Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 900

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

900 Trigonelline: A Promising Compound for The Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Ximeng Yang, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda


Trigonelline is a major alkaloid component derived from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) and has been reported before as a potential neuroprotective agent, especially in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the previous data were unclear and used model mice were not well established. In the present study, the effect of trigonelline on memory function was investigated in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic model mouse, 5XFAD which overexpresses the mutated APP and PS1 genes. Oral administration of trigonelline for 14 days significantly enhanced object recognition and object location memories. Plasma and cerebral cortex were isolated at 30 min, 1h, 3h, and 6 h after oral administration of trigonelline. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that trigonelline was detected in both plasma and cortex from 30 min after, suggesting good penetration of trigonelline into the brain. In addition, trigonelline significantly ameliorated axonal and dendrite atrophy in Amyloid β-treated cortical neurons. These results suggest that trigonelline could be a promising therapeutic candidate for AD.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, cortical neurons, LC-MS/MS analysis, trigonelline

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899 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali


Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: AIDS, Elvitegravir, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, pharmacokinetics

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898 In vivo Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic Activities of Crataegus Sinaica Methanol Extract

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, A. H. El-Desoky, Gihan F. Asaad


Objective: The research was designed to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Crataegus sinaica methanol extract Methods: The anti-inflammatory were measured by edema rate and inhibition rate using plethysmometer and by determinig PGE2, TNF-ɑ and MPO levels in paw exudate. Both central and peripheral analgesic effect were examined using Writhing test and hot plate test Key Findings: The methanolic extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing paw edema induced by carrageenan; also results showed that anti-inflammatory effect increased by increasing the dose. All dose levels of the extract showed significant reduction in Prostaglandin E2, Tumor necrosis factor-ɑ, and Meyloperoxidase levels. Crataegus sinaica methanol extract showed both peripheral and central analgesic effect. Conclusion: The C. sinaica methanolic extract can be considered a promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic product.

Keywords: Crataegus sinaica, prostaglandins, edema, pain, analgesia, hot plate

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897 Secondary Metabolites from Turkish Marine-Derived Fungi Hypocrea nigricans

Authors: H. Heydari, B. Konuklugil, P. Proksch


Marine-derived fungi can produce interesting bioactive secondary metabolites that can be considered the potential for drug development. Turkey is a country of a peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea at the north, the Aegean Sea at the west, and the Mediterranean Sea at the south. Despite the approximately 8400 km of coastline, studies on marine secondary metabolites and their biological activity are limited. In our ongoing search for new natural products with different bioactivities produced by the marine-derived fungi, we have investigated secondary metabolites of Turkish collection of the marine sea slug (Peltodoris atromaculata) associated fungi Hypocrea nigricans collected from Seferihisar in the Egean sea. According to the author’s best knowledge, no study was found on this fungal species in terms of secondary metabolites. Isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Hypocrea nigricans were (isodihydroauroglaucin,tetrahydroauroglaucin and dihydroauroglaucin. The structures of the compounds were established based on an NMR and MS analysis. Structural elucidation of another isolated secondary metabolite/s continues.

Keywords: Hypocrea nigricans, isolation, marine fungi, secondary metabolites

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896 Polysulfide as Active ‘Stealth’ Polymers with Additional Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Farah El Mohtadi, Richard d'Arcy, Nicola Tirelli


Since 40 years, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been the gold standard in biomaterials and drug delivery, because of its combination of chemical and biological inertness. However, the possibility of its breakdown under oxidative conditions and the demonstrated development of anti-PEG antibodies highlight the necessity to develop carriers based on materials with increased stability in a challenging biological environment. Here, we describe the synthesis of polysulfide via anionic ring-opening polymerization. In vitro, the synthesized polymer was characterized by low toxicity and a level of complement activation (in human plasma) and macrophage uptake slightly lower than PEG and poly (2‐methyl-2‐oxazoline) (PMOX), of a similar size. Importantly, and differently from PEG, on activated macrophages, the synthesized polymer showed a strong and dose-dependent ROS scavenging activity, which resulted in the corresponding reduction of cytokine production. Therefore, the results from these studies show that polysulfide is highly biocompatible and are potential candidates to be used as an alternative to PEG for various applications in nanomedicine.

Keywords: PEG, low toxicity, ROS scavenging, biocompatible

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895 Evaluation of Natural Gums: Gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum and Gum Acacia as Potential Hemostatic Agents

Authors: Himanshu Kushwah, Nidhi Sandal, Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Gaurav Mittal


Excessive bleeding is the primary factor of avoidable death in both civilian trauma centers as well as the military battlefield. Hundreds of Indian troops die every year due to blood loss caused by combat-related injuries. These deaths are avoidable and can be prevented to a large extent by making available a suitable hemostatic dressing in an emergency medical kit. In this study, natural gums were evaluated as potential hemostatic agents in combination with calcium gluconate. The study compares the hemostatic activity of Gum Tragacanth (GT), Guar Gum (GG), Xanthan Gum (XG) and Gum Acacia (GA) by carrying out different in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In-vitro studies were performed using the Lee-White method and Eustrek method, which includes the visual and microscopic analysis of blood clotting. MTT assay was also performed using human lymphocytes to check the cytotoxicity of the gums. The in-vivo studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats using tail bleeding assay to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the gums and compared with a commercially available hemostatic sponge, Surgispon. Erythrocyte agglutination test was also performed to check the interaction between blood cells and the natural gums. Other parameters like blood loss, adherence strength of the developed hemostatic dressing material incorporating these gums, re-bleeding, and survival of the animals were also studied. The data obtained from the MTT assay showed that Guar gum, Gum Tragacanth, and Gum Acacia were not significantly cytotoxic, but substantial cytotoxicity was observed in Xanthan gum samples at high concentrations. Also, Xanthan gum took the least time with its minimum concentration to achieve hemostasis, (approximately 50 seconds at 3mg concentration). Gum Tragacanth also showed efficient hemostasis at a concentration of 35mg at the same time, but the other two gums tested were not able to clot the blood in significantly less time. A sponge dressing made of Tragacanth gum was found to be more efficient in achieving hemostasis and showed better practical applicability among all the gums studied and also when compared to the commercially available product, Surgispon, thus making it a potentially better alternative.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, hemostasis, natural gums, sponge

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894 Postmortem Analysis of Lidocaine in Women Died of Criminal Abortion

Authors: Mohammed A. Arishy, Sultan M. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Hakami, Farid M. Abualsail, Mohammad A. Attafi, Riyadh M. Tobaiqi, Hussain M. Alsalem, Ibraheem M. Attafi


Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetics used for para cervical block to reduce pain associated with surgical abortion. A 25-year-old pregnant woman who. She died before reaching hospital, and she was undergoing criminal abortion during the first trimester. In post-mortem investigations and autopsy shows no clear finding; therefore, toxic substances must be suspected and searched for routinely toxicology analysis. In this case report, the postmortem concentration of lidocaine was detected blood, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach. For lidocaine identification and quantification, sample was extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, Japan). Initial screening and confirmatory analysis results showed that only lidocaine was detected in all collected samples, and no other toxic substances or alcohol were detected. The concentrations of lidocaine in samples were 19, 17, 14, 7, and 3 ug/m in the brain, blood, kidney, liver, and stomach, respectively. Lidocaine blood concentration (17 ug/ml) was toxic level and may result in death. Among the tissues, brain showed the highest level of lidocaine, followed by the kidney, liver, and stomach.

Keywords: forensic toxicology, GC-MS, lidocaine, postmortem

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893 Joubert Syndrome: A Rare Genetic Disorder Reported in Kurdish Family

Authors: Aran Abd Al Rahman


Joubert syndrome regards as a congenital cerebellar ataxia caused by autosomal recessive carried on X chromosome. The disease diagnosed by brain imaging—the so-called molar tooth sign. Neurological signs were present from the neonatal period and include hypotonia progressing to ataxia, global developmental delay, ocular motor apraxia, and breathing dysregulation. These signs are variably associated with multiorgan involvement, mainly of the retina, kidneys, skeleton, and liver. 30 causative genes have been identified so far, all of which encode for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus, The purpose of our project was to detect the mutant gene (INPP5E gene) which cause Joubert syndrome. There were many methods used for diagnosis such as MRI and CT- scan and molecular diagnosis by doing ARMS PCR for detection of mutant gene that we were used in this research project. In this research for individual family which reported, the two children with parents, the two children were affected and were carrier.

Keywords: Joubert syndrome, genetic disease, Kurdistan region, Sulaimani

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892 Phytochemical Composition, Antimicrobial Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Peganum harmala L. Extracts

Authors: Narayana Bhat, Majda Khalil, Hamad Al-Mansour, Anitha Manuvel, Vimla Yeddu


The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential and phytochemical composition of Peganum harmala L. For this purpose, powdered shoot, root, and seed samples were extracted in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with methanol, ethanol, acetone, and dichloromethane. The residues were reconstituted in the above solvents and 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The antimicrobial activity of these extracts was tested against two bacterial (Escherichia coli E49 and Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507) and two fungi Candida albicans ATCC 24433, Candida glabrata ATCC 15545) strains using the well-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth pattern of these test strains were determined using microbroth dilution method, and the phospholipase assay was performed to detect tissue damage in the host cells. Results revealed that ethanolic, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts of seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against all tested strains, whereas the acetone extract of seeds was effective against E. coli only. Similarly, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of roots were effective against two bacterial strains only. One sixth of percent (0.6%) yield of methanol extract of seeds was found to be the MIC for Escherichia coli E49, Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507, and Candida glabrata ATCC 15545. Overall, seed extracts had greater antimicrobial activities compared to roots and shoot extracts. The original plant extract and MIC dilutions prevented phospholipase secretion in Staphylococcus aureus CCUG 43507 and Candida albicans ATCC 24433. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay revealed radical scavenging activities ranging from 71.80 ± 4.36% to 87.75 ± 1.70%. The main compound present in the root extract was 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (RT: 44.171), followed by norlapachol (3.62%), benzopyrazine (2.20%), palmitic acid (2.12%) and vasicinone (1.96%). In contrast, phenol,4-ethenyl-2-methoxy was in abundance in the methonolic extract of the shoot, whereas 1-methyl-7-methoxy-beta-carboline (79.59%), linoleic acid (9.05%), delta-tocopherol (5.02%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (2.65%), benzene, 1,1-1,2 ethanediyl bis 3,4dimethyl (1.15%), anthraquinone (0.58%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (0.54%), palmitic acid (0.35%) and methyl stearate (0.18%) were present in the methanol extract of seeds. Major findings of this study, along with their relevance to developing effective, safe drugs, will be discussed in this presentation.

Keywords: medicinal plants, secondary metabolites, phytochemical screening, bioprospecting, radical scavenging

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891 Holly Ellen Smith, Gilbert Price, Yan Rizal, Jahdi Zaim, Mika Puspaningrum, Aswan -, Agus Trihascaryo, Mathew Stewart, Julien Louys

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy


Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

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890 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis


Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

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889 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe


Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

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888 Drug Therapy Problem and Its Contributing Factors among Pediatric Patients with Infectious Diseases Admitted to Jimma University Medical Center, South West Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

Authors: Desalegn Feyissa Desu


Drug therapy problem is a significant challenge to provide high quality health care service for the patients. It is associated with morbidity, mortality, increased hospital stay, and reduced quality of life. Moreover, pediatric patients are quite susceptible to drug therapy problems. Thus this study aimed to assess drug therapy problem and its contributing factors among pediatric patients diagnosed with infectious disease admitted to pediatric ward of Jimma university medical center, from April 1 to June 30, 2018. Prospective observational study was conducted among pediatric patients with infectious disease admitted from April 01 to June 30, 2018. Drug therapy problems were identified by using Cipolle’s and strand’s drug related problem classification method. Patient’s written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. Patient’s specific data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi data version 4.0.2 and then exported to statistical software package version 21.0 for analysis. To identify predictors of drug therapy problems occurrence, multiple stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was done. The 95% CI was used to show the accuracy of data analysis and statistical significance was considered at p-value < 0.05. A total of 304 pediatric patients were included in the study. Of these, 226(74.3%) patients had at least one drug therapy problem during their hospital stay. A total of 356 drug therapy problems were identified among two hundred twenty six patients. Non-compliance (28.65%) and dose too low (27.53%) were the most common type of drug related problems while disease comorbidity [AOR=3.39, 95% CI= (1.89-6.08)], Polypharmacy [AOR=3.16, 95% CI= (1.61-6.20)] and more than six days stay in hospital [AOR=3.37, 95% CI= (1.71-6.64) were independent predictors of drug therapy problem occurrence. Drug therapy problems were common in pediatric patients with infectious disease in the study area. Presence of comorbidity, polypharmacy and prolonged hospital stay were the predictors of drug therapy problem in study area. Therefore, to overcome the significant gaps in pediatric pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacists, Pediatricians, and other health care professionals have to work in collaboration.

Keywords: drug therapy problem, pediatric, infectious disease, Ethiopia

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887 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake, Anthony I. Okoh


Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: enterobacteriaceae, antibiotic-resistance, MALDI-TOF, resistance genes, MARP, MARI, public health

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886 Inhibitory Activity of Podospermum canum and Its Active Components on Collagenase, Elastase and Hyaluronidase Enzymes

Authors: Ozlem Bahadir Acikara, Mert Ilhan, Ekin Kurtul, Karel Smejkal, Esra Kupeli Akkol


Present study is aimed to investigate in vitro inhibitory effects of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Podospermum canum (Asteraceae) on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase enzymes using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of the extract, sub-extracts, fractions obtained by column chromatography, and isolated compounds on collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase were performed by using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assays based on spectrophotometric evaluation. The ethyl acetate and remaining water extracts prepared from the plant displayed significant inhibitory activities on collagenase and elastase, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts did not show any inhibitory activity. Eleven known compounds: arbutin, 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin, cichoriin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, procatechuic acid, and compound 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid 4-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranosyl) benzyl ester have been obtained from ethyl acetate sub-extract of the plant through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Results of the present study have revealed that among the isolated compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside and isoorientin showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities. However, methanolic extract of P. canum displayed a greater inhibitory activity than fractions and isolated compounds both on collagenase and elastase.

Keywords: Asteraceae, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, Podospermum canum

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885 Pharmacophore-Based Modeling of a Series of Human Glutaminyl Cyclase Inhibitors to Identify Lead Molecules by Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Ankur Chaudhuri, Sibani Sen Chakraborty


In human, glutaminyl cyclase activity is highly abundant in neuronal and secretory tissues and is preferentially restricted to hypothalamus and pituitary. The N-terminal modification of β-amyloids (Aβs) peptides by the generation of a pyro-glutamyl (pGlu) modified Aβs (pE-Aβs) is an important process in the initiation of the formation of neurotoxic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC). The expression of QC is characteristically up-regulated in the early stage of AD, and the hallmark of the inhibition of QC is the prevention of the formation of pE-Aβs and plaques. A computer-aided drug design (CADD) process was employed to give an idea for the designing of potentially active compounds to understand the inhibitory potency against human glutaminyl cyclase (QC). This work elaborates the ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore exploration of glutaminyl cyclase (QC) by using the known inhibitors. Three dimensional (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods were applied to 154 compounds with known IC50 values. All the inhibitors were divided into two sets, training-set, and test-sets. Generally, training-set was used to build the quantitative pharmacophore model based on the principle of structural diversity, whereas the test-set was employed to evaluate the predictive ability of the pharmacophore hypotheses. A chemical feature-based pharmacophore model was generated from the known 92 training-set compounds by HypoGen module implemented in Discovery Studio 2017 R2 software package. The best hypothesis was selected (Hypo1) based upon the highest correlation coefficient (0.8906), lowest total cost (463.72), and the lowest root mean square deviation (2.24Å) values. The highest correlation coefficient value indicates greater predictive activity of the hypothesis, whereas the lower root mean square deviation signifies a small deviation of experimental activity from the predicted one. The best pharmacophore model (Hypo1) of the candidate inhibitors predicted comprised four features: two hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and one hydrophobic feature. The Hypo1 was validated by several parameters such as test set activity prediction, cost analysis, Fischer's randomization test, leave-one-out method, and heat map of ligand profiler. The predicted features were then used for virtual screening of potential compounds from NCI, ASINEX, Maybridge and Chembridge databases. More than seven million compounds were used for this purpose. The hit compounds were filtered by drug-likeness and pharmacokinetics properties. The selective hits were docked to the high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the target protein glutaminyl cyclase (PDB ID: 2AFU/2AFW) to filter these hits further. To validate the molecular docking results, the most active compound from the dataset was selected as a reference molecule. From the density functional theory (DFT) study, ten molecules were selected based on their highest HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbitals) energy and the lowest bandgap values. Molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvation systems of the final ten hit compounds revealed that a large number of non-covalent interactions were formed with the binding site of the human glutaminyl cyclase. It was suggested that the hit compounds reported in this study could help in future designing of potent inhibitors as leads against human glutaminyl cyclase.

Keywords: glutaminyl cyclase, hit lead, pharmacophore model, simulation

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884 Development of Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Diabetes Management in Thailand and Lao People Democratic Republic

Authors: Phoutsathaphone Sibounheuang, Phayom Sookaneknun Olson, Chanuttha Ploylearmsang, Santiparp Sookaneknun, Chanthanom Manithip


Patient satisfaction is an outcome that can be measured and used to improve diabetes care and management. There are limited instruments for assessing patient satisfaction covering the whole process of diabetes management. In this study, the questionnaire was developed with items pooled from a systematic review of qualitative studies of patients’ and healthcare providers’ perspectives in diabetes management. The questionnaire consists of 11 domains with 45 items. The Thai version was translated to Lao and then checked by back-translating it into Thai. We tested the questionnaire on 150 diabetes patients in Thailand and 150 in Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR). Validity was performed by factor analysis and Pearson correlation. Internal consistency reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The study was approved by the Mahasarakham University Ethics Committee, and the National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Lao PDR. The Thai and Lao versions showed the construct validity by principal component analysis. This consisted of 11 domains which account for 71.23% of the variance (Thai version) and 71.66% of the variance (Lao version) in the total patient satisfaction scores. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures were 0.85 for the Thai version and 0.75 for the Lao version. The Bartlett tests of sphericity of both versions were significant (p < 0.001). The factor loadings of all items in both versions were > 0.40. The convergent validity of the Thai and Lao versions was 93.63% and 79.54% respectively. The discriminant validity for the Thai and Lao versions was 92.68% and 88.68% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 in both versions. The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) in both versions had acceptable properties. This study has yielded evidence supporting the validity and reliability of both versions.

Keywords: construct validity, diabetes management, patient satisfaction, questionnaire development, reliability

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883 Ethno-Botanical Survey on the Rare and Endangered Medicinal Plants of Poonch District (Jammu and Kashmir)

Authors: Shazia Shamim, Pallavi Gautam


The present study describes the presence of rare or endangered plants from Poonch Dist., which spread over 1674 Km sq. located between latitude 330 25' N to 340 01' N and longitude 730 58' E to 740 35' E forming a part of the Northwest Himalaya in Jammu and Kashmir state of India, with the aim of suggesting the strategy for the conservation and promotion of cultivation of rare and endangered medicinal plants, as well as developing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. The main threats to biodiversity and ecosystem are overexploitation, global climate change, habitat loss, fragmentation, pollution, and invasion of alien species and disturbance of community structure. Surveys were carried out during 2015-2016 throughout the Poonch valley. During the field survey, various criteria of International Union for the conservation of nature for categorizing threatened plants, extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, probability of extinction, etc. were measured. The rarity of species was determined by field study, visual estimations, and literature. During the collection, it was observed that few rare and endangered species which were present in the study area, are also mentioned in the prescribed red data book of Indian plants, International Union for conservation of nature, list of threatened species and list of Botanical Survey of India presented by its Northern Regional Centre. The study was based on extensive surveys of the study area and then concluded by preparing a list of plant species occurring in different seasons, the photographs of all these plant species were collected. Actual threats to the population of a selected plant species in a given area were recorded by direct observation. The present paper provides information about 22 rare and endangered medicinal plant species belonging to 18 families that are used by the native of these areas. Information provided includes botanical name, family name, local name, habitat, part used, ethno medicinal uses and brief preparation of the reported plant species is presented in the present work.

Keywords: biodiversity, traditional knowledge, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Botanical Survery of India

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882 Chemically Modified Chitosan Derivatives with Ameliorated Properties Appropriate for Drug Delivery

Authors: Georgia M. Michailidou, Nina-Maria S. Ainali, Eleftheria C. Xanthopoulou, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris


Polysaccharides are polymeric materials derived from nature. They are extensively used in pharmaceutical technology due to their low cost, their ready availability and their low toxicity. Chitosan is the product derived from the deacetylation of chitin usually obtained from arthropods. It is a linear polysaccharide which is composed of repeated units of N-deacetylated amino groups and some N-acetylated groups residues. Due to its excellent biological properties, it is an attractive natural polymer. It is biocompatible with low toxicity and complete biodegradability. Although it has excellent properties, the chemical modification of its structure results in new derivatives with ameliorated and more improved properties compared to the initial polymer. This is the exact purpose of the present study in which chitosan was modified with three different monomers, namely trans-aconitic acid, succinic anhydride and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. In chitosan’s modification with trans aconitic acid, EDC was utilized as an activator of the carboxylic groups of the monomer, and then a coupling reaction with the amino groups took place. Succinic anhydride reacted with chitosan through a ring opening reaction while 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate reacted through the addition of chitosan’s amino group to the double bond of the monomer. Through FTIR and NMR measurements the success of each reaction was confirmed, and the new structures of the derivatives were verified. X-ray diffraction was utilized in order to examine the effect of the modifications in chitosan’s crystallinity. Finally, swelling tests were conducted in order to assess the improved ability of the new polymeric materials to absorb water. Our results support the successful modification of chitosan’s macromolecular chains in all three reactions. Furthermore, the new derivatives appear to be amorphous concerning their crystallinity and have great ability in absorbing water.

Keywords: chitosan, derivatives, modification, polysaccharide

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881 Using Group Concept Mapping to Identify a Pharmacy-Based Trigger Tool to Detect Adverse Drug Events

Authors: Rodchares Hanrinth, Theerapong Srisil, Peeraya Sriphong, Pawich Paktipat


The trigger tool is the low-cost, low-tech method to detect adverse events through clues called triggers. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed the Global Trigger Tool for measuring and preventing adverse events. However, this tool is not specific for detecting adverse drug events. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is needed to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). Group concept mapping is an effective method for conceptualizing various ideas from diverse stakeholders. This technique was used to identify a pharmacy-based trigger to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). The aim of this study was to involve the pharmacists in conceptualizing, developing, and prioritizing a feasible trigger tool to detect adverse drug events in a provincial hospital, the northeastern part of Thailand. The study was conducted during the 6-month period between April 1 and September 30, 2017. Study participants involved 20 pharmacists (17 hospital pharmacists and 3 pharmacy lecturers) engaging in three concept mapping workshops. In this meeting, the concept mapping technique created by Trochim, a highly constructed qualitative group technic for idea generating and sharing, was used to produce and construct participants' views on what triggers were potential to detect ADEs. During the workshops, participants (n = 20) were asked to individually rate the feasibility and potentiality of each trigger and to group them into relevant categories to enable multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The outputs of analysis included the trigger list, cluster list, point map, point rating map, cluster map, and cluster rating map. The three workshops together resulted in 21 different triggers that were structured in a framework forming 5 clusters: drug allergy, drugs induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, potassium concerning, and drug overdose. The first cluster is drug allergy such as the doctor’s orders for dexamethasone injection combined with chlorpheniramine injection. Later, the diagnosis of drug-induced hepatitis in a patient taking anti-tuberculosis drugs is one trigger in the ‘drugs induced diseases’ cluster. Then, for the third cluster, the doctor’s orders for enalapril combined with ibuprofen in a patient with chronic kidney disease is the example of a trigger. The doctor’s orders for digoxin in a patient with hypokalemia is a trigger in a cluster. Finally, the doctor’s orders for naloxone with narcotic overdose was classified as a trigger in a cluster. This study generated triggers that are similar to some of IHI Global trigger tool, especially in the medication module such as drug allergy and drug overdose. However, there are some specific aspects of this tool, including drug-induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, and potassium concerning which do not contain in any trigger tools. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is suitable for pharmacists in hospitals to detect potential adverse drug events using clues of triggers.

Keywords: adverse drug events, concept mapping, hospital, pharmacy-based trigger tool

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880 Concept Mapping to Reach Consensus on an Antibiotic Smart Use Strategy Model to Promote and Support Appropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in a Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Phenphak Horadee, Rodchares Hanrinth, Saithip Suttiruksa


Inappropriate use of antibiotics has happened in several hospitals, Thailand. Drug use evaluation (DUE) is one strategy to overcome this difficulty. However, most community hospitals still encounter incomplete evaluation resulting overuse of antibiotics with high cost. Consequently, drug-resistant bacteria have been rising due to inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to involve stakeholders in conceptualizing, developing, and prioritizing a feasible intervention strategy to promote and support appropriate antibiotic prescribing in a community hospital, Thailand. Study antibiotics included four antibiotics such as Meropenem, Piperacillin/tazobactam, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and Vancomycin. The study was conducted for the 1-year period between March 1, 2018, and March 31, 2019, in a community hospital in the northeastern part of Thailand. Concept mapping was used in a purposive sample, including doctors (one was an administrator), pharmacists, and nurses who involving drug use evaluation of antibiotics. In-depth interviews for each participant and survey research were conducted to seek the problems for inappropriate use of antibiotics based on drug use evaluation system. Seventy-seven percent of DUE reported appropriate antibiotic prescribing, which still did not reach the goal of 80 percent appropriateness. Meropenem led other antibiotics for inappropriate prescribing. The causes of the unsuccessful DUE program were classified into three themes such as personnel, lack of public relation and communication, and unsupported policy and impractical regulations. During the first meeting, stakeholders (n = 21) expressed the generation of interventions. During the second meeting, participants who were almost the same group of people in the first meeting (n = 21) were requested to independently rate the feasibility and importance of each idea and to categorize them into relevant clusters to facilitate multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The outputs of analysis included the idealist, cluster list, point map, point rating map, cluster map, and cluster rating map. All of these were distributed to participants (n = 21) during the third meeting to reach consensus on an intervention model. The final proposed intervention strategy included 29 feasible and crucial interventions in seven clusters: development of information technology system, establishing policy and taking it into the action plan, proactive public relations of the policy, action plan and workflow, in cooperation of multidisciplinary teams in drug use evaluation, work review and evaluation with performance reporting, promoting and developing professional and clinical skill for staff with training programs, and developing practical drug use evaluation guideline for antibiotics. These interventions are relevant and fit to several intervention strategies for antibiotic stewardship program in many international organizations such as participation of the multidisciplinary team, developing information technology to support antibiotic smart use, and communication. These interventions were prioritized for implementation over a 1-year period. Once the possibility of each activity or plan is set up, the proposed program could be applied and integrated into hospital policy after evaluating plans. Effectiveness of each intervention could be promoted to other community hospitals to promote and support antibiotic smart use.

Keywords: antibiotic, concept mapping, drug use evaluation, multidisciplinary teams

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879 Healthcare Professionals' Perspectives on Warfarin Therapy at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR

Authors: Vanlounni Sibounheuang, Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Pattarin Kittiboonyakun, Chanthanom Manithip


In worldwide, one of the most common use of oral anticoagulant is warfarin. Its margin between therapeutic inhibition of clot formation and bleeding complications is narrow. Mahosot Hospital, warfarin clinic had not been established yet. The descriptive study was conducted by investigating drug-related problems of outpatients using warfarin, the value of the international normalized ratio (INR) higher than normal ranges (25.40 % of the total 272 outpatients) were mostly identified at Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. This result led to the present study conducting qualitative interviews in order to help establish a warfarin clinic at Mahosot Hospital for the better outcomes of patients using warfarin. The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives of healthcare professional providing services for outpatients using warfarin. The face to face, in-depth interviews were undertaken among nine healthcare professionals (doctor=3, nurse=3, pharmacist=3) working at out-patient clinic, Lao-Luxembourg Heart Centre, Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. The interview guides were developed, and they were validated by the experts in the fields of qualitative research. Each interview lasted approximately 20 minutes. Three major themes emerged; healthcare professional’s experiences of current practice problems with warfarin therapy, healthcare professionals’ views of medical problems related to patients using warfarin, and healthcare professionals’ perspectives on ways of service improvement. All healthcare professionals had the same views that it’s difficult to achieve INR goal for individual patients because of some important patient barriers especially lack of knowledge about to use warfarin properly and safety, patients not regularly follow-up due to problems with transportations and financial support. Doctors and nurses agreed to have a pharmacist running a routine warfarin clinic and provided counselling to individual patients on the following points: how to take drug properly and safety, drug-drug and food-drug interactions, common side effects and how to manage them, lifestyle modifications. From the interviews, some important components of the establishment of a warfarin clinic included financial support, increased human resources, improved the system of keeping patients’ medical records, short course training for pharmacists. This study indicated the acceptance of healthcare professionals on the important roles of pharmacists and the feasibility of setting up warfarin clinic by working together with the multidisciplinary health care team in order to help improve health outcomes of patients using warfarin at Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR.

Keywords: perspectives, healthcare professional, warfarin therapy, Mahosot Hospital

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878 Method for Improving Antidepressants Adherence in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Kanokporn Meelap, Kwanchanok Kruthakool


Depression is a common mental health disorder. Antidepressants are effective pharmacological treatments, but most patients have low medication adherence. This study aims to systematic review and meta-analysis what method increase the antidepressants adherence efficiently and improve clinical outcome. Systematic review of articles of randomized controlled trials obtained by a computerized literature search of The Cochrane, Library, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Education search, Web of Science and ThaiLIS (28 December 2017). Twenty-three studies were included and assessed the quality of research by ROB 2.0. The results reported that printing media improved in number of people who had medication adherence statistical significantly (p= 0.018), but education, phone call, and program utilization were no different (p=0.172, p=0.127, p=0.659). There was no significant difference in pharmacist’s group, health care team’s group and physician’s group (p=0.329, p=0.070, p=0.040). Times of intervention at 1 month and 6 months improved medication adherence significantly (p= 0.0001, p=0.013). There was significantly improved adherence in single intervention (p=0.027) but no different in multiple interventions (p=0.154). When we analyzed medication adherence with the mean score, no improved adherence was found, not relevant with who gives the intervention and times to intervention. However, the multiple interventions group was statistically significant improved medication adherence (p=0.040). Phone call and the physician’s group were statistically significant improved clinical outcomes in number of improved patients (0.025 and 0.020, respectively). But in the pharmacist’s group and physician’s group were not found difference in the mean score of clinical outcomes (p=0.993, p=0.120, respectively). Times to intervention and number of intervention were not significant difference than usual care. The overall intervention can increase antidepressant adherence, especially the printing media, and the appropriate timing of the intervention is at least 6 months. For effective treatment, the provider should have experience and expert in caring for patients with depressive disorders, such as a psychiatrist. Medical personnel should have knowledge in caring for these patients also.

Keywords: depression, medication adherence, clinical outcomes, systematic review, meta-analysis

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877 Efficacy and Safety of Eucalyptus for Relief Cough Symptom: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Ladda Her, Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk


Cough is the common symptom of the respiratory tract infections or non-infections; the duration of cough indicates a classification and severity of disease. Herbal medicines can be used as the alternative to drugs for relief of cough symptoms from acute and chronic disease. Eucalyptus was used for reducing cough with evidences suggesting it has an active role in reduction of airway inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for relief of cough symptom in respiratory disease. Method: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, CINAHL, Springer, Science direct, ProQuest, and THAILIS databases. From its inception until 01/02/2019 for randomized control trials. We follow for the efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for reducing cough. Methodological quality was evaluated by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; two reviewers in our team screened eligibility and extracted data. Result: Six studies were included for the review and five studies were included in the meta-analysis, there were 1.911 persons including children (n: 1) and adult (n: 5) studies; for study in children and adult were between 1 and 80 years old, respectively. Eucalyptus was used as mono herb (n: 2) and in combination with other herbs form (n: 4). All of the studies with eucalyptus were compared for efficacy and safety with placebo or standard treatment, Eucalyptus dosage form in studies included capsules, spray, and syrup. Heterogeneity was 32.44 used random effect model (I² = 1.2%, χ² = 1.01; P-value = 0.314). The efficacy of eucalyptus was showed a reduced cough symptom statistically significant (n = 402, RR: 1.40, 95%CI [1.19, 1.65], P-value < 0.0001) when compared with placebo. Adverse events (AEs) were reported mild to moderate intensity with mostly gastrointestinal symptom. The methodological quality of the included trials was overall poor. Conclusion: Eucalyptus appears to be beneficial and safe for relieving in respiratory diseases focus on cough frequency. The evidence was inconclusive due to limited quality trial. Well-designed trials for evaluating the effectiveness in humans, the effectiveness for reducing cough symptom in human is needed. Eucalyptus had safety as monotherapy or in combination with other herbs.

Keywords: cough, eucalyptus, cineole, herbal medicine, systematic review, meta-analysis

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876 Designing, Preparation and Structural Evaluation of Co-Crystals of Oxaprozin

Authors: Maninderjeet K. Grewal, Sakshi Bhatnor, Renu Chadha


The composition of pharmaceutical entities and the molecular interactions can be altered to optimize drug properties such as solubility and bioavailability by the crystal engineering technique. The present work has emphasized on the preparation, characterization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of co-crystal of BCS Class II anti-osteoarthritis drug, Oxaprozin (OXA) with aspartic acid (ASPA) as co-former. The co-crystals were prepared through the mechanochemical solvent drop grinding method. Characterization of the prepared co-crystal (OXA-ASPA) was done by using analytical tools such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermogram of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a single sharp melting endotherm at 235 ºC, which was between the melting peaks of the drug and the counter molecules suggesting the formation of a new phase which is a co-crystal that was further confirmed by using other analytical techniques. FT-IR analysis of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a shift in a hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amine peaks as compared to pure drugs indicating all these functional groups are participating in cocrystal formation. The appearance of new peaks in the PXRD pattern of cocrystals in comparison to individual components showed that a new crystalline entity has been formed. The Crystal structure of cocrystal was determined using material studio software (Biovia) from PXRD. The equilibrium solubility study of OXA-ASPA showed improvement in solubility as compared to pure drug. Therefore, it was envisioned to prepare the co-crystal of oxaprozin with a suitable conformer to modulate its physiochemical properties and consequently, the biopharmaceutical parameters.

Keywords: cocrystals, coformer, oxaprozin, solubility

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875 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Richa Shri, Varinder Singh, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot, Rahul Kumar, Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur


The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Allium cepa, antioxidant activity, flavonoid rich fraction, neuroprotection

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874 Green Extraction Technologies of Flavonoids Containing Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Lamzira Ebralidze, Aleksandre Tsertsvadze, Dali Berashvili, Aliosha Bakuridze


Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for biologically active substances from vegetable, animal, and mineral resources. In terms of the use of natural compounds, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and nutrition industry has big interest. The biggest drawback of conventional extraction methods is the need to use a large volume of organic extragents. The removal of the organic solvent is a multi-stage process. And their absolute removal cannot be achieved, and they still appear in the final product as impurities. A large amount of waste containing organic solvent damages not only human health but also has the harmful effects of the environment. Accordingly, researchers are focused on improving the extraction methods, which aims to minimize the use of organic solvents and energy sources, using alternate solvents and renewable raw materials. In this context, green extraction principles were formed. Green Extraction is a need of today’s environment. Green Extraction is the concept, and it totally corresponds to the challenges of the 21st century. The extraction of biologically active compounds based on green extraction principles is vital from the view of preservation and maintaining biodiversity. Novel technologies of green extraction are known, such as "cold methods" because during the extraction process, the temperature is relatively lower, and it doesn’t have a negative impact on the stability of plant compounds. Novel technologies provide great opportunities to reduce or replace the use of organic toxic solvents, the efficiency of the process, enhance excretion yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The objective of the research is the development of green technologies of flavonoids containing preparations. Methodology: At the first stage of the research, flavonoids containing preparations (Tincture Herba Leonuri, flamine, rutine) were prepared based on conventional extraction methods: maceration, bismaceration, percolation, repercolation. At the same time, the same preparations were prepared based on green technologies, microwave-assisted, UV extraction methods. Product quality characteristics were evaluated by pharmacopeia methods. At the next stage of the research technological - economic characteristics and cost efficiency of products prepared based on conventional and novel technologies were determined. For the extraction of flavonoids, water is used as extragent. Surface-active substances are used as co-solvent in order to reduce surface tension, which significantly increases the solubility of polyphenols in water. Different concentrations of water-glycerol mixture, cyclodextrin, ionic solvent were used for the extraction process. In vitro antioxidant activity will be studied by the spectrophotometric method, using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) as an antioxidant assay. The advantage of green extraction methods is also the possibility of obtaining higher yield in case of low temperature, limitation extraction process of undesirable compounds. That is especially important for the extraction of thermosensitive compounds and maintaining their stability.

Keywords: extraction, green technologies, natural resources, flavonoids

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873 A Study on the Chemical Composition of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids to Evaluate the Perspective of Use in Medical Practice

Authors: Al. Tsertsvadze. L. Ebralidze, I. Matchutadze. D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze


Peatlands are landscape elements, they are formed over a very long period by physical, chemical, biologic, and geologic processes. In the moderate zone of Caucasus, the Kolkheti lowlands are distinguished by the diversity of relictual plants, a high degree of endemism, orographic, climate, landscape, and other characteristics of high levels of biodiversity. The unique properties of the Kolkheti region lead to the formation of special, so-called, endemic peat peloids. The composition and properties of peloids strongly depend on peat-forming plants. Peat is considered a unique complex of raw materials, which can be used in different fields of the industry: agriculture, metallurgy, energy, biotechnology, chemical industry, health care. They are formed in permanent wetland areas. As a result of decay, higher plants remain in the anaerobic area, with the participation of microorganisms. Peat mass absorbs soil and groundwater. Peloids are predominantly rich with humic substances, which are characterized by high biological activity. Humic acids stimulate enzymatic activity, regenerative processes, and have anti-inflammatory activity. Objects of the research were Kolkheti peat peloids (Ispani, Anaklia, Churia, Chirukhi, Peranga) possessing different formation phases. Due to specific physical and chemical properties of research objects, the aim of the research was to develop analytical methods in order to study the chemical composition of the objects. The research was held using modern instrumental methods of analysis: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Centrifuge, dry oven, Ultraturax, pH meter, fluorescence spectrometer, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Gas chromatography. Based on the research ration between organic and inorganic substances, the spectrum of micro and macro elements, also the content of minerals was determined. The content of organic nitrogen was determined using the Kjeldahl method. The total composition of amino acids was studied by a spectrophotometric method using standard solutions of glutamic and aspartic acids. Fatty acid was determined using GC (Gas chromatography). Based on the obtained results, we can conclude that the method is valid to identify fatty acids in the research objects. The content of organic substances in the research objects was held using GC-MS. Using modern instrumental methods of analysis, the chemical composition of research objects was studied. Each research object is predominantly reached with a broad spectrum of organic (fatty acids, amino acids, carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds, organic acids and their esters, steroids) and inorganic (micro and macro elements, minerals) substances. Modified methods used in the presented research may be utilized for the evaluation of cosmetological balneological and pharmaceutical means prepared on the base of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids.

Keywords: modern analytical methods, natural resources, peat, chemistry

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872 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih


Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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871 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola


The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stress

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