Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 947

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

947 Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk Factors for Salmonella Species and Escherichia Coli from Raw Meat at Butchery Houses in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Dawit Gebreegziabiher Hagos, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Mahumd Abdulkader

Abstract:

Background: Salmonella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are important foodborne pathogens affecting humans and animals. They are among the most important causes of infection that are associated with the consumption of contaminated food. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors for Salmonella species and E. coli in raw meat from butchery houses of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2019. Socio-demographic data and risk factors were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Meat samples were collected aseptically from the butchery houses and transported using icebox to Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Sciences for the isolation and identification of Salmonella species and E. coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data obtained were cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 and logistic regression models with odds ratio were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 153 out of 384 (39.8%) of the meat specimens were found to be contaminated. The contamination of Salmonella species and E. coli were 15.6% (n=60) and 20.8%) (n=80), respectively. Mixed contamination (Salmonella species and E. coli) was observed in 13 (3.4 %) of the analyzed. Poor washing hands regularly (AOR = 8.37; 95% CI: 2.75-25.50) and not using gloves during meat handling (AOR=11. 28; 95% CI:(4.69 27.10) were associated with overall bacterial contamination. About 100% of the tested isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, Co trimoxazole , sulphamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacine of E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively, while the resistance of amoxyclav_amoxicillin and erythromycin were both isolated bacteria species. The overall multidrug resistance pattern for Salmonella and E. coli were 51.4% (n=19) and 31.8% (14), respectively. Conclusion: Of the 153 (153/384) contaminated raw meat, 60 (15.6%) and 80 (20.8%) were contaminated by Salmonella species and E. coli, respectively. Poor handwashing practice and not using glove during meat handling showed a significant association with bacterial contamination. Multidrug-resistant showed in Salmonella species, and E. coli were 19 (51.4%) and 14 (31.8%), respectively.

Keywords: E. coli, antimicrobial susceptibility test, butchery houses, raw meat, salmonella species

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946 Hybrid Compartmental Model to Assess Whole-Body Protein Breakdown Using a Pulse of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Stable Isotopes

Authors: Parisa Ghane, Ivan Ivanov, Ulisses Braga-Neto, and Nicolaas E. Deutz

Abstract:

Whole-body protein metabolism in humans can be evaluated by studying the kinetics of stable isotopic tracers of phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr). Due to the non-accessibility of tissue and intracellular (IC) fluid pools, one must sample from the extracellular (EC) pool and apply a compartmental modeling approach to estimate the non-accessible quantities and fluxes. The conventional compartmental models (CCM) require modelers to specify every detail of a model prior to observing the data. By contrast, this paper proposes a hybrid compartmental model (HCM) that allows us to first fit a hybrid tracer model and subsequently find the most physiologically-sound tracee model by comparing detailed multi-compartment (Mc) alternatives. The tracer model is hybrid because it is in a detailed Mc mode and can switch to a whole-body (Wb) mode when the exact location of a fractional rate is uncertain. Results were obtained from data samples collected in the morning after an overnight fast, which corresponds to a physiologically steady state. A bolus of L-[ring-¹³C₆]Phe and L-[ring²H₄]Tyr stable tracers were injected intravenously in 11 healthy subjects, and the tracer-tracee ratio (TTR) was measured in specific times post-injection using LC-MS/MS. Body composition (fat-free mass: ffm) was measured by DEXA. The HCM tracer model was concurrently in the Wb mode for estimation of Phe-Tyr conversion rate and in the detailed Mc mode for the rest of fractional rates. The corresponding fluxes were estimated for each alternative of the tracee model by using the compartmental equations in the physiological steady state. The Wb net protein breakdown (netPB) was set to the corresponding flux to the Phe-Tyr conversion rate and the flux of PHE was the protein breakdown (PB) rate. PB was estimated as a linear function of the net PB, irreversible loss, and between-pool fluxes. The HCM yielded values of the EC pool sizes for Phe and Tyr of 13 ± 5 and 18 ± 5 µmol/kg ffm, respectively, and IC pool sizes for Phe and Tyr of 67 ± 12 and 98 ± 32 µmol/kg ffm, respectively. The model also calculated the fluxes for IC protein breakdown of Phe to be 143 ± 31 µmol/kg ffm/h and for the Wb net protein breakdown to be 21 ± 3 µmol/kg ffm/h. These results are consistent with the literature. The R code for our HCM is available at https://github.com/parisaghane/Compartmental- modeling for future model developers. Similar models may play a significant role in many applications, including simulation of metabolic pathways in health and disease.

Keywords: Hybrid Model, compartmental modeling, linear time invariant systems, phenylalanine-tyrosine metabolism, protein breakdown, tracer kinetics

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945 The Determination of miR-197-3p in Regulating Apoptosis of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Demet Cansaran Duman, Sevval Ozben, Betul Colak

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the common malignant cancer among women. One of the main roles of breast cancer tumorigenesis is apoptosis. The inhibition of apoptosis significantly promotes tumorigenesis. miRNAs have a significant function in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to determine the effect of vulpinic acid response miR-197-3p on proliferation in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell. The anti-growth activity of miR-197-3p against MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated by real-time viability monitorization (xCELLigenceSystem). Moreover, the apoptosis-related genes expression analysis was performed by a quantitative real time-PCR assay using Human Apoptosis Primer Library assay. miR-197-3p showed an anti-growth effect on breast cancer cells with IC50 values ranging at 25.6 nM. We determined a difference in the significant differential expression of 56 apoptosis-related genes in breast cancer after miR-197-3p exposure on MCF-7 cells. The results demonstrated that the expression of miR-197-3p significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. miR-197-3p could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, apoptosis, MCF-7, miR-197-3p

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944 Investigation by MicroRNA Expression Analysis of Effects of Vulpinic Acid in Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Demet Cansaran Duman, Sevval Ozben, Sevcan Yangin

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignant cancer subtype among women. Classical treatments of cancer disease can be classified into radiation therapy, surgery, endocrine therapy, targeted therapy, and chemotherapy. Current drug treatment has several side effects; therefore, there is an urgent need for developing novel candidate anti-cancer drugs. The candidate drugs obtained from natural products are used in cancer treatment. This study aimed to determine and analyze the altered microRNA expression profile in MCF-7 breast cancer cells after exposure to vulpinic acid. Vulpinic acid (VA), IUPAC name of methyl (2E)-2-(3-hydroxy-5-oxo-4-phenylfuran-2-ylidene)-2 phenylacetate, can be considered as a potentially candidate molecule for cancer treatment. A more detailed investigation of the role of vulpinic acid response miRNAs and the determination of pathway analysis will be important for the development of more efficient treatment strategies. This study showed the anticancer effect of the vulpinic acid on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal human breast cell line (MCF-12A) by using xCelligence assay. We determined the expression profiles of miRNA responses to vulpinic acid by microarray analysis. The results obtained from the microarray analysis were clarified and confirmed by performing quantitative real time-PCR and bioinformatics analysis. miRNA array results demonstrated that 13 miRNAs were specifically responsive to vulpinic acid in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The miRNA targets were mainly found to play a role in the cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAPK pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of vulpinic acid at the miRNA level. Our results suggest that miR-197-3p and miR-423-5p could be the potential candidate as an anti-cancer drug in breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, MCF-7, miRNA array, vulpinic acid

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943 Biosynthesis of Healthy Secondary Metabolites in Olive Fruit in Response to Different Agronomic Treatments

Authors: Anna Perrone, Federico Martinelli

Abstract:

Olive fruit is well-known for the high content in secondary metabolites with high interest at nutritional, nutraceutical, antioxidant, and healthy levels. The content of secondary metabolites in olive at harvest may be affected by different water regimes, with significant effects on olive oil composition and quality and, consequently, on its healthy and nutritional features. In this work, a summary of several research studies dealing with the biosynthesis of healthy and nutraceutical metabolites of the secondary metabolism in olive fruit will be reported. The phytochemical findings have been correlated with the expression of key genes involved in polyphenol, terpenoid, and carotenoid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to different development stages and water regimes. Flavonoids were highest in immature fruits, while anthocyanins increased at ripening. In epicarp tissue, this was clearly associated with an up-regulation of the UFGT gene. Olive fruits cultivated under different water regimes were analyzed by metabolomics. This method identified several hundred metabolites in the ripe mesocarp. Among them, 46 were differentially accumulated in the comparison between rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Well-known healthy metabolites were more abundant at a higher level of water regimes. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in the rain-fed fruit; particularly, anthocyanin concentration was higher at ripening. Several secondary metabolites were differentially accumulated between different irrigation conditions. These results showed that these metabolic approaches could be efficiently used to determine the effects of agronomic treatments on olive fruit physiology and, consequently, on nutritional and healthy properties of the obtained extra-virgin olive oil.

Keywords: polyphenols, anthocyanins, Olea europea, water regimes

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942 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao

Abstract:

COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Binding Energy, Ocimum sanctum, COVID-19

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941 Methotrexate Associated Skin Cancer: A Signal Review of Pharmacovigilance Center

Authors: Abdulaziz Alakeel, Abdulrahman Alomair, Mohammed Fouda

Abstract:

Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite used to treat multiple conditions, including neoplastic diseases, severe psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Skin cancer is the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells in the epidermis, the outermost skin layer, caused by unrepaired DNA damage that triggers mutations. These mutations lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. The aim of this review is to evaluate the risk of skin cancer associated with the use of methotrexate and to suggest regulatory recommendations if required. Methodology: Signal Detection team at Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) performed a safety review using National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPC) database as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) VigiBase, alongside with literature screening to retrieve related information for assessing the causality between skin cancer and methotrexate. The search conducted in July 2020. Results: Four published articles support the association seen while searching in literature, a recent randomized control trial published in 2020 revealed a statistically significant increase in skin cancer among MTX users. Another study mentioned methotrexate increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer when used in combination with immunosuppressant and biologic agents. In addition, the incidence of melanoma for methotrexate users was 3-fold more than the general population in a cohort study of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The last article estimated the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a cohort study shows a statistically significant risk increase for CMM was observed in MTX exposed patients. The WHO database (VigiBase) searched for individual case safety reports (ICSRs) reported for “Skin Cancer” and 'Methotrexate' use, which yielded 121 ICSRs. The initial review revealed that 106 cases are insufficiently documented for proper medical assessment. However, the remaining fifteen cases have extensively evaluated by applying the WHO criteria of causality assessment. As a result, 30 percent of the cases showed that MTX could possibly cause skin cancer; five cases provide unlikely association and five un-assessable cases due to lack of information. The Saudi NPC database searched to retrieve any reported cases for the combined terms methotrexate/skin cancer; however, no local cases reported up to date. The data mining of the observed and the expected reporting rate for drug/adverse drug reaction pair is estimated using information component (IC), a tool developed by the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Centre to measure the reporting ratio. Positive IC reflects higher statistical association, while negative values translated as a less statistical association, considering the null value equal to zero. Results showed that a combination of 'Methotrexate' and 'Skin cancer' observed more than expected when compared to other medications in the WHO database (IC value is 1.2). Conclusion: The weighted cumulative pieces of evidence identified from global cases, data mining, and published literature are sufficient to support a causal association between the risk of skin cancer and methotrexate. Therefore, health care professionals should be aware of this possible risk and may consider monitoring any signs or symptoms of skin cancer in patients treated with methotrexate.

Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Skin Cancer, methotrexate, signal detection

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940 Ibrutinib and the Potential Risk of Cardiac Failure: A Review of Pharmacovigilance Data

Authors: Abdulaziz Alakeel, Roaa Alamri, Abdulrahman Alomair, Mohammed Fouda

Abstract:

Introduction: Ibrutinib is a selective, potent, and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). It forms a covalent bond with a cysteine residue (CYS-481) at the active site of Btk, leading to inhibition of Btk enzymatic activity. The drug is indicated to treat certain type of cancers such as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM). Cardiac failure is a condition referred to inability of heart muscle to pump adequate blood to human body organs. There are multiple types of cardiac failure including left and right-sided heart failure, systolic and diastolic heart failures. The aim of this review is to evaluate the risk of cardiac failure associated with the use of ibrutinib and to suggest regulatory recommendations if required. Methodology: Signal Detection team at the National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPC) of Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) performed a comprehensive signal review using its national database as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) database (VigiBase), to retrieve related information for assessing the causality between cardiac failure and ibrutinib. We used the WHO- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) criteria as standard for assessing the causality of the reported cases. Results: Case Review: The number of resulted cases for the combined drug/adverse drug reaction are 212 global ICSRs as of July 2020. The reviewers have selected and assessed the causality for the well-documented ICSRs with completeness scores of 0.9 and above (35 ICSRs); the value 1.0 presents the highest score for best-written ICSRs. Among the reviewed cases, more than half of them provides supportive association (four probable and 15 possible cases). Data Mining: The disproportionality of the observed and the expected reporting rate for drug/adverse drug reaction pair is estimated using information component (IC), a tool developed by WHO-UMC to measure the reporting ratio. Positive IC reflects higher statistical association while negative values indicates less statistical association, considering the null value equal to zero. The results of (IC=1.5) revealed a positive statistical association for the drug/ADR combination, which means “Ibrutinib” with “Cardiac Failure” have been observed more than expected when compared to other medications available in WHO database. Conclusion: Health regulators and health care professionals must be aware for the potential risk of cardiac failure associated with ibrutinib and the monitoring of any signs or symptoms in treated patients is essential. The weighted cumulative evidences identified from causality assessment of the reported cases and data mining are sufficient to support a causal association between ibrutinib and cardiac failure.

Keywords: Drug Safety, Pharmacovigilance, signal detection, cardiac failure, ibrutinib

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939 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: Quality Control, quality assessment, Herbal Medicines, bioactive chemical markers

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938 Preclinical Evidence of Pharmacological Effect from Medicinal Hemp

Authors: Muhammad nor Farhan Sa'At, Xin Y. Lim, Terence Y. C. Tan, Siti Hajar M. Rosli, Syazwani S. Ali, Ami F. Syed Mohamed

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa), commonly used for industrial purposes, differs from marijuana by containing lower levels of delta-9-tetrahydronannabidiol- the principal psychoactive constituent in cannabis. Due to its non-psychoactive nature, there has been growing interest in hemp’s therapeutic potential, which has been investigated through pre-clinical and clinical study modalities. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current landscape of hemp research, through recent scientific findings specific to the pharmacological effects of the medicinal hemp plant and its derived compounds. METHODS: This review was conducted through a systematic search strategy according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis-ScR (PRISMA-ScR) checklist on electronic databases including MEDLINE, OVID (OVFT, APC Journal Club, EBM Reviews), Cochrane Library Central and Clinicaltrials.gov. RESULTS: From 65 primary articles reviewed, there were 47 pre-clinical studies related to medicinal hemp. Interestingly, the hemp derivatives showed several potential activities such as anti-oxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neuroinflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-acne, and anti-microbial activities. Renal protective effects and estrogenic properties were also exhibited in vitro. CONCLUSION: Medicinal hemp possesses various pharmacological effects tested in vitro and in vivo. Information provided in this review could be used as tool to strengthen the study design of future clinical trial research.

Keywords: Cannabis, Herbal Medicine, hemp, preclinical

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937 Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Ibuprofen Derivative Can Protect Heart After Ischemia-Reperfusion

Authors: Aniko Borbas, Pal Herczegh, Arpad Tosaki, Virag Vass, Ilona Bereczki, Erzsebet Szabo, Nora Debreczeni

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a toxic gas, but it is produced by certain tissues in a small quantity. According to earlier studies, ibuprofen and H₂S has a protective effect against damaging heart tissue caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Recently, we have been investigating the effect of a new water-soluble H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule administered after artificially generated ischemia-reperfusion on isolated rat hearts. The H₂S releasing property of the new ibuprofen derivative was investigated in vitro in medium derived from heart endothelial cell isolation at two concentrations. The ex vivo examinations were carried out on rat hearts. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine, xylazine, and heparin. After thoracotomy, hearts were excised and placed into ice-cold perfusion buffer. Perfusion of hearts was conducted in Langendorff mode via the cannulated aorta. In our experiments, we studied the dose-effect of the H₂S releasing molecule in Langendorff-perfused hearts with the application of gradually increasing concentration of the compound (0- 20 µM). The H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative was applied before the ischemia for 10 minutes. H₂S concentration was measured with an H₂S detecting electrochemical sensor from the coronary effluent solution. The 10 µM concentration was chosen for further experiments when the treatment with this solution was occurred after the ischemia. The release of H₂S is occurred by the hydrolyzing enzymes that are present in the heart endothelial cells. The protective effect of the new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule can be confirmed by the infarct sizes of hearts using the Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Furthermore, we aimed to define the effect of the H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative on autophagic and apoptotic processes in damaged hearts after investigating the molecular markers of these events by western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Our further studies will include the examination of LC3I/II, p62, Beclin1, caspase-3, and other apoptotic molecules. We hope that confirming the protective effect of new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule will open a new possibility for the development of more effective cardioprotective agents with exerting fewer side effects. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the grants of NKFIH- K-124719 and the European Union and the State of Hungary co- financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00043.

Keywords: autophagy, Hydrogen Sulfide, ibuprofen, ischemia, reperfusion

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936 Prevailing Clinical Evidence on Medicinal Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.)

Authors: Siti Hajar Muhamad Rosli, Xin Yi Lim, Terence Yew Chin Tan, Muhammad nor Farhan Sa’At, Syazwani Sirdar Ali, Ami Fazlin Syed Mohamed

Abstract:

A growing interest on therapeutic benefits of hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) is evident in the pharmaceutical market, attributed to its lower levels of psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydronannabidiol (THC). Deemed as a legal and safer alternative to its counterpart marijuana, the use of medicinal hemp is highly debatable as current scientific evidence on the efficacy for clinical use is yet to be established This study was aimed to provide an overview of the current landscape of hemp research, through recent clinical findings specific to the pharmacological properties of the hemp plant and its derived compounds. A systematic search was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis-ScR (PRISMA) checklist on electronic databases (MEDLINE, OVID, Cochrane Library Central, and Clinicaltrials.gov) for articles published from 2009 to 2019. With predetermined inclusion criteria, all human trials with hemp intervention were included. A total of 18 human trials were identified, investigating therapeutic effects on the neuronal, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and immune system, with sample sizes ranging from one to 194 subjects. Three randomised controlled trials showed hempseed pills (in Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation MaZiRenWan) consumption significantly improved spontaneous bowel movement in functional constipation. The use of commercial cannabidiol (CBD) sourced from hemp suggested benefits in cannabis dependence, epilepsy, and anxiety disorders. However, there was insufficient evidence to suggest analgesic or anxiolytics effects of hemp being equivalent to marijuana. All clinical trials reviewed varied in terms of test item formulation and standardisation, which made it challenging to confirm overall efficacy for a specific disease or condition. Published efficacy data on hemp are still at a preliminary level, with limited high quality clinical evidence for any specific therapeutic indication. With multiple variants of this plant having different phytochemical and bioactive compounds, future empirical research should focus on uniformity in experimental designs to further strengthen the notion of using medicinal hemp.

Keywords: Cannabis, Herbal Medicine, complementary medicine, hemp

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935 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: Stability, Drug Release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine

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934 Time-Dependent Modulation on Depressive Responses and Circadian Rhythms of Corticosterone in Models of Melatonin Deficit

Authors: Jana Tchekalarova, Milena Atanasova, Katerina Georgieva

Abstract:

Melatonin deficit can cause a disturbance in emotional status and circadian rhythms of the endocrine system in the body. Both pharmacological and alternative approaches are applied for correction of dysfunctions driven by changes in circadian dynamics of many physiological indicators. In the present study, we tested and compare the beneficial effect of agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 3 weeks) and endurance training on depressive behavior in two models of melatonin deficit in rat. The role of disturbed circadian rhythms of plasma melatonin and corticosterone secretion in the mechanism of these treatments was also explored. The continuous exercise program attenuated depressive responses associated with disrupted diurnal rhythm of home-cage motor activity, anhedonia in the sucrose preference test, and despair-like behavior in the forced swimming test were attenuated by agomelatine exposed to chronic constant light (CCL) and long-term exercise in pinealectomized rats. Parallel to the observed positive effect on the emotional status, agomelatine restored CCL-induced impairment of circadian patterns of plasma melatonin but not that of corticosterone. In opposite, exercise training diminished total plasma corticosterone levels and corrected its flattened pattern while it was unable to correct melatonin deficit in pinealectomy. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of pharmacological and alternative approach might be mediated via two different mechanism, correction of the disturbed circadian rhythm of melatonin and corticosterone, respectively. Therefore, these treatment approaches might have a potential therapeutic application in different subpopulations of people characterized by a melatonin deficiency. This work was supported by the National Science Fund of Bulgaria (research grant # № DN 03/10; DN# 12/6).

Keywords: Exercise Training, corticosterone, agomelatine, melatonin deficit

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933 Surgical Treatment of Finger Contractures and Pseudosyndactyly in Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa - Case Presentation

Authors: Konrad Kochan

Abstract:

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of genetically determined bullous skin diseases characterized by formation of blisters spontaneously or after a minor mechanical injury. The disease estimated incidence is about 1/50,000 live births. The main clinical symptoms of EB are the consequence of the mechanical sensitivity of the skin. Hence the tendency to skin lesions, which mainly include chronic ulcers, blisters, erosions and scars. Blistering resulted in wounds and scars around the fingers and toes leads to contractures and adhesions (so-called pseudosyndactyly). The disease is the consequence of defective dermal-epidermal junction. This junction is made of over a dozen protein molecules. These molecules interact closely with each other, which is why the lack of or defective structure of any of them results in weakening of the dermal-epidermal junction. The dystrophic EB type is caused by mutations in only one gene - COL7A1, responsible for the structure of type 7 collagen. The syndrome of clinical features in the child occures in the form of blistering-atrophic changes on the skin, mainly on the limbs and the mucous membranes of the mouth. A 10-year-old patient with dystrophic EB disease was admitted to the surgery department for the surgical treatment of right hand pseudosyndactyly. Complete deformation of the right hand, consisting of all fingers fusion in full flexure contracture. Deformation resembling a boxing glove resulting in complete loss of hand function. All fingers of the right hand are fused under the layer of scarred tissues, flexure contracture in the MCP, DIP and PIP joints of all fingers is observed. After proper preparation, transverse cutting of contracture tissues on the metacarpus, freeing all fingers, plasticization of the interdigital spaces, and deepening of the first interdigital space - metacarpalization of the thumb were performed under the general anesthesia and ischemia, resulting in significant improvement of mobility, and full passive mobility in MCP, PIP and DIP joints. Using a raspator, an epidermal graft was removed from the right thigh (technique called the „split-off”) and placed on previously prepared metacarpal wounds. A sterile and silicone dressing were applied on the wounds. One of the biggest challenges for the surgeon taking care of patients with EB is hand deformation surgery. The operation performed using the so-called split-off graft - an epidermis graft taken from unchanged skin in combination with modern, non-adhesive dressings gives excellent results. In this case, a spectacular cosmetic and functional effect was achieved.

Keywords: Surgical treatment, epidermolysis bullosa, pseudosyndactyly

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932 A Program of Data Analysis on the Possible State of the Antibiotic Resistance in Bangladesh Environment in 2019

Authors: S. D. Kadir

Abstract:

Background: Antibiotics have always been at the centrum of the revolution of modern microbiology. Micro-organisms and its pathogenicity, resistant organisms, inappropriate or over usage of various types of antibiotic agents are fuelled multidrug-resistant pathogenic organisms. Our present time review report mainly focuses on the therapeutic condition of antibiotic resistance and the possible roots behind the development of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh in 2019. Methodology: The systemic review has progressed through a series of research analyses on various manuscripts published on Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, and collected relevant information from established popular healthcare and diagnostic center and its subdivisions all over Bangladesh. Our research analysis on the possible assurance of antibiotic resistance been ensured by the selective medical reports and on random assay on the extent of individual antibiotic in 2019. Results: 5 research articles, 50 medical report summary, and around 5 patients have been interviewed while going through the estimation process. We have prioritized research articles where the research analysis been performed by the appropriate use of the Kirby-Bauer method. Kirby-Bauer technique is preferred as it provides greater efficiency, ensures lower performance expenditure, and supplies greater convenience and simplification in the application. In most of the reviews, clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines were strictly followed. Most of our reports indicate significant resistance shown by the Beta-lactam drugs. Specifically by the derivatives of Penicillin's, Cephalosporin's (rare use of the first generation Cephalosporin and overuse of the second and third generation of Cephalosporin and misuse of the fourth generation of Cephalosporin), which are responsible for almost 67 percent of the bacterial resistance. Moreover, approximately 20 percent of the resistance was due to the fact of drug pumping from the bacterial cell by tetracycline and sulphonamides and their derivatives. Conclusion: 90 percent of the approximate antibiotic resistance is due to the usage of relative and true broad-spectrum antibiotics. The environment has been created by the following circumstances where; the excessive usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics had led to a condition where the disruption of native bacteria and a series of anti-microbial resistance causing a disturbance of the surrounding environments in medium, leading to a state of super-infection.

Keywords: Microbiology, Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistance, Kirby Bauer method

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931 In-Vitro and Antibacterial Studies for Silicate-Phosphate Glasses Formed with Biosynthesized Silica

Authors: Damandeep Kaur, O.P. Pandey, M.S. Reddy

Abstract:

In the present research, bio-synthesisation of silica particles has been carried out successfully. For this purpose, agriculture waste rice husk (RH) has been utilized. Among several types of agriculture waste, RH is considered to be cost-effective and easily accessible. In the present investigation, a chemical approach has been followed to extract silica nanoparticles. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the amorphous nature of silica at lower temperature range. Silica and other mineral contents have been found using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphological and structural studies have been carried out with the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission (FTIR) spectroscopy. Further, extracted silica from RH has been used for preparation of the glasses. The appearance of broad humps in XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of prepared glasses. These glasses exhibited enhanced antibacterial effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The as-synthesized glass samples can be further used for physical and structural studies for drug loading applications.

Keywords: Bioactive Glasses, rice husk, antibacterial studies, biosynthesized silica

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930 Using Design Thinking Principles to Improve Patients Experiences in Two Outpatient Pharmacies in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Dalia Almaghaslah

Abstract:

Design thinking approach; empathize, define, ideate prototype, test, implement, was used to assess outpatient experiences in two hospital pharmacies in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 patients. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings suggested that patients were generally satisfied with pharmaceutical services provided in both pharmacies. Pharmacists were found to have enough knowledge, good attitude, and efficient communication and counselling skills. Non-pharmacy-related factors such as cultural factors (gender segregation), long waiting times, uncomfortable waiting areas, lack of electronic prescribing, number waiting system were found to have a negative impact on patients' experiences and satisfaction. Prototypes will be used to test the effects of implementing the electronic system in Al -mahal hospital and to test changing the physical layout of the waiting area in Asir hospital.

Keywords: Design Thinking, Hospital Pharmacy, Saudi Arabia, patient satisfaction

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929 Upconversion Nanoparticle-Mediated Carbon Monoxide Prodrug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Yaw Opoku-Damoah, Run Zhang, Hang Thu Ta, Zhi Ping Xu

Abstract:

Gas therapy is still at an early stage of research and development. Even though most gasotransmitters have proven their therapeutic potential, their handling, delivery, and controlled release have been extremely challenging. This research work employs a versatile nanosystem that is capable of delivering a gasotransmitter in the form of a photo-responsive carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) for targeted cancer therapy. The therapeutic action was mediated by upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) designed to transfer bio-friendly low energy near-infrared (NIR) light to ultraviolet (UV) light capable of triggering carbon monoxide (CO) from a water-soluble amphiphilic manganese carbonyl complex CORM incorporated into a carefully designed lipid drug delivery system. Herein, gaseous CO that plays a role as a gasotransmitter with cytotoxic and homeostatic properties was investigated to instigate cellular apoptosis. After successfully synthesizing the drug delivery system, the ability of the system to encapsulate and mediate the sustained release of CO after light excitation was demonstrated. CO fluorescence probe (COFP) was successfully employed to determine the in vitro drug release profile upon NIR light irradiation. The uptake of nanoparticles enhanced by folates and its receptor interaction was also studied for cellular uptake purposes. The anticancer potential of the final lipid nanoparticle Lipid/UCNPs/CORM/FA (LUCF) was also determined by cell viability assay. Intracellular CO release and a subsequent therapeutic action involving ROS production, mitochondrial damage, and CO production was also evaluated. In all, this current project aims to use in vitro studies to determine the potency and efficiency of a NIR-mediated CORM prodrug delivery system.

Keywords: Upconversion Nanoparticles, carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, site-specific delivery, amphiphilic manganese carbonyl complex, prodrug delivery system

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928 The Effect of the Combination of Methotrexate Nanoparticles and TiO2 on Breast Cancer

Authors: Nusaiba Al-Nemrawi, Belal Al-Husein

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is a stoichiometric inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, which is essential for DNA synthesis. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used for treating many types of cancer cells. However, cells’ resistant to MTX is very common and its pharmacokinetic behavior is highly problematic. of MTX within tumor cells, we propose encapsulation of antitumor drugs in nanoparticulated systems. Chitosan (CS) is a naturally occurring polymer that is biocompatibe, biodegradable, non-toxic, cationic and bioadhesive. CS nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used as drug carrier for targeted delivery. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a natural mineral oxide, which is used in biomaterials due to its high stability and antimicrobial and anticorrosive properties. TiO2 showed a potential as a tumor suppressor. In this study a new formulation of MTX loaded in CS NPs (CS-MTX NPs) and coated with Titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared. The mean particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index were measured. The interaction between CS NPs and TiO2 NPs was confirmed using FTIR and XRD. CS-MTX NPs was studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 (human breast cancer). The results showed that CS-MTX has a size around 169 nm and as they were coated with TiO2, the size ranged between and depending on the ratio of CS-MTX to TiO2 ratio used in the preparation. All NPs (uncoated and coated carried positive charges and were monodispersed. The entrapment efficacy was around 65%. Both FTIR and XRD proved that TiO2 interacted with CS-MTX NPs. The drug invitro release was controlled and sustained over days. Finally, the studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 suggested that combining nanomaterials with anticancer drugs CS-MTX NPs may be more effective than free MTX for cancer treatment. In conclusion, the combination of CS-MTX NPs and TiO2 NPs showed excellent time-dependent in vitro antitumor behavior, therefore, can be employed as a promising anticancer agent to attain efficient results towards MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: Cancer, titanium dioxide, methotrexate, chitosan nanoparticles

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927 Development of Ketorolac Tromethamine Encapsulated Stealth Liposomes: Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution

Authors: Yasmin Begum Mohammed

Abstract:

Ketorolac tromethamine (KTM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to prostaglandin related inhibitory effect of drug. It is a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. The drug is currently used orally and intramuscularly in multiple divided doses, clinically for the management arthritis, cancer pain, post-surgical pain, and in the treatment of migraine pain. KTM has short biological half-life of 4 to 6 hours, which necessitates frequent dosing to retain the action. The frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peptic ulceration, and renal failure lead to the development of other drug delivery strategies for the appropriate delivery of KTM. The ideal solution would be to target the drug only to the cells or tissues affected by the disease. Drug targeting could be achieved effectively by liposomes that are biocompatible and biodegradable. The aim of the study was to develop a parenteral liposome formulation of KTM with improved efficacy while reducing side effects by targeting the inflammation due to arthritis. PEG-anchored (stealth) and non-PEG-anchored liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique followed by extrusion cycle and characterized for in vitro and in vivo. Stealth liposomes (SLs) exhibited increase in percent encapsulation efficiency (94%) and 52% percent of drug retention during release studies in 24 h with good stability for a period of 1 month at -20°C and 4°C. SLs showed about maximum 55% of edema inhibition with significant analgesic effect. SLs produced marked differences over those of non-SL formulations with an increase in area under plasma concentration time curve, t₁/₂, mean residence time, and reduced clearance. 0.3% of the drug was detected in arthritic induced paw with significantly reduced drug localization in liver, spleen, and kidney for SLs when compared to other conventional liposomes. Thus SLs help to increase the therapeutic efficacy of KTM by increasing the targeting potential at the inflammatory region.

Keywords: Ketorolac tromethamine, biodistribution, stealth liposomes, thin film hydration technique

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926 Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice Using an Aqueous Extract

Authors: Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh, Ahed Zyoud

Abstract:

Phytochemical Investigation and Diuretic Activity of the Palestinian Crataegus aronia in Mice using an Aqueous Extract Division of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences An- Najah National University Nablus- Palestine Belal Rahhal, Isra Taha, Insaf Najajreh, Waleed Basha, Hamzeh Alzabadeh and Ahed Zyoud Purpose: Throughout history, various natural materials were used as remedies for treatment of various diseases, and recently a vastly growing and renewed interest in herbal medicine is witnessed globally. In Palestinian folk medicine, Crataegus aronia is used as a diuretic and for treatment of hypertension. This study aimed to assess the preliminary phytochemical properties and the diuretic effect of the aqueous extracts of this plant in mice after its intraperitonial administration. Methods: It is an experimental trial applied on mice (n=8, Male, CD-1, weight range: [25-30 gram]), which are divided into two groups (4 in each). The first group administered with the plant extract (500 mg/kg) , and the second with normal saline as negative control group. Then urine output and electrolyte contents were quantified up to 6 hours for the three groups and then compared to the control one. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids and flavoniods as major phytoconstituents in aqueous extract. Significant diuresis was noted in those received the aqueous extract of Crataegus aronia (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Moreover, aqueous extract had an acidic pH and a mild increase in the electrolyte excretion (Na, K). Conclusions: Our results revealed that Crataegus aronia aqueous extract has a potential diuretic effect. Further studies are needed to evaluate this diuretic effect in the relief of diseases characterized by volume overload. Keywords: C. aronia, furosemide, diuresis, mice, medicinal plants.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, mice, furosemide, phytochemical investigation, diuretic activity, C. aronia

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925 Moringa olifera Curate The Toxic Potential of CuO Nanoparticles in Oreochromis mossambicus

Authors: Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Asad

Abstract:

The study assessed the curative potential of Moringa olifera seeds against copper oxide nanoparticles induced toxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus. In order to investigate the curative potential of M. olifera seeds, firstly we examine its chemical composition, secondary metabolites, and bioactive compounds including hydroxyl-cinnamic acids, flavanols and hydroxybenzoic acids through standard methods and high performance liquid chromatography. In current study, the potential sub-lethal toxic dose of CuO-NPs (0.12 mg/l) was investigated through pilot experiment and three non-lethal doses (low=32, medium=48 and high=96 mg/l) of M. olifera were selected on the basis of its LC50 value for O. mossambicus. The experimental fish, O. mossambicus (n=100 of approximately 20 g each) were procured from Manawan Fisheries Complex, Lahore, and acclimatized for two weeks in glass aquaria. Experiment was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. During acclimatization and experimental period, fish received the commercial fish feed at 2.5% body weight daily. In order to assess the curative effect of M. olifera against CuO NPs induced toxicity, O. mossambicus were randomly divided into five groups and were designated as control (C) without any treatment, positive control (G*) exposed to potential toxic dose of CuO-NPs at 0.12 mg/l, and three treated groups namely G1, G2, and G3 co-treated with 0.12 mg/l of CuO-NPs plus different doses of M. olifera seed extract at 32, 48, and 96 mg/l, respectively for 56 days. Fish were exposed to waterborne CuO NPs and M. olifera seed extract. CuO-NPs treatment was ceased after 28 days but the doses of M. olifera were continued for 56 days. Blood was taken after 28 and 56 days through caudal venipuncture. Liver and intestine were taken for oxidative stress and histological studies after 56 days. In M. olifera seeds, moisture contents, crude protein, lipids, carbohydrates and ash were recorded as 3.8, 37.83, 32.52, 46.12, and 7.75%, respectively on dry weight basis. Total energy was recorded as 627.36 kcal/100g. Qualitative analysis of M. olifera seeds showed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolics, while its quantitative analysis showed the considerable amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids as 134.75, 170.15, 1.57, and 0.4 µg/mg, respectively. Analysis of bioactive compounds in M. olifera seeds showed the presence of hydroxy-cinnamic acids (6.07 µg/ml), flavanols (71.72 µg/ml), and hydroxyl benzoic acids (97.82 µg/ml). The results showed that M. oliefera seed extract at 48 and 56 mg/l was able to cure against the toxic effects of CuO-NPs. The significant changes were observed in G* and G1 for sero-hepatic enzymes, anti-oxidants and histological profile. The investigations of this study showed that M. olifera is a good curative agent against potential induced toxicity of CuO-NPs in O. mossambicus. The curative effect of M. olifera is attributed to the presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds. This study suggested the use of M. olifera to curate different ailments in fish and other organisms.

Keywords: curative, CuO nanoparticles, Moringa olifera, Oreochromis mossambicus

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924 Synthesis, Characterization, Validation of Resistant Microbial Strains and Anti Microbrial Activity of Substitted Pyrazoles

Authors: Rama Devi Kyatham, D. Ashok, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, Raju Bathula

Abstract:

We have shown the importance of pyrazoles as anti-microbial chemical entities. These compounds have generally been considered significant due to their wide range of pharmacological acivities and their discovery motivates new avenues of research.The proposed pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-microbial activities. The Synthesized compounds were analyzed by different spectroscopic methods.

Keywords: Validation, pyrazoles, resistant microbial strains, anti-microbial activities

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923 Morphological Differentiation and Temporal Variability in Essential Oil Yield and Composition among Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum L., Origanum onites L. and Origanum x intercedens from Ikaria Island (Greece)

Authors: A.Assariotakis, P. Vahamidis, P. Tarantilis, G. Economou

Abstract:

Greece, due to its geographical location and the particular climatic conditions, presents high biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Among them, the genus Origanum not only presents a wide distribution, but it also has great economic importance. After extensive surveys in Ikaria Island (Greece), 3 species of the genus Origanum were identified, namely, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano), Origanum onites (Turkish oregano) and Origanum x intercedens (hybrid), a naturally occurring hybrid between O. hirtum and O. onites. The purpose of this study was to determine their morphological as well as their temporal variability in essential oil yield and composition under field conditions. For this reason, a plantation of each species was created using vegetative propagation and was established at the experimental field of the Agricultural University of Athens (A.U.A.). From the establishment year and for the following two years (3 years of observations), several observations were taken during each growing season with the purpose of identifying the morphological differences among the studied species. Each year collected plant (at bloom stage) material was air-dried at room temperature in the shade. The essential oil content was determined by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of essential oils was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC – MS). Significant differences were observed among the three oregano species in terms of plant height, leaf size, inflorescence features, as well as concerning their biological cycle. O. intercedens inflorescence presented more similarities with O. hirtum than with O. onites. It was found that calyx morphology could serve as a clear distinction feature between O. intercedens and O. hirtum. The calyx in O. hirtum presents five isometric teeth whereas in O. intercedens two high and three shorter. Essential oil content was significantly affected by genotype and year. O. hirtum presented higher essential oil content than the other two species during the first year of cultivation, however during the second year the hybrid (O. intercedens) recorded the highest values. Carvacrol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene were the main essential oil constituents of the three studied species. In O. hirtum carvacrol content varied from 84,28 - 93,35%, in O. onites from 86,97 - 91,89%, whereas in O. intercedens it was recorded the highest carvacrol content, namely from 89,25 - 97,23%.

Keywords: variability, Essential Oil, carvacrol, oregano biotypes

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922 Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(Phenylsulfonamido)Benzamide Derivatives as Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Authors: Ravi Singh, Ashok kumar, Devendra Kumar, Sushil Kumar Singh, Ankit Ganeshpurkar

Abstract:

In spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It results in cognitive and memory impairment due to loss of cholinergic neurons, which is considered to be one of the contributing factors. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which also inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and improves the memory and brain’s cognitive functions, is the most successful and prescribed drug to treat the symptoms of AD. The present work is based on designing of the selective BuChE inhibitors using computational techniques. In this work, machine learning models were trained using classification algorithms followed by screening of diverse chemical library of compounds. The various molecular modelling and simulation techniques were used to obtain the virtual hits. The amide derivatives of 4-(phenylsulfonamido) benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized using 1H & 13C NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. The enzyme inhibition assays were performed on equine plasma BuChE and electric eel’s AChE by method developed by Ellman et al. Compounds 31, 34, 37, 42, 49, 52 and 54 were found to be active against equine BuChE. N-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide and N-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide (compounds 34 and 37) displayed IC50 of 61.32 ± 7.21 and 42.64 ± 2.17 nM against equine plasma BuChE. Ortho-substituted derivatives were more active against BuChE. Further, the ortho-halogen and ortho-alkyl substituted derivatives were found to be most active among all with minimal AChE inhibition. The compounds were selective toward BuChE.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Alzheimer Disease, butyrylcholinesterase, sulfonamides

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921 Beneficial Effect of Biotin in Combination with Canagliflozin on High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes in Rats

Authors: Rayhana Begum, HongBin Wang, Nur Alam Siddiquee, Md.Yasin Ahmed

Abstract:

Biotin treatment has significant effects on blood glucose, and pharmacological doses of biotin improve hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of biotin in combination with canagliflozin in improving glycemic control on High Fat Diet-induced diabetes in Rats. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups (six rats /group): control, high fat diet (HFD), canagliflozin (CAG), biotin (BIO), and CAG + BIO. The treatments with CAG and /or BIO significantly reduced the body weight gain, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, whereas CAG in combination with BIO revealed greater glycemic improvement than CAG monotherapy. The treatment with CAG and /or BIO causes significant change in lipid profile and CK level while the treatment with CAG in combination with BIO showed better results as compared with CAG monotherapy. Furthermore, combination of biotin with CAG improved the pancreatic and cardiac damage when compared with other treated groups.

Keywords: lipid profile, HbA1C, canagliflozin, biotin

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920 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi

Abstract:

A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Antibiotics, inhibition, gallic acid derivatives

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919 Ruminal Fermentation of Biologically Active Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages

Authors: Robin Anderson, David Nisbet

Abstract:

Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) are biologically active chemicals that can accumulate naturally in rangeland grasses forages consumed by grazing cattle, sheep and goats. While toxic to livestock if accumulations and amounts consumed are high enough, particularly in animals having no recent exposure to the forages, these chemicals are known to be potent inhibitors of methane-producing bacteria inhabiting the rumen. Consequently, there is interest in examining their potential use as anti-methanogenic compounds to decrease methane emissions by grazing ruminants. Presently, rumen microbes, collected freshly from a cannulated Holstein cow maintained on 50:50 corn based concentrate:alfalfa diet were mixed (10 mL fluid) in 18 x 150 mm crimp top tubes with 0.5 of high nitrate-containing barley (Hordeum vulgare; containing 272 µmol nitrate per g forage dry matter), and NPA- or NPOH- containing milkvetch forages (Astragalus canadensis and Astragalus miser containing 80 and 174 soluble µmol NPA or NPOH/g forage dry matter respectively). Incubations containing 0.5 g alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were used as controls. Tubes (3 per each respective forage) were capped and incubated anaerobically (using oxygen free carbon dioxide) for 24 h at 39oC after which time amounts of total gas produced were measured via volume displacement and headspace samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine concentrations of hydrogen and methane. Fluid samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to measure accumulations of fermentation acids. A completely randomized analysis of variance revealed that the nitrate-containing barley and both the NPA- and the NPOH-containing milkvetches significantly decreased methane production, by > 50%, when compared to methane produced by populations incubated similarly with alfalfa (70.4 ± 3.6 µmol/ml incubation fluid). Accumulations of hydrogen, which are typically increased when methane production is inhibited, by incubations with the nitrate-containing barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches did not differ from accumulations observed in the alfalfa controls (0.09 ± 0.04 µmol/mL incubation fluid). Accumulations of fermentation acids produced in the incubations containing the high-nitrate barley and the NPA- and NPOH-containing milkvetches likewise did not differ from accumulations observed in incubations containing alfalfa (123.5 ± 10.8, 36.0 ± 3.0, 17.1 ± 1.5, 3.5 ± 0.3, 2.3 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mL incubation fluid for acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, respectively). This finding indicates the microbial populations did not compensate for the decreased methane production via compensatory changes in production of fermentative acids. Stoichiometric estimation of fermentation balance revealed that > 77% of reducing equivalents generated during fermentation of the forages were recovered in fermentation products and the recoveries did not differ between the alfalfa incubations and those with the high-nitrate barley or the NPA- or NPOH-containing milkvetches. Stoichiometric estimates of amounts of hexose fermented similarly did not differ between the nitrate-, NPA and NPOH-containing incubations and those with the alfalfa, averaging 99.6 ± 37.2 µmol hexose consumed/mL of incubation fluid. These results suggest that forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH may be useful to reduce methane emissions of grazing ruminants provided risks of toxicity can be effectively managed.

Keywords: nitrate, nitropropanol, nitropropionic acid, rumen methane emissions

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918 Anti-Bacterial Activity Studies of Derivatives of 6β-Hydroxy Betunolic Acid against Selected Stains of Gram (+) and Gram (-) Bacteria

Authors: S. Jayasinghe, W. G. D. Wickramasingha, V. Karunaratne, D. N. Karunaratne, A. Ekanayake

Abstract:

Multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens are a serious global health problem, and hence, there is an urgent necessity for discovering new drug therapeutics. However, finding alternatives is a one of the biggest challenges faced by the global drug industry due to the spiraling high cost and serious side effects associated with modern medicine. On the other hand, plants and their secondary metabolites can be considered as good sources of scaffolds to provide structurally diverse bioactive compounds as potential therapeutic agents. 6β-hydroxy betunolic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from bark of Schumacheria castaneifolia which is an endemic plant to Sri Lanka which has shown antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of 16 µg/ml. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-bacterial activity for the derivatives of 6β- hydroxy betunolic acid against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213 and ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 and ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), carbepenemas produce Kebsiella pneumonia (ATCC BAA 1705) and carbepenemas non produce Kebsiella pneumonia (ATCC BAA 1706) and four stains of clinically isolated methicillin resistance S. aureus and Acinetobacter. Structural analogues of 6β-hydroxy betunolic acid were synthesized by modifying the carbonyl group at C-3 to obtain olefin and oxime, the hydroxyl group at C-6 position to a ketone, the carboxylic acid at C-17 to obtain amide and halo ester and the olefin group at C-20 position to obtain epoxide. Chemical structures of the synthesized analogues were confirmed with spectroscopic data and antibacterial activity was determined through broth micro dilution assay. Results revealed that 6β- hydroxy betunolic acid shows significant antibacterial activity only against the Gram positive strains and it was inactive against all the tested Gram negative strains for the tested concentration range. However, structural modifications into oxime and olefin at C-3, ketone at C-6 and epoxide at C-20 decreased its antibacterial activity against the gram positive organisms and it was totally lost with the both modifications at C-17 into amide and ester. These results concluded that the antibacterial activity of 6β- hydroxy betunolic acid and derivatives is predominantly depending on the cell wall difference of the bacteria and the presence of carboxylic acid at C-17 is highly important for the antibacterial activity against Gram positive organisms.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, structure activity relationship, broth micro dilution assay

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