Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 471

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nursing and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

471 The Role of Nurses and Midwives’ Self-Government in Postgraduate Education in Poland

Authors: Tomasz Holecki, Hanna Dobrowolska


In the Polish health care system, nurses and midwives are obliged to regularly update their professional knowledge. It is all regulated by the Law on the nurse and midwife’s profession and the code of ethics. The professional self-governing body (County Chamber of Nurses and Midwives) is obliged to organize ongoing training for them so that maintaining accessibility and availability to the high quality of educational services could be possible at all levels of post-graduate education. The aim of this study is an analysis of post-graduate education organized by the County Chamber of Nurses and Midwives in the city of Katowice, Poland, as a professional self-governing body operating in the area of Silesian province inhabited by almost 5 million citizens which bring together more than 30 thousand professionally active nurses and midwives. In the years 2000-2017, the self-government of nurses and midwives trained over 50,000 people. The education and supervision system over the labour of nurses and midwives establishes exercising control by a self-governing body. In practice, this means that conducting activities aimed at creating legal regulations and organizational conditions, as well as the practical implementation of courses, belongs to the professional self-government of nurses and midwives. The most of specialization courses that were provided from their own funds came from membership fees. The biggest group was participants of specializations in the fields of cardiac, anesthesia, and preventive nursing. The smallest group of people participated in such specializations as neonatal, emergency, and obstetrics nursing. The most popular specialist courses were in the fields of the electrocardiogram and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas the least popular were the ones in the fields of protective vaccinations of neonates. So-called 'soft training-courses' in the fields of improvement of social skills and management were also provided. The research shows that a vast majority of nurses and midwives are interested in raising their professional qualifications. Specialist courses and selected fields of qualification courses received the most concrete attention. In light of conducted research, one can assert that cooperation inside the community of nurses and midwives provides access to high-quality education and training services regularly used by a wide circle of them. The presented results exemplify a level of real interest in specialist and qualification training-courses and also show sources of financing them.

Keywords: nurses and midwives, ongoing training, postgraduate education, specialist training-courses

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470 Determinants of Domestic Violence among Married Women Aged 15-49 Years in Sierra Leone by an Intimate Partner: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tesfaldet Mekonnen Estifanos, Chen Hui, Afewerki Weldezgi


Background: Intimate partner violence (hereafter IPV) is a major global public health challenge that tortures and disables women in the place where they are ought to be most secure within their own families. The fact that the family unit is commonly viewed as a private circle, violent acts towards women remains undermined. There are limited research and knowledge about the influencing factors linked to IPV in Sierra Leone. This study, therefore, estimates the prevalence rate and the predicting factors associated with IPV. Methods: Data were taken from Sierra-Leone Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS, 2013): the first in its form to incorporate information on domestic violence. Multistage cluster sampling research design was used, and information was gathered by a standard questionnaire. A total of 5185 respondents selected were interviewed, out of whom 870 were never been in union, thus excluded. To analyze the two dependent variables: experience of IPV, ‘ever’ and 'last 12 months prior to the survey', a total of 4315 (currently or formerly married) and 4029 women (currently in union) were included respectively. These dependent variables were constructed from the three forms of violence namely physical, emotional and sexual. Data analysis was applied using SPSS version 23, comprising three-step process. First, descriptive statistics were used to show the frequency distribution of both the outcome and explanatory variables. Second, bivariate analysis adopting chi-square test was applied to assess the individual relationship between the outcome and explanatory variables. Third, multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using hierarchical modeling strategy to identify the influence of the explanatory variables on the outcome variables. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were utilized to examine the association of the variables considering p-values less than 0.05 statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of lifetime IPV among ever married women was 48.4%, while 39.8% of those currently married experienced IPV in the previous year preceding the survey. Women having 1 to 4 and more than 5 number of ever born babies were almost certain to encounter lifetime IPV. However, women who own a property, and those who referenced 3-5 reasons for which wife-beating is acceptable were less probably to experience lifetime IPV. Attesting parental violence, partner’s dominant marital behavior, and women afraid of their partner were the variables related to both experience of IPV ‘ever’ and ‘the previous year prior to the survey’. Respondents who concur that wife-beating is sensible in certain situations and occupations under the professional category had diminished chances of revealing IPV in the year prior to the data collection. Conclusion: This study indicated that factors significantly correlated with IPV in Sierra-Leone are mostly linked with husband related factors specifically, marital controlling behaviors. Addressing IPV in Sierra-Leone requires joint efforts that target men raise awareness to address controlling behavior and empower security in affiliations.

Keywords: husband behavior, married women, partner violence, Sierra Leone

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469 The Validation and Reliability of the Arabic Effort-Reward Imbalance Model Questionnaire: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students in Jordan

Authors: Mahmoud M. AbuAlSamen, Tamam El-Elimat


Amid the economic crisis in Jordan, the Jordanian government has opted for a knowledge economy where education is promoted as a mean for economic development. University education usually comes at the expense of study-related stress that may adversely impact the health of students. Since stress is a latent variable that is difficult to measure, a valid tool should be used in doing so. The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is a model used as a measurement tool for occupational stress. The model was built on the notion of reciprocity, which relates ‘effort’ to ‘reward’ through the mediating ‘over-commitment’. Reciprocity assumes equilibrium between both effort and reward, where ‘high’ effort is adequately compensated with ‘high’ reward. When this equilibrium is violated (i.e., high effort with low reward), this may elicit negative emotions and stress, which have been correlated to adverse health conditions. The theory of ERI was established in many different parts of the world, and associations with chronic diseases and the health of workers were explored at length. While much of the effort-reward imbalance was investigated in work conditions, there has been a growing interest in understanding the validity of the ERI model when applied to other social settings such as schools and universities. The ERI questionnaire was developed in Arabic recently to measure ERI among high school teachers. However, little information is available on the validity of the ERI questionnaire in university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 833 students in Jordan to measure the validity and reliability of the ERI questionnaire in Arabic among university students. Reliability, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha of the effort, reward, and overcommitment scales, was 0.73, 0.76, and 0.69, respectively, suggesting satisfactory reliability. The factorial structure was explored using principal axis factoring. The results fitted a five-solution model where both the effort and overcommitment were uni-dimensional while the reward scale was three-dimensional with its factors, namely being ‘support’, ‘esteem’, and ‘security’. The solution explained 56% of the variance in the data. The established ERI theory was replicated with excellent validity in this study. The effort-reward ratio in university students was 1.19, which suggests a slight degree of failed reciprocity. The study also investigated the association of effort, reward, overcommitment, and ERI with participants’ demographic factors and self-reported health. ERI was found to be significantly associated with absenteeism (p < 0.0001), past history of failed courses (p=0.03), and poor academic performance (p < 0.001). Moreover, ERI was found to be associated with poor self-reported health among university students (p=0.01). In conclusion, the Arabic ERI questionnaire is reliable and valid for use in measuring effort-reward imbalance in university students in Jordan. The results of this research are important in informing higher education policy in Jordan.

Keywords: effort-reward imbalance, factor analysis, validity, self-reported health

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468 Investigating the Correlation between Job Satisfaction, Autonomy, and Self-Efficacy among School Nurses in Bahrain: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Faten Hasani


Background: Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and health centres are the traditional places where nurses work, but nurses have recently started working in new areas such as government and private schools, and they play a critical role in better health outcomes in the education setting. In order to better understand these roles, this study aimed to investigate the factors affecting job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction, autonomy, and self-efficacy amongst school nurses in Bahrain. Materials and Methods: This study used a mixed-method approach involving an exploratory sequential design with a survey and subsequent one-on-one interviews. A total of 142 school nurses in Bahrain were surveyed and data were collected using structured psychometric tools to measure job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and autonomy. Demographic characteristics of participants (gender, age, nursing specialty, professional development, appointing authority, and workload/population served) were also collected to allow for further analysis. The data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Twenty-seven school nurses were subsequently recruited for interviews using a purposeful sampling procedure. The data were subjected to thematic analysis using Burnard’s (1991) framework. Results: Results from the surveys were indicative of a general high level of job satisfaction among school nurses in Bahrain. The areas which contributed most strongly to this satisfaction, by way of statistical significance, were perceptions of the standard of care provided, professional support nurses received, the manageability of assigned workloads and personal satisfaction. The data further illustrate that job autonomy has an independent and positive relationship with job satisfaction, suggesting that job autonomy causes a subsequent increase in job satisfaction. Self-efficacy, on the other hand, correlates with job satisfaction but was statistically significant. The qualitative results found a unanimous consensus amongst school nurses that they face challenges in executing their roles. Herzberg’s two-factor theory was used to demonstrate the hygiene and motivation factors related to Bahraini school nurses’ job satisfaction. In this regard, significant issues emerged in relation to training, standardisation of role descriptions and regulation, and the need to promote health work environments. Conclusion and Recommendations: While the findings indicate that school nurses in Bahrain are satisfied with their jobs there are a number of areas which need to be addressed to ensure that the role continues to realise its potential presently and into the future. The findings suggest that training and education needs, regulatory professional bodies, and healthy and productive work environments are three important factors that affect the job satisfaction of school nurses in Bahrain. The study recommends a clear definition of school nurses’ roles to ensure a productive and healthy working environment and also shows a need to implement appraisal modalities that will enable career growth, including remuneration and reward, thus facilitating job satisfaction and ensuring positive outcomes.

Keywords: school nurses, job satisfaction, autonomy, self-efficacy

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467 Using Multi-Specialist Team to Care for a Breast Cancer Patient Who Received Total Mastectomy during Pregnancy

Authors: Yun-Tsuen Chen, Shih-Ting Huang, Pi-Fen Cheng, Heng-Hua Wang, Hui-Zhu Chen


This paper discusses the experience of caring for a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and later received total mastectomy during a 2nd trimester pregnancy. She was hospitalized from January 31 to February 4, 2018. Using 'Gordon’s 11 Functional Health Patterns' through physical exams and interviews, the researcher assessed the patient’s physical and mental health and determined the patient to have anxiety, acute pain, and body image disturbance. After establishing a strong relationship with the patient, the researcher helped the patient express her anxiety and personal feelings. A multi-specialist team was formed to evaluate both the patient and her unborn child, before, during, and after surgery. This individualized care allowed the patient and her child to optimize the post-operative results. Aside from medication, the patient also received non-medicinal treatment, including improvement of sleep quality with body positioning, diaphragmatic breathing exercises for pain and stress relief after surgery. Throughout hospitalization, the patient’s physical and emotional needs were addressed daily with listening sessions and empathy. The patient’s husband was also incorporated in the patient’s recovery by teaching both he and the patient how to change the sterile wound dressing, which may have the added benefit of improving marital relationships through shared activities of nurturing. The patient was also given advice about how to improve self-confidence through clothing. Lastly, the patient was encouraged to join a support group for breast cancer patients. Through the sharing of experience in groups and within the family, the patient was helped to adapt to the change of her appearance and re-establish her self-confidence. This level of care expedited the patient’s return to her family life and role of being a mother.

Keywords: anxiety, body image disturbance, breast cancer during pregnancy, multi-specialist team

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466 Assessment of Maternal Satisfaction Regarding Quality of Care during Labor

Authors: Haya Alfozan, Eman Miligi, Najla Alotaibi


Background: Women’s satisfaction with maternity services, especially care during labor and birth, has become highly significant to healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers. Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess maternal satisfaction regarding the quality of care during labor and to compare the level of maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenient sample of 180 low-risk cases of immediate postpartum women who delivered at King Abdul-Aziz medical city was recruited. Women whose babies were diagnosed with serious health problems were excluded from the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were ensured. The questionnaire included three parts, namely: demographics data, medical history, and obstetrical history, and the last part is the satisfaction assessment tool. Ethical confederations were ensured. Maternal satisfaction during labor was classified in terms of health care, health workers' communication, and the environment. Results: Regarding health care, women were highly satisfied with care received from nurse (M = 4.21 + 0.88), medical care received (M = 4.17 + 0.79), and comfort techniques (M = 4.04 + 0.91). Regarding health workers' communication, women were highly satisfied with the provider to treat with dignity and respect (M = 4.03 + 0.91) and orientation to the toilet, bathroom, washing area (M = 4.00 + 0.93). Regarding the environment, women were highly satisfied with the experience of their baby's birth (M = 4.18 + 0.98) and supplies with drugs and supplies (M = 4.09 + 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Conclusion: Women were generally satisfied with their labor and delivery experience. There was no difference in maternal satisfaction on the labor process between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives.

Keywords: maternity, satisfaction, labor, delivery

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465 Use of Telehealth for Facilitating the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

Authors: Manahil Alfuraydan, Jodie Croxall, Lisa Hurt, Mike Kerr, Sinead Brophy


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition characterised by impairment in terms of social communication, social interaction, and a repetitive or restricted pattern of interest, behaviour, and activity. There is a significant delay between seeking help and a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. This may result in delay in receiving early intervention services, which are critical for positive outcomes. The long wait times also cause stress for the individuals and their families. Telehealth potentially offers a way of improving the diagnostic pathway for ASD. This review of the literature aims to examine which telehealth approaches have been used in the diagnosis and assessment of autism in children and adults, whether they are feasible and acceptable, and how they compare with face-to-face diagnosis and assessment methods. A comprehensive search of following databases- MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, Business Sources Complete, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and trail and systematic review databases including Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness and NHS Economic Evaluation was conducted, combining the terms of autism and telehealth from 2000 to 2018. A total of 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. This review of the literature found there to be two methods of using telehealth: (a) video conferencing to enable teams in different areas to consult with the families and to assess the child/adult in real time and (b) a video upload to a web portal that enables the clinical assessment of behaviours in the family home. The findings were positive, finding there to be high agreement in terms of the diagnosis between remote methods and face to face methods and with high levels of satisfaction among the families and clinicians. This field is in the very early stages, and so only studies with small sample size were identified, but the findings suggest that there is potential for telehealth methods to improve assessment and diagnosis of autism used in conjunction with existing methods, especially for those with clear autism traits and adults with autism. Larger randomised controlled trials of this technology are warranted.

Keywords: assessment, autism spectrum disorder, diagnosis, telehealth

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464 The Influence of Minority Stress on Depression Among Thai Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

Authors: Priyoth Kittiteerasack, Alana Steffen, Alicia K. Matthews


Depression is a leading cause of the worldwide burden of disability and disease burden. Notably, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations are more likely to be a high-risk group for depression compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. To date, little is known about the rates and predictors of depression among Thai LGBT populations. As such, the purpose of this study was to: 1) measure the prevalence of depression among a diverse sample of Thai LGBT adults and 2) determine the influence of minority stress variables (discrimination, victimization, internalized homophobia, and identity concealment), general stress (stress and loneliness), and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, and seeking social support) on depression outcomes. This study was guided by the Minority Stress Model (MSM). The MSM posits that elevated rates of mental health problems among LGBT populations stem from increased exposures to social stigma due to their membership in a stigmatized minority group. Social stigma, including discrimination and violence, represents unique sources of stress for LGBT individuals and have a direct impact on mental health. This study was conducted as part of a larger descriptive study of mental health among Thai LGBT adults. Standardized measures consistent with the MSM were selected and translated into the Thai language by a panel of LGBT experts using the forward and backward translation technique. The psychometric properties of translated instruments were tested and acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha > .8 and Content Validity Index = 1). Study participants were recruited using convenience and snowball sampling methods. Self-administered survey data were collected via an online survey and via in-person data collection conducted at a leading Thai LGBT organization. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses using multiple linear regression models were conducted to analyze study data. The mean age of participants (n = 411) was 29.5 years (S.D. = 7.4). Participants were primarily male (90.5%), homosexual (79.3%), and cisgender (76.6%). The mean score for depression of study participant was 9.46 (SD = 8.43). Forty-three percent of LGBT participants reported clinically significant levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. In multivariate models, the combined influence of demographic, stress, coping, and minority stressors explained 47.2% of the variance in depression scores (F(16,367) = 20.48, p < .001). Minority stressors independently associated with depression included discrimination (β = .43, p < .01) victimization (β = 1.53, p < .05), and identity concealment (β = -.54, p < .05). In addition, stress (β = .81, p < .001), history of a chronic disease (β = 1.20, p < .05), and coping strategies (problem-focused coping β = -1.88, p < .01, seeking social support β = -1.12, p < .05, and avoidance coping β = 2.85, p < .001) predicted depression scores. The study outcomes emphasized that minority stressors uniquely contributed to depression levels among Thai LGBT participants over and above typical non-minority stressors. Study findings have important implications for nursing practice and the development of intervention research.

Keywords: depression, LGBT, minority stress, sexual and gender minority, Thailand

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463 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif


Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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462 Medical Decision-Making in Advanced Dementia from the Family Caregiver Perspective: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Elzbieta Sikorska-Simmons


Advanced dementia is a progressive terminal brain disease that is accompanied by a syndrome of difficult to manage symptoms and complications that eventually lead to death. The management of advanced dementia poses major challenges to family caregivers who act as patient health care proxies in making medical treatment decisions. Little is known, however, about how they manage advanced dementia and how their treatment choices influence the quality of patient life. This prospective qualitative study examines the key medical treatment decisions that family caregivers make while managing advanced dementia. The term ‘family caregiver’ refers to a relative or a friend who is primarily responsible for managing patient’s medical care needs and legally authorized to give informed consent for medical treatments. Medical decision-making implies a process of choosing between treatment options in response to patient’s medical care needs (e.g., worsening comorbid conditions, pain, infections, acute medical events). Family caregivers engage in this process when they actively seek treatments or follow recommendations by healthcare professionals. Better understanding of medical decision-making from the family caregiver perspective is needed to design interventions that maximize the quality of patient life and limit inappropriate treatments. Data were collected in three waves of semi-structured interviews with 20 family caregivers for patients with advanced dementia. A purposive sample of 20 family caregivers was recruited from a senior care center in Central Florida. The qualitative personal interviews were conducted by the author in 4-5 months intervals. The ethical approval for the study was obtained prior to the data collection. Advanced dementia was operationalized as stage five or higher on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) (i.e., starting with the GDS score of five, patients are no longer able survive without assistance due to major cognitive and functional impairments). Information about patients’ GDS scores was obtained from the Center’s Medical Director, who had an in-depth knowledge of each patient’s health and medical treatment history. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The qualitative data analysis was conducted to answer the following research questions: 1) what treatment decisions do family caregivers make while managing the symptoms of advanced dementia and 2) how do these treatment decisions influence the quality of patient life? To validate the results, the author asked each participating family caregiver if the summarized findings accurately captured his/her experiences. The identified medical decisions ranged from seeking specialist medical care to end-of-life care. The most common decisions were related to arranging medical appointments, medication management, seeking treatments for pain and other symptoms, nursing home placement, and accessing community-based healthcare services. The most challenging and consequential decisions were related to the management of acute complications, hospitalizations, and discontinuation of treatments. Decisions that had the greatest impact on the quality of patient life and survival were triggered by traumatic falls, worsening psychiatric symptoms, and aspiration pneumonia. The study findings have important implications for geriatric nurses in the context of patient/caregiver-centered dementia care. Innovative nursing approaches are needed to support family caregivers to effectively manage medical care needs of patients with advanced dementia.

Keywords: advanced dementia, family caregiver, medical decision-making, symptom management

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461 The Effectiveness of Scalp Cooling Therapy on Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Alopecia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: M. Krishna


The study was intended to identify if scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced hair loss among cancer patients. Critical literature of non-randomized controlled trials was used to investigate whether scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The review identified that scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Most of the patients receiving chemotherapy experience alopecia. It is also perceived as the worst effect of chemotherapy. This may be severe and lead the patients to withdraw the chemo treatment. The image disturbance caused by alopecia will make the patient depressed and will lead to declined immunity. With the knowledge on effectiveness of scalp cooling therapy on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, patient undergoing chemotherapy will not be hesitant to undergo the treatment. Patients are recommended to go through scalp cooling therapy every chemo cycle and the proper therapy duration is 30 minutes before, during chemo. The suggested duration of the scalp cooling therapy is 45-90 minutes for an effective and positive outcome. This finding is excluding other factors of alopecia such as menopause, therapeutic drugs, poor hair density, liver function problems, and drug regimes.

Keywords: alopecia, cancer, chemotherapy, scalp cooling therapy

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460 Evaluation of Patients' Satisfaction Aspects in Governmental Egyptian Emergency Departments

Authors: N. Rashed, Z. Aysha, M. Fakher


Patient satisfaction is one of the core objectives of health care facilities. It is difficult to evaluate patients response in the emergency setting. The current study aimed to evaluate patients and family aspects of satisfaction in both adult and pediatric emergency departments and their recommendations for improvement. Cross-section survey(Brief Emergency department Patient Satisfaction Scale (BEPSS), was translated and validated, then performed to evaluate patients satisfaction in two governmental hospitals Emergency departments. Three hundred patients and their families were enrolled in the study. The waiting time in the adult Emergency department ranged from (5 minutes to 120 minutes), and most admissions were at the morning shift while at the pediatric hospital the waiting time ranged from 5 minutes to 100 minutes) and most admissions were at the afternoon shift. The results showed that the main domain of satisfaction in BEPSS in the adult emergency department was respecting the patients family while in the pediatric emergency department, the main domain was the nursing care about treatment. The main recommendation of improvement in pediatric Emergency Department was modifying the procedures while in adult Emergency Department was improving the training of physicians.

Keywords: emergency, department-patient, satisfaction-adult-pediatric

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459 Challenges of Outreach Team Leaders in Managing Ward Based Primary Health Care Outreach Teams in National Health Insurance Pilot Districts in Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: E. M. Mhlongo, E. Lutge


In 2010, South Africa’s National Department of Health (NDoH) launched national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to support a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model by using community-based outreach teams (known in South Africa as Ward-based Primary Health Care Outreach teams or WBPHCOTs). These teams provide health education, promote healthy behaviors, assess community health needs, manage minor health problems, and support linkages to health services and health facilities. Ward based primary health care outreach teams are supervised by a professional nurse who is the outreach team leader. In South Africa, the WBPHCOTs have been established, registered, and are reporting their activities in the District Health Information System (DHIS). This study explored and described the challenges faced by outreach team leaders in supporting and supervising the WBPHCOTs. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews conducted with the outreach team leaders at a sub-district level. Thematic analysis of data was done. Findings revealed some challenges faced by team leaders in day to day execution of their duties. Issues such as staff shortages, inadequate resources to carry out health promotion activities, and lack of co-operation from team members may undermine the capacity of team leaders to support and supervise the WBPHCOTs. Many community members are under the impression that the outreach team is responsible for bringing the clinic to the community while the outreach teams do not carry any medication/treatment with them when doing home visits. The study further highlights issues around the challenges of WBPHCOTs at a household level. In conclusion, the WBPHCOTs are an important component of National Health Insurance (NHI), and in order for NHI to be optimally implemented, the issues raised in this research should be addressed with some urgency.

Keywords: community health worker, national health insurance, primary health care, ward-based primary health care outreach teams

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458 Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of Pap Smear and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: A Review of Literature

Authors: M. Malekian, M. E. Heydari, M. Irani Estyar


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infection, which may lead to cervical cancer as the main cause of it. With early diagnosis and treatment in health care services, cervical cancer and its complications are considered to be preventable. This study was aimed to compare the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting HPV. A literature search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed and SID databases using the keywords 'human papillomavirus', 'pap smear' and 'polymerase change reaction' to identify studies comparing Pap smear and PCR methods for the detection. No restrictions were considered.10 studies were included in this review. All samples that were positive by pop smear were also positive by PCR. However, there were positive samples detected by PCR which was negative by pop smear and in all studies, many positive samples were missed by pop smear technique. Although The Pap smear had high specificity, PCR based HPV detection was more sensitive method and had the highest sensitivity. In order to promote the quality of detection and high achievement of the maximum results, PCR diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear are needed and Pap smear method should be combined with PCR techniques according to the high error rate of Pap smear in detection.

Keywords: human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, pap smear, polymerase chain reaction

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457 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar


Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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456 Role of the Midwifery Trained Registered Nurse in Postnatal Units at Tertiary Care Hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka: A Postal Survey

Authors: Sunethra Jayathilake, Vathsala Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Kerstin Samarasinghe, Himani Molligoda, Rasika Perera


In Sri Lanka, postnatal care in the state hospitals is provided by different professional categories: Midwifery trained registered nurses (MTRNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) who do not have midwifery training, doctors and midwives. Even though four professional categories provide postnatal care to mothers and newborn babies, they are not aware of their own tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. Particularly MTRN’s role in the postnatal unit is unclear. The current study aimed to identify nurses’ (both MTRN and RNs) perception on MTRN’s tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. This is a descriptive cross sectional study using postal survey. All nurses who were currently working in postnatal units at five selected tertiary care hospitals in the Western Province at that time were invited to participate in the study. Accordingly, the pre evaluated self-administered questionnaire was sent to 201 nurses (53 MTRNs and 148 RNs) in the study setting. The number of valid return questionnaire was 166; response rate was 83%. Respondents rated the responsibility of four professional categories: MTRN, RN, doctor and midwife whether they are 'primarily responsible', 'responsible in absence' and 'not responsible', for each of 15 postnatal (PN) tasks which were previously identified from focus group discussions with care providers during the first phase of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20; descriptive statistics were calculated. Out of the 15 PN tasks, 13 were identified as MTRNs’ primary responsibilities by 71%-93% of respondents. The respondents also considered six (6) tasks out of 15 as primary responsibility of both MTRN and RN, seven (7) tasks as primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and doctor and the remaining two (2) tasks were identified as the primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and midwife. All 15 PN tasks overlapped with other professional categories. Overlapping tasks may create role confusion leading to conflicts among professional categories which affect the quality of care they provide, eventually, threaten the safety of the client. It is recommended that an official job description for each care provider is needed to recognize their own professional boundaries for ensuring safe, quality care delivery in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: overlapping, postnatal, responsibilities, tasks

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455 Simulating an Interprofessional Hospital Day Shift: A Student Interprofessional (IP) Collaborative Learning Activity

Authors: Fiona Jensen, Barb Goodwin, Nancy Kleiman, Rhonda Usunier


Background: Clinical simulation is now a common component in many health profession curricula in preparation for clinical practice. In the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences (RFHS) college leads in simulation and interprofessional (IP) education, planned an eight hour simulated hospital day shift, where seventy students from six health professions across two campuses, learned with each other in a safe, realistic environment. Learning about interprofessional collaboration, an expected competency for many health professions upon graduation, was a primary focus of the simulation event. Method: Faculty representatives from the Colleges of Nursing, Medicine, Pharmacy and Rehabilitation Sciences (Physical Therapy, Occupation Therapy, Respiratory Therapy) and Pharmacy worked together to plan the IP event in a simulation facility in the College of Nursing. Each college provided a faculty mentor to guide the same profession students. Students were placed in interprofessional teams consisting of a nurse, physician, pharmacist, and then sharing respiratory, occupational, and physical therapists across the team depending on the needs of the patients. Eight patient scenarios were role played by health profession students, who had been provided with their patient’s story shortly before the event. Each team was guided by a facilitator. Results and Outcomes: On the morning of the event, all students gathered in a large group to meet mentors and facilitators and have a brief overview of the six competencies for effective collaboration and the session objectives. The students assuming their same profession roles were provided with their patient’s chart at the beginning of the shift, met with their team, and then completed professional specific assessments. Shortly into the shift, IP team rounds began, facilitated by the team facilitator. During the shift, each patient role-played a spontaneous health incident, which required collaboration between the IP team members for assessment and management. The afternoon concluded with team rounds, a collaborative management plan, and a facilitated de-brief. Conclusions: During the de-brief sessions, students responded to set questions related to the session learning objectives and expressed many positive learning moments. We believe that we have a sustainable simulation IP collaborative learning opportunity, which can be embedded into curricula, and has the capacity to grow to include more health profession faculties and students. Opportunities are being explored in the RFHS at the administrative level, to offer this event more frequently in the academic year to reach more students. In addition, a formally structured event evaluation tool would provide important feedback and inform the qualitative feedback to event organizers and the colleges about the significance of the simulation event to student learning.

Keywords: simulation, collaboration, teams, interprofessional

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454 Management of Postoperative Pain, Intercultural Differences Among Registered Nurses: Czech Republic and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Denisa Mackova, Andrea Pokorna


The management of postoperative pain is a meaningful part of quality care. The experience and knowledge of registered nurses in postoperative pain management can be influenced by local know-how. Therefore, the research helps to understand the cultural differences between two countries with the aim of evaluating the management of postoperative pain management among the nurses from the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both countries have different procedures on managing postoperative pain and the research will provide an understanding of both the advantages and disadvantages of the procedures and also highlight the knowledge and experience of registered nurses in both countries. Between the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the expectation is for differing results in the usage of opioid analgesia for the patients postoperatively and in the experience of registered nurses with Patient Controlled Analgesia. The aim is to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of registered nurses and to merge the data with the postoperative pain management in the early postoperative period in the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Also, the aim is to assess the knowledge and experience of registered nurses by using Patient Controlled Analgesia and epidural analgesia treatment in the early postoperative period. The criteria for those providing input into the study, are registered nurses, working in surgical settings (standard departments, post-anesthesia care unit, day care surgery or ICU’s) caring for patients in the postoperative period. Method: Research is being conducted by questionnaires. It is a quantitative research, a comparative study of registered nurses in the Czech Republic and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Questionnaire surveys were distributed through an electronic Bristol online survey. Results: The collection of the data in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been completed successfully, with 550 respondents, 77 were excluded and 473 respondents were included for statistical data analysis. The outcome of the research is expected to highlight the differences in treatment through Patient Controlled Analgesia, with more frequent use in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A similar assumption is expected for treatment conducted by analgesia. We predict that opioids will be used more regularly in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whilst therapy through NSAID’s being the most common approach in the Czech Republic. Discussion/Conclusion: The majority of respondents from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were female registered nurses from a multitude of nations. We are expecting a similar split in gender between the Czech Republic respondents; however, there will be a smaller number of nationalities. Relevance for research and practice: Output from the research will assess the knowledge, experience and practice of patient controlled analgesia and epidural analgesia treatment. Acknowledgement: This research was accepted and affiliated to the project: Postoperative pain management, knowledge and experience registered nurses (Czech Republic and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) – SGS05/2019-2020.

Keywords: acute postoperative pain, epidural analgesia, nursing care, patient controlled analgesia

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453 A Two-Week and Six-Month Stability of Cancer Health Literacy Classification Using the CHLT-6

Authors: Levent Dumenci, Laura A. Siminoff


Health literacy has been shown to predict a variety of health outcomes. Reliable identification of persons with limited cancer health literacy (LCHL) has been proved questionable with existing instruments using an arbitrary cut point along a continuum. The CHLT-6, however, uses a latent mixture modeling approach to identify persons with LCHL. The purpose of this study was to estimate two-week and six-month stability of identifying persons with LCHL using the CHLT-6 with a discrete latent variable approach as the underlying measurement structure. Using a test-retest design, the CHLT-6 was administered to cancer patients with two-week (N=98) and six-month (N=51) intervals. The two-week and six-month latent test-retest agreements were 89% and 88%, respectively. The chance-corrected latent agreements estimated from Dumenci’s latent kappa were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41 – 0.82) and .47 (95% CI: 0.14 – 0.80) for the two-week and six-month intervals, respectively. High levels of latent test-retest agreement between limited and adequate categories of cancer health literacy construct, coupled with moderate to good levels of change-corrected latent agreements indicated that the CHLT-6 classification of limited versus adequate cancer health literacy is relatively stable over time. In conclusion, the measurement structure underlying the instrument allows for estimating classification errors circumventing limitations due to arbitrary approaches adopted by all other instruments. The CHLT-6 can be used to identify persons with LCHL in oncology clinics and intervention studies to accurately estimate treatment effectiveness.

Keywords: limited cancer health literacy, the CHLT-6, discrete latent variable modeling, latent agreement

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452 The Accuracy of Measures for Screening Adults for Spiritual Suffering in Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sayna Bahraini, Wendy Gifford, Ian Graham, Liquaa Wazni, Suzettee Bremault-Phillips, Rebekah Hackbusch, Catrine Demers, Mary Egan


Objective: Guidelines for palliative and spiritual care emphasize the importance of screening patients for spiritual suffering. The aim of this review was to synthesize the research evidence on the accuracy of measures used to screen adults for spiritual suffering. Methods: A systematic review has been conducted. We searched five scientific databases to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers screened extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. Results: We identified five articles that yielded information on 24 spiritual screening measures. Among all identified measures, the 2-item Meaning/Joy & Self-Described Struggle has the highest sensitivity (82-87%), and the revised Rush protocol has the highest specificity (81-90%). The methodological quality of all included studies was low. Significance of Results: While most of the identified spiritual screening measures are brief (comprise 1 to 12 number of items), few have sufficient accuracy to effectively screen patients for spiritual suffering. We advise clinicians to use their critical appraisal skills and clinical judgment when selecting and using any of the identified measures to screen for spiritual suffering.

Keywords: screening, suffering, spirituality, diagnostic test accuracy, systematic review

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451 Experiencing Scarred Body among Thai Women Living with Breast Cancer

Authors: Dusanee Suwankhong, Pranee Liamputtong


Breast surgery leaves undesirable scars to all women who experienced mastectomy, despite the fact that this could be a principle approach to save one life. This paper explores how Thai women living with breast cancer perceived and experienced a scarred body after breast surgery. In-depth interviews and drawing methods were employed among 20 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The interviewed data were analysed using thematic analysis method. The results showed that all women with breast cancer who underwent breast surgery perceived and experienced scar as a persisting and visible side-effect. This disfigurement appearance presented a negative image of feminine identity and led to emotional burdens among women. They responded to being scarred in different ways relating to their perceptions of body and changes. The older group had less embarrassed feelings towards being scarred comparing to the younger one. All women tried to seek means to cope with such physical impairment and keep balance life related to their condition. For example, they relied on Buddhism practice and tried to heal the keloid using natural products. Scars appeared to be an unpleasant effect for women who underwent breast mastectomy. Nurses and health care professionals in the local health service sectors need to pay close attention to how the women see the scarred body and their experiences of living with the distorted feminine appearance, and to provide sensitive support that meets the needs of these vulnerable women. The suitable supports can reduce the sense of embarrassment and increase their sense of self-confidence about their social femininity.

Keywords: breast surgery, emotional response, qualitative study, scars, Thai women

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450 Development of Nursing Service System Integrated Case Manager Concept for the Patients with Epilepsy at the Tertiary Epilepsy Clinic of Thailand

Authors: C. Puangsawat, C. Limotai, P. Srikhachin


Bio-psycho-social caring was required for promoting the quality of life of the patients with epilepsy (PWE), despite controlled seizures. Multifaceted issues emerge at the epilepsy clinic. Unpredicted seizures, antiepileptic drug compliance problems/adverse effects, psychiatric, and social problems are all needed to be explored and managed. The Nursing Service System (NSS) at the tertiary epilepsy clinic (TEC) was consequently developed for improving the clinical care for PWE. Case manager concept was integrated as the framework guiding the processes and strategies used for developing the NSS as well as the roles of the multidisciplinary team at the clinic. This study aimed to report the outcomes of the developed NSS integrated case manager concept. The processes of our developed NSS program included 1) screening for patient’s problems using questionnaire prior to seeing epileptologists i.e., assessing the patient’s risk to develop acute seizures at the clinic, issues related to medication use, and uncovered psychiatric and social problems; and 2) assigning the patients at risk to be evaluated and managed by appropriate team. Nurses specializing in epilepsy in coordination with the multidisciplinary team implemented the NSS to promote coordinated work among the team which consists of epileptologists, nurses, pharmacists, psychologists, and social workers. Determination of the role of each person and their responsibilities along with joint care plan were clearly established. One year after implementation, the rate of acute seizure occurrence at the clinic was decreased, and satisfactory feedback from the patients was received. In order to achieve an optimal goal to promote self-management behaviors in PWE, continuing the NSS and systematic assessment of its effectiveness is required.

Keywords: case manager concept, nursing service system, patients with epilepsy, quality of life

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449 Health Status among Government and Private Primary School Children in the Central of Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Supunnee Thrakul


School health services through regular screening of school students’ health status have been the main responsibility for community or school health nurses. The purposes of these retrospective study were to assess and compare health problems between government and private primary school students in the central region of Thailand. The data were collected from the school health records in October at the end of the first semester in the academic year 2018. Two thousand and fifty primary school health records from government and private primary schools were gathered to assess health problems regarding anthropometric measurements, physical examination/personal hygiene, and clinical findings for this study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to be analyzed. The results revealed that health problems of all the school students remained high magnitude. The five top ranks for prevalence rate of health problems were dental caries (36.6%), visual acuity problem (27.7%), over-nutrition (16.8%), head lice (12.8%), and under-nutrition (6.8%), respectively. However, when compared between government and private schools among five health problems; dental caries (55.0% vs 19.9%), visual acuity problem (23.1% vs 31.9%), over-nutrition (20.2% vs 13.8%), head lice (26.5% vs 0.3%), and under-nutrition (10.6% vs 3.4%) with Chi-square analysis, there were significantly different (p < .001). The problem of visual acuity seems to be more serious in private schools while other health problems tend to be more critical in government schools. The findings have suggested that parents who have children in the private primary schools should pay more attention to visual health defects whereas parents with children in the government school should pay more vigilance regards to hygiene and health behavior problems.

Keywords: community health nursing, school health service, health status, primary school children

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448 Effect of Summer Training Volunteering Practices in Healthcare on Self-Confidence of Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Alyaa Farouk Abdelfattah Ibrahim, Samah Mohamed, Huda Jrady, Mashail Alrashidi, Alaa Mohammad, Fatimah Alotaibi, Maram Almutiri


Participation in volunteering was associated with better mental and physical health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The main motivator for students in particular is the chance to gain work-related experiences, improve skills, and build on qualifications that may help them achieve their educational goals and further their careers. This study aimed to assess the effect of summer training volunteering practices in healthcare on self-confidence of nursing students in Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 150 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Bio-socio-demographic, self-confidence, patients’ care and skills questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Participants’ age ranged between 20 and 26 years. The majority were from the educational level seven (80%). 40.7 % of them reported volunteering in summer training programs; 70.37% of them volunteered at least once and for a duration of at least one month. Nursing students from level 6 were less likely to have self-confidence in their patients’ care skills than those in level 7. Students who volunteered were more likely to be more interested in becoming social, professional, and independent healthcare workers. There was no difference regarding experience in clinical skills and education by volunteering status. Clinical skills improved by a level of education in this group. Conclusion: Professional self-confidence and clinical performance are related in this group of nursing students. Monitoring, arranging, and encouraging volunteering activities for nursing students are important to help them broaden their interests, their self-confidence in their capabilities, and advancement in their chosen profession. Mostly, volunteering enhanced knowledge in patient safety and quality of care and attempts to secure volunteering opportunities should be a priority on the nursing education agenda.

Keywords: volunteering, health care volunteering, nursing students, summer training

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447 Communication Training about Depression and Suicide Prevention for Pharmacists: A Hungarian Pilot Study

Authors: Mónika Ditta Tóth, Ádám Fritz, Balázs Hankó, György Purebl


Communication training about depression and suicide prevention for pharmacists – A Hungarian pilot study Mónika Ditta Tóth1, Ádám Fritz2, Balázs Hankó2, György Purebl1 1: Semmelweis University, Institute of Behavioural Sciences 2: Semmelweis University, University Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Administration Background: Suicide rates in Hungary have been one of the highest in the European Union. Depression is one of the main risk factors for suicide and recognizing and treating depression is an effective way to prevent suicidal behaviour. In their daily practice, pharmacists meet patients with high risk of mental health problems. Therefore they have a key role in the prevention of depression and suicide. Aim: The main aim of this study is to raise pharmacists’ awareness about depression and suicide to enable better recognation of verbal and non-verbal signs of these deseases. Another important objective is to reduce their stigma about depression and increase their confidence in communication with depressed and/or suicidal patients. Methods: A 3-hour communication workshop has been delivered in this pilot study about the reasons, trigger factors, verbal and non-verbal signs of depression and suicide. The training includes communication techniques which have been developed to patients needs, as well as role-playing scenarios. Depression Stigma and Morris Confidence Scales were applied before, after and 6 weeks following the training. The results of the training group are then compared with two of the following pharmacist groups: 1. written material only (N=15), 2. no material (N=15). Results: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the training group regarding the level of confidence in treating and communicating with patients with depression and/or suicide following the training, and after 6 weeks (F(2, 24)= 7,135, p=,004; baseline: 20,37, after training: 30,00, follow up: 27,66). After the 3-hour workshop the personal stigma about depression decreased (baselin: 19,75 after training: 17,00, p=0,075) in the training group (N=9), whilst the perceived stigma did not change (before: 33.54, after: 33,44, p=NS). Trainees assessed the workshop as ‘useful’ and ‘gap filling’. No significant differences was found in the group of pharmacisists who got written material only. Conclusions: Despite the high rates of depression and suicide in Hungary, pharmacists do not receive lectures or seminars about mental health during their university studies. Such half-day workshops could fill this gap and give practical help to recognize and communicate with depressed and/or suicidal patients in a more effective way. This way pharmacists, as community gate-keepers, could contribute to a more effective suicide prevention program in Hungary.

Keywords: communication training, pharmacists, depression, suicide

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446 Preparing Undergraduate Nursing and Midwifery Students for Culturally Competent Health Care: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Olayide Ogunsiji, Glenda McDonald


Engendering cultural competence in nursing and midwifery students is germane to reducing disparities in contemporary health care settings, increasingly patronized by people from diverse background. Professional standards for registration in Australia require nurses and midwives to be culturally competent. Nursing and midwifery academics worldwide are responsible for preparing students for clinical practice, yet limited attention is paid to exploring how students are being prepared to care for a culturally diverse population. This paper provides insight into the perceptions of academics about how they are preparing undergraduate nursing and midwifery students for culturally competent health care. Academics were drawn from a tertiary educational institution in metropolitan Australia. They responded to a generic email indicating their interest in participating in the study. A total of nine academics who have taught undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in a unit that focused on health and illness perspectives for culturally diverse communities; and provided written consent to participate were included. These academics were engaged in a qualitative digitally-recorded semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews which lasted for about 45-60 minutes. Interview data were transcribed verbatim. Through constant comparison, three themes emerged: experiences of the teachers, strategies used for preparing students and challenges in preparing students. The participants spoke about their experiences of teaching in the unit and with the students. They faced challenges related to physical and relational space. They utilised a number of didactic approaches in teaching the unit and critiqued the adequacy of the content in preparing students for practice. This study demonstrated that didactic classroom approaches need to be supported with clinical practice and cultural immersion for a meaningful preparation of nursing and midwifery students to care for culturally diverse populations.

Keywords: cultural competence, nursing students, preparation, undergraduate

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445 A Primary Care Diagnosis of Middle-Aged Men with Oral Cancer Who Underwent Extensive Resection and Flap Repair: A Case Report

Authors: Ching-Yi Huang, Pi-Fen Cheng, Hui-Zhu Chen, Shi Ting Huang, Heng-Hua Wang


This is a case of oral cancer after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap. The nursing period lasted From September 25 to October 3, 2017, through observation, interview, physical assessment, and medical record review, the author identified the following nursing problems: acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, and body image change. During the nursing period, the author provided individual and overall nursing care and established mutual trust through the use of empathy. Author listened and eased the patient's physical indisposition, such as wound pain, we use medications and acupuncture massage to relieve pain. However, for oral mucosa change caused by surgery, provide continuous and complete oral care and oral exercise training to improve oral mucosal healing and restore swallowing function. In the body-image changes, guided him to express his feeling after the body-image change, and enhanced support and from the family, and encouraged him to attend head and neck cancer survivor alliance which allowed the patient to accept the altered body image and reaffirm self-worth. Hopefully, through sharing this nursing experience will help to the nursing care quality of nursing care for oral cancer patients after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap.

Keywords: oral cancer, acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, body image change

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444 The Meaning of Adolescent Mothers' Experience with Childrearing and Studying Simultaneously

Authors: Benyapa Thitimapong


Teenage pregnancy and adolescent mothers have become a matter of increasing concern in Thailand. Since adolescent mothers have been a big problem for two main consequences; health outcomes and socio-economic impacts. Adolescent mothers often endure poor living conditions; limited financial resources while also experience high stress, family instability, and limited educational opportunities. These disadvantages are negative and have long-term effects on adolescent mothers, their families, and the community. The majority of pregnant students and adolescent mothers dropped out of school after becoming pregnant, and some of them return to study again after they gave birth. This research aimed to explain the meaning of adolescent mothers who had undergone with childrearing and studying simultaneously after childbirth. A phenomenological qualitative approach was undertaken to investigate this study. The participants were 20 adolescent mothers each of whom became a mother and a student concurrently within less than 2 years after giving birth to a healthy baby and had also undergone the experience of childrearing and studying in non-formal education. In-depth interview was carried out for data collection, and the data were analyzed using content analysis method. ‘Learning to move forward’ was the meaning of adolescent mothers who experienced with childrearing and studying simultaneously. Their expressions were classified into two categories 1) having more responsibility, and 2) conceding and going on. The result of this study can be used as evidence for health care providers, especially nurses to facilitate and support pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers to continue their education. Also, it can be used to guide policy to promote in all educational system to enable these groups to remain in school for their life-long success in the future.

Keywords: adolescent mothers, childrearing, studying, teenage pregnancy

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443 First Aid Awareness Campaign for Two Undergraduate Nursing Cohorts

Authors: Mona Afifi, Yara Al Qahtani, Afnan Al Dosari, Amnah Hamdi


Background: First aid is the care provided outside the hospital. It is important in saving lives. Delay in helping the victims may result in serious complication or even death. Many people die in Saudi Arabia because they don’t get proper first aid interventions. According to Traffic Safety council in KSA (2012), in the year of 2011 there was 7153 deaths from car accident in KAS. Subjects and method: Quasi-experimental research design was utilized to assess the effect of a structured 45-minute educational session on 82 undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge about first aid. Two tools were developed for the purpose of the current study. First tool containing the sociodemographic data including age, gender, level, and previous participation in a first aid course, and 55 statements specific to different situations that requires first aid. Concept and Knowledge of First Aid has 9 questions, cardiopulmonary resuscitation has 12 questions, Bleeding and Shock have 7 questions, Road Traffic Accidents has 5 questions, Fracture and Trauma have 4 questions, wound has 5 questions, sunstroke has 4 questions, bits and stings has 4 questions and burn has 5 questions. The second tool was to evaluate the campaign session. Result: The overall knowledge score showed significant difference between the pre and post awareness session (59.58 and 93.00 respectively, p=.000). Mean score shows significant difference in pre-tests between third and fourth year nursing students indicating that knowledge of fourth year students is higher compared to third year students with the mean knowledge scores of 69.56 and 60.88 respectively (p=0.006). Conclusion: Results of the current study indicate that the level of the knowledge in the post test session was higher than in the pre session. Also results showed that the fourth year student`s knowledge in pre-test was better compared to previous year.

Keywords: first aid, awareness campaign, undergraduate nursing students, knowledge

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442 Diabetes Prevalence and Quality of Life of Female Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Alyaa Farouk AbdelFattah Ibrahim, Agnes Monica, Dolores I. Cabansag


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions in many parts of the world causing an increasing public health concern. Cases of Type 2 diabetes are rapidly increasing in the Middle East region. Deprived of lifestyle deviations, a section of the Middle East’s inhabitants will be pretentious by 2035. As all sociocultural factors have created unhealthy lifestyles, which have become part of the social norms within Saudi society, thereby increased the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and obesity in women living in Saudi Arabia. So, this study aimed to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus on quality of life of female nursing students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 151 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Biosociodemographic questionnaire and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Related Quality of life Survey Arabic version were used for data collection, and all included students were screened for random blood glucose level. Results depicted that among 151 subjects included in the study 17 (11.3%) had diagnosed medical problems, and 29.4% of those participants with medical problems were diabetics. Univariate regression model for the relation between diabetes mellitus and overall percent score of SF-36 health survey domains showed no statistically significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects 0.990(0.931-1.053). In conclusion, although the diabetes prevalence was high among the study subjects it did not affect their quality of life may be due to age of the study population.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes prevalence, quality of life, university students' health

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