H2 and LPG with Cu-dosed SnO2 catalysts was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With increasing Cu loading, pronounced and progressive red shifts of the C–O stretching frequency associated with molecular CO adsorbed on the Cu/SnO2 component were observed. This decrease in n(CO) correlates with enhancement of CO dissociation at higher temperatures on Cu promoted SnO2 catalysts under conditions, where clean Cu is almost ineffective. In the conclusion, the capability of our technique is discussed, and a technique for enhancing the sensitivity in our technique is proposed.

Keywords: FTIR, spectroscopic, dissociation, n(CO)

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
36 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Pure and Ag-Doped SnO₂ Nanoparticles as Catalyst

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, Mahmoud A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha

Abstract:

Photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles under solar light irradiation are known to be an effective photocatalytic process. In this study, pure and silver (Ag) doped tin dioxide (SnO₂) nanoparticles were prepared at calcination temperature (800ºC) by a modified sol-gel method and studied for their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue as a test contaminant. The characterization of undoped and doped SnO₂ photocatalyst was studied by X-rays diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The catalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous media was studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to monitor the degradation process by measuring its absorption spectra. The main absorption peak of methylene blue is observed at λ= 664 nm. The change in the percent of silver in the catalyst affects the photoactivity of SnO₂ on the degradation of methylene blue. The photoactivity of pure SnO₂ was found to be a maximum at dose 0.2 gm of the catalyst with 100 ml of 5 ppm methylene blue in the water. Within 210 min of photodegradation (under sunlight) after leaving the reaction for 90 minutes in the dark to avoid the effect of adsorption, the pure SnO₂ at calcination temperature 800ºC exhibited the best photocatalytic degradation with removal percentage of 93.66% on methylene blue degradation under solar light.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation, photocatalysis, silver doped-SnO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
35 Superhydrophobic Behavior of SnO₂-TiO₂ Composite Thin Films

Authors: Debarun Dhar Purkayastha, Talinungsang

Abstract:

SnO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on borosilicate glass substrate. The films were annealed at a temperature of 300ᵒC, 400ᵒC, and 500ᵒC respectively for 2h in the air. The films obtained were further modified with stearic acid in order to decrease the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films after annealing at different temperatures can be indexed to the mixture of TiO₂ (rutile and anatase) and SnO₂ (tetragonal) phases. The average crystallite size calculated from Scherrer’s formula is found to be 6 nm. The SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films were hydrophilic which on modification with stearic acid exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. The increase in hydrophobicity of SnO₂ film with stearic acid modification is attributed to the change in surface energy of the film. The films exhibit superhydrophilic behavior under UV irradiation for 1h. Thus, it is observed that stearic acid modified surfaces are superhydrophobic but convert into superhydrophilic on being subjected to UV irradiation. SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films have potential for self-cleaning applications because of photoinduced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, self-cleaning, superhydrophobic, surface energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
34 Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching

Authors: Zhemi Xu, Dewei Chu, Sean Li

Abstract:

Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.

Keywords: metal oxides, self-assembly nanoparticles, multi-level resistive switching, multi-layer thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
33 WO₃-SnO₂ Sensors for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arpan Kumar Nayak, Debabrata Pradhan

Abstract:

A simple, single-step and one-pot hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize WO₃-SnO₂ mixed nanostructured metal oxides at 200°C in 12h. The SnO₂ nanoparticles were found to be uniformly decorated on the WO₃ nanoplates. Though it is widely known that noble metals such as Pt, Pd doping or decoration on metal oxides improve the sensing response and sensitivity, we varied the SnO₂ concentration in the WO₃-SnO₂ mixed oxide and demonstrated their performance in ammonia, ethanol and acetone sensing. The sensing performance of WO₃-(x)SnO₂ [x = 0.27, 0.54, 1.08] mixed nanostructured oxides was found to be not only superior to that of pristine oxides but also higher/better than that of reported noble metal-based sensors. The sensing properties (selectivity, limit of detection, response and recovery times) are measured as a function of operating temperature (150-350°C). In particular, the gas selectivity is found to be highly temperature-dependent with optimum performance obtained at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C for ammonia, ethanol, and acetone, respectively. The present results on cost effective WO₃-SnO₂ sensors can find potential application in human breath analysis by noninvasive detection.

Keywords: gas sensing, mixed oxides, nanoplates, ammonia, ethanol, acetone

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
32 Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Hsyi-En Cheng, Ying-Yi Liou

Abstract:

Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition, nanotube arrays, gas sensor, tin dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
31 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes

Abstract:

This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, impedance spectroscopy, nanowires, N, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
30 UV-Enhanced Room-Temperature Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanocomposites Obtained by Hydrothermal Treatment

Authors: Luís F. da Silva, Ariadne C. Catto, Osmando F. Lopes, Khalifa Aguir, Valmor R. Mastelaro, Caue Ribeiro, Elson Longo

Abstract:

Gas detection is important for controlling industrial, and vehicle emissions, agricultural residues, and environmental control. In last decades, several semiconducting oxides have been used to detect dangerous or toxic gases. The excellent gas-sensing performance of these devices have been observed at high temperatures (~250 °C), which forbids the use for the detection of flammable and explosive gases. In this way, ultraviolet light activated gas sensors have been a simple and promising alternative to achieve room temperature sensitivity. Among the semiconductor oxides which exhibit a good performance as gas sensor, the zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO2) have been highlighted. Nevertheless, their poor selectivity is the main disadvantage for application as gas sensor devices. Recently, heterostructures combining these two semiconductors (ZnO-SnO2) have been studied as an alternative way to enhance the gas sensor performance (sensitivity, selectivity, and stability). In this work, we investigated the influence of mass ratio Zn:Sn on the properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal treatment for 4 hours at 200 °C. The crystalline phase, surface, and morphological features were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron (HR-TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The gas sensor measurements were carried out at room-temperature under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation using different ozone levels (0.06 to 0.61 ppm). The XRD measurements indicate the presence of ZnO and SnO2 crystalline phases, without the evidence of solid solution formation. HR-TEM analysis revealed that a good contact between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the ZnO nanorods, which are very important since interface characteristics between nanostructures are considered as challenge to development new and efficient heterostructures. Electrical measurements proved that the best ozone gas-sensing performance is obtained for ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. Its sensitivity was around 6 times higher when compared to SnO2 pure, a traditional ozone gas sensor. These results demonstrate the potential of ZnO-SnO2 heterojunctions for the detection of ozone gas at room-temperature when irradiated with UV light irradiation.

Keywords: hydrothermal, zno-sno2, ozone sensor, uv-activation, room-temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
29 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Ag-Doped-SnO₂ Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: M. S. Abd El-Sadek, M. A. Omar, Gharib M. Taha

Abstract:

In recent years, photocatalytic degradation of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants using semiconductor powders as photocatalysts has been extensively studied. Owing to its relatively high photocatalytic activity, biological and chemical stability, low cost, nonpoisonous and long stable life, Tin oxide materials have been widely used as catalysts in chemical reactions, including synthesis of vinyl ketone, oxidation of methanol and so on. Tin oxide (SnO₂), with a rutile-type crystalline structure, is an n-type wide band gap (3.6 eV) semiconductor that presents a proper combination of chemical, electronic and optical properties that make it advantageous in several applications. In the present work, SnO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by the sol-gel process and thermohydrolysis of SnCl₂ in isopropanol by controlling the crystallite size through calculations. The synthesized nanoparticles were identified by using XRD analysis, TEM, FT-IR, and Uv-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The crystalline structure and grain size of the synthesized samples were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the XRD patterns confirmed the presence of tetragonal phase SnO₂. In this study, Methylene blue degradation was tested by using SnO₂ nanoparticles (at different calculations temperatures) as a photocatalyst under sunlight as a source of irradiation. The results showed that the highest percentage of degradation of Methylene blue dye was obtained by using SnO₂ photocatalyst at calculations temperature 800 ᵒC. The operational parameters were investigated to be optimized to the best conditions which result in complete removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution. It was found that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as irradiation time, initial dye concentration, the dose of the catalyst and the presence of metals such as silver as a dopant and its concentration. Percent degradation was increased with irradiation time. The degradation efficiency decreased as the initial concentration of the dye increased. The degradation efficiency increased as the dose of the catalyst increased to a certain level and by further increasing the SnO₂ photocatalyst dose, the degradation efficiency is decreased. The best degradation efficiency on which obtained from pure SnO₂ compared with SnO₂ which doped by different percentage of Ag.

Keywords: SnO₂ nanoparticles, a sol-gel method, photocatalytic applications, methylene blue, degradation efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
28 Sensing Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Sputtered Tin Oxide Thin Films as Nitrogen Oxide Sensor

Authors: Qasem Drmosh, Zain Yamai, Amar Mohamedkhair, Abdulmajid Hendi

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the reduction of the nitrogen oxides NOx (NO2, NO) gases resulting from automotive or combustion emissions. Recently, metal additives in nanometer dimension onto the surface of SnO2 nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes sensitizer to further increase the sensor response have been used. In contrast, there is a lack study focused on modifying the surface of SnO2 thin films by nanoparticles. The challenge in case of thin films is how to fabricate these nanoparticles on the surfaces in cost-effective method, high purity as well as without hampering electrical and topographical properties. Here in this report, a simple and facile strategy has been demonstrated to acquire high sensitive and fast response NO2 gas sensor. Structural, electrical, morphological, optical, and compositional properties of the fabricated sensors were investigated through different analytical technique including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning emission microscope (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sensing performance of the prepared sensors are studied at different temperatures for various concentrations of NO2 and compared with pristine SnO2 film.

Keywords: NO2 sensor, SnO2, sputtering, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
27 Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2: Ti Thin Films Spray-Deposited on Optical Glass

Authors: Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

In this study, we have newly developed titanium-tin oxide (TiSnO) thin films as the transparent conducting oxides materials by the spray pyrolysis technique. Tin oxide thin films doped with different Ti content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Ti content. The effect of Ti contents on the crystalline structure and optical properties of the as-deposited SnO2:Ti films was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectrometer and photoluminecenc spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns taken at room temperature showed that the films are polycrystalline. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the difractogram of SnO2: Ti (TiTO) films were correspond to the reflections from the (110), (200), (211) and (301) planes. The grain size varies from 21.8 to 27.8 nm for (110) preferred plane. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of TiTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The highest visible transmittance (570 nm) of the deposited films is 80 % for 20 wt % titanium doped tin oxide films. The obtained results revealed that the structures and optical properties of the films were greatly affected by doping levels. These films are useful as conducting layers in electro chromic and photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: transparent conducting oxide, gas sensors, SnO2, Ti, optoelectronic, spray pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
26 Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: V. Jelev, P. Petkov, P. Shindov

Abstract:

Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (<300°C) are amorphous whereas this deposited at higher temperatures have certain degree of polycrystallinity. Thin oxide films deposited at 450°C are generally polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure. The resistivity decreases with dopant concentration. The minimum resistivity was achieved at dopant concentration about 2.5 mol% As2O5 in the solution. The transmittance greater than 80% and resistivity smaller than 7.5.10-4Ω.cm were achieved in the films deposited at 480°C. The As doped films (SnO2: As) deposited on silicon substrates was used for preparation of a large area position sensitive photodetector (PSD), acting on the base of a lateral photovoltaic effect. The position characteristic of PSD is symmetric to the zero and linear in the 80% of the active area. The SnO2 films are extremely stable under typical environmental conditions and extremely resistant to chemical etching.

Keywords: metal oxide film, SnO2 film, position sensitive photodetectors (PSD), lateral photovoltaic effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
25 Physical Characterization of SnO₂ Films Prepared by the Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation (RGTO) Method

Authors: A. Kabir, D. Boulainine, I. Bouanane, N. Benslim, B. Boudjema, C. Sedrati

Abstract:

SnO₂ is an n-type semiconductor with a direct gap of about 3.6 eV. It is largely used in several domains such as nanocrystalline photovoltaic cells. Due to its interesting physic-chemical properties, this material was elaborated in thin film forms using different deposition techniques. It was found that SnO₂ properties were directly affected by the deposition method parameters. In this work, the RGTO method (Rheotaxial Growth and Thermal Oxidation) was used to deposit elaborate SnO₂ thin films. This technique consists on thermal oxidation of the Sn films deposited onto a substrate heated to a temperature close to Sn melting point (232°C). Such process allows the preparation of high porosity tin oxide films which are very suitable for the gas sensing. The films structural, morphological and optical properties pre and post thermal oxidation were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) respectively. XRD patterns showed a polycrystalline structure of the cassiterite phase of SnO₂. The grain growth was found affected by the oxidation temperature. This grain size evolution was confronted to existing grain growth models in order to understand the growth mechanism. From SEM images, the as deposited Sn film was formed of difference diameter spherical agglomerations. As a function of the oxidation temperature, these spherical agglomerations shape changed due to the introduction of oxygen ions. The deformed spheres started to interconnect by forming bridges between them. The volume porosity, determined from the UV-Visible reflexion spectra, Changes as a function of the oxidation temperature. The variation of the crystalline fraction, determined from FTIR spectra, correlated with the variation of both the grain size and the volume porosity.

Keywords: tin oxide, RGTO, grain growth, volume porosity, crystalline fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
24 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel

Abstract:

Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
23 Optical Characterization and Surface Morphology of SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: J. O. Ajayi, S. S. Oluyamo, D. B. Agunbiade

Abstract:

In this work, tin oxide thin films (SnO2) were prepared using the spin coating technique. The effects of precursor concentration on the thin film properties were investigated. Tin oxide was synthesized from anhydrous Tin (II) Chloride (SnCl2) dispersed in Methanol and Acetic acid. The metallic oxide (SnO2) films deposited were characterized using the UV Spectrophotometer and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the absorption spectra, absorption increases with decrease in precursor concentration. Absorbance in the VIS region is lower than 0 % at higher concentration. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases as the concentration of precursor decreases and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 90% for films prepared with 0.2 M. Also, there is increase in the reflectance of thin films as concentration of precursor increases. The films have high transparency (more than 85%) and low reflectance (less than 40%) in the VIS region. Investigation showed that the direct band gap value increased from 3.79eV, to 3.82eV as the precursor concentration decreased from 0.6 M to 0.2 M. Average direct bandgap energy for all the tin oxide films was estimated to be 3.80eV. The effect of precursor concentration was directly observed in crystal outgrowth and surface particle densification. They were found to increase proportionately with higher concentration.

Keywords: anhydrous TIN (II) chloride, densification, NIS- VIS region, spin coating technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
22 High Capacity SnO₂/Graphene Composite Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Hilal Köse, Şeyma Dombaycıoğlu, Ali Osman Aydın, Hatem Akbulut

Abstract:

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become promising power sources for a wide range of applications, such as mobile communication devices, portable electronic devices and electrical/hybrid vehicles due to their long cycle life, high voltage and high energy density. Graphite, as anode material, has been widely used owing to its extraordinary electronic transport properties, large surface area, and high electrocatalytic activities although its limited specific capacity (372 mAh g-1) cannot fulfil the increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density. To settle this problem, many studies have been taken into consideration to investigate new electrode materials and metal oxide/graphene composites are selected as a kind of promising material for lithium ion batteries as their specific capacities are much higher than graphene. Among them, SnO₂, an n-type and wide band gap semiconductor, has attracted much attention as an anode material for the new-generation lithium-ion batteries with its high theoretical capacity (790 mAh g-1). However, it suffers from large volume changes and agglomeration associated with the Li-ion insertion and extraction processes, which brings about failure and loss of electrical contact of the anode. In addition, there is also a huge irreversible capacity during the first cycle due to the formation of amorphous Li₂O matrix. To obtain high capacity anode materials, we studied on the synthesis and characterization of SnO₂-Graphene nanocomposites and investigated the capacity of this free-standing anode material in this work. For this aim, firstly, graphite oxide was obtained from graphite powder using the method described by Hummers method. To prepare the nanocomposites as free-standing anode, graphite oxide particles were ultrasonicated in distilled water with SnO2 nanoparticles (1:1, w/w). After vacuum filtration, the GO-SnO₂ paper was peeled off from the PVDF membrane to obtain a flexible, free-standing GO paper. Then, GO structure was reduced in hydrazine solution. Produced SnO2- graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. CR2016 cells were assembled in a glove box (MBraun-Labstar). The cells were charged and discharged at 25°C between fixed voltage limits (2.5 V to 0.2 V) at a constant current density on a BST8-MA MTI model battery tester with 0.2C charge-discharge rate. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed at the scan rate of 0.1 mVs-1 and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out using Gamry Instrument applying a sine wave of 10 mV amplitude over a frequency range of 1000 kHz-0.01 Hz.

Keywords: SnO₂-graphene, nanocomposite, anode, Li-ion battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
21 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: electrical contact, material, nanocomposite, plasma, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
20 A Self-Heating Gas Sensor of SnO2-Based Nanoparticles Electrophoretic Deposited

Authors: Glauco M. M. M. Lustosa, João Paulo C. Costa, Sonia M. Zanetti, Mario Cilense, Leinig Antônio Perazolli, Maria Aparecida Zaghete

Abstract:

The contamination of the environment has been one of the biggest problems of our time, mostly due to developments of many industries. SnO2 is an n-type semiconductor with band gap about 3.5 eV and has its electrical conductivity dependent of type and amount of modifiers agents added into matrix ceramic during synthesis process, allowing applications as sensing of gaseous pollutants on ambient. The chemical synthesis by polymeric precursor method consists in a complexation reaction between tin ion and citric acid at 90 °C/2 hours and subsequently addition of ethyleneglycol for polymerization at 130 °C/2 hours. It also prepared polymeric resin of zinc, cobalt and niobium ions. Stoichiometric amounts of the solutions were mixed to obtain the systems (Zn, Nb)-SnO2 and (Co, Nb) SnO2 . The metal immobilization reduces its segregation during the calcination resulting in a crystalline oxide with high chemical homogeneity. The resin was pre-calcined at 300 °C/1 hour, milled in Atritor Mill at 500 rpm/1 hour, and then calcined at 600 °C/2 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XDR) indicated formation of SnO2 -rutile phase (JCPDS card nº 41-1445). The characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope of High Resolution showed spherical ceramic powder nanostructured with 10-20 nm of diameter. 20 mg of SnO2 -based powder was kept in 20 ml of isopropyl alcohol and then taken to an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) system. The EPD method allows control the thickness films through the voltage or current applied in the electrophoretic cell and by the time used for deposition of ceramics particles. This procedure obtains films in a short time with low costs, bringing prospects for a new generation of smaller size devices with easy integration technology. In this research, films were obtained in an alumina substrate with interdigital electrodes after applying 2 kV during 5 and 10 minutes in cells containing alcoholic suspension of (Zn, Nb)-SnO2 and (Co, Nb) SnO2 of powders, forming a sensing layer. The substrate has designed integrated micro hotplates that provide an instantaneous and precise temperature control capability when a voltage is applied. The films were sintered at 900 and 1000 °C in a microwave oven of 770 W, adapted by the research group itself with a temperature controller. This sintering is a fast process with homogeneous heating rate which promotes controlled growth of grain size and also the diffusion of modifiers agents, inducing the creation of intrinsic defects which will change the electrical characteristics of SnO2 -based powders. This study has successfully demonstrated a microfabricated system with an integrated micro-hotplate for detection of CO and NO2 gas at different concentrations and temperature, with self-heating SnO2 - based nanoparticles films, being suitable for both industrial process monitoring and detection of low concentrations in buildings/residences in order to safeguard human health. The results indicate the possibility for development of gas sensors devices with low power consumption for integration in portable electronic equipment with fast analysis. Acknowledgments The authors thanks to the LMA-IQ for providing the FEG-SEM images, and the financial support of this project by the Brazilian research funding agencies CNPq, FAPESP 2014/11314-9 and CEPID/CDMF- FAPESP 2013/07296-2.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, electrophoretic deposition, self-heating, gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
19 Sonocatalytic Treatment of Baker’s Yeast Wastewater by Using SnO2/TiO2 Composite

Authors: Didem Ildırar, Serap Fındık

Abstract:

Baker’s yeast industry uses molasses as a raw material. Molasses wastewater contains high molecular weight polymers called melanoidins. Melanoidins are obtained after the reactions between the amino acids and carbonyl groups in molasses. The molasses wastewater has high biochemical and chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. If it is discharged to receiving bodies without any treatment, it prevents light penetration and dissolved oxygen level of the surface water decreases. Melanoidin compounds are toxic effect to the microorganism in water and there is a resistance to microbial degradation. Before discharging molasses wastewater, adequate treatment is necessary. In addition to changing environmental regulations, properties of treated wastewater must be improved. Advanced oxidation processes can be used to improve existing properties of wastewater. Sonochemical oxidation is one of the alternative methods. Sonochemical oxidation employs the use of ultrasound resulting in cavitation phenomena. In this study, decolorization and chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) of baker’s yeast effluent was investigated by using ultrasound. Baker’s yeast effluent was supplied from a factory which is located in the north of Turkey. An ultrasonic homogenizator was used for this study. Its operating frequency is 20kHz. SnO2/TiO2 catalyst has been used as sonocatalyst. The effects of the composite preparation method, mixing time while composite prepared, the molar ratio of SnO2/TiO2, the calcination temperature, and time, the catalyst amount were investigated on the treatment of baker’s yeast effluent. . According to the results, the prepared composite SnO2/TiO2 by using ultrasonic probe gave a better result than prepared composite by using an ultrasonic bath. Prepared composite by using an ultrasonic probe with a 4:1 molar ratio treated at 800°C for 60min gave a better result. By using this composite, optimum catalyst amount was 0.2g/l. At these conditions 26.6% decolorization was obtained. There was no COD removal at the studied conditions.

Keywords: baker’s yeast effluent, COD, decolorization, sonocatalyst, ultrasonic irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
18 Fe Modified Tin Oxide Thin Film Based Matrix for Reagentless Uric Acid Biosensing

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

Biosensors have found potential applications ranging from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care and to obtain precise information more quickly about the health status of patient by the development of various biosensors, which has become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point of care testing for a wide range of biological elements. Uric acid is an important byproduct in human body and a number of pathological disorders are related to its high concentration in human body. In past few years, rapid growth in the development of new materials and improvements in sensing techniques have led to the evolution of advanced biosensors. In this context, metal oxide thin film based matrices due to their bio compatible nature, strong adsorption ability, high isoelectric point (IEP) and abundance in nature have become the materials of choice for recent technological advances in biotechnology. In the past few years, wide band-gap metal oxide semiconductors including ZnO, SnO₂ and CeO₂ have gained much attention as a matrix for immobilization of various biomolecules. Tin oxide (SnO₂), wide band gap semiconductor (Eg =3.87 eV), despite having multifunctional properties for broad range of applications including transparent electronics, gas sensors, acoustic devices, UV photodetectors, etc., it has not been explored much for biosensing purpose. To realize a high performance miniaturized biomolecular electronic device, rf sputtering technique is considered to be the most promising for the reproducible growth of good quality thin films, controlled surface morphology and desired film crystallization with improved electron transfer property. Recently, iron oxide and its composites have been widely used as matrix for biosensing application which exploits the electron communication feature of Fe, for the detection of various analytes using urea, hemoglobin, glucose, phenol, L-lactate, H₂O₂, etc. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no work is being reported on modifying the electronic properties of SnO₂ by implanting with suitable metal (Fe) to induce the redox couple in it and utilizing it for reagentless detection of uric acid. In present study, Fe implanted SnO₂ based matrix has been utilized for reagentless uric acid biosensor. Implantation of Fe into SnO₂ matrix is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Electrochemical techniques have been used to study the response characteristics of Fe modified SnO₂ matrix before and after uricase immobilization. The developed uric acid biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity to about 0.21 mA/mM and a linear variation in current response over concentration range from 0.05 to 1.0 mM of uric acid besides high shelf life (~20 weeks). The Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameter (Km) is found to be relatively very low (0.23 mM), which indicates high affinity of the fabricated bioelectrode towards uric acid (analyte). Also, the presence of other interferents present in human serum has negligible effect on the performance of biosensor. Hence, obtained results highlight the importance of implanted Fe:SnO₂ thin film as an attractive matrix for realization of reagentless biosensors towards uric acid.

Keywords: Fe implanted tin oxide, reagentless uric acid biosensor, rf sputtering, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
17 Chemical Synthesis and Microwave Sintering of SnO2-Based Nanoparticles for Varistor Films

Authors: Glauco M. M. M. Lustosa, João Paulo C. Costa, Leinig Antônio Perazolli, Maria Aparecida Zaghete

Abstract:

SnO2 has electrical conductivity due to the excess of electrons and structural defects, being its electrical behavior highly dependent on sintering temperature and chemical composition. The addition of metals modifiers into the crystalline structure can improve and controlling the behavior of some semiconductor oxides that can therefore develop different applications such as varistors (ceramic with non-ohmic behavior between current and voltage, i.e. conductive during normal operation and resistive during overvoltage). The polymeric precursor method, based on the complexation reaction between metal ion and policarboxylic acid and then polymerized with ethylene glycol, was used to obtain nanopowders ceramic. The metal immobilization reduces its segregation during the decomposition of the polyester resulting in a crystalline oxide with high chemical homogeneity. The preparation of films from ceramics nanoparticles using electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) brings prospects for a new generation of smaller size devices with easy integration technology. EPD allows to control time and current and therefore it can have control of the thickness, surface roughness and the film density, quickly and with low production costs. The sintering process is key to control size and grain boundary density of the film. In this step, there is the diffusion of metals that promote densification and control of intrinsic defects or change these defects which will form and modify the potential barrier in the grain boundary. The use of microwave oven for sintering is an advantageous process due to the fast and homogeneous heating rate, promoting the diffusion and densification without irregular grain growth. This research was done a comparative study of sintering temperature by use of zinc as modifier agent to verify the influence on sintering step aiming to promote densification and grain growth, which influences the potential barrier formation and then changed the electrical behavior. SnO2-nanoparticles were obtained with 1 %mol of ZnO + 0.05 %mol of Nb2O5 (SZN), deposited as film through EPD (voltage 2 kV, time of 10 min) on Si/Pt substrate. Sintering was made in a microwave oven at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. For complete coverage of the substrate by nanoparticles with low surface roughness and uniform thickness was added 0.02 g of solid iodine in alcoholic suspension SnO2 to increase particle surface charge. They were also used magneto in EPD system that improved the deposition rate forming a compact film. Using a scanning electron microscope of high resolution (SEM_FEG) it was observed nanoparticles with average size between 10-20 nm, after sintering the average size was 150 to 200 nm and thickness of 5 µm. Also, it was verified that the temperature at 1000 °C was the most efficient in sintering. The best sintering time was also recorded and determined as 40 minutes. After sintering, the films were recovered with Cr3+ ions layer by EPD, then the films were again thermally treated. The electrical characterizations (nonlinear coefficient of 11.4, voltage rupture of ~60 V and leakage current = 4.8x10−6 A), allow considering the new methodology suitable for prepare SnO2-based varistor applied for development of electrical protection devices for low voltage.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, electrophoretic deposition, microwave sintering, tin dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
16 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
15 Controlled Synthesis of Pt₃Sn-SnOx/C Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Dorottya Guban, Irina Borbath, Istvan Bakos, Peter Nemeth, Andras Tompos

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges of the implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is to find active and durable electrocatalysts. The cell performance is always limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode since it is at least 6 orders of magnitude slower than the hydrogen oxidation on the anode. Therefore high loading of Pt is required. Catalyst corrosion is also more significant on the cathode, especially in case of mobile applications, where rapid changes of loading have to be tolerated. Pt-Sn bulk alloys and SnO2-decorated Pt3Sn nanostructures are among the most studied bimetallic systems for fuel cell applications. Exclusive formation of supported Sn-Pt alloy phases with different Pt/Sn ratios can be achieved by using controlled surface reactions (CSRs) between hydrogen adsorbed on Pt sites and tetraethyl tin. In this contribution our results for commercial and a home-made 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts modified by tin anchoring via CSRs are presented. The parent Pt/C catalysts were synthesized by modified NaBH4-assisted ethylene-glycol reduction method using ethanol as a solvent, which resulted either in dispersed and highly stable Pt nanoparticles or evenly distributed raspberry-like agglomerates according to the chosen synthesis parameters. The 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts prepared that way showed improved electrocatalytic performance in the ORR and stability in comparison to the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts. Then, in order to obtain Sn-Pt/C catalysts with Pt/Sn= 3 ratio, the Pt/C catalysts were modified with tetraethyl tin (SnEt4) using three and five consecutive tin anchoring periods. According to in situ XPS studies in case of catalysts with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles, pre-treatment in hydrogen even at 170°C resulted in complete reduction of the ionic tin to Sn0. No evidence of the presence of SnO2 phase was found by means of the XRD and EDS analysis. These results demonstrate that the method of CSRs is a powerful tool to create Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles exclusively, without tin deposition onto the carbon support. On the contrary, the XPS results revealed that the tin-modified catalysts with raspberry-like Pt agglomerates always contained a fraction of non-reducible tin oxide. At the same time, they showed increased activity and long-term stability in the ORR than Pt/C, which was assigned to the presence of SnO2 in close proximity/contact with Pt-Sn alloy phase. It has been demonstrated that the content and dispersion of the fcc Pt3Sn phase within the electrocatalysts can be controlled by tuning the reaction conditions of CSRs. The bimetallic catalysts displayed an outstanding performance in the ORR. The preparation of a highly dispersed 20Pt/C catalyst permits to decrease the Pt content without relevant decline in the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts.

Keywords: anode catalyst, cathode catalyst, controlled surface reactions, oxygen reduction reaction, PtSn/C electrocatalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
14 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté

Abstract:

Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
13 Transport Properties of Alkali Nitrites

Authors: Y. Mateyshina, A.Ulihin, N.Uvarov

Abstract:

Electrolytes with different type of charge carrier can find widely application in different using, e.g. sensors, electrochemical equipments, batteries and others. One of important components ensuring stable functioning of the equipment is electrolyte. Electrolyte has to be characterized by high conductivity, thermal stability, and wide electrochemical window. In addition to many advantageous characteristic for liquid electrolytes, the solid state electrolytes have good mechanical stability, wide working range of temperature range. Thus search of new system of solid electrolytes with high conductivity is an actual task of solid state chemistry. Families of alkali perchlorates and nitrates have been investigated by us earlier. In literature data about transport properties of alkali nitrites are absent. Nevertheless, alkali nitrites MeNO2 (Me= Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ and Cs+), except for the lithium salt, have high-temperature phases with crystal structure of the NaCl-type. High-temperature phases of nitrites are orientationally disordered, i.e. non-spherical anions are reoriented over several equivalents directions in the crystal lattice. Pure lithium nitrite LiNO2 is characterized by ionic conductivity near 10-4 S/cm at 180°C and more stable as compared with lithium nitrate and can be used as a component for synthesis of composite electrolytes. In this work composite solid electrolytes in the binary system LiNO2 - A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) were synthesized and their structural, thermodynamic and electrical properties investigated. Alkali nitrite was obtained by exchange reaction from water solutions of barium nitrite and alkali sulfate. The synthesized salt was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction technique using D8 Advance X-Ray Diffractometer with Cu K radiation. Using thermal analysis, the temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition of salt were determined.. The conductivity was measured using a two electrode scheme in a forevacuum (6.7 Pa) with an HP 4284A (Precision LCR meter) in a frequency range 20 Hz < ν < 1 MHz. Solid composite electrolytes LiNO2 - A A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) have been synthesized by mixing of preliminary dehydrated components followed by sintering at 250°C. In the series of nitrite of alkaline metals Li+-Cs+, the conductivity varies not monotonically with increasing radius of cation. The minimum conductivity is observed for KNO2; however, with further increase in the radius of cation in the series, the conductivity tends to increase. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research, grant #14-03-31442.

Keywords: conductivity, alkali nitrites, composite electrolytes, transport properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
12 Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-1,2-Propylene Di-Amino Tetra (Methylenephosphonic Acid)

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many patients with solid malignant tumors. Recently, 1,2 propylene di-amino tetra methylenephosphonic acid (PDTMP) has been introduced as a suitable carrier in the development of therapeutic bone-avid radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, due to the desirable characteristics of 68Ga, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A stock solution of PDTMP was prepared by dissolving in 2 N NaOH. A certain volume of the stock solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared in only 15 min with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: bone metastases, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
11 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: biodistribution, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
10 Influence of Substitution on Structure of Tin Lantanium Pyrochlore La₂₋ₓSrₓSn₂O₇₋δ(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Bounar Nedjemeddine

Abstract:

Materials with the pyrochlore lattice structure have attracted much recent attention due to their wide applications in ceramic thermal barrier coatings, high-permittivity dielectrics, and potential solid electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells. The work described in this paper is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of a pyrochlore structure based on lanthanum (La₂O₃) and tin (SnO₂) oxides of general formula La₂Sn₂O₇, substituted by Sr at the site La. Their structures were determined from X-ray powder diffraction using CELFER analysis. All the compositions present the space group Fd-3m. The substitution of La by Sr in the La₂Sn₂O₇ compound causes a variation of the cell parameters. The difference in charge between La³⁺ and Sr²⁺ and the difference in size cause the cell parameters to decrease from a=10.7165 A° to a=10.6848 A° for the substitution rates (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 ...), which leads to a decrease in the volume of the mesh. For a substitution rate x = 0.25, there is an increase in the cell parameters (a=10.7035A°), which can be explained by a competitiveness of the size effect and the presence of a gap in the structure which go in the opposite direction.

Keywords: solid-oxide fuel cells, structure, pyrochlore, X-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
9 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 587