Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 522

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nursing and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

522 Psychometric Validation of Czech Version of Spiritual Needs Assessment for Patients: The First Part of Research

Authors: Lucie Mrackova, Helena Kisvetrova

Abstract:

Spirituality is an integral part of human life. In a secular environment, spiritual needs are often overlooked, especially in acute nursing care. Spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), which also exists in the Czech version (SNAP-CZ), can be used for objective evaluation. The aim of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ and to find correlations between SNAP-CZ and sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study with tools assessing spiritual needs (SNAP-CZ), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI), pain (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), self-sufficiency (Barthel Index; BI); cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Test; MoCa) and selected socio-demographic data was performed. The psychometric properties of SNAP-CZ were tested using factor analysis, reliability and validity tests, and correlations between the questionnaire and sociodemographic data and clinical variables. Internal consistency was established with Cronbach’s alfa for the overall score, respective domains, and individual items. Reliability was assessed by test-retest by Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data for correlation analysis were processed according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study included 172 trauma patients (the mean age = 40.6 ± 12.1 years) who experienced polytrauma or severe monotrauma. There were a total of 106 (61.6%) male subjects, 140 (81.4%) respondents identified themselves as non-believers. The full-scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.907. The test-retest showed the reliability of the individual domains in the range of 0.924 to 0.960 ICC. Factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (psychosocial needs (alfa = 0.788), spiritual needs (alfa = 0.886) and religious needs (alfa = 0.841)). Correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that the domain of psychosocial needs significantly correlated only with gender (r = 0.178, p = 0.020). Males had a statistically significant lower average value in this domain (mean = 12.5) compared to females (mean = 13.8). The domain of spiritual needs significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.199, p = 0.009), social status (r = 0.156, p = 0.043), faith (r = -0.250, p = 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.194, p = 0.011) and depression (r = 0.155, p = 0.044). The domain of religious needs significantly correlated with age (r = 0,208, p = 0,007), education (r = -0,161, p = 0,035), faith (r = -0,575, p < 0,0001) and depression (r = 0,179, p = 0,019). Overall, the whole SNAP scale significantly correlated with gender (r = 0.219, p = 0.004), social status (r = 0.175, p = 0.023), faith (r = -0.334, p <0.0001), anxiety (r = 0.177, p = 0.022) and depression (r = 0.173, p = 0.025). The results of this study corroborate the reliability of the SNAP-CZ and support its future use in the nursing care of trauma patients in a secular society. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by grant nr. IGA_FZV_2020_003.

Keywords: Patient, Spirituality, acute nursing care, assessment of spiritual needs, psychometric validation

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521 The Impact of Online Visit Practice by Midwifery Students on Child-Rearing Midwives during The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Authors: Mari Murakami, Hiromi Kawasaki, Saori Fujimoto, Yoko Ueno

Abstract:

Background: In Japan, one of the goals of midwifery education is the development of one’s ability to comprehensively support the child-rearing generation in collaboration with professionals from other disciplines. However, in order to prevent the spread of Covid-19, it has become extremely difficult to provide face-to-face support for mothers and children. Early on in the pandemic, we sought help from three parenting midwives as an alternative and attempted an online visit. Since midwives who are raising children respond to the training as both mothers who are care recipients and midwives as care providers. Therefore, we attempted to verify the usefulness of midwives experiencing training as mothers by clarifying the effects on those midwives who are raising children and who have experienced online visit training by students. Methods: The online visitations were conducted in June 2020. The collaborators were three midwives who were devoted to childcare. During the online visit training, we used the feedback records of their questions given by the collaborators (with their permission) to the students. The verbatim record was created from the records. Qualitative descriptive analysis was used, and subcategories and categories were extracted. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Epidemiology of Hiroshima University. Results: The average age of the three midwives was 36.3 years, with an average of 12.3 years of experience after graduation. They were each raising multiple children (ranging between a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 4 children). Their youngest infants were 6.7 months old on average for all. Five categories that emerged were: contributing to the development of midwifery students as a senior; the joy of accepting the efforts of a mother while raising children; recalling the humility of beginners through the integrity of midwifery students; learning opportunities about the benefits of online visits; and suggesting further challenges for online visits. Conclusion: The online visit training was an opportunity for midwives who are raising their own children to reinforce an honest and humble approach based on the attitude of the students, for self-improvement, and to reflect on the practice of midwifery from another person’s viewpoint. It was also noted that the midwives contributed to the education of midwifery students. Furthermore, they also agreed with the use of online visitations and considered the advantages and disadvantages of its use from the perspective of mothers and midwives. Online visits were seen to empower midwives on childcare leave, as their child-rearing was accepted and admired. Online visits by students were considered to be an opportunity to not only provide a sense of fulfillment as a recipient of care but also to think concretely about career advancement, during childcare leave, regarding the ideal way for midwifery training and teaching.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, child-rearing midwife, online visit practice, qualitive descriptive study

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520 Developing a Culturally Adapted Family Intervention for Relatives Living with Schizophrenia in Oman

Authors: Aziza Al-Sawafi

Abstract:

Introduction: The evidence of family interventions in schizophrenia is robust primarily in high-income settings. However, they have been adapted to other settings and cultures to improve effectiveness and acceptability. In Oman, there is limited integration of psychosocial interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, the adaptation of family intervention to the Omani culture may facilitate its uptake. Most service users in Oman live with their families outside the healthcare system, and nothing is known about their experience, needs, or resources. Furthermore, understanding caregivers' and mental health professionals' preferences, perceptions, and experience is a fundamental element in the process of intervention development. Therefore, this study aims to develop a culturally sensitive, feasible, and acceptable family intervention for relatives living with schizophrenia in Oman. Method: The Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex health care interventions provided the conceptual structure for the study. The development phase was carried out, which involved three stages: 1) systematically reviewing the available literature regarding culturally adapted family interventions in the Arab world 2) In-depth interviews with caregivers to explore their experience and perceived needs and preferences regarding intervention 3) A focus group study involving health professionals to explore the acceptability and feasibility of delivering the family intervention in the Omani context. Data synthesis determined the design of the proposed intervention according to the findings obtained from the previous stages. Results: Stage one: The systematic review found limited evidence of culturally-adapted family interventions in the Arab region. However, the cultural adaptation process was comprehensive, and the implementation was reported to be feasible and acceptable. Stage two: The experience of family caregivers illuminated four main themes: burden, stigma, violence, and family needs. Burdens of care included objective and subjective burdens, positive feelings, and coping mechanisms. Caregivers gave their opinion about the content and preference of the intervention from their personal experiences. Stage three: mental health professionals discussed the delivery system of the intervention from a clinical standpoint concerning issues and barriers to implementation. They recommended modifications to the components of the intervention to ensure its acceptability and feasibility in the local setting. Data synthesis was carried out, and the intervention was designed. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of the potential applicability and acceptability of a culturally sensitive family intervention for families of individuals with schizophrenia in Oman. However, more work needs to be done to test the feasibility of the study and overcome the practical challenges.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, oman, cultural-adaptation, family intervention

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519 The Impact of the Macro-Level: Organizational Communication in Undergraduate Medical Education

Authors: Julie M. Novak, Simone K. Brennan, Lacey Brim

Abstract:

Undergraduate medical education (UME) curriculum notably addresses micro-level communications (e.g., patient-provider, intercultural, inter-professional), yet frequently under-examines the role and impact of organizational communication, a more macro-level. Organizational communication, however, functions as foundation and through systemic structures of an organization and thereby serves as hidden curriculum and influences learning experiences and outcomes. Yet, little available research exists fully examining how students experience organizational communication while in medical school. Extant literature and best practices provide insufficient guidance for UME programs, in particular. The purpose of this study was to map and examine current organizational communication systems and processes in a UME program. Employing a phenomenology-grounded and participatory approach, this study sought to understand the organizational communication system from medical students' perspective. The research team consisted of a core team and 13 medical student co-investigators. This research employed multiple methods, including focus groups, individual interviews, and two surveys (one reflective of focus group questions, the other requesting students to submit ‘examples’ of communications). To provide context for student responses, nonstudent participants (faculty, administrators, and staff) were sampled, as they too express concerns about communication. Over 400 students across all cohorts and 17 nonstudents participated. Data were iteratively analyzed and checked for triangulation. Findings reveal the complex nature of organizational communication and student-oriented communications. They reveal program-impactful strengths, weaknesses, gaps, and tensions and speak to the role of organizational communication practices influencing both climate and culture. With regard to communications, students receive multiple, simultaneous communications from multiple sources/channels, both formal (e.g., official email) and informal (e.g., social media). Students identified organizational strengths including the desire to improve student voice, and message frequency. They also identified weaknesses related to over-reliance on emails, numerous platforms with inconsistent utilization, incorrect information, insufficient transparency, assessment/input fatigue, tacit expectations, scheduling/deadlines, responsiveness, and mental health confidentiality concerns. Moreover, they noted gaps related to lack of coordination/organization, ambiguous point-persons, student ‘voice-only’, open communication loops, lack of core centralization and consistency, and mental health bridges. Findings also revealed organizational identity and cultural characteristics as impactful on the medical school experience. Cultural characteristics included program size, diversity, urban setting, student organizations, community-engagement, crisis framing, learning for exams, inefficient bureaucracy, and professionalism. Moreover, they identified system structures that do not always leverage cultural strengths or reduce cultural problematics. Based on the results, opportunities for productive change are identified. These include leadership visibly supporting and enacting overall organizational narratives, making greater efforts in consistently ‘closing the loop’, regularly sharing how student input effects change, employing strategies of crisis communication more often, strengthening communication infrastructure, ensuring structures facilitate effective operations and change efforts, and highlighting change efforts in informational communication. Organizational communication and communications are not soft-skills, or of secondary concern within organizations, rather they are foundational in nature and serve to educate/inform all stakeholders. As primary stakeholders, students and their success directly affect the accomplishment of organizational goals. This study demonstrates how inquiries about how students navigate their educational experience extends research-based knowledge and provides actionable knowledge for the improvement of organizational operations in UME.

Keywords: Organizational Communication, participatory research, medical education programs, qualitative mixed methods

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518 Health Communication and the Diabetes Narratives of Key Social Media Influencers in the UK

Authors: Z. Sun

Abstract:

Health communication is essential in promoting healthy lifestyles, managing disease conditions, and eventually reducing health disparities. The key elements of successful health communication always include the development of communication strategies to engage people in thinking about their health, inform them about healthy choices, persuade them to adopt safe and healthy behaviours, and eventually achieve public health objectives. The use of 'Narrative' is recognised as a kind of health communication strategy to enhance personal and public health due to its potential persuasive effect in motivating and supporting individuals change their beliefs and behaviours by inviting them into a narrative world, breaking down their cognitive and emotional resistance and enhance their acceptance of the ideas portrayed in narratives. Meanwhile, the popularity of social media has provided a novel means of communication for both healthcare stakeholders, and a special group of active social media users (influencers) have started playing a pivotal role in providing health ‘solutions’. Such individuals are often referred to as ‘influencers’ because of their central position in the online communication system and the persuasive effect their actions may have on audiences. They may have established a positive rapport with their audience, earned trust and credibility in a specific area, and thus, their audience considers the information they delivered to be authentic and influential. To our best knowledge, to date, there is no published research that examines the effect of diabetes narratives presented by social media influencers and their impacts on health-related outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the diabetes narratives presented by social media influencers in the UK because of the new dimension they bring to health communication and the potential impact they may have on audiences' health outcomes. This study is situated within the interpretivist and narrative paradigms. A mixed methodology combining both quantitative and qualitative approaches has been adopted. Qualitative data has been derived to provide a better understanding of influencers’ personal experiences and how they construct meanings and make sense of their world, while quantitative data has been accumulated to identify key social media influencers in the UK and measure the impact of diabetes narratives on audiences. Twitter has been chosen as the social media platform to initially identify key influencers. Two groups of participants are the top 10 key social media influencers in the UK and 100 audiences of each influencer, which means a total of 1000 audiences have been invited. This paper is going to discuss, first of all, the background of the research under the context of health communication; Secondly, the necessity and contribution of this research; then, the major research questions being explored; and finally, the methods to be used.

Keywords: Diabetes, Health communication, Narratives, social media influencers

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517 Using Health Literacy and Medico-Legal Guidance to Improve Restorative Dentistry Patient Information Leaflets

Authors: Hasneet K. Kalsi, Julie K. Kilgariff

Abstract:

Introduction: Within dentistry, the process for gaining informed consent has become more complex. To consent for treatment, patients must understand all reasonable treatment options and associated risks and benefits. Consenting is therefore deeply embedded in health literacy. Patients attending for dental consultation are often presented with an array of information and choices, yet studies show patients recall less than half of the information provided immediately after. Appropriate and comprehensible patient information leaflets (PILs) may be useful aid memories. In 2016 the World Health Organisation set improving health literacy as a global priority. Soon after, Scotland’s 2017-2025 Making it Easier: A Health Literacy Action Plan followed. This project involved the review of Restorative PILs used within Dundee Dental Hospital to assess the Content and Readability. Method: The current PIL on Root Canal Treatment (RCT) was created in 2011. This predates the Montgomery vs. NHS Lanarkshire case, a ruling which significantly impacted dental consenting processes, as well as General Dental Council’s (GDC’s) Standards for the Dental Team and Faculty of General Dental Practice’s Good Practice Guidance on Clinical Examination and Record-Keeping. Current evidence-based guidance, including that stipulated by the GDC, was reviewed. A 20-point Essential Content Checklist was designed to conform to best practice guidance for valid consenting processes. The RCT leaflet was scored against this to ascertain if the content was satisfactory. Having ensured the content satisfied medicolegal requirements, health literacy considerations were reviewed regarding readability. This was assessed using McLaughlin’s Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula, which identifies school stages that would have to be achieved to comprehend the PIL. The sensitivity of the results to alternative readability methods were assessed. Results: The PIL was not sufficient for modern consenting processes and reflected a suboptimal level of health literacy. Evaluation of the leaflet revealed key content was missing, including information pertaining to risks and benefits. Only five points out of the 20-point checklist were present. The readability score was 16, equivalent to a level 2 in National Adult Literacy Standards/Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework Level 5; 62% of Scottish adults are able to read to this standard. Discussion: Assessment of the leaflet showed it was no longer fit for purpose. Reasons include a lack of pertinent information, a text-heavy leaflet lacking flow, and content errors. The SMOG score indicates a high level of comprehension is required to understand this PIL, which many patients may not possess. A new PIL, compliant with medicolegal and health literacy guidance, was designed with patient-driven checklists, notes spaces for annotations/ questions and areas for clinicians to highlight important case-specific information. It has been tested using the SMOG formula. Conclusion: PILs can be extremely useful. Studies show that interactive use can enhance their effectiveness. PILs should reflect best practice guidance and be understood by patients. The 2020 leaflet designed and implemented aims to fulfill the needs of a modern healthcare system and its service users. It embraces and embeds Scotland’s Health Literacy Action Plan within the consenting process. A review of further leaflets using this model is ongoing.

Keywords: health literacy, Consent, Restorative Dentistry, patient information leaflet

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516 Implementation and Use of Person-Centered Care in Europe: A Literature Review

Authors: Kristina Rosengren, Petra Brannefors, Eric Carlstrom

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Background: Implementation and use of person-centered care (PCC) is increasing worldwide, and why the current study intends to increase knowledge regarding how PCC is used in different European countries. Purpose: To describe the extent of person-centred care in 23 European countries in relation to use specific countries healthcare system (Beveridge, Bismarck, Mixed/OOP). Methods: The study was conducted by literature review inspired by Spice, both scientific empirical studies (Cinahl, Medline, Scopus) as well as grey literature (Google) were used. Totally 1194 documents were included divided into Cinahl n=139, Medline n=245, Scopus n=493 and Google n=317. Data were analysed with descriptive (percentage, range) regarding content and scope of PCC/country according to content and scope of PCC in each country, grouped into the healthcare system (Beveridge, Bismarck, Mixed/OOP) and geographic placement. Results: PCC were most common in UK (England, Scotland, Wales, North Ireland), n=481, 40.3%, Sweden (n=231, 19.3%), The Netherlands (n=80, 6.7%), Ireland (n=79, 6.6%) and Norway (n=61, 5.1%); and less common in Poland (0.6%), Hungary (0.5%), Greece (0.4%), Latvia (0.4%) and Serbia (0%). Beveridge healthcare system (12/23=0.5217, 52.2%) show 85 percent of documents with advantage of scientific literature valued 2.92 (n=999, 0.55-4.07), compare to advantage of grey literature in Bismarck (10/23=0.4347, 43.5%) with 15 percentage valued 2.35 (n=190, 0-3.27) followed by Mixed/OOP (1/23=4%) with 0.4 valued 2.25. Conclusions: Seven out of 10 countries with Beveridge health system used PCC compare to less-used PCC in countries with the Bismarck system. Research, as well as national regulations regarding PCC, are important tools to motivate the advantage of PCC in clinical practice. Moreover, implementation of PCC needs a systematic approach, from national (politicians), regional (guideline) and local (specific healthcare settings) levels visualized by decision-making as law, mission, policies, and routines in clinical practice to establish a well-integrated phenomenon in Europe.

Keywords: Europe, literature review, evidence-based, Person-Centered Care, Beveridge, Bismarck

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515 Psychometric Properties of the Social Skills Rating System: Teacher Version

Authors: Amani Kappi, Ana Maria Linares, Gia Mudd-Martin

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Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are more likely to develop social skills deficits that can lead to academic underachievement, peer rejection, and maladjustment. Surveying teachers about children's social skills with ADHD will become a significant factor in identifying whether the children will be diagnosed with social skills deficits. The teacher-specific version of the Social Skills Rating System scale (SSRS-T) has been used as a screening tool for children's social behaviors. The psychometric properties of the SSRS-T have been evaluated in various populations and settings, such as when used by teachers to assess social skills for children with learning disabilities. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the SSRS-T when used to assess children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the SSRS-T and two SSRS-T subscales, Social Skills and Problem Behaviors. This was a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. This study included a sample of 194 teachers who used the SSRS-T to assess the social skills of children aged 8 to 10 years with ADHD. Exploratory principal components factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity of the SSRS-T scale. Cronbach’s alpha value was used to assess the internal consistency reliability of the total SSRS-T scale and the subscales. Item analyses included item-item intercorrelations, item-to-subscale correlations, and Cronbach’s alpha value changes with item deletion. The results of internal consistency reliability for both the total scale and subscales were acceptable. The results of the exploratory factor analysis supported the five factors of SSRS-T (Cooperation, Self-control, Assertion, Internalize behaviors, and Externalize behaviors) reported in the original version. Findings indicated that SSRS-T is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the social behaviors of children with ADHD.

Keywords: Children, ADHD, Social Skills, psychometric properties, SSRS-T

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514 Links between Moral Distress of Registered Nurses and Factors Related to Patient Care at the End of Their Life: A Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: L. Laurs, A. Blazeviciene, D. Milonas

Abstract:

Introduction: Nursing as a profession is grounded in moral obligation. Nursing practice is grounded in ethical standards: to not harm, to promote justice, to be accountable, and to provide safe and competent care. The nature of the nurse-patient therapeutic relationship requires acting on the patient's behalf. Moral distress consists of negative stress symptoms that occur in situations that involve ethical situations that the nurse perceives as discordant with their professional values. Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to assess links between moral distress of registered nurses and factors related to patient care at the end of their life. Methods and Sample: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was applied in this study. Registered nurses were recruited from seven municipal multi-profile hospitals providing both general and specialized healthcare services in Lithuania (N=1055). Research instruments included two questionnaires: Obstacles and Facilitating at the End of Life Care and Moral Distress Scale (revised). Results: Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between nurses' attitudes towards patient care at the end of life and the experienced moral distress. A statistically significant correlation between moral distress and the following factors related to patient end-of-life care has been identified: conversations with physicians on patient end-of-life problems have a positive impact on job satisfaction; some patients may be excluded from decisions about their treatment and nursing because they are questioned about their ability to assess the situation. These situations increased moral distress. Patient consciousness should not be permanently suppressed by calming medications, and the patient should be provided with all nursing care services and moral distress. Conclusions: The moral distress of nurses is significantly related to the end-of-life care of patients and their determinants: moral distress increased due to lack of discussion with doctors about problem-solving and exclusion of patients from decision-making. And it diminished by refusing calming medications to permanently suppress a patient's consciousness and providing good care for patients.

Keywords: end of life, Care, moral distress, registered nurses

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513 Covid-19: Preparedness, Response, and Use of Video Technology in Managing Infection Rate at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos-Nigeria

Authors: Afolakemi Helen Olaleye, Ogunjobi A. O

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Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Nigeria, the virus has spread to virtually all sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. In Nigeria, government agencies came together to create a goal-driven taskforce in improving our response against the virus. As COVID-19 international spread has been curtailed, community spread became rampant locally, leading to many health authorities raising concerns over the scarcity of medical consumables and supplies. Here at Lagos university teaching Hospital (LUTH), we present data analysis of COVID-19 infections offered at our Hospital (LUTH) and the surrounding communities. In addition, the adopted innovative solution to control the spread of infection, methods used in filling shortages of consumables, personal protective equipment (PPE), and use of mobile video technology in patient’s consultation. The management style and strategy adopted has led to a decline in infection rates in our community and among our front line staff. The current COVID -19 crisis has created an opportunity to test and demonstrate our pandemic response and control of infectious disease along with the revealed unknown potential in our community.

Keywords: Preparedness, response, COVID-19, Lagos university teaching hospital

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512 Covid-19 Lockdown Experience of Elderly Female as Reflected in Their Artwork

Authors: Liat Shamri-Zeevi, Neta Ram-Vlasov

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Today the world as a whole is attempting to cope with the COVID-19, which has affected all facets of personal and social life from country-wide confinement to maintaining social distance and taking protective measures to maintain hygiene. One of the populations faced with the most severe restrictions is seniors. Various studies have shown that creativity plays a crucial role in dealing with crisis events. Painting - regardless of media - allows for emotional and cognitive processing of these situations, and enables the expression of experiences in a tangible creative way that conveys and endows meaning to the artwork. The current study was conducted in Israel immediately after a 6-week lockdown. It was designed to specifically examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life of elderly women as reflected in their artworks. The sample was composed of 21 Israeli women aged 60-90, in good mental health (without diagnosed dementia or Alzheimer's), all of whom were Hebrew-speaking, and retired with an extended family, who indicated that they painted and had engaged in artwork on an ongoing basis throughout the lockdown (from March 12 to May 30, 2020). The participants' artworks were collected, and a semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted that lasted one to two hours. The participants were asked about their feelings during the pandemic and the artworks they produced during this time, and completed a questionnaire on well-being and mental health. The initial analysis of the interviews and artworks revealed themes related to the specific role of each piece of artwork. The first theme included notions that the artwork was an activity and a framework for doing, which supported positive emotions, and provided a sense of vitality during the closure. Most of the participants painted images of nature and growth which were ascribed concrete and symbolic meaning. The second theme was that the artwork enabled the processing of difficult and /or conflicting emotions related to the situation, including anxiety about death and loneliness that were symbolically expressed in the artworks, such as images of the Corona virus and the respiratory machines. The third theme suggested that the time and space prompted by the lockdown gave the participants time for a gathering together of the self, and freed up time for creative activities. Many participants stated that they painted more and more frequently during the Corona lockdown. At the conference, additional themes and findings will be presented.

Keywords: Corona virus, artwork, quality of life of elderly

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511 The Effects of Peer Education on Condom Use Intentions: A Comprehensive Sex Education Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Janell Jayamohan

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A pilot project based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was completed at a single sex female international high school in order to improve the quality of comprehensive sex education in a 12th grade classroom. The student sample is representative of a growing phenomenon of “Third Culture Kids” or global nomads; often in today’s world, culture transcends any one dominant influence and blends values from multiple sources. The Objective was to improve intentions of condom use during the students’ first or next intercourse. A peer-education session which focused on condom attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy - central tenets of the Theory of Planned Behavior - was added to an existing curriculum in order to achieve this objective. Peer educators were given liberty of creating and executing the lesson to their homeroom, a sample of 23 senior students, with minimal intervention from faculty, the desired outcome being that the students themselves would be the best judge of what is culturally relevant and important to their peers. The school nurse and school counselor acted as faculty facilitators but did not assist in the creation or delivery of the lesson, only checked for medical accuracy. The participating sample of students completed a pre and post-test with validated questions assessing changes in attitudes and overall satisfaction with the peer education lesson. As this intervention was completed during the Covid-19 pandemic, the peer education session was completed in a virtual classroom environment, limiting the modes of information delivery available to the peer educators, but is planned to be replicated in an in-person environment in subsequent cycles.

Keywords: Adolescents, theory of planned behavior, third culture kids, peer education, condoms, sex education

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510 Effects of Virtual Reality on Relieving Postoperative Pain in Surgical Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Lingyu Ding, Hongxia Hua, Hanfei Zhu, Jinling Lu, Qin Xu

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Background: Postoperative pain is a prevalent problem leading to many adverse outcomes in surgical patients. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging non-pharmacological method of postoperative pain relief, but the effects of it are not clear. This review aimed to explore the effects of VR on relieving postoperative pain. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and other databases from inception to November 2019 to get the eligible studies. Meta-analyses were conducted to compare VR and usual care for relieving postoperative pain. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed to explain the heterogeneity. Results: Overall, 8 randomized control trials (RCTs) enrolling 723 participants were included. Our results demonstrated that the patients receiving the VR intervention had lower postoperative pain scores than those receiving the usual care. One subgroup analysis revealed that VR could relieve postoperative pain both in minor surgery and major surgery. Another subgroup analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in postoperative pain among patients receiving VR during the intraoperative and the postoperative periods. However, there was no significant postoperative pain relief when receiving VR during the preoperative period. Additionally, significant improvements in postoperative satisfaction were reported in two studies. However, another two studies included found that VR could not affect physiological parameters related to pain. Conclusion: Applying VR can relieve postoperative pain effectively. The type of surgery and timing of using VR are the main sources of heterogeneity. More rigorous studies about the relationship between VR and postoperative pain relief will be needed.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Meta-analysis, systematic review, postoperative pain

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509 Clinical Staff Perceptions of the Quality of End-of-Life Care in an Acute Private Hospital: A Mixed Methods Design

Authors: Rosemary Saunders, Courtney Glass, Karla Seaman, Karen Gullick, Julie Andrew, Anne Wilkinson, Ashwini Davray

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Current literature demonstrates that most Australians receive end-of-life care in a hospital setting, despite most hoping to die within their own home. The necessity for high quality end-of-life care has been emphasised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care and the National Safety and Quality in Health Services Standards depict the requirement for comprehensive care at the end of life (Action 5.20), reinforcing the obligation for continual organisational assessment to determine if these standards are suitably achieved. Limited research exploring clinical staff perspectives of end-of-life care delivery has been conducted within an Australian private health context. This study aimed to investigate clinical staff member perceptions of end-of-life care delivery at a private hospital in Western Australia. The study comprised of a multi-faceted mixed-methods methodology, part of a larger study. Data was obtained from clinical staff utilising surveys and focus groups. A total of 133 questionnaires were completed by clinical staff, including registered nurses (61.4%), enrolled nurses (22.7%), allied health professionals (9.9%), non-palliative care consultants (3.8%) and junior doctors (2.2%). A total of 14.7% of respondents were palliative care ward staff members. Additionally, seven staff focus groups were conducted with physicians (n=3), nurses (n=26) and allied health professionals including social workers (n=1), dietitians (n=2), physiotherapists (n=5) and speech pathologists (n=3). Key findings from the surveys highlighted that the majority of staff agreed it was part of their role to talk to doctors about the care of patients who they thought may be dying, and recognised the importance of communication, appropriate training and support for clinical staff to provide quality end-of-life care. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data generated three key themes: creating the setting which highlighted the importance of adequate resourcing and conducive physical environments for end-of-life care and to support staff and families; planning and care delivery which emphasised the necessity for collaboration between staff, families and patients to develop care plans and treatment directives; and collaborating in end-of-life care, with effective communication and teamwork leading to achievable care delivery expectations. These findings contribute to health professionals better understanding of end-of-life care provision and the importance of collaborating with patients and families in care delivery. It is crucial that health care providers implement strategies to overcome gaps in care, so quality end-of-life care is provided. Findings from this study have been translated into practice, with the development and implementation of resources, training opportunities, support networks and guidelines for the delivery of quality end-of-life care.

Keywords: End-of-life care, mixed-methods, clinical staff, private hospital

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508 Effects of Self-Management Programs on Blood Pressure Control, Self-Efficacy, Medication Adherence, and Body Mass Index among Older Adult Patients with Hypertension: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Van Truong Pham

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Background: Self-management was described as a potential strategy for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. However, the effects of self-management interventions on blood pressure, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and body mass index (BMI) in older adults with hypertension have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the effects of self-management interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), self-efficacy, medication adherence, and BMI in hypertensive older adults. Methods: We followed the recommended guidelines of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches in electronic databases including CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and other sources were performed to include all relevant studies up to April 2019. Studies selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. We summarized intervention effects as Hedges' g values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed that self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, whereas the effect of self-management on BMI was not significant in older adult patients with hypertension. The following Hedges' g (effect size) values were obtained: SBP, -0.34 (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17, p < 0.001); DBP, -0.18 (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.05, p < 0.001); self-efficacy, 0.93 (95%CI, 0.50 to 1.36, p < 0.001); medication adherence, 1.72 (95%CI, 0.44 to 3.00, p=0.008); and BMI, -0.57 (95%CI, -1.62 to 0.48, p = 0.286). Conclusions: Self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. However, the effects of self-management on obesity control were not supported by the evidence. Healthcare providers should implement self-management interventions to strengthen patients' role in managing their health care.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Self-management, medication adherence, Self-efficacy, body mass index, blood pressure control

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507 Integrative Review: Impact of Transitional Care on Self-Management of Chronic Conditions in Un/Underinsured Populations

Authors: Ashleigh Medina

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Chronic conditions account for the majority of total health care spending both in the United States and globally. Encouraging self-management to improve chronic conditions, which in turn could decrease the strain placed on hospitals, requires resources to address the patient’s social concerns in addition to their medical concerns. Transitional care has been identified as a possible bridge between acutely managing conditions at the hospital to chronically managing conditions in a community setting. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the impact of transitional care on self-management outcomes of chronic conditions in un/underinsured populations. Both transitional care, by assisting with resources such as funding sources for healthcare and medications or identifying a healthcare provider for continued care, and self-management, by increasing responsibility for one’s care through goal setting and taking action, can impact health outcomes while providing health care cost-savings.

Keywords: Self-management, transitional care, Chronic Conditions, uninsured

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506 Effectiveness of Educational and Supportive Interventions for Primiparous Women on Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mei Sze Wong, Huanyu Mou, Wai-Tong Chien

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Background: Breastmilk is the most nutritious food for infants to support their growth and protect them from infection. Therefore, breastfeeding promotion is an important topic for infant health; whereas, different educational and supportive approaches to interventions have been prompted and targeted at antenatal, postnatal, or both periods to promote and sustain exclusive breastfeeding. This systematic review aimed to identify the effective approaches of educational and supportive interventions to improve breastfeeding. Outcome measures were exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and breastfeeding self-efficacy, being analyzed in terms of ≤ 2 months, 3-5 months, and ≥ 6 months postpartum. Method: Eleven electronic databases and the reference lists of eligible articles were searched. English or Chinese articles of randomized controlled trials on educational and supportive intervention with the above breastfeeding outcomes over recent 20 years were searched. Quality appraisal and risk of bias of the studies were checked by Effective Public Health Practice Project tool and Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, respectively. Results: 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included; and they had acceptable quality and risk of bias. The optimal structure, format, and delivery of the interventions significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at ≤ 2 months and ≥ 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy at ≤ 2 months included: (a) delivering from antenatal to postnatal period, (b) multicomponent involving antenatal group education, postnatal individual breastfeeding coaching and telephone follow-ups, (c) both individual and group basis, (d) being guided by self-efficacy theory, and (e) having ≥ 3 sessions. Conclusion: The findings showed multicomponent theory-based interventions with ≥ 3 sessions that delivered across antenatal and postnatal period; using both face-to-face teaching and telephone follow-ups can be useful to enhance exclusive breastfeeding rate for more than 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy over the first two months of postpartum.

Keywords: Education, exclusive breastfeeding, support, breastfeeding self-efficacy, primiparous

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505 The Training Demands of Nursing Assistants on Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Homes: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Lulu Liao, Huijing Chen, Yinan Zhao, Hongting Ning, Hui Feng

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Urinary tract infection rate is an important index of care quality in nursing homes. The aim of the study is to understand the nursing assistant's current knowledge and attitudes of urinary incontinence and to explore related stakeholders' viewpoint about urinary incontinence training. This explanatory sequential study used Knowledge, Practice, and Attitude Model (KAP) and Adult Learning Theories, as the conceptual framework. The researchers collected data from 509 nursing assistants in sixteen nursing homes in Hunan province in China. The questionnaire survey was to assess the knowledge and attitude of urinary incontinence of nursing assistants. On the basis of quantitative research and combined with focus group, training demands were identified, which nurse managers should adopt to improve nursing assistants’ professional practice ability in urinary incontinence. Most nursing assistants held the poor knowledge (14.0 ± 4.18) but had positive attitudes (35.5 ± 3.19) toward urinary incontinence. There was a significant positive correlation between urinary incontinence knowledge and nursing assistants' year of work and educational level, urinary incontinence attitude, and education level (p < 0.001). Despite a general awareness of the importance of prevention of urinary tract infections, not all nurse managers fully valued the training in urinary incontinence compared with daily care training. And the nursing assistants required simple education resources to equip them with skills to address problem about urinary incontinence. The variety of learning methods also highlighted the need for educational materials, and nursing assistants had shown a strong interest in online learning. Related education material should be developed to meet the learning need of nurse assistants and provide suitable training method for planned quality improvement in urinary incontinence.

Keywords: nursing homes, Mixed Methods, urinary incontinence, nursing assistants

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504 Exploring Factors Related to Unplanning Readmission of Elderly Patients in Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Yen Lee, Hsiu-Yun Wei, Guey-Jen Lin, Pi-Yueh Lee Lee

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Background: Unplanned hospital readmissions increase healthcare costs and have been considered a marker of poor healthcare performance. The elderly face a higher risk of unplanned readmission due to elderly-specific characteristics such as deteriorating body functions and the relatively high incidence of complications after treatment of acute diseases. Purpose: The aim of this study was exploring the factors that relate to the unplanned readmission of elderly within 14 days of discharge at our hospital in southern Taiwan. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged ≥65 years who had been re-admitted between January 2018 and December 2018.The Charlson Comorbidity score was calculated using previous used method. Related factors that affected the rate of unplanned readmission within 14 days of discharge were screened and analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis. Results: This study enrolled 829 subjects aged more than 65 years. The numbers of unplanned readmission patients within 14 days were 318 cases, while those did not belong to the unplanned readmission were 511 cases. In 2018, the rate of elderly patients in unplanned 14 days readmissions was 38.4%. The majority patients were females (166 cases, 52.2%), with an average age of 77.6 ± 7.90 years (65-98). The average value of Charlson Comorbidity score was 4.42±2.76. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the gastric or peptic ulcer (OR=1.917 , P< 0.002), diabetes (OR= 0.722, P< 0.043), hemiplegia (OR= 2.292, P< 0.015), metastatic solid tumor (OR= 2.204, P< 0.025), hypertension (OR= 0.696, P< 0.044), and skin ulcer/cellulitis (OR= 2.747, P< 0.022) have significantly higher risk of 14-day readmissions. Conclusion: The results of the present study may assist the healthcare teams to understand the factors that may affect unplanned readmission in the elderly. We recommend that these teams give efficient approach in their medical practice, provide timely health education for elderly, and integrative healthcare for chronic diseases in order to reduce unplanned readmissions.

Keywords: Elderly, logistic regression analysis, unplanning readmission, Charlson comorbidity score

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503 Relationships among Sleep Quality and Quality of Life in Oncology Nurses

Authors: Yi-Fung Lin, Pei-Chen Tsai

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Background: The hospital healthcare team provides 24-hour patient care, and therefore shift-work is inevitable in the nursing field. There is an increased awareness that shift-work affecting circadian rhythms may cause various health problems, especially in poor sleep quality, which may harm the quality of life. Purposes: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of demographic characteristics on nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life and the relationship between these predictors of nurses’ quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study was conducted with purposive sampling of 520 female nurses in a medical center in north Taiwan from July to September 2014. Data were collected with structured questionnaires using Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF). Outcomes: The main results include: 1) Irregular menstruation, non-regular exercisers, and more daily caffeine consumption have negative impacts on sleep quality. 2) Younger age, fewer children, low education level, low annual income, irregular menstruation, pain during menstrual cycles, non-regular exercisers, constipation, and poor sleep quality all contribute negative impacts on the quality of life. 3) The odds ratio of sleep disturbance between 12-hour shifts and 8-hour shifts was 2.26, but there was no significant difference regarding their quality of life scores. Conclusion: This study showed that there is a strong correlation between oncology nurses’ sleep quality and quality of life. Sleep quality is a significant predictor of quality of life in oncology nurses.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, shift-work, oncology nurses

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502 An Investigation of the Relevant Factors of Unplanned Readmission within 14 Days of Discharge in a Regional Teaching Hospital in South Taiwan

Authors: Xuan Hua Huang, Shu Fen Wu, Yi Ting Huang, Pi Yueh Lee

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Background: In Taiwan, the Taiwan healthcare care Indicator Series regards the rate of hospital readmission as an important indicator of healthcare quality. Unplanned readmission not only effects patient’s condition but also increase healthcare utilization rate and healthcare costs. Purpose: The purpose of this study was explored the effects of adult unplanned readmission within 14 days of discharge at a regional teaching hospital in South Taiwan. Methods: The retrospectively review design was used. A total 495 participants of unplanned readmissions and 878 of non-readmissions within 14 days recruited from a regional teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan. The instruments used included the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and demographic characteristics, and disease-related variables. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 22.0. The descriptive statistics were used (means, standard deviations, and percentage) and the inferential statistics were used T-test, Chi-square test and Logistic regression. Results: The unplanned readmissions within 14 days rate was 36%. The majorities were 268 males (54.1%), aged >65 were 318 (64.2%), and mean age was 68.8±14.65 years (23-98years). The mean score for the comorbidities was 3.77±2.73. The top three diagnosed of the readmission were digestive diseases (32.7%), respiratory diseases (15.2%), and genitourinary diseases (10.5%). There were significant relationships among the gender, age, marriage, comorbidity status, and discharge planning services (χ2: 3.816-16.474, p: 0.051~0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that old age (OR = 1.012, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.021), had the multi-morbidity (OR = 0.712~4.040, 95% CI: 0.559~8.522), had been consult with discharge planning services (OR = 1.696, 95% CI: 1.105, 2.061) have a higher risk of readmission. Conclusions: This study finds that multi-morbidity was independent risk factor for unplanned readmissions at 14 days, recommended that the interventional treatment of the medical team be provided to provide integrated care for multi-morbidity to improve the patient's self-care ability and reduce the 14-day unplanned readmission rate.

Keywords: comorbidities, Logistic Regression, unplanned readmission, Charlson comorbidity index

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501 Generation Y Leaders in Radiology Nursing - Changing the Culture by Understanding the Challenges of a Multi-Generational Workforce

Authors: Amie Smith, Jodi-Lyn Benjamin

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In 2020, there are currently four generations in the nursing workforce: The Veterans, Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y (Gen Y). Understanding each generation and their growing needs will equip the workforce for when the Boomers prepare for retirement, with majority of nursing leadership positions to be potentially replaced with Gen Y nurses. In SA Medical Imaging(SAMI), at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC), it has been proven that despite challenges in succession planning, Gen Y nurse leaders are able to overcome these obstacles and provide the leadership necessary to meet the changing needs in healthcare and across organisations. Changing the culture in radiology nursing has been seen as an obstacle due to the historical nursing practices and resistance to adapt to current/future practice. As radiology advances so does the role of the nurse in imaging, this has required resilience and strong support through leadership as we change and develop the culture to keep up with the evolution of technology and standard of patient care. As a result of supporting Gen Y nurses in leadership roles, SAMI, FMC has seen a positive change in culture by creating a healthy work environment which has allowed Gen Y nurses to make long lasting contributions to the nursing profession.

Keywords: Leadership, Radiology, Nursing, generation Y, changing culture

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500 Coping in Your Profession: An Exploratory Analysis of Healthcare Students’ Perceptions of Burnout

Authors: Heather Clark, Jon Kelly

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Burnout among healthcare professionals has been elevated to a high level of concern. The descriptions of the healthcare workplace often include language such as, stressful, long hours, rotating shifts, weekends and holidays, and exhausting. New graduate healthcare professionals are being sent into the workplace with little to no coping skills, knowledge of signs and symptoms of burnout, or resources that are available. The authors of this study created a university course entitled 'coping in your profession' that enrolled registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, EMTs, nurse assistants, and medical assistants. The course addresses burnout, self-analysis, incivility, coping mechanisms, and organizational responsibilities for employee well-being. The students were surveyed using QualtricsXM that included a pre-course and post-course analysis. Pre-course results showed high levels of individual experiences with burnout and limited knowledge of resources to combat burnout. Post-course results included personal growth and that students’ perception of burnout can be prevented at both the individual and the organization levels. Students also indicated that few to no resources to combat burnout existed at their place of employment. Addressing burnout at the educational level helps prepare graduates with the knowledge and tools to combat burnout at the individual and organization level.

Keywords: Resilience, Burnout, Coping, healthcare workers, incivility

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499 Effect of Rehabilitative Nursing Program on Pain Intensity and Functional Status among Patients with Discectomy

Authors: Amal Shehata

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Low back pain related to disc prolapse is localized in the lumbar area and it may be radiated to the lower extremities, starting from neurons near or around the spinal canal. Most of the population may be affected with disc prolapse within their lifetime and leads to lost productivity, disability and loss of function. The study purpose was to examine the effect of rehabilitative nursing program on pain intensity and functional status among patients with discectomy. Design: Aquasi experimental design was utilized. Setting: The study was carried out at neurosurgery department and out patient's clinic of Menoufia University and Teaching hospitals at Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Instrument of the study: Five Instruments were used for data collection: Structured interviewing questionnaire, Functional assessment instrument, Observational check list, Numeric rating Scale and Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Results: There was an improvement in mean total knowledge score about disease process, discectomy and rehabilitation program in study group (25.32%) than control group (7.32%). There was highly statistically significant improvement in lumbar flexibility among study group (80%) than control group (30%) after rehabilitation program than before. Also there was a decrease in pain score in study group (58% no pain) than control group (28% no pain) after rehabilitation program. There was an improvement in total disability score of study group (zero %) regarding effect of pain on the activity of daily living after rehabilitation program than control group (16%). Conclusion: Application of rehabilitative nursing program for patient with discectomy had proven a positive effect in relation to knowledge score, pain reduction, activity of daily living and functional abilities. Recommendation: A continuous rehabilitative nursing program should be carried out for all patients immediately after discectomy surgery on regular basis. Also A colored illustrated booklet about rehabilitation program should be available and distributed for all patients before surgery.

Keywords: functional status, discectomy, pain intensity, rehabilitative nursing program

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498 Effect of Perioperative Protocol of Care on Clinical Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Authors: Manal Ahmed, Amal Shehata, Shereen Deeb

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The study's purpose was to determine the effect of the perioperative protocol of care on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Subjects: A sample of 100 adult patients who were planned for coronary artery bypass graft, were selected and divided alternatively and randomly into two equal groups (50 study -50 control).The study was carried out at National heart Institute in Cairo and open heart surgical intensive care unit in Shebin El-Kom Teaching Hospital. Instruments: Four instruments were used for data collection: Interviewing questionnaire, dyspnea analogue scale, Biophysiological measurement instrument, and Compliance assessment sheet. Results: There were statistically significant differences between both groups regarding most respiratory system assessment findings at discharge. More than two-thirds of the study group of the current study had a continuous and regular commitment to diet regimen, which ranked first followed by the compliance of daily living activities then quitting smoking. Conclusions: The perioperative protocol of care has a significant improving effect on respiratory findings, dyspnea degree, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, compliance to diet, therapeutic regimen, daily living activities, and quit smoking among study group undergoing CABG. Recommendations: Perioperative protocol of care should be carried out for CABG patients at open-heart surgical units as well as an illustrative colored booklet about CAD, CABG and perioperative care should be available and distributed to all CABG patients.

Keywords: effect, clinical outcomes, coronary artery, perioperative, bypass graft, protocol of care

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497 Intervention Guide for Holistic Needs and Coping Strategies of Cancer Patients

Authors: Arvin Baes

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This study was conducted to assess the holistic needs of cancer patients in terms of physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual needs and to determine how they respond through coping. It was conducted from January-April 2018 from various hospitals in Laguna, with 20 respondents. It utilized a survey descriptive type of research, a checklist type of questionnaire, and purposive sampling in selecting the respondents. It was found out that in terms of physiological needs, fatigue is the most common symptoms they experienced. In terms of psychological, social, and spiritual needs, most of the patients experienced a significant concern. Meanwhile, in coping, religion dominates among the 14 strategies followed by Use of Emotional Support and Positive Reframing, and Substance Use obtained the lowest response. Most of the respondents were female, and its significant relationship in terms of Positive Reframing agrees significantly. In coping and civil status, Positive Reframing and Humor are significant among married respondents. In coping and stage of cancer, 'Positive Reframing' and 'Humor' are significant with the stage of cancer. In coping and treatment modalities, Active Coping, Use of Emotional Support, and Religion are significantly related to patients’ treatment modalities. There is also a significant relationship between Active Coping and Physiological Needs, Religion and Psychological Needs, and Self-blaming and Psychological, Social, and Spiritual Needs. Thus, it is concluded that holistic needs and coping are essential to each other to meet the wholeness of cancer patients. A formulated care intervention program would be beneficial among this group of patients.

Keywords: Cancer, coping strategies, cancer patients, holistic needs

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496 Lateral Sural Artery Perforators: A Cadaveric Dissection Study to Assess Perforator Surface Anatomy Variability and Average Pedicle Length for Flap Reconstruction

Authors: L. Sun, O. Bloom, K. Anderson

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The medial and lateral sural artery perforator flaps (MSAP and LSAP, respectively) are two recently described flaps that are less commonly used in lower limb trauma reconstructive surgeries compared to flaps such as the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap or the gastrocnemius flap. The LSAP flap has several theoretical benefits over the MSAP, including the ability to be sensate and being more easily manoeuvred into position as a local flap for coverage of lateral knee or leg defects. It is less commonly used in part due to a lack of documented studies of the anatomical reliability of the perforator, and an unquantified average length of the pedicle used for microsurgical anastomosis (if used as a free flap) or flap rotation (if used as a pedicled flap). It has been shown to have significantly lower donor site morbidity compared to other flaps such as the ALT, due to the decreased need for intramuscular dissection and resulting in less muscle loss at the donor site. 11 cadaveric lower limbs were dissected, with a mean of 1.6 perforators per leg, with an average pedicle length of 45mm to the sural artery and 70mm to the popliteal artery. While the majority of perforating arteries lay close to the midline (average of 19mm lateral to the midline), there were patients whose artery was significantly lateral and would have been likely injured by the initial incision during an operation. Adding to the literature base of documented LSAP dissections provides a greater understanding of the anatomical basis of these perforator flaps, and the authors hope this will establish them as a more commonly used and discussed option when managing complicated lower limb trauma requiring soft tissue reconstruction.

Keywords: lateral, dissection, surface anatomy, cadaveric, perforator flap, sural artery

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495 Cadaveric Dissection versus Systems-Based Anatomy: Testing Final Year Student Surface Anatomy Knowledge to Compare the Long-Term Effectiveness of Different Course Structures

Authors: L. Sun, T. Hargreaves, Z. Ahmad

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Newly-qualified Foundation Year 1 doctors in the United Kingdom are frequently expected to perform practical skills involving the upper limb in clinical practice (for example, venipuncture, cannulation, and blood gas sampling). However, a move towards systems-based undergraduate medical education in the United Kingdom often precludes or limits dedicated time to anatomy teaching with cadavers or prosections, favouring only applied anatomy in the context of pathology. The authors hypothesised that detailed anatomical knowledge may consequently be adversely affected, particularly with respect to long-term retention. A simple picture quiz and accompanying questionnaire testing the identification of 7 upper limb surface landmarks was distributed to a total of 98 final year medical students from two universities - one with a systems-based curriculum, and one with a dedicated longitudinal dissection-based anatomy module in the first year of study. Students with access to dissection and prosection-based anatomy teaching performed more strongly, with a significantly higher rate of correct identification of all but one of the landmarks. Furthermore, it was notable that none of the students who had previously undertaken a systems-based course scored full marks, compared with 20% of those who had participated in the more dedicated anatomy course. This data suggests that a traditional, dissection-based approach to undergraduate anatomy teaching is superior to modern system-based curricula, in terms of aiding long-term retention of anatomical knowledge pertinent to newly-qualified doctors. The authors express concern that this deficit in proficiency could be detrimental to patient care in clinical practice, and propose that, where dissection-led anatomy teaching is not available, further anatomy revision modules are implemented throughout undergraduate education to aid knowledge retention and support clinical excellence.

Keywords: Education, upper limb, dissection, surface anatomy

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494 Policy and System Research for Health of Ageing Population

Authors: Sehrish Ather

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Introduction: To improve organizational achievements through the production of new knowledge, health policy and system research is the basic requirement. An aging population is always the source of the increased burden of chronic diseases, disabilities, mental illnesses, and other co-morbidities; therefore the provision of quality health care services to every group of the population should be achieved by making strong policy and system research for the betterment of health care system. Unfortunately, the whole world is lacking policies and system research for providing health care to their elderly population. Materials and Methods: A literature review of published studies on aging diseases was done, ranging from the year 2011-2018. Geriatric, population, health policy, system, and research were the key terms used for the search. Databases searched were Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Ovid, and Research Gate. Grey literature was searched from various websites, including IHME, Library of the University of Lahore, World Health Organization (Ageing and Life Course), and Personal communication with Neuro-physicians. After careful reviewing published and un-published information, it was decided to carry on with commentary. Results and discussion: Most of the published studies have highlighted the need to advocate the funders of health policy and stakeholders of healthcare system research, and it was detected as a major issue, research on policy and healthcare system to provide health care to 'geriatric population' was found as highly neglected area. Conclusion: It is concluded that physicians are more involved with the policy and system research regarding any type of diseases, but scientists and researchers of basic and social science are less likely to be involved in methods used for health policy and system research due to lack of funding and resources. Therefore ageing diseases should be considered as a priority, and comprehensive policy and system research should be initiated for diseases of the geriatric population.

Keywords: Health Policy, Health Care System, geriatric population, system research

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493 Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

Authors: Abigail Kusi Amponsah, Evans Frimpong Kyei, John Bright Agyemang, Hanson Boakye, Joana Kyei-Dompim, Collins Kwadwo Ahoto, Evans Oduro

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Staff shortages, deficient knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, demanding workloads, analgesic shortages, and low prioritization of pain management have been identified in earlier studies as the nursing-related barriers to optimal children’s pain management. These studies have mainly been undertaken in developed countries, which have different healthcare dynamics than those in developing countries. The current study, therefore, sought to identify and understand the nursing-related barriers to children’s pain management in the Ghanaian context. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 28 purposively sampled nurses working in the pediatric units of five hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Over the course of three months, participants were interviewed on the barriers which prevented them from optimally managing children’s pain in practice. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deductively analysed based on a conceptual interest in pain assessment and management-related barriers. NVivo 12 plus software guided data management and analyses. The mean age of participating nurses was 30 years, with majority being females (n =24). Participants had worked in the nursing profession for an average of five years and in the pediatric care settings for an average of two years. The nursing-related barriers identified in the present study included communication difficulties in assessing and evaluating pain management interventions with children who have nonfunctional speech, insufficient training, misconceptions on the experience of pain in children, lack of assessment tools, and insufficient number of nurses to manage the workload and nurses’ inability to prescribe analgesics. The present study revealed some barriers which prevented Ghanaian nurses from optimally managing children’s pain. Nurses should be educated, empowered, and supported with the requisite material resources to effectively manage children’s pain and improve outcomes for families, healthcare systems, and the nation. Future studies should explore the facilitators and barriers from other stakeholders involved in pediatric pain management

Keywords: Children, Pain Management, Ghana, Nursing-Related Barriers

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