Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1199

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1199 Arisarum Vulgare: Bridging Tradition and Science through Phytochemical Characterization and Exploring Therapeutic Potential via in vitro and in vivo Biological Activities

Authors: Boudjelal Amel


Arisarum vulgare, a member of the Araceae family, is an herbaceous perennial widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. A. vulgare is recognized for its medicinal properties and holds significant traditional importance in Algeria for the treatment of various human ailments, including pain, infections, inflammation, digestive disorders, skin problems, eczema, cancer, wounds, burns and gynecological diseases. Despite its extensive traditional use, scientific exploration of A. vulgare remains limited. The study aims to investigate for the first time the therapeutic potential of A. vulgare ethanolic extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. The chemical composition of the extract was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. For in vitro phytopharmacological evaluation, several assays, including DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and reducing power, were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was assessed againt Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus feacium by disk diffusion and microdilution methods. The possible inhibitory activity of ethanolic extract was analyzed against the cholinesterases enzymes (AChE and BChE). The DNA protection activity of A. vulgare ethanolic extract was estimated using the agarose gel electrophoresis method. The capacities of the extract to protect plasmid DNA (pBR322) from the oxidizing effects of H2O2 and UV treatment were evaluated by their DNA-breaking forms. The in vivo wound healing potential of a traditional ointment containing 5% of A. vulgare ethanolic extract was also investigated. The LC-MS/MS profiling of the extract revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds, including naringenin, chlorogenic, vanillic, cafeic, coumaric acids, trans-cinnamic and trans ferrulic acids. The plant extract presented considerable antioxidant potential, being the most active for Reducing power (0,07326±0.001 mg/ml) and DPPH (0.14±0.004 mg/ml). The extract showed the highest inhibition zone diameter against Enterococcus feacium (36±0.1 mm). The ethanolic extract of A. vulgare suppressed the growth of Staphylococus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium according to the MIC values. The extract of the plant significantly inhibited both AChE and BChE enzymes. DNA protection activity of the A. vulgare extract was determined as 90.41% for form I and 51.92% for form II. The in vivo experiments showed that 5% ethanolic extract ointment accelerated the wound healing process. The topical application of the traditional formulation enhanced wound closure (95,36±0,6 %) and improved histological parameters in the treated group compared to the control groups. The promising biological properties of Arisarum vulgare revealed that the plant could be appraised as a potential origin of bioactive molecules having multifunctional medicinal uses.

Keywords: arisarum vulgare, LC-MS/MS, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, cholinesterases enzymes inhibition, dna-damage activity, in vivo wound healing

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1198 The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Medicine Production

Authors: Yasser Ahmed Mahmoud Ali Helal


The use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) technology is ubiquitous in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion in the curriculum of architecture schools in Nigeria as an important part of the training module. This article examines the ethical issues involved in implementing CAD (Computer Aided Design) content into the architectural education curriculum. Using existing literature, this study begins with the benefits of integrating CAD into architectural education and the responsibilities of different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines issues related to the negative use of information technology and the perceived negative impact of CAD use on design creativity. Using a survey method, data from the architecture department of University was collected to serve as a case study on how the issues raised were being addressed. The article draws conclusions on what ensures successful ethical implementation. Millions of people around the world suffer from hepatitis C, one of the world's deadliest diseases. Interferon (IFN) is treatment options for patients with hepatitis C, but these treatments have their side effects. Our research focused on developing an oral small molecule drug that targets hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins and has fewer side effects. Our current study aims to develop a drug based on a small molecule antiviral drug specific for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Drug development using laboratory experiments is not only expensive, but also time-consuming to conduct these experiments. Instead, in this in silicon study, we used computational techniques to propose a specific antiviral drug for the protein domains of found in the hepatitis C virus. This study used homology modeling and abs initio modeling to generate the 3D structure of the proteins, then identifying pockets in the proteins. Acceptable lagans for pocket drugs have been developed using the de novo drug design method. Pocket geometry is taken into account when designing ligands. Among the various lagans generated, a new specific for each of the HCV protein domains has been proposed.

Keywords: drug design, anti-viral drug, in-silicon drug design, hepatitis C virus (HCV) CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor automatic pharmacy, PLC, control system, management system, communication

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1197 Assessing the Impact of Pharmacist-Led Medication Therapy Management on Treatment Adherence and Clinical Outcomes in Cancer Patients: A Prospective Intervention Study

Authors: Omer Ibrahim Abdallh Omer


Cancer patients often face complex medication regimens, leading to challenges in treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Pharmacist-led medication therapy management (MTM) has emerged as a potential solution to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes in oncology settings. In this prospective intervention study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led MTM on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes among cancer patients. Participants were randomized to receive either pharmacist-led MTM or standard care, with assessments conducted at baseline and follow-up visits. Pharmacist interventions included medication reconciliation, adherence counseling, and personalized care plans. Our findings reveal that pharmacist-led MTM significantly improved medication adherence rates and clinical outcomes compared to standard care. Patients receiving pharmacist interventions reported higher satisfaction levels and perceived value in pharmacist involvement in their cancer care. These results underscore the critical role of pharmacists in optimizing medication therapy and enhancing patient-centered care in oncology settings. Integration of pharmacist-led MTM into routine cancer care pathways holds promise for improving treatment outcomes and quality of life for cancer patients.

Keywords: cancer, medications adherence, medication therapy management, pharmacist

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1196 Transdermal Medicated- Layered Extended-Release Patches for Co-delivery of Carbamazepine and Pyridoxine

Authors: Sarah K. Amer, Walaa Alaa


Epilepsy is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, according to WHO statistics. It is characterized by the presence of frequent seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is considered first-line treatment for epilepsy. However, reports have shown that CBZ oral formulations failed to achieve optimum systemic delivery, minimize side effects, and enhance patient compliance. Besides, the literature has signified the lack of therapeutically efficient CBZ transdermal formulation and the urge for its existence owing to its ease and convenient method of application and highlighted capability to attain higher bioavailability and more extended-release profiles compared to conventional oral CBZ tablets. This work aims to prepare CBZ microspheres (MS) that are embedded in a transdermal gel containing Vitamin B to be co-delivered. MS were prepared by emulsion-solvent diffusion method using Eudragit S as core forming polymer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer. The MS appeared to be spherical and porous in nature, offering a large surface area and high entrapment efficiency of CBZ. The transdermal gel was prepared by solvent-evaporation technique using HPMC that, offered high entrapment efficiency and Eudragit S that provided an extended-release profile. Polyethylene glycol, Span 80 and Pyridoxine were also added. Data indicated that combinations of CBZ with pyridoxine can reduce epileptic seizures without affecting motor coordination. Extended-release profiles were evident for this system. The patches were furthermore tested for thickness, moisture content, folding endurance, spreadability and viscosity measurements. This novel pharmaceutical formulation would be of great influence on seizure control, offering better therapeutic effects.

Keywords: epilepsy, carbamazepine, pyridoxine, transdermal

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1195 Understanding the Mechanisms of Salmonella Typhimurium Resistance to Cannabidiol (CDB)

Authors: Iddrisu Ibrahim, Joseph Atia Ayariga, Junhuan Xu, Daniel A. Abugri, Robertson K. Boakai, Olufemi S. Ajayi


The recalcitrance of pathogenic bacteria indicates that millions of people who are at risk of infection arising from chronic diseases, surgery, organ transplant, diabetes, and several other debilitating diseases present an aura of potentially untreatable illness due to resistance development. Antimicrobial resistance has successfully become a global health menace, and resistances are often acquired by bacteria through health-care-related incidence (HRI) orchestrated by multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant pathogens (EDRP). To understand the mechanisms S. Typhimurium uses to resist CDB, we study the abundance of LPS modification, Ergosterols, Mysristic palmitic resistance, Oleic acid resistance of susceptible and resistant S. Typhimurium. Using qPCR, we also analyzed the expression of selected genes known for enabling resistance in S. Typhimurium. We found high abundance of LPS, Ergosterols, Mysristic palmitic resistance, Oleic acid resistance of and high expression of resistant genes in S. Typhimurium compared to the susceptible strain. LPS modification, Ergosterols, Mysristic palmitic resistance, Oleic acid and genes such as Fims, integrons, blaTEM are important indicators of resistance development of S. typhimurium.

Keywords: antimicrobials, resistance, Cannabidiol, Salmonella, blaTEM, fimA, Lipopolysaccharide, Ergosterols

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1194 Cannabidiol (CBD) Resistant Salmonella Strains Are Susceptible to Epsilon 34 Phage Tailspike Protein

Authors: Ibrahim Iddrisu, Joseph Ayariga, Junhuan Xu, Ayomide Adebanjo, Boakai K. Robertson, Michelle Samuel-Foo, Olufemi Ajayi


The rise of antimicrobial resistance is a global public health crisis that threatens the effective control and prevention of infections. Due to the emergence of pan drug-resistant bacteria, most antibiotics have lost their efficacy. Bacteriophages or their components are known to target bacterial cell walls, cell membranes, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and hydrolyze them. Bacteriophages, being the natural predators of pathogenic bacteria, are inevitably categorized as ‘human friends’, thus fulfilling the adage that ‘the enemy of my enemy is my friend’. Leveraging on their lethal capabilities against pathogenic bacteria, researchers are searching for more ways to overcome the current antibiotic resistance challenge. In this study, we expressed and purified epsilon 34 phage tail spike protein (E34 TSP) from the E34 TSP gene, then assessed the ability of this bacteriophage protein in the killing of two CBD-resistant strains of Salmonella spp. We also assessed the ability of the tail spike protein to cause bacteria membrane disruption and dehydrogenase depletion. We observed that the combined treatment of CBD-resistant strains of Salmonella with CBD and E34 TSP showed poor killing ability, whereas the mono treatment with E34 TSP showed considerably higher killing efficiency. This study demonstrates that the inhibition of the bacteria by E34 TSP was due in part to membrane disruption and dehydrogenase inactivation by the protein. The results of this work provide an interesting background to highlight the crucial role phage proteins such as E34 TSP could play in pathogenic bacterial control.

Keywords: cannabidiol, resistance, Salmonella, antimicrobials, phages

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1193 Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Different Extracts of Fruit Peels Against Three Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Emad A. Shalaby


Cancer is a disease that causes abnormal cell proliferation and invades nearby tissues. Lung cancer is the second most frequent cancer worldwide. Natural anti-cancer drugs have been developed with low side effects and toxicity. Citrus peels and extracts have been demonstrated to have significant pharmacological and physiological effects as a result of the high concentration of phenolic compounds found in citrus fruits, particularly peels. Tangerine peels can serve as an effective source of bioactive substances such as phenolics, flavonoids, and catechins, which have antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Consequently, this work aims to determine the anticancer activity of ethanol extract of Tangerine peels against the A549 cell line and identify the phenolic compound profile (19 compounds) by using HPLC. Anticancer and antioxidant potentials of the extract were evaluated by MTT assay and TLC- TLC-bioautography sprayed with DPPH reagent, respectively. The obtained results revealed that tangerine peel extract showed significant activity against the A549 cell line with IC50 of 97.66 μg/mL. HPLC analysis proved that the highest concentration is naringenin 464.05 mg/g. More studies indicate that naringenin has significant anticancer potential on A549 cancer cells. The results showed that naringenin binds t0 EGFR protein in A549 with high binding affinity and thus may reduce lung cancer cell migration and enhance the apoptosis of cancer cells. From the obtained results it could be concluded that tangerine peel extract is an effective anti-cancer agent that may potentially serve as a natural therapeutic option for lung cancer treatment.

Keywords: tangerine peel, A549 cell line, anticancer, naringenin, HPLC analysis, naringenin, TLC bioautography

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1192 Formulation and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Abdelhadi Adam Salih Denei


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in cancer therapy, and the area of nanomedicine has made unheard-of strides in recent years. A thorough summary of the development and assessment of AgNPs for their possible use in the fight against cancer is the goal of this review. Targeted delivery methods have been designed to optimise therapeutic efficacy by using AgNPs' distinct physicochemical features, such as their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Firstly, the study provides an overview of the several synthesis routes—both chemical and green—that are used to create AgNPs. Natural extracts and biomolecules are used in green synthesis techniques, which are becoming more and more popular since they are biocompatible and environmentally benign. It is next described how synthesis factors affect the physicochemical properties of AgNPs, emphasising how crucial it is to modify these parameters for particular therapeutic uses. An extensive analysis is conducted on the anticancer potential of AgNPs, emphasising their capacity to trigger apoptosis, impede angiogenesis, and alter cellular signalling pathways. The analysis also investigates the potential benefits of combining AgNPs with currently used cancer treatment techniques, including radiation and chemotherapy. AgNPs' safety profile for use in clinical settings is clarified by a comprehensive evaluation of their cytotoxicity and biocompatibility.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, cancer, nanocarrier system, targeted delivery

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1191 Identification of Arglecins B and C and Actinofuranosin A from a Termite Gut-Associated Streptomyces Species

Authors: Christian A. Romero, Tanja Grkovic, John. R. J. French, D. İpek Kurtböke, Ronald J. Quinn


A high-throughput and automated 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting dereplication approach was used to accelerate the discovery of unknown bioactive secondary metabolites. The applied dereplication strategy accelerated the discovery of natural products, provided rapid and competent identification and quantification of the known secondary metabolites and avoided time-consuming isolation procedures. The effectiveness of the technique was demonstrated by the isolation and elucidation of arglecins B (1), C (2) and actinofuranosin A (3) from a termite-gut associated Streptomyces sp. (USC 597) grown under solid state fermentation. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive interpretation of 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. These represent the first report of arglecin analogs isolated from a termite gut-associated Streptomyces species.

Keywords: actinomycetes, actinofuranosin, antibiotics, arglecins, NMR spectroscopy

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1190 Targeting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation: A New Mechanism Underlying the Protective Effects of Nafamostat Against Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Jiandong Ren, Lijun Zhao, Peng Chen


Nafamostat (NA), a synthetic broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor, has been routinely employed for the treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) and other inflammatory-associated diseases in some East Asia countries. Although the potent inhibitory activity against inflammation-related proteases such as thrombin, trypsin, kallikrein, plasmin, coagulation factors and complement factors is generally considered to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of NA, precise target and molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of AP remain largely unknown yet. As an intracellular inflammatory signaling platform, the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is recently identified to be involved in the development of AP. In present study, we have revealed that NA alleviated pancreatic injury in a caerulein-induced AP model by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in pancreas. Mechanistically, NA interacted with HDAC6, a cytoplasmic deacetylase implicated in the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, and efficiently abrogated the function of HDAC6. This property enabled NA to influence HDAC6 dependent NF-κB transcriptional activity and thus block NF-κB-driven transcriptional priming of NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, NA exerted the potential to interfere HDAC6-mediated intracellular transport of NLRP3, thereby leading to the failure of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our current work has provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of NA in treatment of AP, highlighting its promising application in prevention of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory pathological damage.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, HDAC6, nafamostat, NLRP3 inflammasome

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1189 Outreach Intervention Addressing Crack Cocaine Addiction in Users with Co-Occurring Opioid Use Disorder

Authors: Louise Penzenstadler, Tiphaine Robet, Radu Iuga, Daniele Zullino


Context: The outpatient clinic of the psychiatric addiction service of Geneva University Hospital has been providing support to individuals affected by various narcotics for 30 years. However, the increasing consumption of crack cocaine in Geneva has presented a new challenge for the healthcare system. Research Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of an outreach intervention on crack cocaine addiction in users with co-occurring opioid use disorder. Methodology: The research utilizes a combination of quantitative and qualitative retrospective data analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the outreach intervention. Findings: The data collected from October 2023 to December 2023 show that the outreach program successfully made 1,071 contacts with drug users and led to 15 new requests for care and enrollment in treatment. Patients expressed high satisfaction with the intervention, citing easy and rapid access to treatment and social support. Theoretical Importance: This research contributes to the understanding of the challenges and specific needs of a complex group of drug users who face severe health problems. It highlights the importance of outreach interventions in establishing trust, connecting users with care, and facilitating medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction. Data Collection: Data was collected through the outreach program's interactions with drug users, including street outreach interventions and presence at locations frequented by users. Patient satisfaction surveys were also utilized. Analysis Procedures: The collected data was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative analysis involved examining the number of contacts made, new requests for care, and treatment enrollment. The qualitative analysis focused on patient satisfaction and their perceptions of the intervention. Questions Addressed: The research addresses the following questions: What is the impact of an outreach intervention on crack cocaine addiction in users with co-occurring opioid use disorder? How effective is the outreach program in connecting drug users with care and initiating medication-assisted treatment? Conclusion: The outreach program has proven to be an effective intervention in establishing trust with crack users, connecting them with care, and initiating medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction. It has also highlighted the importance of addressing the specific challenges faced by this group of drug users.

Keywords: crack addiction, outreach treatment, peer intervention, polydrug use

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1188 Characterization of Triterpenoids Antimicrobial Potential in Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Aerial Parts of Deinbollia Pinnata

Authors: Rufai Yakubu And Suleiman Kabiru


Triterpenoids are a diverse class of secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, the crude extracts from ethyl acetate was obtained with ultrasonic extraction method. Using a combined chromatographic separation method to isolate squalene (1) stigmasterol (2), stigmasta-5,22-diene-3-ol acetate (3), γ-sitosterol (4), lupeol (5), taraxasterol (6), and betulinic acid (7) from ethyl acetate extracts. Ethyl acetate crude extracts and isolated compounds were both screened for antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For ethyl acetate crude extracts with concentrations of (1.5, 0.75, 0.35, & 0.168 mg/mL) indicated marginal antibacterial activity with a range of 17, 20 and 14 mm zone of inhibition for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations ranges from 18.75 µg/ml to 150 µg/mL. Butulinic acid showed the highest activity against E. coli and C. albicans at 15 mm and 15 mm followed by Lupeol against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans at 13, 12, 12 mm. Moreso, no antimicrobial activity for both S. aureus and C. albicans with squalene except for E. coli which showed activity at 11 mm with 300 µg/mL (MIC). Thus, abundant triterpenoids in Deinbollia pinnata will be another centered area for antimicrobial drug discovery.

Keywords: triterpenoid, antimicrobial potentials, deinbollia pinnata, aerial parts

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1187 A Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Folic Acid - A Vitamin B9 in Pharmaceutical Dosage Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha, Yasser Turki Alharbi, Krasamira Stancheva


A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical dosage samples was developed. The method is based on the diazotization reaction of thiourea with sodium nitrite in acidic medium yields diazonium compounds, which is then coupled with folic acid in basic medium yields yellow coloured azo dyes. Beer’s Lamberts law is observed in the range 0.5 – 16.2 μgmL-1 at a maximum wavelength of 416nm. The molar absorbtivity, sandells sensitivity, linear regression equation and detection limit and quantitation limit were found to be 5.695×104 L mol-1cm-1, 7.752×10-3 g cm-2, y= 0.092x - 0.018, 0.687 g mL-1 and 2.083 g mL-1. This method successfully determined Folate in Pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: folic acid determination, spectrophotometry, diazotization, thiourea, pharmaceutical dosage samples

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1186 Revolutionizing RNA Extraction: A Unified, Sustainable, and Rapid Protocol for High-Quality Isolation from Diverse Tissues

Authors: Ying Qi Chan, Chunyu Li, Xu Rou Yoyo Ma, Yaya Li, Saber Khederzadeh


In the ever-evolving landscape of genome extraction protocols, the existing methodologies grapple with issues ranging from sub-optimal yields and compromised quality to time-intensive procedures and reliance on hazardous reagents, often necessitating substantial tissue quantities. This predicament is particularly challenging for scientists in developing countries, where resources are limited. Our investigation presents a protocol for the efficient extraction of high-yield RNA from various tissues such as muscle, insect, and plant samples. Noteworthy for its advantages, our protocol stands out as the safest, swiftest (completed in just 38 minutes), most cost-effective (coming in at a mere US$0.017), and highly efficient method in comparison to existing protocols. Notably, our method avoids the use of hazardous or toxic chemicals such as chloroform and phenol and enzymatic agents like RNase and Proteinase K. Our RNA extraction protocol has demonstrated clear advantages over other methods, including commercial kits, in terms of yield. This nucleic acid extraction protocol is more environmentally and research-friendly, suitable for a range of tissues, even in tiny volumes, hence facilitating various genetic diagnosis and researches across the globe.

Keywords: RNA extraction, rapid protocol, universal method, diverse tissues

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1185 Detection of Pharmaceutical Personal Protective Equipment in Video Stream

Authors: Michael Leontiev, Danil Zhilikov, Dmitry Lobanov, Lenar Klimov, Vyacheslav Chertan, Daniel Bobrov, Vladislav Maslov, Vasilii Vologdin, Ksenia Balabaeva


Pharmaceutical manufacturing is a complex process, where each stage requires a high level of safety and sterility. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is used for this purpose. Despite all the measures of control, the human factor (improper PPE wearing) causes numerous losses to human health and material property. This research proposes a solid computer vision system for ensuring safety in pharmaceutical laboratories. For this, we have tested a wide range of state-of-the-art object detection methods. Composing previously obtained results in this sphere with our own approach to this problem, we have reached a high accuracy ([email protected]) ranging from 0.77 up to 0.98 in detecting all the elements of a common set of PPE used in pharmaceutical laboratories. Our system is a step towards safe medicine production.

Keywords: sterility and safety in pharmaceutical development, personal protective equipment, computer vision, object detection, monitoring in pharmaceutical development, PPE

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1184 Investigating the Possible Mitigative Effect of Pioglitazone in Colistin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: A Mechanistic Study

Authors: Metab Alharbi, Mohamed Mahmoud, Abdulrahman Alshammari, Mashal M. Almutairi, Norah A. Alshalawi, Sami I. Alzarea, Abdullah F. Alasmari


The 21st century witnessed the revival of the old antibiotic colistin, which was previously abandoned due to its dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. The emergence of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria coupled with the drying pipeline of antibiotics has raised interest in colistin as a last-line therapy against life-threatening bacterial infections. Colistin exerts its nephrotoxic effect secondary to accumulation in the renal cells, inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator, has been shown to ameliorate renal damage in different animal models of acute kidney injury. This study focuses on the possible mitigative role of pioglitazone through its ability to attenuate colistin-induced inflammation and apoptosis in renal cells and its ability to shore up the cellular antioxidant defenses and promote autophagy. Using an animal model of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity, we will measure markers of renal damage such as serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. A renal histopathological study will be undertaken to study renal histopathological alterations. Caspase-3 activity will be measured to evaluate the activation of apoptotic pathways. Renal lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content will be measured to assess renal oxidative stress. Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction will be employed to measure the protein and gene expression of markers of inflammation, autophagy, and antioxidant status. Animals treated with pioglitazone should have reduced renal damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Conversely, these animals should have increased autophagy and antioxidant status. The use of pioglitazone as an adjunct therapy may offer a promising approach to optimize the treatment outcomes of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections while minimizing the associated nephrotoxicity. This study may provide a basis for the development of new treatment strategies that contribute to the pharmaceutical industry toward better use of colistin and other antibiotics.

Keywords: colistin, pioglitazone, acute kidney injury, oxidative stress

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1183 Curcumin Nanomedicine: A Breakthrough Approach for Enhanced Lung Cancer Therapy

Authors: Shiva Shakori Poshteh


Lung cancer is a highly prevalent and devastating disease, representing a significant global health concern with profound implications for healthcare systems and society. Its high incidence, mortality rates, and late-stage diagnosis contribute to its formidable nature. To address these challenges, nanoparticle-based drug delivery has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Curcumin (CUR), a natural compound derived from turmeric, has garnered attention as a potential nanomedicine for lung cancer treatment. Nanoparticle formulations of CUR offer several advantages, including improved drug delivery efficiency, enhanced stability, controlled release kinetics, and targeted delivery to lung cancer cells. CUR exhibits a diverse array of effects on cancer cells. It induces apoptosis by upregulating pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax and Bak, and downregulating anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2. Additionally, CUR inhibits cell proliferation by modulating key signaling pathways involved in cancer progression. It suppresses the PI3K/Akt pathway, crucial for cell survival and growth, and attenuates the mTOR pathway, which regulates protein synthesis and cell proliferation. CUR also interferes with the MAPK pathway, which controls cell proliferation and survival, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which plays a role in cell proliferation and tumor development. Moreover, CUR exhibits potent antioxidant activity, reducing oxidative stress and protecting cells from DNA damage. Utilizing CUR as a standalone treatment is limited by poor bioavailability, lack of targeting, and degradation susceptibility. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems can overcome these challenges. They enhance CUR’s bioavailability, protect it from degradation, and improve absorption. Further, Nanoparticles enable targeted delivery to lung cancer cells through surface modifications or ligand-based targeting, ensuring sustained release of CUR to prolong therapeutic effects, reduce administration frequency, and facilitate penetration through the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing CUR’s access to cancer cells. Thus, nanoparticle-based CUR delivery systems promise to improve lung cancer treatment outcomes. This article provides an overview of lung cancer, explores CUR nanoparticles as a treatment approach, discusses the benefits and challenges of nanoparticle-based drug delivery, and highlights prospects for CUR nanoparticles in lung cancer treatment. Future research aims to optimize these delivery systems for improved efficacy and patient prognosis in lung cancer.

Keywords: lung cancer, curcumin, nanomedicine, nanoparticle-based drug delivery

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1182 Title: Real World Evidence a Tool to Overcome the Lack of a Comparative Arm in Drug Evaluation in the Context of Rare Diseases

Authors: Mohamed Wahba


Objective: To build a comparative arm for product (X) in specific gene mutated advanced gastrointestinal cancer using real world evidence to fulfill HTA requirements in drug evaluation. Methods: Data for product (X) were collected from phase II clinical trial while real world data for (Y) and (Z) were collected from US database. Real-world (RW) cohorts were matched to clinical trial base line characteristics using weighting by odds method. Outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Study location and participants: Internationally (product X, n=80) and from USA (Product Y and Z, n=73) Results: Two comparisons were made: trial cohort 1 (X) versus real-world cohort 1 (Z), trial cohort 2 (X) versus real-world cohort 2 (Y). For first line, the median OS was 9.7 months (95% CI 8.6- 11.5) and the median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI 4.7- not reached) for real-world cohort 1. For second line, the median OS was 10.6 months (95% CI 4.7- 27.3) for real-world cohort 2 and the median PFS was 5.0 months (95% CI 2.1- 29.3). For OS analysis, results were statistically significant but not for PFS analysis. Conclusion: This study provided the clinical comparative outcomes needed for HTA evaluation.

Keywords: real world evidence, pharmacoeconomics, HTA agencies, oncology

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1181 Optimizing the Effectiveness of Docetaxel with Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Formulation, Characterization, in Vitro and in Vivo Assessment

Authors: Navid Mosallaei, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mohammad Yahya Hanafi-Bojd, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei


Background: Docetaxel (DTX), a potent anticancer drug derived from the European yew tree, is effective against various human cancers by inhibiting microtubule depolymerization. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained attention as drug carriers for enhancing drug effectiveness and safety. SLNs, submicron-sized lipid-based particles, can passively target tumors through the "enhanced permeability and retention" (EPR) effect, providing stability, drug protection, and controlled release while being biocompatible. Methods: The SLN formulation included biodegradable lipids (Compritol and Precirol), hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (H-SPC) as a lipophilic co-surfactant, and Poloxamer 188 as a non-ionic polymeric stabilizer. Two SLN preparation techniques, probe sonication and microemulsion, were assessed. Characterization encompassed SLNs' morphology, particle size, zeta potential, matrix, and encapsulation efficacy. In-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies were conducted using mouse colorectal (C-26) and human malignant melanoma (A-375) cell lines, comparing SLN-DTX with Taxotere®. In-vivo studies evaluated tumor inhibitory efficacy and survival in mice with colorectal (C-26) tumors, comparing SLNDTX withTaxotere®. Results: SLN-DTX demonstrated stability, with an average size of 180 nm and a low polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.2 and encapsulation efficacy of 98.0 ± 0.1%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) suggested amorphous encapsulation of DTX within SLNs. In vitro studies revealed that SLN-DTX exhibited nearly equivalent cytotoxicity to Taxotere®, depending on concentration and exposure time. Cellular uptake studies demonstrated superior intracellular DTX accumulation with SLN-DTX. In a C-26 mouse model, SLN-DTX at 10 mg/kg outperformed Taxotere® at 10 and 20 mg/kg, with no significant differences in body weight changes and a remarkably high survival rate of 60%. Conclusion: This study concludes that SLN-DTX, prepared using the probe sonication, offers stability and enhanced therapeutic effects. It displayed almost same in vitro cytotoxicity to Taxotere® but showed superior cellular uptake. In a mouse model, SLN-DTX effectively inhibited tumor growth, with 10 mg/kg outperforming even 20 mg/kg of Taxotere®, without adverse body weight changes and with higher survival rates. This suggests that SLN-DTX has the potential to reduce adverse effects while maintaining or enhancing docetaxel's therapeutic profile, making it a promising drug delivery strategy suitable for industrialization.

Keywords: docetaxel, Taxotere®, solid lipid nanoparticles, enhanced permeability and retention effect, drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, tumor inhibition

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1180 Construction of QSAR Models to Predict Potency on a Series of substituted Imidazole Derivatives as Anti-fungal Agents

Authors: Sara El Mansouria Beghdadi


Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modelling is one of the main computer tools used in medicinal chemistry. Over the past two decades, the incidence of fungal infections has increased due to the development of resistance. In this study, the QSAR was performed on a series of esters of 2-carboxamido-3-(1H-imidazole-1-yl) propanoic acid derivatives. These compounds have showed moderate and very good antifungal activity. The multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to generate the linear 2d-QSAR models. The dataset consists of 115 compounds with their antifungal activity (log MIC) against «Candida albicans» (ATCC SC5314). Descriptors were calculated, and different models were generated using Chemoffice, Avogadro, GaussView software. The selected model was validated. The study suggests that the increase in lipophilicity and the reduction in the electronic character of the substituent in R1, as well as the reduction in the steric hindrance of the substituent in R2 and its aromatic character, supporting the potentiation of the antifungal effect. The results of QSAR could help scientists to propose new compounds with higher antifungal activities intended for immunocompromised patients susceptible to multi-resistant nosocomial infections.

Keywords: quantitative structure–activity relationship, imidazole, antifungal, candida albicans (ATCC SC5314)

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1179 Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Assessment of Drug Repurposed Medicinal Plant Metabolites: Promising Tools against Post COVID-19 Syndromes and Non-Communicable Diseases in Botswana

Authors: D. Motlhanka, M. Mine, T. Bagaketse, T. Ngakane


There is a plethora of evidence from numerous sources that highlights the triumph of naturally derived medicinal plant metabolites with antioxidant capability for repurposed therapeutics. As post-COVID-19 syndromes and non-communicable diseases are on the rise, there is an urgent need to come up with new therapeutic strategies to address the problem. Non-communicable diseases and Post COVID-19 syndromes are classified as socio-economic diseases and are ranked high among threats to health security due to the economic burden they pose to any government budget commitment. Research has shown a strong link between accumulation of free radicals and oxidative stress critical for pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases and COVID-19 syndromes. Botswana has embarked on a robust programme derived from ethno-pharmacognosy and drug repurposing to address these threats to health security. In the current approach, a number of medicinally active plant-derived polyphenolics are repurposed and combined into new medicinal tools to target diabetes, Hypertension, Prostate Cancer and oxidative stress induced Post COVID 19 syndromes such as “brain fog”. All four formulants demonstrated Free Radical scavenging capacities above 95% at 200µg/ml using the diphenylpicryalhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and the total phenolic contents between 6899-15000GAE(g/L) using the folin-ciocalteau assay respectively. These repurposed medicinal tools offer new hope and potential in the fight against emerging health threats driven by hyper-inflammation and free radical-induced oxidative stress.

Keywords: drug repurposed plant polyphenolics, free radical damage, non-communicable diseases, post COVID 19 syndromes

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1178 Evaluating the Latest Advances in Dry Powder Inhaler Technology

Authors: Leila Asadollahi


Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have come a long way since their creation, starting with the Spinhaler Fisons in 1967. For optimal performance, it is important to consider the interplay between formulation, device, and patient. DPIs have shown great potential in treating systemic disorders, as evidenced by their success in clinical practices. Ongoing clinical trials and market availability of DPI products for systemic disease treatment are also examined. Furthermore, the current COVID-19 pandemic has sparked increased interest in dry powder inhalation as a potential avenue for vaccines and antiviral drugs, prompting further exploration of its applications. To achieve optimal treatment outcomes for respiratory diseases, a thorough understanding of the various types of DPIs currently available is crucial. These include single-dose, multiple-unit dose, and multi-dose DPIs. This informative article delves into the administration of drugs via inhalation, examining its diverse routes of administration. Additionally, it illuminates the exciting advancements in inhalation delivery systems and investigates the latest therapeutic approaches for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Additionally, the article discusses the historical development of DPIs and the need for improved designs to enhance efficacy and patient adherence. The potential of DPIs in treating systemic diseases is also examined. Overall, this review provides valuable insights into the advancements, challenges, and future prospects of inhalation drug delivery systems, highlighting the potential they hold for respiratory and systemic disorders. The review aims to provide valuable insights into the advancements, challenges, and future prospects of inhalation drug delivery systems, highlighting the potential they hold for respiratory and systemic disorders.

Keywords: dry powder inhalers (DPIs), respiratory diseases, systemic disorders, pulmonary drug delivery

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1177 Genetically Informed Precision Drug Repurposing for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Sahar El Shair, Laura Greco, William Reay, Murray Cairns


Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systematic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that involves damages to joints and erosions to the associated bones and cartilage, resulting in reduced physical function and disability. RA is a multifactorial disorder influenced by heterogenous genetic and environmental factors. Whilst different medications have proven successful in reducing inflammation associated with RA, they often come with significant side effects and limited efficacy. To address this, the novel pharmagenic enrichment score (PES) algorithm was tested in self-reported RA patients from the UK Biobank (UKBB), which is a cohort of predominantly European ancestry, and identified individuals with a high genetic risk in clinically actionable biological pathways to identify novel opportunities for precision interventions and drug repurposing to treat RA. Methods and materials: Genetic association data for rheumatoid arthritis was derived from publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics (N=97173). The PES framework exploits competitive gene set enrichment to identify pathways that are associated with RA to explore novel treatment opportunities. This data is then integrated into WebGestalt, Drug Interaction database (DGIdb) and DrugBank databases to identify existing compounds with existing use or potential for repurposed use. The PES for each of these candidates was then profiled in individuals with RA in the UKBB (Ncases = 3,719, Ncontrols = 333,160). Results A total of 209 pathways with known drug targets after multiple testing correction were identified. Several pathways, including interferon gamma signaling and TID pathway (which relates to a chaperone that modulates interferon signaling), were significantly associated with self-reported RA in the UKBB when adjusting for age, sex, assessment centre month and location, RA polygenic risk and 10 principal components. These pathways have a major role in RA pathogenesis, including autoimmune attacks against certain citrullinated proteins, synovial inflammation, and bone loss. Encouragingly, many also relate to the mechanism of action of existing RA medications. The analyses also revealed statistically significant association between RA polygenic scores and self-reported RA with individual PES scorings, highlighting the potential utility of the PES algorithm in uncovering additional genetic insights that could aid in the identification of individuals at risk for RA and provide opportunities for more targeted interventions. Conclusions In this study, pharmacologically annotated genetic risk was explored through the PES framework to overcome inter-individual heterogeneity and enable precision drug repurposing in RA. The results showed a statistically significant association between RA polygenic scores and self-reported RA and individual PES scorings for 3,719 RA patients. Interestingly, several enriched PES pathways were targeted by already approved RA drugs. In addition, the analysis revealed genetically supported drug repurposing opportunities for future treatment of RA with a relatively safe profile.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, precision medicine, drug repurposing, system biology, bioinformatics

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1176 Kidney Stones in Individuals Living with Diabetes Mellitus at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City - Tertiary Care Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Authors: Suhaib Radi, Ibrahim Basem Nafadi, Abdullah Ahmed Alsulami, Nawaf Faisal Halabi, Abdulrhman Abdullah Alsubhi, Sami Wesam Maghrabi, Waleed Saad Alshehri


Background: Kidney stones greatly affect individuals. The range of these effects regarding multiple kidney stone factors (size, presence of obstruction, and modality of treatment) in stone formers with and without diabetes has not been well explored in the literature to the best of the author's knowledge. Our goal is to investigate this unexplored correlation between diabetes and kidney stones by conducting a Cohort retrospective study to precisely evaluate the effects of this condition and the existence of complications in adult individuals with diabetes in Saudi Arabia in comparison to a non-diabetic control group. Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study aiming to evaluate the range of effects of kidney stones in stone formers in a group of adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and adults without diabetes between 2017 and 2019 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. An IRB approval has been granted for this study. The data was analyzed using SPSS. The data was collected from the 1st of December 2022 until the 1st of March 2023. Results: A total of 254 individuals diagnosed with kidney stones were included, 127 of whom were adult individuals with type 2 diabetes, and 127 were non-diabetics. Our study shows that the individuals affected with diabetes were more likely to have larger kidney stones in comparison to individuals without diabetes (13.12 mm vs. 10.53 mm, p-value = 0.03). Moreover, individuals with hypertension and dyslipidemia also had significantly larger stones. On the other hand, no significant difference was found in the presence of obstruction and modality of treatment between the two groups. Conclusion: This study done in Saudi Arabia found that individuals with kidney stones who concurrently had diabetes formed larger kidney stones, and they were also found to have other comorbidities such as HTN, dyslipidemia, obesity, and renal disease. The significance of these findings could assist in the future of primary and secondary prevention of renal stones.

Keywords: kidney stone, type 2 DM, metabolic syndrome, lithotripsy

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1175 Exploring the Impact of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) And Mindfulness for Processing Trauma and Facilitating Healing During Ayahuasca Ceremonies

Authors: J. Hash, J. Converse, L. Gibson


Plant medicines are of growing interest for addressing mental health concerns. Ayahuasca, a traditional plant-based medicine, has established itself as a powerful way of processing trauma and precipitating healing and mood stabilization. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is another treatment modality that aids in the rapid processing and resolution of trauma. We investigated group EMDR therapy, G-TEP, as a preparatory practice before Ayahuasca ceremonies to determine if the combination of these modalities supports participants in their journeys of letting go of past experiences negatively impacting mental health, thereby accentuating the healing of the plant medicine. We surveyed 96 participants (51 experimental G-TEP, 45 control grounding prior to their ceremony; age M=38.6, SD=9.1; F=57, M=34; white=39, Hispanic/Latinx=23, multiracial=11, Asian/Pacific Islander=10, other=7) in a pre-post, mixed methods design. Participants were surveyed for demographic characteristics, symptoms of PTSD and cPTSD (International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ), depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS) before the ceremony and at the end of the ceremony weekend. Open-ended questions also inquired about their expectations of the ceremony and results at the end. No baseline differences existed between the control and experimental participants. Overall, participants reported a decrease in meeting the threshold for PTSD symptoms (p<0.01); surprisingly, the control group reported significantly fewer thresholds met for symptoms of affective dysregulation, 2(1)=6.776, p<.01, negative self-concept, 2 (1)=7.122, p<.01, and disturbance in relationships, 2 (1)=9.804, p<.01, on subscales of the ITQ as compared to the experimental group. All participants also experienced a significant decrease in scores on the BDI, t(94)=8.995, p<.001, and PSS, t(91)=6.892, p<.001. Similar to patterns of PTSD symptoms, the control group reported significantly lower scores on the BDI, t(65.115)=-2.587, p<.01, and a trend toward lower PSS, t(90)=-1.775, p=.079 (this was significant with a one-sided test at p<.05), compared to the experimental group following the ceremony. Qualitative interviews among participants revealed a potential explanation for these relatively higher levels of depression and stress in the experimental group following the ceremony. Many participants reported needing more time to process their experience to gain an understanding of the effects of the Ayahuasca medicine. Others reported a sense of hopefulness and understanding of the sources of their trauma and the necessary steps to heal moving forward. This suggests increased introspection and openness to processing trauma, therefore making them more receptive to their emotions. The integration process of an Ayahuasca ceremony is a week- to months-long process that was not accessible in this stage of research, yet it is an integral process to understanding the full effects of the Ayahuasca medicine following the closure of a ceremony. Our future research aims to assess participants weeks into their integration process to determine the effectiveness of EMDR, and if the higher levels of depression and stress indicate the initial reaction to greater awareness of trauma and receptivity to healing.

Keywords: ayahuasca, EMDR, PTSD, mental health

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1174 Asymmetric Synthesis and Biological Study of Suberosanes

Authors: Mohammad Kousara, Françoise Dumas, Rama Ibrahim, Joëlle Dubois, Joël Raingeaud


Suberosanes are a small group of marine natural sesquiterpenes discovered since 1996 by Boyd, Sheu and Qi from three gorgonians. Their skeleton was previously found in quadranes produced by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus terreus. Up to date, eleven suberosanes are described from which (-)-suberosanone and (-)-suberosenol A are reaching the picomolar cytotoxicity level on human solid tumors cell lines. Due to their impressive cytotoxic properties and their limited availability, we undertook an asymmetric synthesis of the most active members of this family in order to get insight into their absolute configurations and their biological properties. The challenge of their synthesis is the regio- and stereoselective elaboration of the compact bridged tricyclic skeleton with up to five all adjacent asymmetric centers, including a central quaternary carbon one. Our strategy is based on an aza-ene-synthesis key step which is regio-and stereo-controlled by the choice of a chiral amine enantiomer. it approach is concise and flexible, the enantiopur ABC tricyclic intermediate that have been synthesized being the common precursor of suberosanes.

Keywords: suberosanes, asymmetric synthesis, sesquiterpenes, quadranes

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1173 Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Hydrazone Derivatives Potent Inhibitors as a Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

Authors: Sema Şenoğlu, Sevgi Karakuş


Hydrazone scaffold is important to design new drug groups and is found to possess numerous uses in pharmaceutical chemistry. Besides, hydrazone derivatives are also known for biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antifungal. Hydrazone derivatives are promising anticancer agents because they inhibit cancer proliferation and induce apoptosis. Human carbonic anhydrase IX has a high potential to be an antiproliferative drug target, and targeting this protein is also important for obtaining potential anticancer inhibitors. The protein construct was retrieved as a PDB file from the RCSB protein database. This binding interaction of proteins and ligands was performed using Discovery Studio Visualizer. In vitro inhibitory activity of hydrazone derivatives was tested against enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX on the PyRx programme. Most of these molecules showed remarkable human carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitory activity compared to the acetazolamide. As a result, these compounds appear to be a potential target in drug design against human carbonic anhydrase IX.

Keywords: cancer, carbonic anhydrase IX enzyme, docking, hydrazone

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1172 Understanding the Mechanisms of Salmonella typhimurium Resistance to Cannabidiol

Authors: Iddrisu Ibrahim, Joseph Atia Ayariga, Junhuan Xu, Daniel Abugri, Boakai Robertson, Olufemi S. Ajayi


The emergence of multidrug resistance poses a huge risk to public health globally. Yet these recalcitrant pathogens continue to rise in incidence rate, with resistance rates significantly outpacing the speed of antibiotic development. This, therefore, presents an aura of related health issues such as untreatable nosocomial infections arising from organ transplants and surgeries, as well as community-acquired infections that are related to people with compromised immunity, e.g., diabetic and HIV patients, etc. There is a global effort to fight multidrug-resistant pathogens spearheaded by the World Health Organization, thus calling for research into novel antimicrobial agents to fight multiple drug resistance. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that Cannabidiol (CBD) was an effective antimicrobial against Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). However, we observed resistance development over time. To understand the mechanisms S. typhimurium uses to develop resistance to Cannabidiol (CBD), we studied the abundance of bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and membrane sterols of both susceptible and resistant S. typhimurium. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we also analyzed the expression of selected genes known for aiding resistance development in S. typhimurium. We discovered that there was a significantly higher expression of blaTEM, fimA, fimZ, and integrons in the CBD-resistant bacteria, and these were also accompanied by a shift in abundance in cell surface molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sterols.

Keywords: antimicrobials, resistance, cannabidiol, gram-negative bacteria, integrons, blaTEM, Fim, LPS, ergosterols

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1171 Dermoscopy Compliance: Improving Melanoma Detection Pathways Through Quality Improvement

Authors: Max Butler


Melanoma accounts for 80% of skin cancer-related deaths globally. The poor prognosis and increasing incidence of melanoma impose a significant burden on global healthcare systems. Early detection, precise diagnosis, and preventative strategies are critical to improving patient outcomes. Dermoscopy is the gold standard for specialist assessments of pigmented skin lesions, as it can differentiate between benign and malignant growths with greater accuracy than visual inspection. In the United Kingdom, guidelines from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) state dermoscopy should be used in all specialist assessments of pigmented skin lesions. Compliance with this guideline is low, resulting in missed and delayed melanoma diagnoses. To address this problem, a quality improvement project was initiated at Buckinghamshire Healthcare Trust (BHT) within the plastic surgery department. The target group was a trainee and consultant plastic surgeons conducting outpatient skin cancer clinics. Analysis of clinic documentation over a one-month period found that only 62% (38/61) of patients referred with pigmented skin lesions were examined using dermoscopy. To increase dermoscopy rates, teaching was delivered to the department highlighting national guidelines and the evidence base for dermoscopic examination. In addition, clinic paperwork was redesigned to include a text box for dermoscopic examination. Reauditing after the intervention found a significant increase in dermoscopy rates (52/61, p = 0.014). In conclusion, implementing a quality improvement project with targeted teaching and documentation template templates successfully increased dermoscopy rates. This is a promising step toward improving early melanoma detection and patient outcomes.

Keywords: melanoma, dermoscopy, plastic surgery, quality improvement

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1170 Improving Compliance in Prescribing Regular Medications for Surgical Patients: A Quality Improvement Project in the Surgical Assessment Unit

Authors: Abdullah Tahir


The omission of regular medications in surgical patients poses a significant challenge in healthcare settings and is associated with increased morbidity during hospital stays. Human factors such as high workload, poor communication, and emotional stress are known to contribute to these omissions, particularly evident in the surgical assessment unit (SAU) due to its high patient burden and long wait times. This study aimed to quantify and address the issue by implementing targeted interventions to enhance compliance in prescribing regular medications for surgical patients at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, United Kingdom. Data were collected on 14 spontaneous days between April and May 2023, and the frequency of prescription omissions was recorded using a tally chart. Subsequently, informative posters were introduced in the SAU, and presentations were given to the surgical team to emphasize the importance of compliance in this area. The interventions were assessed using a second data collection cycle, again over 14 spontaneous days in May 2023. Results demonstrated an improvement from 40% (60 out of 150) to 74% (93 out of 126) of patients having regular medications prescribed at the point of clerking. These findings highlight the efficacy of frequent prompts and awareness-raising interventions in increasing workforce compliance and addressing the issue of prescription omissions in the SAU.

Keywords: prescription omissions, quality improvement, regular medication, surgical assessment unit

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