Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4202

Search results for: international standards

4202 Development of Risk-Based Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Risk Assessment Procedures Harmonized with International Approaches

Authors: Nina V. Zaitseva, Pavel Z. Shur, Nina G. Atiskova

Abstract:

Nowadays harmonization of sanitary and hygienic standards of environmental quality with international standards is crucial part of integration of Russia into the international community. Harmonization of Russian and international ambient air quality standards may be realized by risk-based standards development. In this paper approaches to risk-based standards development and examples of these approaches implementation are presented.

Keywords: harmonization, health risk assessment, evolutionary modelling, benchmark level, nickel, manganese

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
4201 UK GAAP and IFRS Standards: Similarities and Differences

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

This paper aimed to help researchers and international companies to the differences and similarities between IFRS (International financial reporting standards) and UK GAAP or UK accounting principles, and to the accounting changes between standard setting of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Accounting Standards Board in United Kingdom. We will use in this study statistical methods to calculate similarities and difference frequencies between the UK standards and IFRS standards, according to the PricewaterhouseCoopers report in 2005. We will use the one simple test to confirm or refuse our hypothesis. In conclusion, we found that the gap between UK GAAP and IFRS is small.

Keywords: accounting, UK GAAP, IFRS, similarities, differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
4200 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

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This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

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4199 Accounting Policies in Polish and International Legal Regulations

Authors: Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto, Grazyna Voss

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Accounting policies are a set of solutions compliant with legal regulations that an entity selects and adopts, and which guarantee a proper quality of financial statements. Those solutions may differ depending on whether the entity adopts national or international accounting standards. The aim of this article is to present accounting principles (policies) in Polish and international legal regulations and their adoption in selected Polish companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The research method adopted in this work is the analysis and evaluation of legal conditions in Polish companies.

Keywords: accounting policies, international financial reporting standards, financial statement, method of measuring

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4198 An Empirical Study of the International Financial Reporting Standards Education in the United States

Authors: Angela McCaskill

Abstract:

Accounting graduates in most United States universities are not being adequately taught International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). As such they are not prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to remain competitive in international businesses. One of the reasons behind the ill preparation is the lack of specific international accounting instruction available in the U.S. This paper explores the importance of IFRS education through the lenses of graduate accounting majors. The paper specifically explores graduate accounting major’s preparedness in IFRS based on their recent completion of a Master in Accountancy degree where IFRS had been integrated. The data for the study was collected via face-to face and telephone/Skype interviews and questionnaires. After the interview the participants also agreed to answer two supplementary questions. The participants were to determine the amounts that should be reported on the balance sheet under (1) IFRS and (2) U.S. GAAP. These questions intended to test their knowledge of both sets of standards. The sample consisted of on-line and brick and mortar university students enrolled in their graduate program during the period from spring semester 2016 to summer semester 2016. This study shows that a separate course should be devoted to teaching IFRS and convergence related issues. There is a direct correlation between the knowledge level of those students taking an IFRS course and the successful completion of the supplementary questions compared to those who only had IFRS instruction mixed into their U.S. GAAP based instruction. Students who took an international accounting course were better prepared for the IFRS conversion than those who did not have a separate course. Academically, universities need to take a deeper look into the needs of their students and do better at incorporating international standards in their curriculum.

Keywords: accounting education, global accounting standards, international accounting, IFRS and U.S. GAAP convergence, IFRS, U.S. GAAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
4197 New Formula for Revenue Recognition Likely to Change the Prescription for Pharma Industry

Authors: Shruti Hajirnis

Abstract:

In May 2014, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers that will supersede virtually all revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. FASB and the IASB have basically achieved convergence with these standards, with only some minor differences such as collectability threshold, interim disclosure requirements, early application and effective date, impairment loss reversal and nonpublic entity requirements. This paper discusses the impact of five-step model prescribed in new revenue standard on the entities operating in Pharma industry. It also outlines the considerations for these entities while implementing the new standard.

Keywords: revenue recognition, pharma industry, standard, requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
4196 Corporate Social Responsibility and the Legal Framework of Foreign Direct Investment: Time for Conceptual Innovation

Authors: Agata Ferreira

Abstract:

Rapidly increasing debates and initiatives in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (“CSR”) have reached the world of international investment law. CSR standards that focus on the operations of multinational companies are increasingly relevant in the context of international investment policy making. In the past, the connection between CSR standards and legal framework for foreign direct investment has been largely non-existent. Recently, however, there is a growing trend of a more balance approach to rights and obligations as between investors and states under investment treaties. CSR principles join other social and environmental measures slowly being included in the investment treaties to enhance their sustainable development dimension. Issues of CSR are present on negotiation tables of new mega regional investment treaties like TTIP for example. To date, only a very few bilateral investment treaties and a handful of other international treaties with investment provisions include CSR clauses. In addition, the existing provisions tend to be of a soft type, where parties merely acknowledge importance of good corporate governance and CSR for sustainable development or generally affirm their aim to encourage enterprises to observe internationally recognised guidelines and principles of CSR. The relevant provisions often leave it up to the states to encourage enterprises operating within their territories to voluntarily incorporate CSR principles. The interaction between general non-binding CSR standards, domestic laws and policies and provisions of international investment treaties have not been tested by investment tribunals yet. The role of investment treaties in raising awareness and promoting CSR is still in its infancy. The use of CSR standards in the international investment protection regime for promotion of CSR standards, and as a tool for disciplining investors into complying with such standards, pose a number of questions and is met with resistance from investors` lobbies. Integration of these two areas, CSR and international investment law, both consisting of multilayered, diverse and often overlapping instruments is by no means an easy task. Whether international investment world is ready to embrace CSR standards or shrug them off is a matter of uncertain future. The subject however has been raised, first introductions have been made and the time will show whether the relationship between legal framework of international investment and CSR will flourish or remain dormant.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, foreign direct investment, investment treaties, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
4195 The Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility in the Philippines: Balancing International Standards and Domestic Concerns

Authors: Harold P. Pareja

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This paper answers the question whether the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) as amended by Republic Act No. 10630 should be lowered to 15 years of age or not in the light of international standards and domestic concerns both of which will definitely elicit strong views. It also explores the specific provision on the minimum age of criminal responsibility under the Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice Act) and traces the bases of such law by discussing its presented evidences and justifications as reflected in the records of proceedings in the law-making phase. On one hand, the paper discusses the impact of lowering the minimum age to the state of juvenile delinquencies and to the rate of rehabilitation for those CICL who have undergone the DSWD-supervised recovery programs. On the other hand, it presents its impact to the international community specifically to the Committee of the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF considering that the even the current minimum age set in RA 9344 is lower than the international standards. Document review and content analysis are the major research tools. Primary and secondary sources were used as references such as Philippine laws on juvenile justice and from the different states international think-tanks. The absence of reliable evidences on criminal capacity made the arguments in increasing the MACR in the harder position. Studies on criminal capacity vary from different countries and from practitioners in in the fields of psychology, psychiatry and forensics. Juvenile delinquency is mainly contributed by poverty and dysfunctional families. On the other hand, the science of the criminal mind specifically among children has not been established yet. Philippines have the legal obligations to be faithful to the CRC and other related international instruments for the juvenile justice and welfare system. Decreasing MACR does not only send wrong message to the international community but the Philippines is violating its own laws.

Keywords: juvenile justice, minimum age of responsibility (MAR), juvenile justice act of the Philippines, children in conflict with the law, international standards on juvenile justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4194 Role of International Organizations towards Good Governance: Recent Trends

Authors: E. Prema Shyam

Abstract:

The role of international organizations has contributed in various ways for the good governance in the world at large. Since the beginning of the 1990s international organizations, particularly those active in the areas of human rights, trade and economic etc., have embraced a 'good governance'. It is also pertinent to mention that the application of the concept of good governance to international organizations themselves and not exclusively to national or regional polities is a more recent phenomenon. Especially since the second half of the 1990s, a number of international organizations have carried out major governance reforms, assuming that their calls for governments to heed higher standards of good governance will be all the more credible provided that they develop a good governance standard for themselves. In addition to this number of organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross and World Trade Organization (WTO). OECD has been specifically mobilized to fight corruption. The World Bank was the first international organization to address the issue of good governance when it attributed the African development crisis to a crisis of governance in a 1989 report. International organizations are often denounced for their lack of transparency and democracy. However, in the last few years, a number of them have pushed through impressive reforms aimed at enhancing good governance standards within their own organizations, especially in the light of their long-standing secrecy. This is a remnant of the traditional conception of international organizations, which renders them merely answerable to their Members. International organizations have already gone quite some way in the areas of good management and opening up to the public. However, as far as participatory governance is concerned, lot to be done for the larger interest of society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus the issues on international organisations with regard to good governance.

Keywords: good governance, World Trade Organisation, international organisation, governance reforms

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4193 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
4192 The Opportunities and Challenges of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards in Saudi Capital Market

Authors: Abdullah Almulhim

Abstract:

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) was established in 2001 to develop International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that bring transparency, accountability, and efficiency to financial markets around the world. In addition, the IFRS provide a unified accounting language, which is especially important in the era of globalization. However, the establishment of a single set of high-quality international accounting standards is a matter of growing importance, as participants in the increasingly integrated world capital market demand comparability and transparency of financial reporting worldwide. Saudi Arabia became the 149th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2005, which has increased the need to convert to IFRS. Currently, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) requires banks and insurance companies in Saudi Arabia to report under IFRS Standards. However, until the end of 2016, SOCPA standards were applied to all other companies, listed and unlisted. From 2017, listed Saudi companies would be required to report under IFRS Standards as adopted by SOCPA effective 2017. This paper is to investigate the expected benefits gained and highlight the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were used as the main method of data collection. They were distributed to listed companies in the Saudi Capital Market. Data obtained through the questionnaires have been imported into SPSS statistical software for analysis. The expected results of this study will show the benefits of adopting IFRS by Saudi Listed Companies. However, this study will investigate the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Market. Findings will be discussed later upon completion of initial analysis.

Keywords: challenges, IAS, IFRS, opportunities, Saudi, SOCPA

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4191 Importance of Standards in Engineering and Technology Education

Authors: Ahmed S. Khan, Amin Karim

Abstract:

During the past several decades, the economy of each nation has been significantly affected by globalization and technology. Government regulations and private sector standards affect a majority of world trade. Countries have been working together to establish international standards in almost every field. As a result, workers in all sectors need to have an understanding of standards. Engineering and technology students must not only possess an understanding of engineering standards and applicable government codes, but also learn to apply them in designing, developing, testing and servicing products, processes and systems. Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET) criteria for engineering and technology education require students to learn and apply standards in their class projects. This paper is a follow-up of a 2006-2009 NSF initiative awarded to IEEE to help develop tutorials and case study modules for students and encourage standards education at college campuses. It presents the findings of a faculty/institution survey conducted through various U.S.-based listservs representing the major engineering and technology disciplines. The intent of the survey was to the gauge the status of use of standards and regulations in engineering and technology coursework and to identify benchmark practices. In light of survey findings, recommendations are made to standards development organizations, industry, and academia to help enhance the use of standards in engineering and technology curricula.

Keywords: standards, regulations, ABET, IEEE, engineering, technology curricula

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
4190 Compliance with the Health and Safety Standards/Regulations in the South African Mining Industry: A Literature Review

Authors: Livhuwani Muthelo, Tebogo Maria Mothiba, Rambelani Nancy Malema

Abstract:

Background: Despite occupational legislation/standards being in place in the industry, there are many reported health and safety incidents, including both occupational injuries and illnesses in the South African mining industry. Purpose: This systematic literature review aimed to describe and identify the existing gaps in health and safety compliance within the South African mining industry and propose future research areas. Methodology: A systematic literature review was conducted using the key concepts of health and safety, compliance, standards, and mining. A total of 102 papers issued from 1994 to April 2020 were extracted from an online database search, which included a combination of South African and international government OHS legislation documents, policies, standards, reports from the mineral departments and international labour office, qualitative and quantitative journal articles, dissertations, seminars and conference proceedings. Results: The literature review revealed that, though there are laws, regulations, standards to guide the industry on health and safety issues in South Africa, the main challenge is with the compliance with the existing health and safety systems, wherein systems are not being implemented. Conclusion: Gaps between research, policy, and implementation in occupational health practice in the South African mining industry were also identified.

Keywords: circumstances, non-compliance, health and safety, standards, mining industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
4189 Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry

Authors: Sushil Kumar Solanki, Rachna Khare

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Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.

Keywords: accessibility, building standard, built-environment, universal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4188 Victims and Violators: Open Source Information, Admissibility Standards, and War Crimes Investigations in Iraq and Syria

Authors: Genevieve Zingg

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Modern technology and social media platforms have fundamentally altered the nature of war crimes investigations by providing new forms of data, evidence, and documentation, and pose a unique opportunity to expand the efficacy of international law. However, much of the open source information available is deemed inadmissible in subsequent legal proceedings and fails to function as evidence largely due to issues of reliability and verifiability. Focusing on current judicial investigations related to ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq, this paper will examine key challenges and opportunities for the effective use of open source information in securing justice. This paper will consider strategies and approaches that can be used to ensure that information collected by affected populations meets basic admissibility standards. This paper argues that the critical failure to equip civilian populations in conflict zones with knowledge and information regarding established admissibility standards and guidelines both jeopardizes the potential of open source information and compromises the ability of victims to participate effectively in justice and accountability processes. The ultimate purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine how to maximize the value of open source information based on the rules of evidence in international, regional, and national courts, and how to maximize the participation of affected populations in holding their abusers to account.

Keywords: human rights, international criminal law, international justice, international law, Iraq, open source information, social media, Syria, transitional justice, war crimes

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4187 Subsidiary Strategy and Importance of Standards: Re-Interpreting the Integration-Responsiveness Framework

Authors: Jo-Ann Müller

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The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework presents four distinct internationalization strategies which differ depending on the extent of pressure the company faces for local responsiveness and global integration. This study applies the framework to standards by examining differences in the relative importance of three types of standards depending on the role the subsidiary plays within the corporate group. Hypotheses are tested empirically in a two-stage procedure. First, the subsidiaries are grouped performing cluster analysis. In the second step, the relationship between cluster affiliation and subsidiary strategy is tested using multinomial Probit estimation. While the level of local responsiveness of a firm relates to the relative importance of national and international formal standards, the degree of vertical integration is associated with the application of internal company.

Keywords: FDI, firm-level data, standards, subsidiary strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
4186 The International Fight against the Financing of Terrorism: Analysis of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating Financing of Terrorism Regime

Authors: Loukou Amoin Marie Djedri

Abstract:

Financing is important for all terrorists – from the largest organizations in control of territories, to the smallest groups – not only for spreading fear through attacks, but also to finance the expansion of terrorist dogmas. These organizations pose serious threats to the international community. The disruption of terrorist financing aims to create a hostile environment for the growth of terrorism and to limit considerably the terrorist groups capacities. The World Bank (WB), together with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), decided to include in their scope the Fight against the money laundering and the financing of terrorism, in order to assist Member States in protecting their internal financial system from terrorism use and abuse and reinforcing their legal system. To do so, they have adopted the Anti-Money Laundering /Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) standards that have been set up by the Financial Action Task Force. This set of standards, recognized as the international standards for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism, has to be implemented by States Members in order to strengthen their judicial system and relevant national institutions. However, we noted that, to date, some States Members still have significant AML/CFT deficiencies, which can constitute serious threats not only to the country’s economic stability but also for the global financial system. In addition, studies stressed out that repressive measures are more implemented by countries than preventive measures, which could be an important weakness in a state security system. Furthermore, we noticed that the AML/CFT standards evolve slowly, while techniques used by terrorist networks keep developing. The goal of the study is to show how to enhance the AML/CFT global compliance through the work of the IMF and the WB, to help member states to consolidate their financial system. To encourage and ensure the effectiveness of these standards, a methodology for assessing the compliance with the AML/CFT standards has been created to follow up the concrete implementation of these standards and to provide accurate technical assistance to countries in need. A risk-based approach has also been adopted as a key component of the implementation of the AML/CFT Standards, with the aim of strengthening the efficiency of the standards. Instead, we noted that the assessment is not efficient in the process of enhancing AML/CFT measures because it seems to lack of adaptation to the country situation. In other words, internal and external factors are not enough taken into account in a country assessment program. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the AML/CFT regime in the fight against the financing of terrorism and to find lasting solutions to achieve the global AML/CFT compliance. The work of all the organizations involved in this combat is imperative to protect the financial network and to lead to the disintegration of terrorist groups in the future.

Keywords: AML/CFT standards, financing of terrorism, international financial institutions, risk-based approach

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4185 Engaging the World Bank: Good Governance and Human Rights-Based Approaches

Authors: Lottie Lane

Abstract:

It is habitually assumed and stated that the World Bank should engage and comply with international human rights standards. However, the basis for holding the Bank to such standards is unclear. Most advocates of the idea invoke aspects of international law to argue that the Bank has existing obligations to act in compliance with human rights standards. The Bank itself, however, does not appear to accept such arguments, despite having endorsed the importance of human rights for a considerable length of time. A substantial challenge is that under the current international human rights law framework, the World Bank is considered a non-state actor, and as such, has no direct human rights obligations. In the absence of clear legal duties for the Bank, it is necessary to look at the tools available beyond the international human rights framework to encourage the Bank to comply with human rights standards. This article critically examines several bases for arguing that the Bank should comply and engage with human rights through its policies and practices. Drawing on the Bank’s own ‘good governance’ approach as well as the United Nations’ ‘human rights-based-approach’ to development, a new basis is suggested. First, the relationship between the World Bank and human rights is examined. Three perspectives are considered: (1) the legal position – what the status of the World Bank is under international human rights law, and whether it can be said to have existing legal human rights obligations; (2) the Bank’s own official position – how the Bank envisages its relationship with and role in the protection of human rights; and (3) the relationship between the Bank’s policies and practices and human rights (including how its attitudes are reflected in its policies and how the Bank’s operations impact human rights enjoyment in practice). Here, the article focuses on two examples – the (revised) 2016 Environmental and Social Safeguard Policies and the 2012 case-study regarding Gambella, Ethiopia. Both examples are widely considered missed opportunities for the Bank to actively engage with human rights. The analysis shows that however much pressure is placed on the Bank to improve its human rights footprint, it is extremely reluctant to do so explicitly, and the legal bases available are insufficient for requiring concrete, ex ante action by the Bank. Instead, the Bank’s own ‘good governance’ approach to development – which it has been advocating since the 1990s – can be relied upon. ‘Good governance’ has been used and applied by many actors in many contexts, receiving numerous different definitions. This article argues that human rights protection can now be considered a crucial component of good governance, at least in the context of development. In doing so, the article explains the relationship and interdependence between the two concepts, and provides three rationales for the Bank to take a ‘human rights-based approach’ to good governance. Ultimately, this article seeks to look beyond international human rights law and take a governance approach to provide a convincing basis upon which to argue that the World Bank should comply with human rights standards.

Keywords: World Bank, international human rights law, good governance, human rights-based approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
4184 International Comparative Study of International Financial Reporting Standards Adoption and Earnings Quality: Effects of Differences in Accounting Standards, Industry Category, and Country Characteristics

Authors: Ichiro Mukai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether firms applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), provide high-quality and comparable earnings information that is useful for decision making of information users relative to firms applying local Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Focus is placed on the earnings quality of listed firms in several developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). Except for Japan and the US, the adoption of IFRS is mandatory for listed firms in these countries. In Japan, the application of IFRS is allowed for specific listed firms. In the US, the foreign firms listed on the US securities market are permitted to apply IFRS but the listed domestic firms are prohibited from doing so. In this paper, the differences in earnings quality are compared between firms applying local GAAP and those applying IFRS in each country and industry category, and the reasons of differences in earnings quality are analyzed using various factors. The results show that, although the earnings quality of firms applying IFRS is higher than that of firms applying local GAAP, this varies with country and industry category. Thus, even if a single set of global accounting standards is used for all listed firms worldwide, it is difficult to establish comparability of financial information among global firms. These findings imply that various circumstances surrounding firms, industries, and countries etc. influence business operations and affect the differences in earnings quality.

Keywords: accruals, earnings quality, IFRS, information comparability

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4183 Issues of Accounting of Lease and Revenue according to International Financial Reporting Standards

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze, Elena Kharabadze

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It is broadly known that lease is a flexible means of funding enterprises. Lease reduces the risk related to access and possession of assets, as well as obtainment of funding. Therefore, it is important to refine lease accounting. The lease accounting regulations under the applicable standard (International Accounting Standards 17) make concealment of liabilities possible. As a result, the information users get inaccurate and incomprehensive information and have to resort to an additional assessment of the off-balance sheet lease liabilities. In order to address the problem, the International Financial Reporting Standards Board decided to change the approach to lease accounting. With the deficiencies of the applicable standard taken into account, the new standard (IFRS 16 ‘Leases’) aims at supplying appropriate and fair lease-related information to the users. Save certain exclusions; the lessee is obliged to recognize all the lease agreements in its financial report. The approach was determined by the fact that under the lease agreement, rights and obligations arise by way of assets and liabilities. Immediately upon conclusion of the lease agreement, the lessee takes an asset into its disposal and assumes the obligation to effect the lease-related payments in order to meet the recognition criteria defined by the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. The payments are to be entered into the financial report. The new lease accounting standard secures supply of quality and comparable information to the financial information users. The International Accounting Standards Board and the US Financial Accounting Standards Board jointly developed IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’. The standard allows the establishment of detailed revenue recognition practical criteria such as identification of the performance obligations in the contract, determination of the transaction price and its components, especially price variable considerations and other important components, as well as passage of control over the asset to the customer. IFRS 15: ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers’ is very similar to the relevant US standards and includes requirements more specific and consistent than those of the standards in place. The new standard is going to change the recognition terms and techniques in the industries, such as construction, telecommunications (mobile and cable networks), licensing (media, science, franchising), real property, software etc.

Keywords: assessment of the lease assets and liabilities, contractual liability, division of contract, identification of contracts, contract price, lease identification, lease liabilities, off-balance sheet, transaction value

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4182 Evaluation of JCI Accreditation for Medical Technology in Saudi Arabian Hospitals: A Study Case of PSMMC

Authors: Hamad Albadr

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Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation process intent to improve the safety and quality of care in the international community through the provision of education, publications, consultation, and evaluation services. These standards apply to the entire organization as well as to each department, unit, or service within the organization. Medical Technology that contains both medical equipment and devices, is an essential part of health care. Appropriate management of equipment maintenance for ensuring medical technology safe, the equipment life is maximized, and the total costs are minimized. JCI medical technology evaluation and accreditation use standards, intents, and measurable elements. The paper focuses on evaluation of JCI standards for medical technology in Saudi Arabian hospitals: a Study Case of PSMMC that define the performance expectation, structures, or functions that must be in place for a hospital to be accredited by JCI through measurable elements that indicate a score during the survey process that identify the requirements for full compliance with the standard specially through Facility Management and Safety (FMS) section that require the hospital establishes and implements a program for inspecting, testing, and maintaining medical technology and documenting the results, to ensure that medical technology is available for use and functioning properly, the hospital performs and documents; an inventory of medical technology; regular inspections of medical technology; testing of medical technology according to its use and manufacturers’ requirements; and performance of preventive maintenance.

Keywords: joint commission international (JCI) accreditation, medical technology, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian hospitals

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4181 Defence Diplomacy and Collective Security in Africa: Case of Rwanda Defence Forces

Authors: Emmanuel Mugiraneza

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Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to pursue international collective security through different mechanisms. This paper shows that with an intent of promoting international collective security, Rwanda has constituted its defense diplomacy policy in three standpoints. First, Rwanda has formed strategic cooperation alliances with state actors, regional and international Organizations that enables her to participate in and promote international collective peace, security and cooperation. Secondary, Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to foster cooperation in to pre-empt, minimize and neutralize potential triggers that would lead to the outbreak of international conflict. Thirdly, Rwanda implements defence diplomacy policy strategy through internationally recognized operational and tactical standards while dispelling hostilities, assisting the friendly nation’s forces and or building and maintaining public confidence and trust in the areas where Rwanda Defence Force deploys for peacekeeping missions in Sudan, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Mozambique for a counterterrorism mission.

Keywords: defence diplomacy, collective security, Rwanda, Peacekeeping

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4180 Realising the Socio-Economic Rights of Refugees Under Human Rights Law: A Case Study of South Africa

Authors: Taguekou Kenfack Alexie

Abstract:

For a long time, refugee protection has constituted one of the main concerns of the international community as a whole and for the South African government in particular.The focus of this paper is on the challenges refugees face in accessing their rights in South Africa. In particular, it analyses the legal framework for the protection of the socio economic rights of refugees under international law, regional and domestic law and the extent to which the rights have been realized. The main hypothesis of the study centered on the fact that the social protection of refugees in South Africa is in conformity with international standards. To test this hypothesis, the qualitative research method was applied. Refugee related legal instruments were analyzed as well as academic publications, organizational reports and internet sources. The data analyzed revealed that there has been enormous progress in meeting international standards in the areas of education, emergency relief and assistance, protection of women and refugee children. The results also indicated that much remain to be desired in such areas as nutrition, shelter, health care, freedom of movement and very importantly, employment and social security. The paper also seeks to address the obstacles which prevent the proper treatment of refugees and to make recommendations as how the South African government can better regulate the treatment of refugees living in its territory.Recommendations include the amendment of the legal instruments that provide the normative framework for protection and improvement of protection policies to reflect the changing dynamics.

Keywords: international community, refugee, socioeconomic rights, social protection

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4179 Cargo Securement Standards and Braking Maneuvers

Authors: Jose A. Romero, Frank Otremba, Alejandro A. Lozano-Guzman

Abstract:

Road safety is affected by many factors, involving the vehicle, the infrastructure, and the environment. Many efforts have been thus made to improve road safety through rational standards for the different systems involved in freight transportation. Cargo shifting and falling have been recognized as critical and contributive effects for road crashes. To avoid such situations, regional and international standards have been implemented, aiming to prevent such types of cargo-related accidents. In particular, there are specific compulsory standard requirements to maintain the cargo on the vehicle without shifting, when the vehicle performs an emergency braking maneuver. In this paper, a simulation is presented to analyze the effect of the vibration of the cargo on the braking distance of the vehicle. Such vibration can lead to a poor cargo restraining, and higher braking efficiency, as a result of the decoupling of the cargo mass from the vehicle mass. Such higher braking efficiency, on the order of 4.4%, further suggests a greater demand for the current braking standards.

Keywords: road safety, cargo securement, shifting cargo, vehicle dynamics, ABS

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4178 Recognition and Enforcement of International Commercial Arbitral Awards in Sri Lanka, A Lesson from Singapore

Authors: Kahandawala Arachchige Thani Chathurika Kahandawala

Abstract:

This research is attempted to analyse, Sri Lanka’s current situation regarding the recognition and enforcement of international commercial arbitration awards. Sri Lanka has been involved with commercial arbitration for a long time period. But there are good and bad legal practices in place in proceedings in Sri Lanka legal system. The common perception and reality of Sri Lanka’s arbitration law and practices regarding recognition and enforcement of international arbitral awards is far behind the international standards. Therefore arbitration as a dispute resolution method has become a time-consuming and costly method in Sri Lanka. This research is employed with the qualitative method based on both primary and secondary resources. This carried out the comparative analysis of recognition and enforcement in international arbitration laws established jurisdiction in Singapore and the United Kingdom, which are known as best counties as a seat of arbitration in Asia and Europe. International conventions, act and all the legal proceedings regarding recognition and enforcement of an international arbitral award in Sri Lanka are going to be discussed in the research. In the Jurisdiction of Sri Lanka, critically need to value an international arbitral award in the domestic legal system. Therefore an award has to be recognised in Sri Lanka. Otherwise, it doesn’t have any value. After recognizing it, court can enforce it. This research intends to provide a comparative analysis to overcome the drawbacks.

Keywords: arbitration, alternative dispute method, recognition and enforcement, foreign arbitral awards, Sri Lankan legal system, arbitral award in Singapore

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4177 Selection Standards for National Teams: Theory and Practice

Authors: Alexey Kulik

Abstract:

This article deals with selection standards for national sport teams. The author examines the legal framework for selection criteria and suggests using the most honest criteria.

Keywords: national teams, standards of forming teams, selection standards, sport legislations

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4176 Sustainability in University buildings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sahl Abdullah Waheeb

Abstract:

The Ministry of Higher Education is currently developing and executing a large number of university buildings and campuses Al around Saudi Arabia annually due to the increased number of students. This is carried out through high international standards. Energy and environmental issues have been given a lot of consideration so the operation will be economical, environmentally and socially efficient enough. This paper will shed light on the application of building sustainability standards on buildings and university campuses during the design and construction stage. University campuses and buildings are currently under major construction development. In this research, data for green building standards were collected and a building sustainability methodology was appointed for applying sustainable standards, recommend to all is inserted imparting a guidelines standards for university buildings. Architecture design and construction imparting were assisted by environmental criteria. This paper highly recommends applying an environmental and sustainable building measurement tool in Saudi Arabia. Special attention should be paid to university building and similar project organizers due to the high energy demand in such project organizers. Moreover, a national environmental programme should be created to set the related standards to the local architecture to be applied to measuring green building and sustainable architecture design in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: sustainable universities, university buildings, sustainability in Saudi Arabia, green buildings, sustainable building

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4175 Adoption and Diffusion of Valuation Standards in the Forensic Accounting Community and in Courts: Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors

Authors: Matteo Manera, Mariateresa Torchia, Gregory Moscato

Abstract:

Forensic accounting is a hot subject of research in accounting. Valuation remains one of the major topics for practitioners. Valuation standards are a powerful instrument that can contribute to a fair process: their use aims at reducing subjectivity and arbitrary decisions in courts. In most jurisdictions, valuation standards are not the law: forensic accountants are not obliged to use valuation standards when they perform valuation works for judges. To date, as far as we know, no literature work has investigated adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in the forensic accounting space. In this paper, we analyze the spread of valuation standards through the lenses of isomorphism and -as corollaries- of Agency Theory and Signaling Theory. Because of lack of research in the particular area of valuation standards adoption, the present work relies on qualitative, exploratory research, based on semi-structured interviews conducted (up to saturation) with expert forensic accountants. Our work digs into motivations behind adoption and diffusion, as well into perceptions of forensic accountants around benefits of valuation standards and into barriers to their diffusion: the result is that, while the vast majority of forensic accountants praise the great work of the standards setters in introducing valuation standards, it might be that less than 50% of forensic accountants actually use valuation standards, in courts. Our preliminary findings, to be supported or refuted by future research, lead us to address a “trilogy” of recommendations to the stakeholders involved in the process of adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in courts.

Keywords: forensic accounting, valuation standards, adoption of standards, motivations, benefits, barriers, Isomorphism

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4174 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

Abstract:

Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: information security incident management, information security management, standards, hospitals

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4173 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

Abstract:

Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

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