Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 502

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nursing and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

502 Clinical Staff Perceptions of the Quality of End-of-Life Care in an Acute Private Hospital: A Mixed Methods Design

Authors: Rosemary Saunders, Courtney Glass, Karla Seaman, Karen Gullick, Julie Andrew, Anne Wilkinson, Ashwini Davray

Abstract:

Current literature demonstrates that most Australians receive end-of-life care in a hospital setting, despite most hoping to die within their own home. The necessity for high quality end-of-life care has been emphasised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care and the National Safety and Quality in Health Services Standards depict the requirement for comprehensive care at the end of life (Action 5.20), reinforcing the obligation for continual organisational assessment to determine if these standards are suitably achieved. Limited research exploring clinical staff perspectives of end-of-life care delivery has been conducted within an Australian private health context. This study aimed to investigate clinical staff member perceptions of end-of-life care delivery at a private hospital in Western Australia. The study comprised of a multi-faceted mixed-methods methodology, part of a larger study. Data was obtained from clinical staff utilising surveys and focus groups. A total of 133 questionnaires were completed by clinical staff, including registered nurses (61.4%), enrolled nurses (22.7%), allied health professionals (9.9%), non-palliative care consultants (3.8%) and junior doctors (2.2%). A total of 14.7% of respondents were palliative care ward staff members. Additionally, seven staff focus groups were conducted with physicians (n=3), nurses (n=26) and allied health professionals including social workers (n=1), dietitians (n=2), physiotherapists (n=5) and speech pathologists (n=3). Key findings from the surveys highlighted that the majority of staff agreed it was part of their role to talk to doctors about the care of patients who they thought may be dying, and recognised the importance of communication, appropriate training and support for clinical staff to provide quality end-of-life care. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data generated three key themes: creating the setting which highlighted the importance of adequate resourcing and conducive physical environments for end-of-life care and to support staff and families; planning and care delivery which emphasised the necessity for collaboration between staff, families and patients to develop care plans and treatment directives; and collaborating in end-of-life care, with effective communication and teamwork leading to achievable care delivery expectations. These findings contribute to health professionals better understanding of end-of-life care provision and the importance of collaborating with patients and families in care delivery. It is crucial that health care providers implement strategies to overcome gaps in care, so quality end-of-life care is provided. Findings from this study have been translated into practice, with the development and implementation of resources, training opportunities, support networks and guidelines for the delivery of quality end-of-life care.

Keywords: End-of-life care, mixed-methods, clinical staff, private hospital

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501 Integrative Review: Impact of Transitional Care on Self-Management of Chronic Conditions in Un/Underinsured Populations

Authors: Ashleigh Medina

Abstract:

Chronic conditions account for the majority of total health care spending both in the United States and globally. Encouraging self-management to improve chronic conditions, which in turn could decrease the strain placed on hospitals, requires resources to address the patient’s social concerns in addition to their medical concerns. Transitional care has been identified as a possible bridge between acutely managing conditions at the hospital to chronically managing conditions in a community setting. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the impact of transitional care on self-management outcomes of chronic conditions in un/underinsured populations. Both transitional care, by assisting with resources such as funding sources for healthcare and medications or identifying a healthcare provider for continued care, and self-management, by increasing responsibility for one’s care through goal setting and taking action, can impact health outcomes while providing health care cost-savings.

Keywords: Self-management, transitional care, Chronic Conditions, uninsured

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500 Effectiveness of Educational and Supportive Interventions for Primiparous Women on Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mei Sze Wong, Huanyu Mou, Wai-Tong Chien

Abstract:

Background: Breastmilk is the most nutritious food for infants to support their growth and protect them from infection. Therefore, breastfeeding promotion is an important topic for infant health; whereas, different educational and supportive approaches to interventions have been prompted and targeted at antenatal, postnatal, or both periods to promote and sustain exclusive breastfeeding. This systematic review aimed to identify the effective approaches of educational and supportive interventions to improve breastfeeding. Outcome measures were exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and breastfeeding self-efficacy, being analyzed in terms of ≤ 2 months, 3-5 months, and ≥ 6 months postpartum. Method: Eleven electronic databases and the reference lists of eligible articles were searched. English or Chinese articles of randomized controlled trials on educational and supportive intervention with the above breastfeeding outcomes over recent 20 years were searched. Quality appraisal and risk of bias of the studies were checked by Effective Public Health Practice Project tool and Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, respectively. Results: 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included; and they had acceptable quality and risk of bias. The optimal structure, format, and delivery of the interventions significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at ≤ 2 months and ≥ 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy at ≤ 2 months included: (a) delivering from antenatal to postnatal period, (b) multicomponent involving antenatal group education, postnatal individual breastfeeding coaching and telephone follow-ups, (c) both individual and group basis, (d) being guided by self-efficacy theory, and (e) having ≥ 3 sessions. Conclusion: The findings showed multicomponent theory-based interventions with ≥ 3 sessions that delivered across antenatal and postnatal period; using both face-to-face teaching and telephone follow-ups can be useful to enhance exclusive breastfeeding rate for more than 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy over the first two months of postpartum.

Keywords: Education, exclusive breastfeeding, support, breastfeeding self-efficacy, primiparous

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499 The Training Demands of Nursing Assistants on Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Homes: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Lulu Liao, Huijing Chen, Yinan Zhao, Hongting Ning, Hui Feng

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection rate is an important index of care quality in nursing homes. The aim of the study is to understand the nursing assistant's current knowledge and attitudes of urinary incontinence and to explore related stakeholders' viewpoint about urinary incontinence training. This explanatory sequential study used Knowledge, Practice, and Attitude Model (KAP) and Adult Learning Theories, as the conceptual framework. The researchers collected data from 509 nursing assistants in sixteen nursing homes in Hunan province in China. The questionnaire survey was to assess the knowledge and attitude of urinary incontinence of nursing assistants. On the basis of quantitative research and combined with focus group, training demands were identified, which nurse managers should adopt to improve nursing assistants’ professional practice ability in urinary incontinence. Most nursing assistants held the poor knowledge (14.0 ± 4.18) but had positive attitudes (35.5 ± 3.19) toward urinary incontinence. There was a significant positive correlation between urinary incontinence knowledge and nursing assistants' year of work and educational level, urinary incontinence attitude, and education level (p < 0.001). Despite a general awareness of the importance of prevention of urinary tract infections, not all nurse managers fully valued the training in urinary incontinence compared with daily care training. And the nursing assistants required simple education resources to equip them with skills to address problem about urinary incontinence. The variety of learning methods also highlighted the need for educational materials, and nursing assistants had shown a strong interest in online learning. Related education material should be developed to meet the learning need of nurse assistants and provide suitable training method for planned quality improvement in urinary incontinence.

Keywords: nursing homes, Mixed Methods, urinary incontinence, nursing assistants

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498 Generation Y Leaders in Radiology Nursing - Changing the Culture by Understanding the Challenges of a Multi-Generational Workforce

Authors: Amie Smith, Jodi-Lyn Benjamin

Abstract:

In 2020, there are currently four generations in the nursing workforce: The Veterans, Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y (Gen Y). Understanding each generation and their growing needs will equip the workforce for when the Boomers prepare for retirement, with majority of nursing leadership positions to be potentially replaced with Gen Y nurses. In SA Medical Imaging(SAMI), at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC), it has been proven that despite challenges in succession planning, Gen Y nurse leaders are able to overcome these obstacles and provide the leadership necessary to meet the changing needs in healthcare and across organisations. Changing the culture in radiology nursing has been seen as an obstacle due to the historical nursing practices and resistance to adapt to current/future practice. As radiology advances so does the role of the nurse in imaging, this has required resilience and strong support through leadership as we change and develop the culture to keep up with the evolution of technology and standard of patient care. As a result of supporting Gen Y nurses in leadership roles, SAMI, FMC has seen a positive change in culture by creating a healthy work environment which has allowed Gen Y nurses to make long lasting contributions to the nursing profession.

Keywords: Leadership, Radiology, Nursing, generation Y, changing culture

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497 Coping in Your Profession: An Exploratory Analysis of Healthcare Students’ Perceptions of Burnout

Authors: Heather Clark, Jon Kelly

Abstract:

Burnout among healthcare professionals has been elevated to a high level of concern. The descriptions of the healthcare workplace often include language such as, stressful, long hours, rotating shifts, weekends and holidays, and exhausting. New graduate healthcare professionals are being sent into the workplace with little to no coping skills, knowledge of signs and symptoms of burnout, or resources that are available. The authors of this study created a university course entitled 'coping in your profession' that enrolled registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, EMTs, nurse assistants, and medical assistants. The course addresses burnout, self-analysis, incivility, coping mechanisms, and organizational responsibilities for employee well-being. The students were surveyed using QualtricsXM that included a pre-course and post-course analysis. Pre-course results showed high levels of individual experiences with burnout and limited knowledge of resources to combat burnout. Post-course results included personal growth and that students’ perception of burnout can be prevented at both the individual and the organization levels. Students also indicated that few to no resources to combat burnout existed at their place of employment. Addressing burnout at the educational level helps prepare graduates with the knowledge and tools to combat burnout at the individual and organization level.

Keywords: Resilience, Burnout, Coping, healthcare workers, incivility

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496 Effect of Rehabilitative Nursing Program on Pain Intensity and Functional Status among Patients with Discectomy

Authors: Amal Shehata

Abstract:

Low back pain related to disc prolapse is localized in the lumbar area and it may be radiated to the lower extremities, starting from neurons near or around the spinal canal. Most of the population may be affected with disc prolapse within their lifetime and leads to lost productivity, disability and loss of function. The study purpose was to examine the effect of rehabilitative nursing program on pain intensity and functional status among patients with discectomy. Design: Aquasi experimental design was utilized. Setting: The study was carried out at neurosurgery department and out patient's clinic of Menoufia University and Teaching hospitals at Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Instrument of the study: Five Instruments were used for data collection: Structured interviewing questionnaire, Functional assessment instrument, Observational check list, Numeric rating Scale and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Results: There was an improvement in mean total knowledge score about disease process, discectomy and rehabilitation program in study group (25.32%) than control group (7.32%). There was highly statistically significant improvement in lumbar flexibility among study group (80%) than control group (30%) after rehabilitation program than before. Also there was a decrease in pain score in study group (58% no pain) than control group (28% no pain) after rehabilitation program. There was an improvement in total disability score of study group (zero %) regarding effect of pain on the activity of daily living after rehabilitation program than control group (16%). Conclusion: Application of rehabilitative nursing program for patient with discectomy had proven a positive effect in relation to knowledge score, pain reduction, activity of daily living and functional abilities. Recommendation: A continuous rehabilitative nursing program should be carried out for all patients immediately after discectomy surgery on regular basis. Also A colored illustrated booklet about rehabilitation program should be available and distributed for all patients before surgery.

Keywords: functional status, discectomy, pain intensity, rehabilitative nursing program

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495 Effect of Perioperative Protocol of Care on Clinical Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Manal Ahmed, Amal Shehata, Shereen Deeb

Abstract:

The study's purpose was to determine the effect of the perioperative protocol of care on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects: A sample of 100 adult patients who were planned for coronary artery bypass graft, were selected and divided alternatively and randomly into two equal groups (50 study -50 control).The study was carried out at National heart Institute in Cairo and open heart surgical intensive care unit in Shebin El-Kom Teaching Hospital. Instruments: Four instruments were used for data collection: Interviewing questionnaire, dyspnea analogue scale, Biophysiological measurement instrument, and Compliance assessment sheet. Results: There were statistically significant differences between both groups regarding most respiratory system assessment findings at discharge. More than two-thirds of the study group of the current study had a continuous and regular commitment to diet regimen, which ranked first followed by the compliance of daily living activities then quitting smoking. Conclusions: The perioperative protocol of care has a significant improving effect on respiratory findings, dyspnea degree, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, compliance to diet, therapeutic regimen, daily living activities, and quit smoking among study group undergoing CABG. Recommendations: Perioperative protocol of care should be carried out for CABG patients at open-heart surgical units as well as an illustrative colored booklet about CAD, CABG and perioperative care should be available and distributed to all CABG patients.

Keywords: effect, clinical outcomes, coronary artery, perioperative, bypass graft, protocol of care

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494 Intervention Guide for Holistic Needs and Coping Strategies of Cancer Patients

Authors: Arvin Baes

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the holistic needs of cancer patients in terms of physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual needs and to determine how they respond through coping. It was conducted from January-April 2018 from various hospitals in Laguna, with 20 respondents. It utilized a survey descriptive type of research, a checklist type of questionnaire, and purposive sampling in selecting the respondents. It was found out that in terms of physiological needs, fatigue is the most common symptoms they experienced. In terms of psychological, social, and spiritual needs, most of the patients experienced a significant concern. Meanwhile, in coping, religion dominates among the 14 strategies followed by Use of Emotional Support and Positive Reframing, and Substance Use obtained the lowest response. Most of the respondents were female, and its significant relationship in terms of Positive Reframing agrees significantly. In coping and civil status, Positive Reframing and Humor are significant among married respondents. In coping and stage of cancer, 'Positive Reframing' and 'Humor' are significant with the stage of cancer. In coping and treatment modalities, Active Coping, Use of Emotional Support, and Religion are significantly related to patients’ treatment modalities. There is also a significant relationship between Active Coping and Physiological Needs, Religion and Psychological Needs, and Self-blaming and Psychological, Social, and Spiritual Needs. Thus, it is concluded that holistic needs and coping are essential to each other to meet the wholeness of cancer patients. A formulated care intervention program would be beneficial among this group of patients.

Keywords: Cancer, coping strategies, cancer patients, holistic needs

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493 Whiteness as a Barrier to Anti-Racism in Nurse Educators: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: Blythe Bell

Abstract:

Schools of nursing in Canada have received a call to action to deliver anti-racist education, yet it is questionable how effective the profession can be at this endeavor as nursing education in predominantly White colonial countries is criticized as being a hegemonic space that reproduces White normativity through the curriculum, instruction, and faculty representation. A literature review and analysis was conducted using the search terms: nurse education, nurse educators, nursing faculty, nursing curriculum, racism, anti-racism, anti-racist pedagogy, privilege, whiteness, and professional development. Articles were subsequently narrowed to whiteness and nursing faculty. Overall, the review establishes that both conscious and unconscious enactments of White ideology work to maintain White dominance in nursing education and prevent nurse educators from taking accountability for engaging in anti-racism despite an ethical and professional requirement to do so. Whiteness is enacted by producing oppositional identities, maintaining entitlement to choice about anti-oppressive engagement, hegemonic valuing of scientific epistemologies, and disruptive displays of White fragility. The scholarship about racism in nursing education is also found to be a site of the reproduction of White normativity through its assumption of a White audience, non-specific and euphemistic language, and erasure of existing and historical diversity. Effective engagement in anti-racist pedagogy in nursing education will require that nurse educators, and White educators particularly, disengage from systems of White privilege and authentically interrogate and disrupt these root sources of domination.

Keywords: Nursing Education, Competence, whiteness, anti-racism, nurse educators

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492 Lateral Sural Artery Perforators: A Cadaveric Dissection Study to Assess Perforator Surface Anatomy Variability and Average Pedicle Length for Flap Reconstruction

Authors: L. Sun, O. Bloom, K. Anderson

Abstract:

The medial and lateral sural artery perforator flaps (MSAP and LSAP, respectively) are two recently described flaps that are less commonly used in lower limb trauma reconstructive surgeries compared to flaps such as the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap or the gastrocnemius flap. The LSAP flap has several theoretical benefits over the MSAP, including the ability to be sensate and being more easily manoeuvred into position as a local flap for coverage of lateral knee or leg defects. It is less commonly used in part due to a lack of documented studies of the anatomical reliability of the perforator, and an unquantified average length of the pedicle used for microsurgical anastomosis (if used as a free flap) or flap rotation (if used as a pedicled flap). It has been shown to have significantly lower donor site morbidity compared to other flaps such as the ALT, due to the decreased need for intramuscular dissection and resulting in less muscle loss at the donor site. 11 cadaveric lower limbs were dissected, with a mean of 1.6 perforators per leg, with an average pedicle length of 45mm to the sural artery and 70mm to the popliteal artery. While the majority of perforating arteries lay close to the midline (average of 19mm lateral to the midline), there were patients whose artery was significantly lateral and would have been likely injured by the initial incision during an operation. Adding to the literature base of documented LSAP dissections provides a greater understanding of the anatomical basis of these perforator flaps, and the authors hope this will establish them as a more commonly used and discussed option when managing complicated lower limb trauma requiring soft tissue reconstruction.

Keywords: lateral, dissection, surface anatomy, cadaveric, perforator flap, sural artery

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491 Cadaveric Dissection versus Systems-Based Anatomy: Testing Final Year Student Surface Anatomy Knowledge to Compare the Long-Term Effectiveness of Different Course Structures

Authors: Z. Ahmad, L. Sun, T. Hargreaves

Abstract:

Newly-qualified Foundation Year 1 doctors in the United Kingdom are frequently expected to perform practical skills involving the upper limb in clinical practice (for example, venipuncture, cannulation, and blood gas sampling). However, a move towards systems-based undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom often precludes or limits dedicated time to anatomy teaching with cadavers or prosections, favouring only applied anatomy in the context of pathology. The authors hypothesised that detailed anatomical knowledge may consequently be adversely affected, particularly with respect to long-term retention. A simple picture quiz and accompanying questionnaire testing the identification of 7 upper limb surface landmarks was distributed to a total of 98 final year medical students from two universities - one with a systems-based curriculum, and one with a dedicated longitudinal dissection-based anatomy module in the first year of study. Students with access to dissection and prosection-based anatomy teaching performed more strongly, with a significantly higher rate of correct identification of all but one of the landmarks. Furthermore, it was notable that none of the students who had previously undertaken a systems-based course scored full marks, compared with 20% of those who had participated in the more dedicated anatomy course. This data suggests that a traditional, dissection-based approach to undergraduate anatomy teaching is superior to modern system-based curricula, in terms of aiding long-term retention of anatomical knowledge pertinent to newly-qualified doctors. The authors express concern that this deficit in proficiency could be detrimental to patient care in clinical practice, and propose that, where dissection-led anatomy teaching is not available, further anatomy revision modules are implemented throughout undergraduate education to aid knowledge retention and support clinical excellence.

Keywords: Education, upper limb, dissection, surface anatomy

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490 Policy and System Research for Health of Ageing Population

Authors: Sehrish Ather

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve organizational achievements through the production of new knowledge, health policy and system research is the basic requirement. An aging population is always the source of the increased burden of chronic diseases, disabilities, mental illnesses, and other co-morbidities; therefore the provision of quality health care services to every group of the population should be achieved by making strong policy and system research for the betterment of health care system. Unfortunately, the whole world is lacking policies and system research for providing health care to their elderly population. Materials and Methods: A literature review of published studies on aging diseases was done, ranging from the year 2011-2018. Geriatric, population, health policy, system, and research were the key terms used for the search. Databases searched were Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Ovid, and Research Gate. Grey literature was searched from various websites, including IHME, Library of the University of Lahore, World Health Organization (Ageing and Life Course), and Personal communication with Neuro-physicians. After careful reviewing published and un-published information, it was decided to carry on with commentary. Results and discussion: Most of the published studies have highlighted the need to advocate the funders of health policy and stakeholders of healthcare system research, and it was detected as a major issue, research on policy and healthcare system to provide health care to 'geriatric population' was found as highly neglected area. Conclusion: It is concluded that physicians are more involved with the policy and system research regarding any type of diseases, but scientists and researchers of basic and social science are less likely to be involved in methods used for health policy and system research due to lack of funding and resources. Therefore ageing diseases should be considered as a priority, and comprehensive policy and system research should be initiated for diseases of the geriatric population.

Keywords: Health Policy, Health Care System, geriatric population, system research

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489 Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

Authors: Evans Frimpong Kyei, John Bright Agyemang, Hanson Boakye, Joana Kyei-Dompim, Collins Kwadwo Ahoto, Evans Oduro, Abigail Kusi Amponsah

Abstract:

Staff shortages, deficient knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, demanding workloads, analgesic shortages, and low prioritization of pain management have been identified in earlier studies as the nursing-related barriers to optimal children’s pain management. These studies have mainly been undertaken in developed countries, which have different healthcare dynamics than those in developing countries. The current study, therefore, sought to identify and understand the nursing-related barriers to children’s pain management in the Ghanaian context. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 28 purposively sampled nurses working in the pediatric units of five hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Over the course of three months, participants were interviewed on the barriers which prevented them from optimally managing children’s pain in practice. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deductively analysed based on a conceptual interest in pain assessment and management-related barriers. NVivo 12 plus software guided data management and analyses. The mean age of participating nurses was 30 years, with majority being females (n =24). Participants had worked in the nursing profession for an average of five years and in the pediatric care settings for an average of two years. The nursing-related barriers identified in the present study included communication difficulties in assessing and evaluating pain management interventions with children who have nonfunctional speech, insufficient training, misconceptions on the experience of pain in children, lack of assessment tools, and insufficient number of nurses to manage the workload and nurses’ inability to prescribe analgesics. The present study revealed some barriers which prevented Ghanaian nurses from optimally managing children’s pain. Nurses should be educated, empowered, and supported with the requisite material resources to effectively manage children’s pain and improve outcomes for families, healthcare systems, and the nation. Future studies should explore the facilitators and barriers from other stakeholders involved in pediatric pain management

Keywords: Children, Pain Management, Ghana, Nursing-Related Barriers

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488 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Reem Ali, Fatmeh Alzoubi

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Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, attitudes, family functioning, Jordanian men and women’s health

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487 Hematological Profiles of Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients before and after Treatment of Anti-Leishmanial Drugs at University of Gondar Leishmania Research and Treatment Center Northwest, Ethiopia

Authors: Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Fadil Murad, Mitikie Tigabie, Mareye Abebaw, Tadele Alemu, Sefanit Abate, Rezika Mohammedw, Arega Yeshanew, Elias Shiferaw

Abstract:

Background: Visceral leshimaniasis is a parasitic disease characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells. Hematological parameters of these patients may be affected by the progress of the disease or treatment. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the hematological profiles of visceral leishmaniasis patients before and after treatment. Method: An institutional based retrospective cohort study was conducted among visceral leishmaniasis patients at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center from 2013 to 2018. Hematological profiles before initiation and after completion of treatment were extracted from registration book. Descriptive statics was presented using frequency and percentage. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for comparing mean difference for normally and non- normally distributed data, respectively. Spearman and Pearson correlation analysis was used to describe the correlation of hematological parameters with different variables. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Except absolute nerutrophil count, post treatment hematological parameters show a significant increment compared to pretreatment one. The prevalence of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia was 85.5%, 83.4% and 75.8% prior to treatment and it was 58.3%, 38.2% and 19.2% after treatment, respectively. Moreover, parasite load of the disease showed statistically significant negative correlation with hematological profiles mainly with white blood cell and red blood cell. Conclusion: Majority of hematological profiles of patients with active VL have been restored after treatment, which might be associated with treatment effect on parasite proliferation and concentration of parasite in visceral organ, which directly affect hematological profiles.

Keywords: visceral leshimaniasis, hematological profile, anti-leshimanial drug, Gondar

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486 Prevalence of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes at a Tertiary Cancer Institute

Authors: Nahush Modak, Meena Pangarkar, Anand Pathak, Ankita Tamhane

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the prominent cause of cancer and mortality among women. This study was done to show the statistical analysis of a cohort of over 250 patients detected with breast cancer diagnosed by oncologists using Immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was performed by using ER; PR; HER2; Ki-67 antibodies. Materials and methods: Formalin fixed Paraffin embedded tissue samples were obtained by surgical manner and standard protocol was followed for fixation, grossing, tissue processing, embedding, cutting and IHC. The Ventana Benchmark XT machine was used for automated IHC of the samples. Antibodies used were supplied by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS for windows. Statistical tests performed were chi-squared test and Correlation tests with p<.01. The raw data was collected and provided by National Cancer Insitute, Jamtha, India. Result: Luminal B was the most prevailing molecular subtype of Breast cancer at our institute. Chi squared test of homogeneity was performed to find equality in distribution and Luminal B was the most prevalent molecular subtype. The worse prognostic indicator for breast cancer depends upon expression of Ki-67 and her2 protein in cancerous cells. Our study was done at p <.01 and significant dependence was observed. There exists no dependence of age on molecular subtype of breast cancer. Similarly, age is an independent variable while considering Ki-67 expression. Chi square test performed on Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses of patients and strong dependence was observed in percentage of Ki-67 expression and Her2 (+/-) character which shows that, value of Ki depends upon Her2 expression in cancerous cells (p<.01). Surprisingly, dependence was observed in case of Ki-67 and Pr, at p <.01. This shows that Progesterone receptor proteins (PR) are over-expressed when there is an elevation in expression of Ki-67 protein. Conclusion: We conclude from that Luminal B is the most prevalent molecular subtype at National Cancer Institute, Jamtha, India. There was found no significant correlation between age and Ki-67 expression in any molecular subtype. And no dependence or correlation exists between patients’ age and molecular subtype. We also found that, when the diagnosis is Luminal A, out of the cohort of 257 patients, no patient shows >14% Ki-67 value. Statistically, extremely significant values were observed for dependence of PR+Her2- and PR-Her2+ scores on Ki-67 expression. (p<.01). Her2 is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Chi squared test for Her2 and Ki-67 shows that the expression of Ki depends upon Her2 statuses. Moreover, Ki-67 cannot be used as a standalone prognostic factor for determining breast cancer.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, correlation, immunohistochemistry, breast cancer molecular subtypes, Ki-67 and HR

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485 Youth Health Promotion Project for Indigenous People in Canada: Together against Bullying and Cyber-Dependence

Authors: Mohamed El Fares Djellatou, Fracoise Filion

Abstract:

The Ashukin program that means bridge in Naskapi or Atikamekw language, has been designed to offer a partnership between nursing students and an indigenous community. The students design a health promotion project tailored to the needs of the community. The issues of intimidation in primary school and cyber-dependence in high school were some concerns in a rural Atikamekw community. The goal of the project was to have a conversation with indigenous youths, aged 10-16 years old, on the challenges presented by intimidation and cyber dependence as well as promoting healthy relationships online and within the community. Methods: Multiple progressive inquiry questions (PIQs) were used to assess the feasibility and importance of this project for the Atikamekw nation, and to determine a plan to follow. The theoretical foundations to guide the conception of the project were the Population Health Promotion Model (PHPM), the First Nations Holistic Lifelong Learning Model, and the Medicine Wheel. A broad array of social determinants of health were addressed, including healthy childhood development, personal health practices, and coping skills, and education. The youths were encouraged to participate in interactive educational sessions, using PowerPoint presentations and pamphlets as the main effective strategies. Additional tools such as cultural artworks and physical activities were introduced to strengthen the inter-relational and team spirit within the Indigenous population. A quality assurance tool (QAT) was developed specifically to determine the appropriateness of these health promotion tools. Improvements were guided by the feedback issued by the indigenous schools’ teachers and social workers who filled the QATs. Post educational sessions, quantitative results have shown that 93.48% of primary school students were able to identify the different types of intimidation, 72.65% recognized more than two strategies, and 52.1% were able to list at least four resources to diffuse intimidation. On the other hand, around 75% of the adolescents were able to name at least three negative effects, and 50% listed three strategies to reduce cyber-dependence. This project was meant to create a bridge with the First Nation through health promotion, a population that is known to be disadvantaged due to systemic health inequity and disparities. Culturally safe care was proposed to deal with the two identified priority issues, and an educational toolkit was given to both schools to ensure the sustainability of the project. The project was self-financed through fundraising activities, and it yielded better results than expected.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Adolescents, Indigenous, Youth, Bullying, School, Community Nursing, Internet Addiction, first nation, cyber-dependence, intimidation

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484 The Effect of Nursing Teamwork Training on Nursing Teamwork Effectiveness

Authors: Manar Ahmed Elbadawy

Abstract:

Background: Empirical evidence suggested that improving nursing teamwork (NTW) may be the key to reducing medical error. The functioning nursing teams require open communication, mutual respect, and shared mental models to activate quality patient care. The complexity and the high demands for specialized nursing knowledge and skill also require nursing staff to consult with one another and work in teams regularly. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of the nursing teamwork training program on nursing teamwork effectiveness. Design: A quasi-experimental (one group pretest-posttest) design was utilized. Three medical intensive care units at a teaching hospital affiliated to Cairo University Hospital, Egypt. Subjects: A convenient sample of 48 nursing staff worked at the selected units. The Nursing Teamwork Observational Checklist was used. Results: Total (NTW) mean scores exhibited quite elevation post-program implementation compared to preprogram and showed little decrease 3 months later ( = 2.52, SD = ± 0.27, mean % =51.98, = 2.72, SD = ± 0.20, mean %=72.45, = 2.67, SD = ± 0.11, mean %= 67.48 respectively). Conclusion: Implementation of (NTW) training program had a positive effect on increasing (NTW) effectiveness. Regular and frequent short-term teamwork training is important to be introduced as well as sustainable monitoring is required to ensure nursing attitudes, knowledge and skills’ change about teamwork effectiveness.

Keywords: Nursing, training, Teamwork, Effectiveness

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483 Increasing Adherence to Preventative Care Bundles for Healthcare-Associated Infections: The Impact of Nurse Education

Authors: Lauren G. Coggins

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Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI), contributing to prolonged lengths of stay, greater costs of patient care, and increased patient mortality. Evidence-based preventative care bundles exist to establish consistent, safe patient-care practices throughout an entire organization, helping to ensure the collective application of care strategies that aim to improve patient outcomes and minimize complications. The cardiac intensive care unit at a nationally ranked teaching and research hospital in the United States exceeded its annual CAUTI and CLABSI targets in the fiscal year 2019, prompting examination into the unit’s infection prevention efforts that included preventative care bundles for both HAIs. Adherence to the CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundles was evaluated through frequent audits conducted over three months, using standards and resources from The Joint Commission, a globally recognized leader in quality improvement in healthcare and patient care safety. The bundle elements with the lowest scores were identified as the most commonly missed elements. Three elements from both bundles, six elements in total, served as key content areas for the educational interventions targeted to bedside nurses. The CAUTI elements included appropriate urinary catheter order, appropriate continuation criteria, and urinary catheter care. The CLABSI elements included primary tubing compliance, needleless connector compliance, and dressing change compliance. An integrated, multi-platform education campaign featured content on each CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundle in its entirety, with additional reinforcement focused on the lowest scoring elements. One-on-one educational materials included an informational pamphlet, badge buddy, a presentation to reinforce nursing care standards, and real-time application through case studies and electronic health record demonstrations. A digital hub was developed on the hospital’s Intranet for quick access to unit resources, and a bulletin board helped track the number of days since the last CAUTI and CLABSI incident. Audits continued to be conducted throughout the education campaign, and staff were given real-time feedback to address any gaps in adherence. Nearly every nurse in the cardiac intensive care unit received all educational materials, and adherence to all six key bundle elements increased after the implementation of educational interventions. Recommendations from this implementation include providing consistent, comprehensive education across multiple teaching tools and regular audits to track adherence. The multi-platform education campaign brought focus to the evidence-based CAUTI and CLABSI bundles, which in turn will help to reduce CAUTI and CLABSI rates in clinical practice.

Keywords: Education, Prevention, Nursing, Infection, healthcare-associated infections

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482 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Ya Ping Chen, Tzu Yu Huang, Chun Mel Lu

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This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: Aromatherapy, Salvia officinalis, heart rate variability, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, parasympathetic nerves

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481 The Ethics of Physical Restraints in Geriatric Care

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Chun Mei Lu, Ya Ping Chen, Li Chen Lu

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This study explores the ethical issues concerning the use of physical restraint in geriatric care. Physical restraint use in a medical care setting is seen as a controversial form of treatment that has occurred over decades. There is no doubt that people nowadays are living longer than previous generations. The ageing process is inevitable. Common disease such as impaired comprehension, memory loss, and trouble expressing one’s self contribute to the difficulty that these older patients have in adapting to medical institution. For these reasons, physical restraint is often used in reducing the risk of falling, managing wandering behaviour, preventing agitation, and promoting patient compliance in geriatric care. It can mean that physical restraints are considered as a common practice that is used in the care of older patients. It is most commonly used for three specific purposes, including procedural restraint, restraint to prevent falls, and behavioural restraints. Although there have been well documented instances of morbidity and mortality recognised as being potential risks associated with physical restraint use, it continues to be permitted and used in healthcare, often in the name of safety. However, there is insufficient evidence supporting the effectiveness of physical restraint use reducing injuries from falls and controlling challenging behaviour in geriatric care settings. There is barely any empirical evidence of either a scientific basis or clinical trials have evaluated the improvement in patient safety following physical restraint. In difficult clinical situations, guidelines and practical suggestions for Healthcare professionals to comply requirements can help those making appropriate decisions and to facilitate better judgement regarding physical restraint use. The following recommendations are given for physical restraint use in long-term care settings: an interdisciplinary team approach to assess, evaluate, and treat underlying diseases to determine if treatment can ease issues precipitating physical restraint use; a clearly stated purpose of treatment plan should be made after weighing up the risk of physical restraint use against the risk of without physical restraint use; a care plan for physical restraint has to include individualised treatment planning, informed consent, identification and remedial action to avoid negative consequences, regular assessment and modification, reduction and removal of risks; patients and their families must have the opportunity to consider and give voluntary informed consent prior to physical restraint utilisation; patients, family members, and Healthcare professionals should be educated on use and adverse consequences of physical restraints in order to make raise awareness of potential risks and to take appropriate steps to prevent unnecessary harm; after physical restraint removal, Healthcare professionals should discuss with patients and family members about their experience, feelings, and any anxieties regarding the treatment. Physical restraint should always be considered a last resort as deprive patient’s freedom, control, and individuality. Healthcare professionals should emphasise on providing individualized care, interdisciplinary decision-making process, and creative and collaborative alternatives to promote older patient’s rights, dignity and overall well-being as much as possible.

Keywords: Healthcare, Geriatric care, ethics healthcare, physical restraint

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480 Project-Based Learning and Evidence Based Nursing as Tools for Developing Students' Integrative Critical Thinking Skills: Content Analysis of Final Students' Projects

Authors: E. Maoz

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Background: As a teaching method, project-based learning is strongly linked to developing students’ critical thinking skills. It combines creative independent thinking, team work, and disciplinary subject-field integration. In the 'Introduction to Nursing Research Methods' course (year 3, Generic Track), project based learning is used to teach the topic of 'Evidence-Based Nursing'. This topic examines a clinical care issue encountered by students in the field. At the end of their project, students present proposals for managing the said issue. Proposals are the product of independent integrative thinking integrating a wide range of factors influencing the issue’s management. Method: Papers by 27 groups of students (165 students) were content analyzed to identify which themes emerged from the students' recommendations for managing the clinical issue. Findings: Five main themes emerged—current management approach; adapting procedures in line with current recent research recommendations; training for change (veteran nursing staff, beginner students, patients, significant others); analysis of 'economic benefit vs. patient benefit'; multidisciplinary team engagement in implementing change in practice. Two surprising themes also emerged: advertising and marketing using new technologies, which reflects how the new generation thinks. Summary and Recommendations: Among the main challenges in nursing education is training nursing graduates to think independently, integratively, and critically. Combining PBL with classical teaching methods stimulates students cognitively while opening new vistas with implications on all levels of the profession: management, research, education, and practice. Advanced students can successfully grasp and interpret the current state of clinical practice. They are competent and open to leading change and able to consider the diverse factors and interconnections that characterize the nurse's work.

Keywords: Critical Thinking Skills, Project Based Learning, Evidence Based Nursing, students education

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479 Experience of Inpatient Life in Korean Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Se-Hwa Park, En-Kyung Han, Jae-Young Lim, Hye-Jung Ahn

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Purpose: The objective of this study is to provide basic data for understanding the substance of inpatient life with CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) and developing efficient and effective nursing intervention. Methods: From September 2018 to November, we have interviewed 10 CRPS patients about inpatient experiences. To understand the implication of inpatient life experiences with CRPS and intrinsic structure, we have used the question: 'How about the inpatient experiences with CRPS'. For data analysis, the method suggested by Colaizzi was applied as a phenomenological method. Results: According to the analysis, the study participants' inpatient life process was structured in six categories: (a) breakthrough pain experience (b) the limitation of pain treatment, (c) worsen factors of pain during inpatient period, (d) treat method for pain, (e) positive experience for inpatient period, (f) requirements for medical team, family and people in hospital room. Conclusion: Inpatient with CRPS have experienced the breakthrough pain. They had expected immediate treatment for breakthrough pain, but they experienced severe pain because immediate treatment was not implemented. Pain-worsening factors which patients with CRPS are as follows: personal factors from negative emotions such as insomnia, stress, sensitive character, pain part touch or vibration stimulus on the bed, physical factors from high threshold or rapid speed during fast transfer, conflict with other people, climate factors such as humidity or low temperature, noise, smell, lack of space because of many visitors. Patients actively manage the pain committing into another tasks or diversion. And also, patients passively manage the pain, just suppress, give-up. They think positively about rehabilitation treatment. And they require the understanding and sympathy for other people, and emotional support, immediate intervention for medical team. Based on the results of this study, we suppose the guideline of systematic breakthrough pain management for the relaxation of sudden pain, using notice of informing caution for touch or vibration. And we need to develop non-medicine pain management nursing intervention.

Keywords: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, breakthrough pain, CRPS, inpatient life experiences, phenomenological method

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478 Improving the Patient Guidance Satisfaction and Integrity of Patients Hospitalized in Iodine-131 Isolation Rooms

Authors: Yu Sin Syu

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Objective: The study aimed to improve the patient guidance satisfaction of patients hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms, as well as the patient guidance completion rate for such patients. Method: A patient care guidance checklist and patient care guidance satisfaction questionnaire were administered to 29 patients who had previously been hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms. The evaluation was conducted on a one-on-one basis, and its results showed that the patients’ satisfaction with patient guidance was only 3.7 points and that the completion rate for the patient guidance performed by nurses was only 67%. Therefore, various solutions were implemented to create a more complete patient guidance framework for nurses, including the incorporation of regular care-related training in in-service education courses; the establishment of patient care guidance standards for patients in iodine-131 isolation rooms; the establishment of inpatient care standards and auditing processes for iodine-131 isolation rooms; the creation of an introductory handbook on ward environment; Invite other the care team the revision of iodine-131 health education brochures; the creation of visual cards and videos covering equipment operation procedures; and introduction of QR codes. Results: Following the implementation of the above measures, the overall satisfaction of patients hospitalized in iodine-131 isolation rooms increased from 3.7 points to 4.6 points, and the completion rate for patient guidance rose from 67% to 100%. Conclusion: Given the excellent results achieved in this study, it is hoped that this nursing project can serve as a benchmark for other relevant departments.

Keywords: Integrity, admission care guidance, guidance satisfaction, Iodine131 isolation

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477 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar

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Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: Depression, Prevalence, systematic review, post stroke survivors

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476 Zarit Burden Interview among Informal Caregiver of Person with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nuraisyah H. Zulkifley, Suriani Ismail, Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Poh Y. Lim

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Taking care of a person with dementia (PWD) is one of the most problematic and challenging caregiving situations. Without proper support, caregiver would need to deal with the impact of caregiving that would lead to caregiver burden. One of the most common tools used to measure caregiver burden among caregivers of PWD is Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). A systematic review has been conducted through searching Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and Scopus databases to identify relevant articles that elaborate on intervention and outcomes on ZBI among informal caregiver of PWD. The articles were searched in October 2019 with no restriction on language or publication status. Inclusion criteria are randomized control trial (RCT) studies, participants were informal caregivers of PWD, ZBI measured as outcomes, and intervention group was compared with no intervention control or usual care control. Two authors reviewed and extracted the data from the full-text articles. From a total of 344 records, nine studies were selected and included in this narrative review, and eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The types of interventions that were implemented to ease caregiver burden are psychoeducation, physical activity, psychosocial, and computer-based intervention. The meta-analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the mean score of ZBI (p = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control group after implementation of intervention. In conclusion, interventions such as psychoeducation, psychosocial, and physical activity can help to reduce the burden experiencing by the caregivers of PWD.

Keywords: Dementia, randomized control trial, informal caregiver, Zarit burden interview

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475 Integration of Technology for Enhanced Learning among Generation Y and Z Nursing Students

Authors: Tarandeep Kaur

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Generation Y and Z nursing students have a much higher need for technology-based stimulation than previous generations, as they may find traditional methods of education boring and disinterested. These generations prefer experiential learning and the use of advanced technology for enhanced learning. Therefore, nursing educators must acquire knowledge to make better use of technology and technological tools for instruction. Millennials and generation are digital natives, optimistic, assertive, want engagement, instant feedback, and collaborative approach. The integration of technology and the efficacy of its use can be challenging for nursing educators. The SAMR (substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition) model designed and developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura can help nursing educators to engage their students in different levels of technology integration for effective learning. Nursing educators should understand that technology use in the classroom must be purposeful. The influx of technology in nursing education is ever-changing; therefore, nursing educators have to constantly enhance and develop technical skills to keep up with the emerging technology in the schools as well as hospitals. In the Saskatchewan Collaborative Bachelor of Nursing (SCBSCN) program at Saskatchewan polytechnic, we use technology at various levels using the SAMR model in our program, including low and high-fidelity simulation labs. We are also exploring futuristic options of using virtual reality and gaming in our classrooms as an innovative way to motivate, increase critical thinking, create active learning, provide immediate feedback, improve student retention and create collaboration.

Keywords: Nursing, Technology, generations, SAMR

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474 Understanding the Strategies Underpinning the Marketing of E-Cigarettes: A Content Analysis of Video Advertisements

Authors: Laura Struik, Sarah Dow-Fleisner, Robert Janke

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Introduction: The use of e-cigarettes, also known as vaping, has risen exponentially among North American youth and young adults (YYA) in recent years and has become a critical public health concern. The marketing strategies used by e-cigarette companies have been associated with the uptick in use among YYA, with video advertisements on TV and other electronic platforms being the most pervasive strategy. It is unknown if or how these advertisements capitalize on the recently documented multi-faceted influences that contribute to the initiation of vaping among this demographic (e.g., stress, anxiety, gender, peers, etc.), which is examined in this study. Methods: This content analysis is phase one of a two-phased research project that aims to inform meaningful approaches to anti-vaping messaging and campaigns. As part of this first phase, a scoping review has been conducted to identify various influences (environmental, cognitive, contextual, social, and emotional) on e-cigarette uptake among YYA. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a coding framework to analyze the multiple influences present in vaping advertisements, as seen on two popular television channels (Discovery and AMC). In addition, advertisement characteristics will be incorporated into the coding framework (e.g., the number of people present, demographic details, context, and setting, etc.), and analyzed. Findings: Findings will reveal the types of influences being leveraged in vaping advertisements, and identify the underlying messages that may be particularly attractive to YYA. This will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how e-cigarette companies market their products and to whom. The results will also inform the next phase of this research project, which will encompass an analysis of anti-vaping advertisements and how the underpinning strategies align with those of the pro-vaping advertisements. Conclusions: Findings of this will study bring forward important implications for developing effective anti-vaping messages, and assist public health professionals in providing more comprehensive prevention and cessation support as it relates to e-cigarette use. Understanding which marketing strategies e-cigarette companies use is vital to our understanding of how to combat them. Findings will inform recommendations for public health efforts aimed at curbing e-cigarette use among YYA, and ultimately contribute to the health and well-being of YYA.

Keywords: Public Health, advertisements, e-cigarettes, youth and young adults

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473 Comparing the SALT and START Triage System in Disaster and Mass Casualty Incidents: A Systematic Review

Authors: Hendri Purwadi, Christine McCloud

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Triage is a complex decision-making process that aims to categorize a victim’s level of acuity and the need for medical assistance. Two common triage systems have been widely used in Mass Casualty Incidents (MCIs) and disaster situation are START (Simple triage algorithm and rapid treatment) and SALT (sort, asses, lifesaving, intervention, and treatment/transport). There is currently controversy regarding the effectiveness of SALT over START triage system. This systematic review aims to investigate and compare the effectiveness between SALT and START triage system in disaster and MCIs setting. Literatures were searched via systematic search strategy from 2009 until 2019 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Science direct, Medlib, ProQuest. This review included simulated-based and medical record -based studies investigating the accuracy and applicability of SALT and START triage systems of adult and children population during MCIs and disaster. All type of studies were included. Joana Briggs institute critical appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of reviewed studies. As a result, 1450 articles identified in the search, 10 articles were included. Four themes were identified by review, they were accuracy, under-triage, over-triage and time to triage per individual victim. The START triage system has a wide range and inconsistent level of accuracy compared to SALT triage system (44% to 94. 2% of START compared to 70% to 83% of SALT). The under-triage error of START triage system ranged from 2.73% to 20%, slightly lower than SALT triage system (7.6 to 23.3%). The over-triage error of START triage system was slightly greater than SALT triage system (START ranged from 2% to 53% compared to 2% to 22% of SALT). The time for applying START triage system was faster than SALT triage system (START was 70-72.18 seconds compared to 78 second of SALT). Consequently; The START triage system has lower level of under-triage error and faster than SALT triage system in classifying victims of MCIs and disaster whereas SALT triage system is known slightly more accurate and lower level of over-triage. However, the magnitude of these differences is relatively small, and therefore the effect on the patient outcomes is not significance. Hence, regardless of the triage error, either START or SALT triage system is equally effective to triage victims of disaster and MCIs.

Keywords: Disaster, Effectiveness, mass casualty incidents, START triage system, SALT triage system

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