Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1017

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1017 3D Printing of Dual Tablets: Modified Multiple Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine

Authors: Veronika Lesáková, Silvia Slezáková, František Štěpánek

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing technologies producing drug dosage forms aimed at personalized medicine applications are promising strategies with several advantages over the conventional production methods. One of the emerging technologies is 3D printing which reduces manufacturing steps and thus allows a significant drop in expenses. A decrease in material consumption is also a highly impactful benefit as the tested drugs are frequently expensive substances. In addition, 3D printed dosage forms enable increased patient compliance and prevent misdosing as the dosage forms are carefully designed according to the patient’s needs. The incorporation of multiple drugs into a single dosage form further increases the degree of personalization. Our research focuses on the development of 3D printed tablets incorporating multiple drugs (candesartan, losartan) and thermoplastic polymers (e.g., KlucelTM HPC EF). The filaments, an essential feed material for 3D printing,wereproduced via hot-melt extrusion. Subsequently, the extruded filaments of various formulations were 3D printed into tablets using an FDM 3D printer. Then, we have assessed the influence of the internal structure of 3D printed tablets and formulation on dissolution behaviour by obtaining the dissolution profiles of drugs present in the 3D printed tablets. In conclusion, we have developed tablets containing multiple drugs providing modified release profiles. The 3D printing experiments demonstrate the high tunability of 3D printing as each tablet compartment is constructed with a different formulation. Overall, the results suggest that the 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing approach to dual tablet preparation for personalized medicine.

Keywords: 3D printing, drug delivery, hot-melt extrusion, dissolution kinetics

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1016 Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Bacteria Strains Isolated from Sheep Milk

Authors: Fatima Bouazza, Rachida Hassikou, Lamiae Amallah, Jihane Ennadir, Khadija Khedid

Abstract:

This study evaluated the in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium. Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. The AMC, CTX, FOX, NA, CN, CIP, and OFX were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to TIC, and 80% to TE. The K. oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX, and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to OX, TE, PT, E, and P. The M. pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus cohnii ureal had lower OX, TE, PT, E, and P resistance. M. pulegium yielded 3.2% essential oil compared to 1.85% for T. satureioides. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. T. satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values. The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, essential oils, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, sheep milk

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1015 Zingiberofficinale Potential Effect on Nephrin mRNA Expression in Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Mehrevan M. Abdel-Moniem

Abstract:

Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been cultivated for medicinal purposes due to their various proprieties both in vitro and in vivo, so we designed to evaluate the ginger’s potential effect on nephrin m RNA expression in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Method: Forty male albino rats were divided into group I was injected (IP) with one ml saline, group II(cisplatin) injected (IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin, group III (ginger) received (PO) 310 mg/kg for 30 successive days, and group IV(cisplatin and ginger) rats received ginger extract (310 mg/kg) daily for 20 successive days (PO), and then on day 20 of ginger extract administration each rat was injected(IP) with a single dose of 12 mg/kg cisplatin. The blood was sampled to assess urea, creatinine (SC), while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and paraoxonase (PON1) were measured in kidney tissue homogenate. Expression of urinary nephrin gene (nephrin mRNA) was detected using qRT-PCR. Results: Treatment with ginger significantly decreased the levels of kidney function parameters as well as MDA and NO elevated by cisplatin injection, while PON1 was significantly reduced in the cisplatin group. However, the protection of male rats with ginger significantly increased the levels of nephrin gene expression and PON1 compared with the cisplatin-treated group. Our results generated a proposal on the ameliorating effect of ginger on nephrin mRNA gene expression reduction in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: nephrin mRNA, ginger, cisplatin, nephrotoxicity

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1014 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa Seeds by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka

Abstract:

A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction, and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay

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1013 A Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish and Poultry – Health and Environmental Implications for Animal Source Food Production in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa

Authors: Ekemini M. Okon, Reuben C. Okocha, Babatunde T. Adesina, Judith O. Ehigie, Babatunde M. Falana, Boluwape T. Okikiola

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has evolved to become a significant threat to global public health and food safety. The development of AMR in animals has been associated with antimicrobial overuse. In recent years, the number of antimicrobials used in food animals such as fish and poultry has escalated. It, therefore, becomes imperative to understand the patterns of AMR in fish and poultry and map out future directions for better surveillance efforts. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) to assess the trend, patterns, and spatial distribution for AMR research in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. A literature search was conducted through the Scopus and Web of Science databases in which published studies on AMR between 1989 and 2021 were assessed. A total of 172 articles were relevant for this study. The result showed progressive attention on AMR studies in fish and poultry from 2018 to 2021 across the selected countries. The period between 2018 (23 studies) and 2021 (25 studies) showed a significant increase in AMR publications with a peak in 2019 (28 studies). Egypt was the leading exponent of AMR research (43%, n=74) followed by Nigeria (40%, n=69), then South Africa (17%, n=29). AMR studies in fish received relatively little attention across countries. The majority of the AMR studies were on poultry in Egypt (82%, n=61), Nigeria (87%, n=60), and South Africa (83%, n=24). Further, most of the studies were on Escherichia and Salmonella species. Antimicrobials frequently researched were ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole groups. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent, as demonstrated by antimicrobial resistance patterns. In poultry, Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin. Salmonella enterica serovars were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Staphylococcusaureus showed high-level resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Campylobacter isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid at varying degrees. In fish, Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracycline but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Isolated strains of Vibrio species showed sensitivity to florfenicol and ciprofloxacin, butresistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and erythromycin. Isolates of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species exhibited resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Specifically, Aeromonashydrophila isolates showed sensitivity to cephradine, doxycycline, erythromycin, and florfenicol. However, resistance was also exhibited against augmentinandtetracycline. The findings constitute public and environmental health threats and suggest the need to promote and advance AMR research in other countries, particularly those on the global hotspot for antimicrobial use.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, bacteria, environment, public health

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1012 RNA-seq Analysis of Liver from NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi

Abstract:

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease, often associated with type II diabetes, which sometimes progresses to more serious conditions such as liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NASH has become an important health problem worldwide, buttherapeutic agents for NASH have not yet been approved, and animal models with high clinical correlation are required. TheSTAM™ mouse shows the same pathological progression as human NASH patients and has been widely used for both drug efficacy and basic research, such as lipid profiling and gut microbiota research. In this study, we analyzed the RNA-seq data of STAM™mice at each pathological stage (steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and HCC) and examined the clinical correlation at the genetic level. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin solution 2 days after birth and feeding with high fat dietafter 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed and livers collected at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age. For liver samples, the left lateral lobe was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for RNA-seq analysis. Total RNA of the cells was isolated using RNeasy mini kit. The gene expression of the canonical pathways in NASH progression from steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed, such as immune system process, oxidation-reduction process, lipid metabolic process. Moreover, since it has been reported that genetic traits are involved in the development of NASH-HCC, we next analyzed the genetic mutations in the STAM™mice. The number of individuals showing mutations in Mtorinvolved in Insulin signaling increases as the disease progresses, especially in the liver cancer phase. These results indicated a clinical correlation of gene profiles in the STAM™mouse.

Keywords: steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, RNA-seq

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1011 Evaluation of the Anti Ulcer Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Methanol Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum Capitatum

Authors: M. N. Ofokansi, Onyemelukwe Chisom, Amauche Chukwuemeka, Ezema Onyinye

Abstract:

The leaves of Clerodendrumcapitatum(Lamiaceae) is mostly used in the treatment of gastric ulcer in Nigerian folk medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of its crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction in white albino rats. The effect of crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction(250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) was evaluated using an absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract and the ethyl acetate fraction was treated with distilled water and 6% Tween 80, respectively. crude methanol leaf extract was further investigated using a pylorus ligation induced ulcer model. Omeprazole was used as the standard treatment. Four groups of five albino rats of either sex were used. Parameters such as mean ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection were assessed in the ethanol-induced ulcer model, while the gastric volume, pH, and total acidity were assessed in the pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(500mg/kg) showed a very highly significant reduction in mean ulcer index(p<0.001) in the absolute ethanol-induced model. ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(250mg/kg,500mg/kg) showed a very highly significant dose-dependent reduction in mean ulcer indices (p<0.001) in the absolute ethanol-induced model. The mean ulcer indices (1.6,2.2) with dose concentration (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) of ethyl acetate fraction increased with ulcer protection (82.85%,76.42%) respectively when compared to the control group in the absolute ethanol-induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) treated animals showed a highly significant dose-dependent reduction in mean ulcer index(p<0.01) with an increase in ulcer protection (56.77%,63.22%) respectively in pyloric ligated induced, ulcer model. Gastric parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, and total acidity were of no significance in the different doses of the crude methanol leaf extract when compared to the control group. The phytochemical investigation showed that the crude methanol leaf extracts Possess Saponins and Flavonoids while its ethyl acetate fraction possess only Flavonoids. The results of the study indicate that the crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction is effective and has gastro protective and ulcer healing capacity. Ethyl acetate fraction is more potent than crude methanol leaf extract against ethanol-induced This result provides scientific evidence as a validation for its folkloric use in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Keywords: gastroprotective, herbal medicine, anti-ulcer, pharmacology

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1010 Mechanism of Action of Troxerutin in Reducing Oxidative Stress

Authors: Nasrin Hosseinzad

Abstract:

Troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derived of rutin, is a flavonoid existing in tea, coffee, cereal grains, various fruits and vegetables have been conveyed to display radioprotective, antithrombotic, nephron-protective and hepato-protective possessions. Troxerutin, has been well-proved to utilize hepatoprotective assets. Troxerutin could upturn the resistance of hippocampal neurons alongside apoptosis by lessening the action of AChE and oxidative stress. Consequently, troxerutin may have advantageous properties in the administration of Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Troxerutin has been testified to have several welfares and medicinal stuffs. It could shelter the mouse kidney against d-gal-induced damage by refining renal utility, decreasing histopathologic changes, dropping ROS construction, reintroducing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing DNA oxidative destruction. The DNA cleavage study clarifies that troxerutin showed DNA protection against hydroxyl radical persuaded DNA mutilation. Troxerutin uses anti-cancer effect in HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells conceivably through synchronized regulation of the molecular signalling pathways, Nrf2 and NF-κB. DNA binding at slight channel by troxerutin may have donated to feature breaks leading to improved radiation brought cell death. Furthermore, the mechanism principal the observed variance in the antioxidant activities of troxerutin and its esters was qualified to equally their free radical scavenging capabilities and dissemination on the cell membrane outward.

Keywords: troxerutin, DNA, oxidative stress, antioxidant, free radical

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1009 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

Abstract:

Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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1008 Retrospective Audit of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spinal Patient at Mater Private Network Cork 2019 vs 2021

Authors: Ciaran Smiddy, Fergus Nugent, Karen Fitzmaurice

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A measure of prescribing and administration of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis before and during Covid-19(2019 vs. 2021) was desired to assess how these were affected by Covid-19. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis was assessed for 60 patients, under 3 Orthopaedic Consultants, against local guidelines. The study found that compliance with guidelines improved significantly, from 60% to 83%, but Appropriate use of Vancomycin reduced from 37% to 29%.

Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship, prescribing, spinal surgery, vancomycin

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1007 Update on Genetic Diversity for Lamotrigine Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Authors: Natida Thongsima, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Lamotrigine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. However, lamotrigine leads to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consist of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Moreover, lamotrigine-induced SCARs is usually manifested between 2 and 8 weeks after treatment initiation. A previous study, there was found the association between HLA-B*15:02 and lamotrigine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions in the Thai population (odds ratio 4.89; 95% CI 1.28–18.66; p-value = 0.014). Therefore, the distribution of pharmacogenetics markers that a major role in predicting the culprit drugs for SCARs in many populations. Objective: In this study, we want to investigate the prevalence of the HLA-B allele, which correlations in lamotrigine-induced SCARs in a healthy Thai population. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 350 healthy Thai individuals and were approved by the ethics committee of Rangsit University. HLA-B alleles were genotyped by the Lifecodes HLA SSO typing kits (Immucor, West Avenue, Stamford, USA). Results: The results presented HLA-B allele frequency in healthy Thai population were 14.71% (HLA-B*46:01), 8.57% (HLA-B*15:02), 6.71% (HLA-B*40:01), 5.86% (HLA-B*13:01), 5.71% (HLA-B*58:01), 5.14% (HLA-B*38:02), 4.86% (HLA-B*18:01), 4.59% (HLA-B*51:01), 3.86% (HLA-B*44:03) and 2.71% (HLA-B*07:05). Especially, the HLA-B*15:02 allele was the high frequency in the Thais (8.57%), Han Chinese (7.30%), Vietnamese (13.50%), Malaysian (6.06%) and Indonesian (11.60%). Notwithstanding, this allele was much lower in other populations, namely, Africans, Caucasians and Japanese. Conclusions: Although the samples size of the healthy Thai population in this research was limited, there were found the frequency of the HLA-B*15:02 allele could predisposition toward lamotrigine-induced SCARs in Thailand.

Keywords: lamotrigine, cutaneous adverse drug reactions, HLA-B, Thai population

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1006 Database of Pharmacogenetics HLA-A*31:01 Allele in Thai Population and Carbamazepine-Induced SCARs

Authors: Watchawin Ekphinitphithaya, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) by neurologists and non-neurologist worldwide. CBZ is usually prescribed along with other drugs, leading to the possibility of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs). The HLA-B*15:02 is strongly associated with CBZ-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS–TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations, while HLA-A*31:01 allele has been reported to be associated with CBZ-induced SCARs in European population and Japanese. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of pharmacogenetics HLA-A*31:01 marker in a healthy Thai population associated with Carbamazepine-induced SCARs. Materials and Methods: Prospective study, 350 unrelated healthy Thais were recruited in this study. Human leukocyte antigen-A alleles were genotyped using PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). Results: The frequency of HLA-A alleles were HLA-A*11:01 (190 alleles, 27.14%), HLA-A*24:02 (82 alleles, 11.71%), HLA-A*02:03 (80 alleles, 11.43%), HLA-A*33:03 (76 alleles, 10.86%), HLA-A*02:07 (58 alleles, 8.29%), HLA-A*02:01 (35 alleles, 5.00%), HLA-A*24:07 (29 alleles, 4.14%), HLA-A*02:06 – HLA-A*30:01 (15 alleles, 2.14%), and HLA-A*01:01 (14 alleles, 2.00%). Particularly, the number of HLA-A*31:01 alleles was 6 of 700 (0.86%) in the healthy Thai population. Many research presented varying distributions of HLA-A*31:01 in Asians, including 2% of Han Chinese, 9% of Japanese and 5% of Koreans. In addition, this allele was found approximately 2-5% in the Caucasian population. Conclusions: Thus, the pharmacogenetics database is vital to support in many populations, especially in Thais, for screening HLA-A*31:01 allele to avoid CBZ-induced SCARs before initiating treatments in each population.

Keywords: Carbamazepine, HLA-A*31:01, Thai population, pharmacogenetics

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1005 Healthy Thai Population and Distribution of HLA-B*57:01 Linked with Abacavir Hypersensitivity Syndrome

Authors: Boonyavee Uthaisang, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs) widely used for the treatment of HIV infection. However, abacavir can lead to hypersensitivity reactions with approximately 5% after initiation of treatment. The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction (AHR) is usually manifested within six weeks after initiation of treatment and is clinically characterized by fever, rash, gastrointestinal, neurological, and musculoskeletal symptoms. The mortality rate of AHR is 0.03%. In previous studies, it was found that HLA-B*57:01 has a strong association with AHR (p-value < 0.001) in the Caucasian population. Nevertheless, the pharmacogenetics marker and the distribution of HLA-B alleles might be different in other populations. Objective: This study aims to investigate the distribution of HLA-B*57:01 among the healthy Thai population. Materials and Methods: HLA-B genotypes of three-hundred healthy Thais were determined by the PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotides probe. Results: The frequency of the HLA-B alleles were HLA-B*46:01 (14.70%), HLA-B*58:01 (7.33%), HLA-B*15:02 (7.17%), HLA-B*40:01 (7.00%), and HLA-B*13:01 (5.83%). Among the healthy Thai population, 6 (1.00%) subjects carried HLA-B*57:01 allele. Moreover, the HLA-B*57:01 allele was similarly distributed in the Asian population (0.5-1%) but higher in the Caucasian population (3%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusions: Screening of HLA-B*57:01 should take place among HIV-infected patients who are diagnosed with abacavir in order to prevent AHR.

Keywords: abacavir, HLA-B*57:01, Thai population, hypersensitivity reactions

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1004 Nano-emulsion/Nano-suspension as Precursors for Oral Dissolvable Film to Enhance Bioavalabilty for Poor-water Solubility Drugs

Authors: Yuan Yang, Mickey Lam

Abstract:

Oral dissolvable films have been considered as a unique alternative approach to conventional oral dosage forms. The films could be administrated via the gastrointestinal tract as conventional dosages or through sublingual/buccal mucosa membranes, which could enhance drug bioavailability by avoiding the first-pass effect and improving permeability due to high blood flow and lymphatic circulation. This work has described a state-of-art technic using nano-emulsion/nano-suspension as a precursor for the film to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. The drug molecules are consequentially processed through the emulsification, gelation, and film-casting processes. The gelation process is critical to stabilizing the nano-emulsion for the film-casting as well as controlling the drug release process. Furthermore, the size of the nanoparticle on the film has a strong correlation with the size of the micelles in the precursor and the condition of the gelation process. It has been discovered that nanoparticle from 200 nm to 300 nm has shown the highest permeability for sublingual administration. In one example shown in work, the bioavailability of a low solubilize drug has been increased from 10% to 24% via sublingual administration of the film. The increasing of the bioavailability was thought to be associated with the enhancement of the diffusion process of the drug in the saliva layer above the mucosa membrane and the fact that the presents of the emulsifier help lose the rigid junction of the mucosa cells.

Keywords: oral dissolvable film, nano-suspension, nano-emulsion, bioavailability

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1003 Creation and Implementation of A New Palliative Care Drug Chart, via A Closed-Loop Audit

Authors: Asfa Hussain, Chee Tang, Mien Nguyen

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Introduction: The safe usage of medications is dependent on clear, well-documented prescribing. Medical drug charts should be regularly checked to ensure that they are fit for purpose. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Isabel Hospice drug charts were effective or prone to medical errors. The aim was to create a comprehensive palliative care drug chart in line with medico-legal guidelines and to minimise drug administration and prescription errors. Methodology: 50 medical drug charts were audited from March to April 2020, to assess whether they complied with medico-legal guidelines, in a hospice within East of England. Meetings were held with the larger multi-disciplinary team (MDT), including the pharmacists, nursing staff and doctors, to raise awareness of the issue. A preliminary drug chart was created, using the input from the wider MDT. The chart was revised and trialled over 15 times, and each time feedback from the MDT was incorporated into the subsequent template. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020, the finalised drug chart was trialled. 50 new palliative drug charts were re-audited, to evaluate the changes made. Results: Prescribing and administration errors were high prior to the implementation of the new chart. This improved significantly after introducing the new drug charts, therefore improving patient safety and care. The percentage of inadequately documented allergies went down from 66% to 20% and incorrect oxygen prescription from 40% to 16%. The prescription drug-drug interactions decreased by 30%. Conclusion: It is vital to have clear standardised drug charts, in line with medico-legal standards, to allow ease of prescription and administration of medications and ensure optimum patient-centred care. This closed loop audit demonstrated significant improvement in documentation and prevention of possible fatal drug errors and interactions.

Keywords: palliative care, drug chart, medication errors, drug-drug interactions, COVID-19, patient safety

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1002 Phage Therapy of Staphylococcal Pyoderma in Dogs

Authors: Jiri Nepereny, Vladimir Vrzal

Abstract:

Staphylococcus intermedius/pseudintermedius bacteria are commonly found on the skin of healthy dogs and can cause pruritic skin diseases under certain circumstances (trauma, allergy, immunodeficiency, ectoparasitosis, endocrinological diseases, glucocorticoid therapy, etc.). These can develop into complicated superficial or deep pyoderma, which represent a large group of problematic skin diseases in dogs. These are predominantly inflammations of a secondary nature, associated with the occurrence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. A major problem is increased itching, which greatly complicates the healing process. The aim of this work is to verify the efficacy of the developed preparation of Bacteriophage SI (Staphylococcus intermedius). The tested preparation contains a lysate of bacterial cells of S. intermedius host culture, including culture medium and live virions of specific phage. Sodium Merthiolate is added as a preservative in a safe concentration. Validation of the efficacy of the product was demonstrated by monitoring the therapeutic effect after application to indicated cases from clinical practice. The indication for inclusion of the patient into the trial was an adequate history and clinical examination accompanied by sample collection for bacteriological examination and isolation of the specific causative agent. Isolate identification was performed by API BioMérieux identification system (API ID 32 STAPH) and rep-PCR typing. The suitability of therapy for a specific case was confirmed by in vitro testing of the lytic ability of the bacteriophage to lyse the specific isolate = formation of specific plaques on the culture isolate on the surface of the solid culture medium. So far, a total of 32 dogs of different sexes, ages, and breed affiliations with different symptoms of staphylococcal dermatitis have been included in the testing. Their previous therapy consisted of more or less successful systemic or local application of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The presence of S. intermedius/pseudintermedius has been demonstrated in 26 cases. The isolates were identified as a S. pseudintermedius, in all cases. Contaminant bacterial microflora was always present in the examined samples. The test product was applied subcutaneously in gradually increasing doses over a period of 1 month. After the improvement in health status, maintenance therapy was followed by the application of the product once a week for 3 months. Adverse effects associated with the administration of the product (swelling at the site of application) occurred in only 2 cases. In all cases, there was a significant reduction in clinical signs (healing of skin lesions and reduction of inflammation) after therapy and an improvement in the well-being of the treated animals. A major problem in the treatment of pyoderma is the frequent resistance of the causative agents to antibiotics, especially the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant and methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains. Specific phagolysate using for the therapy of these diseases could solve this problem and to some extent replace or reduce the use of antibiotics, whose frequent and widespread application often leads to the emergence of resistance. The advantage of the therapeutic use of bacteriophages is their bactericidal effect, high specificity, and safety. This work was supported by Project FV40213 from the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Czech Republic.

Keywords: bacteriophage, pyoderma, staphylococcus spp, therapy

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1001 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Derris scandens Extract

Authors: Nattawit Thiapairat

Abstract:

Multiple diseases have been linked to excessive levels of free radicals, which cause tissue or cell damage as a result of oxidative stress. Many plants are sources of high antioxidant activity. Derris scandens has a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents which demonstrated good biological activities. This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from D. scandens. This study performs total flavonoids content and various antioxidant assays, which were 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The total flavonoid content of D. scandens extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant activity of D. scandens extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for D. scandens extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 41.79 μg/mL ± 0.783 and 29.42 μg/mL ± 0.890, respectively, in the DPPH assay. To conclude, D. scandens extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibits a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments should be performed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Derris scandens, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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1000 Antimicrobial Activity of the Natural Products Derived from Phyllanthus Emblica and Gracilaria Fisheri Against Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Woraprat Amnuaychaichana

Abstract:

Several medicinal plants are well known to contain active constituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds with are plausible candidates for therapeutic purposes. An infectious disease caused by microbial infection is the leading cause of death. Antibiotics are typically used to eradicate these microbes, but recent evidence indicates that they are developing antibiotic-resistant effects. This study focused on antimicrobial activities of Phyllanthus emblica and Gracilaria fisheri using the agar disk diffusion method and broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. The extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus. Five concentrations of plant extracts were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by 2-fold dilution of plant extract. The results indicated that G. fisheri extract gave the maximum zones of inhibition of 11.7 mm against S. aureus while P. emblica showed no effects. The MIC values of G. fisheri extract against S. aureus was 500 µg/ml. To summarise, G. fisheri extracts demonstrated high efficacy of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, which may pave the way for developing a formulation containing this plant. G. fisheri extract should be subjected to additional investigation in order to determine the mechanism of action of its antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, gracilaria fishery, Phyllanthus emblica

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999 Anti-Microbial Activity of Senna garrettiana Extract

Authors: Pun Jankrajangjaeng

Abstract:

Senna garrettiana is a climatic tropical plant in Southeast Asia. Senna garrettiana (Craib) is used as a medicinal plant in Thailand, in which the experiment reported that the plant contains triterpenoids, ligans, phenolics, and fungal metabolites. Thus, it is also reported that the plant possesses interesting biological activity such as antioxidant activity. Therefore, Senna garrettiana is selected to examine the antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study is to examine the antimicrobial activity of Senna garrettiana (crab) extract against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi, and the fungus Candida albicans. This study performed the agar disk-diffusion method and broth microdilution by using five concentrations of plant extract to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. garrettiana extract. The result showed that S. garrettiana extract gave the maximum zone inhibition of 11.7 mm, 13.7 mm, and 14.0 mm against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. The MIC value of S. garrettiana against S. aureus was 125 µg/mL while the MIC in S. typhi and C. albicans greater than 2000 µg/mL. To conclude, S. garrettiana extract showed higher sensitivity of antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the plant extracts also possessed antifungal activity. Therefore, further investigation to confirm the mechanism of action of antimicrobial activity in S. garrettiana extract should be performed to identify the target of the antimicrobial action.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Senna garrettiana, Staphylococcus aureus

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998 Evaluation Of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Camellia Sinensis Leaves Extract

Authors: Jirathan Pongchababnapa

Abstract:

Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants which may have a protective role to play in certain conditions such as heart disease, stroke and some cancers. By relying on these benefits, we have traced out the presence of antioxidant in Camellia sinensis leaves extract. This study aims to evaluate flavonoids content in C. sinensisextract and investigate antioxidant activities by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. Sinensis extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC₅₀ of C. Sinensis leaves extract were 40.90 μg/mL ± 0.755 and32.96 μg/mL ± 0.679 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. Sinensis extract at increasing concentration showed antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. Sinensis extract consisted of a high amount of flavonoids content which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further investigation on the identification of pure compound of this plant and molecular antioxidant assays are still required.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, camellia sinensis, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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997 Antioxidant Activity Of Gracilaria Fisheri Extract

Authors: Paam Bidaya

Abstract:

The red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri, widely distributed along Thailand's southern coastlines, has been discovered to be edible. Sulfated polysaccharides from G. fisheri were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water. Seaweed polysaccharides (SPs) have been shown to have various advantageous biological effects. This study aims to investigate total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of G. fisheri extract. The total phenolic content of G. fisheri extract was determined using Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant activity of G. fisheri extract was performed via 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, DPPH and ABTS assays showed that G. fisheri extract showed antioxidant activities as a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of G. fisheri extract were 902.19 μg/mL ± 0.785 and 727.98 μg/mL ± 0.822 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in ABTS assay. To conclude, G. fisheri extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibit a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity should be performed in order to identify the mechanism of Gracilaria fisheri action.

Keywords: ABTS assay, DPPH assay, sulfated polysaccharides, total phenolic content

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996 In Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Phyllanthus Emblica L. Extract

Authors: Benyapa Suksuwan

Abstract:

Introduction: Oxidative stress is identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases as the disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Aim of the Study: This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from Phyllanthus Emblica L. as oxidative stress plays a vital role in developing and progressing many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Materials and Methods: The plant was extracted using a mixture solvent (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of P. Emblica extract was determined using the Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and various antioxidant assays DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assays. Results and Discussion: The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, the IC₅₀ of P. Emblica extract via DPPH and ABTS assays were 68.10 μg/mL ± 0.455, and 49.24 μg/mL ± 0.716, respectively. Furthermore, P. Emblica extract showed antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in the DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. Emblica extract consisted of a high amount of total phenolic content, which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further antioxidant activity assays using human cell lines such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be performed in order.

Keywords: antioxidant, ABTS scavenging, DPPH scavenging assay, total phenol contents assay, Phyllanthus Emblica L

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995 Biological Activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract

Authors: Chanasit Chaocharoenphat

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa is a herbal plant that is commonly used for home remedies in Thailand. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, as oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of cancer, and H. sabdariffa was used in this study. The total flavonoids content was determined using the aluminium chloride colourimetric method and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g and the antioxidant capacity of the flavonoids using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The IC50 values of H. sabdariffa extract were 167.14 μg/mL ± 0.843 and 77.59 μg/mL ± 0.798, respectively. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. To summarise, H. sabdariffa extract contains a high concentration of total flavonoids and exhibits potent antioxidant activity. However, additional antioxidant activity assays such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging assays and in vitro antioxidant experiments should be carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of the compound.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Gracilaria fisheri, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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994 Yellow Necklacepod and Shih-Balady: Possible Promising Sources Against Human Coronaviruses

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Omnia Kutkat, Yassmin Moatasim, Magda T. Ibrahim, Marwa A. Mostafa, Mohamed GabAllah, Mounir M. El-Safty

Abstract:

Artemisia judaica (known shih-balady), Azadirachta indica and Sophora tomentosa (known yellow necklace pod) are members of available medicinal plants well-known for their traditional medical use in Egypt which suggests that they probably harbor broad-spectrum antiviral, immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Their ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) extracts were evaluated for the potential anti-Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (anti-MERS-CoV) activity. Their cytotoxic activity was tested in Vero-E6 cells using 3-(4,-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method with minor modification. The plot of percentage cytotoxicity for each extract concentration has calculated the concentration which exhibited 50% cytotoxic concentration (TC50). A plaque reduction assay was employed using safe dose of extract to evaluate its effect on virus propagation. The highest inhibition percentage was recorded for the yellow necklace pod, followed by Shih-balady. The possible mode of action of virus inhibition was studied at three different levels viral replication, viral adsorption and virucidal activity. The necklace pod leaves have induced virucidal effects and direct effects on the replication of virus. Phytochemical investigation of the promising necklace pod led to the isolation and structure determination of nine compounds. The structure of each compound was determined by a variety of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4-O-methyl sorbitol 1, 8-methoxy daidzin 6 and 6-methoxy apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 8 were isolated for the first time from the Sophora genus and the other six compounds were the first time that they were isolated from this species according to available works of literature. Generally, the highest anti-CoV 2 activity of S. tomentosa was associated with the crude ethanolic extract, indicating the possibility of synergy among the antiviral phytochemical constituents (1-9).

Keywords: coronavirus, MERS-CoV, mode of action, necklace pod, shih-balady

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993 Nagami Kumkuat: A Source of Antiviral and Antimicrobial Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Nagwa M. M. Shalaby

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The fruit rind of Fortunella margarita (Nagami Kumkuat) was investigated for its chemical constituents. Thirteen metabolites were obtained and classified into, a sterol; β-sitosterol (1) and twelve phenolic compounds, three coumarins; xanthotoxin (2), isopimpinellin (3), umbelliferone (4), nine flavonoids of O-glycosides of flavone; apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside (rhoifolin) (6), C-glycosides; vitexin (7), vicenin II (8), and the methoxylated; 6-methoxyapigenin-7-methyl ether (9) and tangeretin (10) as well as flavanones class; naringenin (11), liquiritigenin (12), hesperdin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) (13). All compounds were identified for the first time in F. margarita except compound (8). The major glycosides 5, 6, and 13 and total crude extract showed potential antiviral activity against live Newcastle disease virus vaccine strains (Komarov and LaSota) and live infectious bursitis viruses vaccine strain D78 replication in VERO cell cultures and on specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Antiviral inhibitory concentration fifty (IC50), cytotoxic concentration fifty (CC50), and therapeutic index (TI) were calculated. In addition, the extract and compounds 7 and 13 showed marked antimicrobial activity against different strains of fungi, Gram-positive and negative bacteria, including some foodborne pathogens of animal origin, caused human disease. These results suggested that the extract of F. margarita may be considered potentially useful as a source of natural antiviral and antimicrobial agents. It can be used as an ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antiviral, Fortunella margarita, Nagami Kumkuat, phenolic secondary metabolites

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992 A Systematic Review on Orphan Drugs Pricing, and Prices Challenges

Authors: Seyran Naghdi

Abstract:

Background: Orphan drug development is limited by very high costs attributed to the research and development and small size market. How health policymakers address this challenge to consider both supply and demand sides need to be explored for directing the policies and plans in the right way. The price is an important signal for pharmaceutical companies’ profitability and the patients’ accessibility as well. Objective: This study aims to find out the orphan drugs' price-setting patterns and approaches in health systems through a systematic review of the available evidence. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) approach was used. MedLine, Embase, and Web of Sciences were searched via appropriate search strategies. Through Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the appropriate terms for pricing were 'cost and cost analysis', and it was 'orphan drug production', and 'orphan drug', for orphan drugs. The critical appraisal was performed by the Joanna-Briggs tool. A Cochrane data extraction form was used to obtain the data about the studies' characteristics, results, and conclusions. Results: Totally, 1,197 records were found. It included 640 hits from Embase, 327 from Web of Sciences, and 230 MedLine. After removing the duplicates, 1,056 studies remained. Of them, 924 studies were removed in the primary screening phase. Of them, 26 studies were included for data extraction. The majority of the studies (>75%) are from developed countries, among them, approximately 80% of the studies are from European countries. Approximately 85% of evidence has been produced in the recent decade. Conclusions: There is a huge variation of price-setting among countries, and this is related to the specific pharmacological market structure and the thresholds that governments want to intervene in the process of pricing. On the other hand, there is some evidence on the availability of spaces to reduce the very high costs of orphan drugs development through an early agreement between pharmacological firms and governments. Further studies need to focus on how the governments could incentivize the companies to agree on providing the drugs at lower prices.

Keywords: orphan drugs, orphan drug production, pricing, costs, cost analysis

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991 Investigation of Ezetimibe Administration on Cell Survival Markers in Kidney Ischemia

Authors: Zahra Heydari

Abstract:

Introduction: One of the major clinical issues is acute renal failure, which is caused by ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney and is associated with high mortality. Despite advances in this area, important issues such as tissue necrosis, cell apoptosis, and so on in damaged tissue are suggestive for more researches and study on this subject. Objective: Evaluation of the potential utility of Ezetimibe in reducing injuries and cell death induced by kidney ischemia/ reperfusion through inducing expression changes of different cellular pathways in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Forty rats weighing 180-200g were divided into 4 groups. For this purpose, the first right kidneys of the rats were removed during surgery. After 20 days, the left renal artery was closed with a soft clamp and reperfusion was performed. After 24 hours, blood samples were collected and sent to the laboratory with kidneys to measure bax and bcl-2 by Western blotting and histopathological tests. Results: Quantitative damage reviews of Kidney tissue indicates damage Acute and severe tubular lesions were observed in the ischemia group. Also, the amount of injury was significantly reduced in the treatment group. There was also a significant difference between the ischemia and sham groups. In general, the results show that a single dose of 1.2 mg/kg of ezetimibe can reduce the bax/ bcl-2 ratio compared to the ischemia group. In general, the results showed Ezetimibe is effective in reducing cell damage and death due to ischemia/ reperfusion after renal ischemia through changes in the expression of various cellular pathways in rats.

Keywords: acute renal failure, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, ezetimibe, apoptosis

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990 Therapeutic Effect of Diisopropyldithiocarbamate Sodium Salt Against Diclofenac Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Tella Toluwani, Adegbegi Ademuyiwa, Musei Chiedu, Adekunle Odola, Joseph Woods, Adaramoye Oluwatosin

Abstract:

Dithiocarbamates are very useful biological agents with antioxidant properties. Diclofenac (DIC) is a non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent. The use of diclofenac has been linked with reproductive toxicity/damage. The purpose of this study is (i) To investigate the therapeutic potential of diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E (VIT E) against diclofenac induced toxicity in the testes of male Wistar rats. (ii) To investigate the effect of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E on ameliorating damage done to the testes through histological analysis of the testes. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were used for the experiment, they were divided into six (6) groups, the animals in group 1 served as control, animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 received DIC only, DIC and (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)), DIC and VIT E, (Na(i-Pr₂dtc) only and VIT E only respectively. A single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of DIC was administered to male Wistar rats, while 30 mg/kg body weight of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) was used to treat both normal and DIC treated animals, control animals were treated with the vehicle, after 24 hrs of treatment the animals were euthanized and the testes were removed for analysis. The treatment of rats with Na(i-Pr₂dtc) significantly restored catalase (CAT) activity depressed by diclofenac. (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) also restored glutathione levels reduced by DIC treatment and this was also accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. VIT E significantly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with DIC only treated animals. Photomicrographs of testes from (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) treated rats showed seminiferous epithelium with no lesions. We conclude that (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) has an antioxidant effect, which might be related to the dose and duration of administration.

Keywords: Diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt, diclofenac, vitamin E, testes

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989 A contribution to Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Ailanthus Alitssima Swingle Cultivated in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Samy Elnoby

Abstract:

Ailanthus altissima native to Asia which belongs to the family Simaroubaceae was subjected to phytochemical screening and biological investigations. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, sterols, flavonoids and traces of saponins. In addition, quantitative determination of phenolics and flavonoid content were performed. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of the leaves was determined against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria in addition to fungi using a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method that was compared with standard discs ampicillin which acts as an antibacterial agent and amphotericin B which acts as an antifungal agent. A high potency was observed against gram-positive bacteria mainly staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria mainly Escherichia coli and showed no potency against fungi mainly Aspergillus flavus and candida albicans. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH). A very low potency was shown by using DPPH for the antioxidant effect so IC50 = 0 ug/ml, IC90 =0 ug /ml and remark gave 47.2 % at 100 ug/ml which is very weak. Cytotoxic activity was determined by using MTT assay (3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) against MCF7 (Human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma) cell line. A moderate potency was shown by using MCF7 cell line for cytotoxic effect so LC50= 90.2 ug/ml, LC90=139.9 ug/ml and the remark gave 55.2% at 100 ug/ml which is of moderate activity so, Ailanthus altissima can be considered to be a promising antimicrobial agent from natural origin.

Keywords: Ailanthus altissima, TLC, HPLC, anti-microbial activity, antifungal activity, antioxidant, cytotoxic activity

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988 Synthesis of a Library of Substituted Isoquinolines Based on a Triazolization Strategy, and Their Anti-HIV and C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Antagonist Activity

Authors: Mastaneh Safarnejad Shad, Wim Dehaen, Steven De Jonghe

Abstract:

Since CXCR4 is the main coreceptor of HIV-1 and plays an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry, numerous efforts were directed towards the discovery of new classes of small molecules that act as CXCR4 antagonists. In addition, CXCR4 antagonists are potentially useful in the treatment of several other disorders, such as cancer cell metastasis, leukemia cell proliferation, rheumatoid arthritis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Since AMD3100 (plerixafor) is the only CXCR4 antagonist which obtained approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we were motivated to investigate a new category of molecules as CXCR4 antagonists. Most of the scaffolds which have been studied so far as CXCR4 antagonists are based on the tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) moiety in which AMD11070 (mavorixafor), GSK-812394, and TIQ15 displayed the most potent CXCR4 antagonism. Due to the high potency of these scaffolds, two different series of compounds were prepared in this work. In the first set, the THQ moiety is coupled to an amine chain and various isoquinoline derivatives (prepared by an in-house developed triazolization strategy), of which the upper part of molecules is identical to AMD11070 and TIQ15. In the second category of compounds, the THQ moiety was simplified by the synthesis of a substituted pyridine moiety. In order to investigate if CXCR4 antagonism requires the presence of an isoquinoline moiety, the corresponding pyridine analogues were also prepared. In both series of compounds, potent CXCR4 antagonism was noticed.

Keywords: CXCR4 coreceptor, CXCR4 antagonists, HIV inhibitor, tetrahydroquinoline

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