Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 643

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nursing and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

643 Decision Support for Detecting Infections in Frail Elderly: Development of Early Detection of Infection Scale

Authors: Märta Sund Levander

Abstract:

Older adults who live in residential aged care are especially vulnerable to infection because of physical and cognitive decline, as demonstrated during the Covid-19 pandemic. Signs and symptoms of infection are often lacking or atypical, while specific ones, especially failure to present fever are absent. Consequently, aged residents experience increased antibiotic usage, clinical complications, hospital admission, and mortality. Monitoring signs and symptoms using decision support tools is one approach that could help improve early detection ensuring timely treatment and effective care. In this presentation, we describe the development of the decision support tool EDIS (Early detection of infection scale) for standardized assessment to detect infection in frail elderly early on. EDIS is based on interviews with nursing or care assistants (NA), who provide most of the daily individual care. Therefore, they have opportunity to observe changes that might be early signs and symptoms of infection. In the interviews NA used the expression "he / she is not as usual" to lower normal body tempera who is usually worried becomes apathetic, the resident who usually speaks uninhibited becomes silent. The expression "he / she seems to be ill", was more a statement of general signs and symptoms of illness, such as temperature assessed as fever, respiratory tract symptoms, urinary tract symptoms, wound infection, etc. Also, as frail elderly may have lower normal body temperature it is reasonable to assume also lower temperature in fever. Therefore, EDIS use an increase of at least 1°C increase from individual normal temperature and feeling of illness/change in behavior, as temperature in fever. EDIS has recently been clinically validated and a preliminary analysis shows that NA’s observations together with at least 1°C increase from individual normal temperature can facilitate detection of suspected infection early on.

Keywords: fever, infection, EDIS, symptom assessment

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642 interpretation of results from clinical laboratory analytes can be challenging, in >80-year-old, apparently healthy, moderately healthy, and frail individuals

Authors: Maria Edvardsson, Märta Sund Levander, Anna Milberg, Jan Ernerudh, Ewa Wressle, Jan Marcusson, Ewa Grodzinsky

Abstract:

In clinical practice, blood samples are used to assess health condition, confirm diagnosis and treatment. When interpreting the results, comparison with reference intervals, often constructed from healthy persons, aged 18–65 years, are used. It is a challenge to determine whether a change in levels of laboratory analytes in especially frail elderly individuals can be attributed to age alone, independent of environmental, or chronic disease processes. Health and disease are part of the same continuum with no fixed points for either “health” or “disease”, e.g. in relation to ageing. Also, although many elderly persons suffer from health problems, others stay in good health, often with diagnosed but well treated diseases. Consensus about the definition of “frailty” is missing, and the question arises whether different definitions of “frailty” affect the interpretation of analytes, when comparing different groups of elderly. To interpret circulating levels of clinical laboratory analytes in relation to conventional reference values in ≥80-year-old, “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail” individuals. First, 14 immunological and chemical laboratory analytes from 138 nursing home residents (NHRs), ≥80-year-old, were compared with outcomes in reference populations. Results indicated significantly differences (p<0.05 to 0.001) for 10 of the analytes, with risk of misinterpretation when assessing e.g. levels of immunoglobulin M, complement factors 3 and 4, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Whether it depended on age, chronic diseases and/or medication between the NHR and reference populations remained unclear. Next, individuals ≥80 years (n=569) were classified as “healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”, based on diseases, medication and physical and cognitive abilities. Activities of daily living (ADL) were used to test physical abilities and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for cognitive abilities. Differences (p<0.01) occurred between the health groups for the analytes albumin, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). Finally, the individuals (n=569) were randomized into two groups, and thereafter, the two groups were divided into “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”, based on two classification models; 1/ based on diseases, medication, physical (ADL) and cognitive (MMSE) abilities or 2/ based on a frailty index (FI). Deficits in health, like symptoms, sign and diseases can be included in FI. There was no statistical difference found between “apparently healthy” and “moderately healthy" groups, regardless of classification model used. In contrast, among “frail” individuals, differences (p<0.05) in levels occurred for three out of the five investigated analytes: ALT, creatinine and -GT showed lower levels when the FI classification model was used. Frailty affects the outcome of some laboratory analytes, and the way it is defined affects the future work with adjusted reference intervals. There is an urgent need for developing and implementing the use of reference intervals that consider both age and health status in elderly individuals, to avoid under- and overtreatment. Both classification models seem suitable to classify health status in elderly (>80 y) and could be a tool for developing consensus for the definition of frail elderly.

Keywords: aging, frail, analyte, reference interval, clinical interpretation

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641 Stories of Women with Cervical Cancer in Taiwan: A Narrative Analysis Research

Authors: Pei-yu Lee

Abstract:

This study investigates the life experience and self-interpretation of female cervical cancer patients under Taiwanese cultural context. Through a Narrative Analysis Research approach, the study took six cervical cancer female patients with an average age of 58 years (ranging from 55-66 years) for an average of twice, 60 minutes each time, in-depth recorded interviews under their consent. After converting the interview recordings into transcripts, the study applied the Riessman approach to analyze the contents. The results revealed two major theme, including 1. The symbolic meaning of the cervix, and 2. Women's perseverance and compliance. Because of the illness metaphor of cervical cancer and the designation of women being family caregivers under the Chinese patriarchal culture, females with cervical cancer are not only patients but also responsible for being family and partner roles, in which contradictions of intimate relationships exist. Show the strength of perseverance and compliance in the course of life. On the other hand, they have to identify and recognize their roles in life and strive to determine the situation of coexisting with the disease to picture their life. The results showed that female cervical cancer patients not only need to combat the disease but also stand against the stigma and the traditional responsibility given to women. The researchers recommend that nurses should include cultural implications in their care of female cervical cancer patients.

Keywords: female, cervical cancer, narrative analysis research, taiwan

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640 Timely Palliative Screening and Interventions in Oncology

Authors: Jaci Marie Mastrandrea, Rosario Haro

Abstract:

Background: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that healthcare institutions have established processes for integrating palliative care (PC) into cancer treatment and that all cancer patients be screened for PC needs upon initial diagnosis as well as throughout the entire continuum of care (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2021). Early PC screening and intervention is directly associated with improved patient outcomes. The Sky Lakes Cancer Treatment Center (SLCTC) is an institution that has access to PC services yet does not have protocols in place for identifying patients with palliative needs or a standardized referral process. The aim of this quality improvement project was to improve early access to PC services by establishing a standardized screening and referral process for outpatient oncology patients. Method: The sample population included all adult patients with an oncology diagnosis who presented to the SLCTC for treatment during the project timeline. The “Palliative and Supportive Needs Assessment'' (PSNA) screening tool was developed from validated, evidence-based PC referral criteria. The tool was initially implemented using paper forms, and data was collected over a period of eight weeks. Patients were screened by nurses on the SLCTC oncology treatment team. Nurses responsible for screening patients received an educational inservice prior to implementation. Patients with a PSNA score of three or higher received an educational handout on the topic of PC and education about PC and symptom management. A score of five or higher indicates that PC referral is strongly recommended, and the patient’s EHR is flagged for the oncology provider to review orders for PC referral. The PSNA tool was approved by Sky Lakes administration for full integration into Epic-Beacon. The project lead collaborated with the Sky Lakes’ information systems team and representatives from Epic on the tool’s aesthetic and functionality within the Epic system. SLCTC nurses and physicians were educated on how to document the PSNA within Epic and where to view results. Results: Prior to the implementation of the PSNA screening tool, the SLCTC had zero referrals to PC in the past year, excluding referrals to hospice. Data was collected from the completed screening assessments of 100 patients under active treatment at the SLCTC. Seventy-three percent of patients met criteria for PC referral with a score greater than or equal to three. Of those patients who met referral criteria, 53.4% (39 patients) were referred for a palliative and supportive care consultation. Patients that were not referred to PC upon meeting criteria were flagged in EPIC for re-screening within one to three months. Patients with lung cancer, chronic hematologic malignancies, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal malignancy most frequently met the criteria for PC referral and scored highest overall on the scale of 0-12. Conclusion: The implementation of a standardized PC screening tool at the SLCTC significantly increased awareness of PC needs among cancer patients in the outpatient setting. Additionally, data derived from this quality improvement project supports the national recommendation for PC to be an integral component of cancer treatment across the entire continuum of care.

Keywords: oncology, palliative and supportive care, symptom management, outpatient oncology, palliative screening tool

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639 Patients’ Perspective on Early Discharge with Drain in Situ After Breast Cancer Surgery

Authors: Laila Al Balushi, Suad Al Kharousi

Abstract:

Due to the increasing number of breast cancer cases in Oman and the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 on bed situation in the hospital, a policy of early discharge (ED) with drain after breast cancer surgery was initiated at one of the tertiary hospitals in Oman. The primary aim is to assess the effectiveness of newly implemented protocol of ED with breast drain among breast cancer patients in Oman. The secondary aim is to assess breast care nurse role in successful implanting this policy. The uniqueness of this policy is no home visit follow-up conducted after discharge and the main mode of communication was Instagram media. This policy then was evaluated by conducting a quasi-experimental study using a questionnaire with ten open and closed-ended questions, five questions to explore patient experience using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 41 female patients responded to the questioner. Almost 96% of the participants stated being well informed about drain care pre- and post-surgery at home. 9% of the participants developed early sign of infection and was managed at out-patient clinics. Participants with bilateral drains expressed more pain than those with single drain. 90% stated satisfied being discharged with breast drain whereas 10% preferred to stay in the hospital until the drains were removed. This study found that the policy of ED with a drain after BC surgery is practical and well-accepted by most patients. The role of breast nurse and presence of family and institutional support enhanced the success of the policy implementation. To optimize patient care, conducting a training program by breast nurse for nurses at local health centres about care management of patients with drain could improve care and enhance patient satisfaction.

Keywords: breast cancer, surgery, early discharge, surgical drain.

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638 The Relationship Between the Skill Mix Model and Patient Mortality: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yi-Fung Lin, Shiow-Ching Shun, Wen-Yu Hu

Abstract:

Background: A skill mix model is regarded as one of the most effective methods of reducing nursing shortages, as well as easing nursing staff workloads and labor costs. According to previous studies, it has been concluded that higher staffing levels result in better outcomes, but it is an inconsistent relationship between the skill mix model and patient mortality. Objectives: This review aimed to explore the relationship between the skill mix model and patient mortality rate in acute care hospitals. Data Sources: A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and researchers retrieved studies published between January 1986 and March2022. Review methods: Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts based on selection criteria, extracted the data, and performed critical appraisals using the STROBE checklist of each included study. The studies focused on adult patients in acute care hospitals, the skill mix model and patient mortality rate were included in the analysis. Results: Six included studies were conducted in the USA, Canada, Italy, Taiwan, and European countries(Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain, and Switzerland), including patients in medical, surgical, and intensive care units. There were both nurses and nursing assistants in their skill mix team. This main finding is that three studies included324,592 participants show evidence of fewer mortality rates associated with hospitals with a higher percentage of registered nurse staff which the percentage of registered nurse staff in the skill mix model ranged from 36.1% to 100%, but three articlesincluded1,122,270 participants which the percentage of registered nurse staff ranged from46% to96%did not find the same result. However, based on appraisal findings, those showing a significant association all meet good quality standards, but only one-third of their counterparts. Conclusions: In light of the limited amount and quality of published research in this review, it is prudent to treat the findings with caution. Although the evidence is not insufficient certainty to draw conclusions about the relationship between nurse staffing level and patients' mortality, this review lights the direction of relevant studies in the future. The limitation of this article is the variation in skill mix models among countries and institutions, making it impossible to do a meta-analysis to compare them further.

Keywords: nurse staffing level, nursing assistants, mortality, skill mix

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637 Feasibility of Online Health Coaching for Canadian Armed Forces Personnel Receiving Treatment for Depression, Anxiety and PTSD

Authors: Noah Wayne, Andrea Tuka, Adrian Norbash, Bryan Garber, Paul Ritvo

Abstract:

Program/Intervention Description: The Canadian Armed Forces(CAF) Mental Health Clinicstreat a full spectrum of mental disorder, addictions, and psychosocial issues that include Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and other diagnoses. We evaluated the feasibility of an online health coach interventiondelivering mindfulness based cognitive behavioral therapy (M-CBT) and behaviour changesupport for individuals receiving treatment at CAF Clinics. Participants were provided accounts on NexJ Connected Wellness, a digital health platform, and 16 weeks of phone-based health coaching,emphasizingmild to moderate aerobic exercise, a healthy diet, and M-CBT content. The primary objective was to assess the feasibility of the online deliverywith CAF members. Evaluation Methods: Feasibility was evaluated in terms of recruitment, engagement, and program satisfaction. Weadditionallyevaluatedhealth behavior change, program completion, and mental health symptoms (i.e. PHQ-9, GAD-7, PCL-5) at three time points. Results: Service members were referred from Vancouver, Esquimalt, and Edmonton CAF bases between August 2020 and January 2021. N=106 CAF personnel were referred, and n=77 consented.N=66 participated, and n=44 completed 4-month and follow-up measures. The platform received a mean rating of76.5 on the System Usability Scale, and health coaching was judged the most helpful program feature (95.2% endorsement), while reminders (53.7%), secure messaging (51.2%), and notifications (51.2%) were also identified. Improvements in mental health status during active interventions were observed on the PHQ-9 (-5.4, p<0.001), GAD-7 (-4.0, p<0.001), and PCL-5 (-4.1, p<0.05). Conclusion: Online health coaching was well-received amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns. Uptake and engagement were positively reported. Participants valuedcontacts and reported strong therapeutic alliances with coaches. Healthy diet, regular exercise, and mindfulness practice are important for physical and mental health. Engagements in these behaviors are associated with reduced symptoms. An online health coach program appears feasible for assisting Canadian Armed Forces personnel.

Keywords: coaching, CBT, military, depression, mental health, digital

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636 Postoperative Emergence Delirium in Children: An Incomprehensible Scenario For Parents’

Authors: Jenny Ringblom, Marie Proczkowska, Laura Korhonen, Ingrid Wåhlin

Abstract:

Background: Emergence delirium is a well-known behaviour of perceptual disturbances that may occur after general anaesthesia in children. Children with emergence delirium are often confused; they cry, are involuntarily physically active and are almost impossible to console. The prevalence varies considerably between about 13% and 53%. Research has mainly focused on how different medication accents affect the incidence of emergence delirium, but less is known about parents’ experiences of emergence delirium during the recovery process. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experiences and reflections during their child's emergence delirium behaviour when recovering from anaesthesia. Method: The study has a qualitative design, and the data has been analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 16 parents were interviewed at two county hospitals in Sweden. Results: When the parents reunited with their child at the recovering unit, they felt as if they were encountering an incomprehensible scenario. When watching their child demonstrating emergence delirium, they experienced fear and insecurity and had feelings of powerlessness and guilt. Information and previous experience turned out to offer relief and being seen by the healthcare staff when they, in their vulnerability, failed to reach or console their child gave hope and energy. Conclusion: Emergence delirium must be extensively considered in children undergoing general anaesthesia. Healthcare staff needs to be aware of the parental difficulties it may cause. There is also important to know what parents experience as relieving, such as receiving information and when staff members are being available, responsive and supportive during the wake-up period.

Keywords: emergence delirium, experiences, pediatrics, parents, postoperative care

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635 Strategies to Enhance Compliance of Health and Safety Standards at the Selected Mining Industries in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Occupational Health Nurse’s Perspective

Authors: Livhuwani Muthelo

Abstract:

The health and safety of the miners in the South African mining industry are guided by the regulations and standards which are anticipated to promote a healthy work environment and fatalities. It is of utmost importance for the miners to comply with these regulations/standards to protect themselves from potential occupational health and safety risks, accidents, and fatalities. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate strategies to enhance compliance with the Health and safety standards within the mining industries of Limpopo province in South Africa. A mixed-method exploratory sequential research design was adopted. The population consisted of 5350 miners. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants in the qualitative strand and stratified random sampling in the quantitative strand. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among the occupational health nurse practitioners and the health and safety team. Thematic analysis was used to generate an understanding of the interviews. In the quantitative strand, a survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0. A descriptive statistical test was used in the analysis of data including frequencies, means, and standard deviation. Cronbach's alpha test was used to measure internal consistency. The integrated results revealed that there are diverse experiences related to health and safety standards compliance among the mineworkers. The main findings were challenges related to leadership compliance and also related to the cost of maintaining safety, Miner's behavior-related challenges; the impact of non-compliance on the overall health of the miners was also described, the conflict between production and safety. Health and safety compliance is not just mere compliance with regulations and standards but a culture that warrants the miners and organization to take responsibility for their behavior and actions towards health and safety. Thus taking responsibility for your well-being and other miners.

Keywords: perceptions, compliance, health and safety, legislation, standards, miners

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634 Lifestyle Behaviors among Jordanian Obese Children Aged 6-9 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Ayman Bani Salameh

Abstract:

Background: Obesity in children is in increasing in developed and developing countries, which leads to morbidity and premature mortality. Lifestyle behaviors are an important issue in minimizing this problem and subsequent complications. Thus, this study purposed to assess lifestyle behaviors, including dietary habits and physical activity, among Jordanian obese children aged 6-9 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 324 children aged 6-9 years using a questionnaire consisting of items measuring dietary habits (7 items) and physical activity (8 items). Results: Findings showed that obese children had bad dietary habits involved in the number of meals eaten day (M= 5.06, SD=1.14), number of snacks of sweet/ chocolates daily (M= 3. 61, SD=0.82), and number of glasses of sweet fizzy drinks/day (M= 3.39, SD=0.96). Moreover, they had poor physical activity represented in the number of playing or training in an activity like dancing, swimming, and walking in the past week (M= 0.06, SD=1.01), number of days in participating in moderate physical activity last week (M= 0.06, SD=1.01), time spending in using a computer, watching TV, watching videos or using the internet as a part of study or homework in the last week (M= 16.88, SD=2.37), and ), time spending in using a computer, watching TV, watching videos or using the internet for fun or recreation in the past week (M= 14.44, SD=2.37). Conclusion: Obese children aged 6-9 had unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, which could expose them to a high risk of increasing comorbidities associated with obesity. Therefore, this preliminary study helps develop an intervention program based on modifying unhealthy behaviors, including bad dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle. The results provide baseline data about the strategies for developing intervention programs for weight reduction.

Keywords: obesity, children, behaviors, lifestyle

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633 An Exploration of the Emergency Staff’s Perceptions and Experiences of Teamwork and the Skills Required in the Emergency Department in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sami Alanazi

Abstract:

Teamwork practices have been recognized as a significant strategy to improve patient safety, quality of care, and staff and patient satisfaction in healthcare settings, particularly within the emergency department (ED). The EDs depend heavily on teams of interdisciplinary healthcare staff to carry out their operational goals and core business of providing care to the serious illness and injured. The ED is also recognized as a high-risk area in relation to service demand and the potential for human error. Few studies have considered the perceptions and experiences of the ED staff (physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and administration staff) about the practice of teamwork, especially in Saudi Arabia (SA), and no studies have been conducted to explore the practices of teamwork in the EDs. Aim: To explore the practices of teamwork from the perspectives and experiences of staff (physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and administration staff) when interacting with each other in the admission areas in the ED of a public hospital in the Northern Border region of SA. Method: A qualitative case study design was utilized, drawing on two methods for the data collection, comprising of semi-structured interviews (n=22) with physicians (6), nurses (10), allied health professionals (3), and administrative members (3) working in the ED of a hospital in the Northern Border region of SA. The second method is non-participant direct observation. All data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings: The main themes that emerged from the analysis were as follows: the meaningful of teamwork, reasons of teamwork, the ED environmental factors, the organizational factors, the value of communication, leadership, teamwork skills in the ED, team members' behaviors, multicultural teamwork, and patients and families behaviors theme. Discussion: Working in the ED environment played a major role in affecting work performance as well as team dynamics. However, Communication, time management, fast-paced performance, multitasking, motivation, leadership, and stress management were highlighted by the participants as fundamental skills that have a major impact on team members and patients in the ED. It was found that the behaviors of the team members impacted the team dynamics as well as ED health services. Behaviors such as disputes among team members, conflict, cooperation, uncooperative members, neglect, and emotions of the members. Besides that, the behaviors of the patients and their accompanies had a direct impact on the team and the quality of the services. In addition, the differences in the cultures have separated the team members and created undesirable gaps such the gender segregation, national origin discrimination, and similarity and different in interests. Conclusion: Effective teamwork, in the context of the emergency department, was recognized as an essential element to obtain the quality of care as well as improve staff satisfaction.

Keywords: teamwork, barrier, facilitator, emergencydepartment

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632 Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Amirmohammad Dahouri

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Each year, more than 795,000 individuals in the United States grieve a stroke, and by 2030, it is predictable that 4% of the U.S. people will have had a stroke. Ischemic stroke, accounting for about 80% of all strokes, is one of the main causes of disability. The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to help patients return to physical and mental functions and relearn the required aids to living everyday life. This flagging has an adverse effect on patients’ quality of life and affects their daily living activities. In recent years, the rehabilitation of ischemic stroke attractions more attention in the world. A review of the rudimentary perceptions of stroke rehabilitation that are price stressing to all specialists who delicacy patients with stroke. Ideas are made for patients on how to functionally manage daily activities after they have qualified for a stroke. It is vital for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute events to medical equilibrium and rehabilitation to adaptation. Different sources such as Pub Med Google Scholar and science direct have been used and various contemporary articles in this era have been analyzed. The care plan must also foundation actual actions to protect against recurrent stroke, as stroke patients are generally at significant risk for further ischemic or hemorrhagic attacks. Here, we review evidence of rehabilitation in treating post-stroke impairment.

Keywords: rehabilitation, stroke, ischemic, hemorrhagic, brain

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631 Ageism: What Makes Older Adults Vulnerable to COVID-19

Authors: Jenny Kwon

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Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, another type of pandemic, ageism, appeared on the surface. Ageism, the stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination directed towards others or oneself based on chronological age, has adversely impacted older adults' lives during the pandemic. In the short term, older adults struggled with health issues (e.g., high rate of infection and mortality) and experienced social disconnection (e.g., loneliness and depression). Ultimately, older adults' self-perceptions of aging, self-esteem and intergenerational relationships were negatively influenced. To closely look into the impact of ageism during the pandemic on U.S. older adults' aging process, the current study has three specific purposes. First, the study introduces a theoretical foundation (i.e., stereotype embodiment theory) in the development of ageism research. Second, the study reports on examples of ageism toward U.S. older adults manifested in the context of COVID-19. Finally, collective responsibilities and future research directions are proposed to fight against ageism.

Keywords: ageism, COVID-19, older adults, pandemic, stereotype embodiment

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630 The Role of QX-314 and Capsaicin in Producing Long-Lasting Local Anesthesia in the Animal Model of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Authors: Ezzati Givi M., Ezzatigivi N., Eimani H.

Abstract:

Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) consists of painful attacks often triggered with general activities, which cause impairment and disability. The first line of treatment consists of pharmacotherapy. However, the occurrence of many side-effects limits its application. Acute pain relief is crucial for titrating oral drugs and making time for neurosurgical intervention. This study aimed to examine the long-term anesthetic effect of QX-314 and capsaicin in trigeminal neuralgia using an animal model. TN was stimulated by surgical constriction of the infraorbital nerve in rats. After seven days, anesthesia infiltration was done, and the duration of mechanical allodynia was compared. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: control (normal saline); lidocaine (2%); QX314 (30 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (15 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (22 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM); and lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM) +capsaicin (1μg). QX314 in combination with lidocaine significantly increased the duration of anesthesia, which was dose-dependent. The combination of lidocaine+QX314+capsaicin could significantly increase the duration of anesthesia in trigeminal neuralgia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of QX-314 with lidocaine and capsaicin produced a long-lasting, reversible local anesthesia and was superior to lidocaine alone in the fields of the duration of trigeminal neuropathic pain blockage.

Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, capsaicin, lidocaine, long-lasting

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629 The Role of Social Influences and Cultural Beliefs on Perceptions of Postpartum Depression among Mexican Origin Mothers in San Diego

Authors: Mireya Mateo Gomez

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The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions first-generation Mexican origin mothers living in San Diego have on postpartum depression (PPD), with a special focus on social influences and cultural beliefs towards those meanings. This study also aimed to examine possible PPD help-seeking behaviors that first-generation Mexican origin mothers can perform. The Health Belief Model (HBM) and Social Ecological Model (SEM) were the guiding theoretical frameworks for this study. Data for this study were collected from three focus groups, four in-depth interviews, and the distribution of an acculturation survey (ARSMA II). There were a total of 15 participants, in which participant’s mean age was 45, and the mean age migrated to the United States being 22. Most participants identified as being married, born in Southern or Western Mexico, and with a strong Mexican identity in relation to the ARSMA survey. Participants identified four salient PPD perceptions corresponding to the interpersonal level of SEM. These four main perceptions were: 1) PPD affecting the identity of motherhood; 2) PPD being a natural part of a mother’s experience but mitigated by networks; 3) PPD being a U.S. phenomenon due to family and community breakdown; and 4) natural remedies as a preferred PPD treatment. In regard to themes relating to help seeking behaviors, participants identified seven being: 1) seeking help from immediate family members; 2) practicing home remedies; 3) seeking help from a medical professional; 4) obtaining help from a clinic or organization; 5) seeking help from God; 6) participating in PPD support groups; and 7) talking to a friend. It was evident in this study that postpartum depression is not a well discussed topic within the Mexican immigrant population. In relation to the role culture and social influences have on PPD perceptions, most participants shared hearing or learning about PPD from their family members or friends. Participants also stated seeking help from family members if diagnosed with PPD and seeking out home remedies. This study as well provides suggestions to increase the awareness of PPD among the Mexican immigrant community.

Keywords: cultural beliefs, health belief model, Mexican origin mothers, perceptions, postpartum depression social ecological model

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628 Interaction of Racial and Gender Disparities in Salivary Gland Cancer Survival in the United States: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Study

Authors: Sarpong Boateng, Rohit Balasundaram, Akua Afrah Amoah

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Introduction: Racial and Gender disparities have been found to be independently associated with Salivary Gland Cancers (SGCs) survival; however, to our best knowledge, there are no previous studies on the interplay of these social determinants on the prognosis of SGCs. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of race and gender on the survival of SGCs. Methods: We analyzed survival outcomes of 13,547 histologically confirmed cases of SGCs using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004 to 2015). Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) after controlling for age, tumor characteristics, treatment type and year of diagnosis. Results: 73.5% of the participants were whites, 8.5% were blacks, 10.1% were Hispanics and 58.5% were males. Overall, males had poorer survival than females (HR = 1.16, p=0.003). In the adjusted multivariable model, there were no significant differences in survival by race. However, the interaction of gender and race was statistically significant (p=0.01) in Hispanic males. Thus, compared to White females (reference), Hispanic females had significantly better survival (HR=0.53), whiles Hispanic males had worse survival outcomes (HR=1.82) for SGCs. Conclusions: Our results show significant interactions between race and gender, with racial disparities varying across the different genders for SGCs survival. This study indicates that racial and gender differences are crucial factors to be considered in the prognostic counseling and management of patients with SGCs. Biologic factors, tumor genetic characteristics, chemotherapy, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and socioeconomic and dietary factors are potential yet proven reasons that could account for racial and gender differences in the survival of SGCs.

Keywords: salivary, cancer, survival, disparity, race, gender, SEER

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627 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Medical Students Regarding Basic Life Support

Authors: Sumia Fatima, Tayyaba Idrees

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Cardiac Arrest and Heart Failures are an important causes of mortality in developed and developing countries and even a second spent without Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) increases the risk of mortality. Youngs doctors are expected to partake in CPR from the first day and if they are not taught basic life support (BLS) skills during their studies. They have next to no opportunity to learn them in clinical settings. To determine the exact level of knowledge of Basic Life Support among medical students. To compare the degree of knowledge among 1st and 2nd year medical students of RMU (Rawalpindi Medical University), using self-structured questionnaires. A cross sectional, qualitative primary study was conducted in March 2020 in order to analyse theoretical and practical knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical Students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Self-Structured Questionnaires were distributed among 300 students, 150 from 1st year and 150 from 2nd year. Data was analysed using SPSS v 22. Chi Square test was employed. The results showed that only 13 (4%) students had received formal BLS training.129 (42%) students had encountered accidents in real life but had not known how to react. Majority responded that Basic Life Support should be made part of medical college curriculum (189 students), 194 participants (64%) had moderate knowledge of both theoretical and practical aspects of BLS. 75-80% students of both 1st and 2nd year had only moderate knowledge, which must be improved for them to be better healthcare providers in future. It was also found that male students had more practical knowledge than females, but both had almost the same proficiency in theoretical knowledge. The study concluded that the level of knowledge of BLS among the students was not up to the mark, and there is a dire need to include BLS training in the medical colleges’ curriculum.

Keywords: basic cardiac life support, cardiac arrest, awareness, medical students

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626 Optimization of the Administration of Intravenous Medication by Reduction of the Residual Volume, Taking User-Friendliness, Cost Efficiency, and Safety into Account

Authors: A. Poukens, I. Sluyts, A. Krings, J. Swartenbroekx, D. Geeroms, J. Poukens

Abstract:

Introduction and Objectives: It has been known for many years that with the administration of intravenous medication, a rather significant part of the planned to be administered infusion solution, the residual volume ( the volume that remains in the IV line and or infusion bag), does not reach the patient and is wasted. This could possibly result in under dosage and diminished therapeutic effect. Despite the important impact on the patient, the reduction of residual volume lacks attention. An optimized and clearly stated protocol concerning the reduction of residual volume in an IV line is necessary for each hospital. As described in my Master’s thesis, acquiring the degree of Master in Hospital Pharmacy, administration of intravenous medication can be optimized by reduction of the residual volume. Herewith effectiveness, user-friendliness, cost efficiency and safety were taken into account. Material and Methods: By usage of a literature study and an online questionnaire sent out to all Flemish hospitals and hospitals in the Netherlands (province Limburg), current flush methods could be mapped out. In laboratory research, possible flush methods aiming to reduce the residual volume were measured. Furthermore, a self-developed experimental method to reduce the residual volume was added to the study. The current flush methods and the self-developed experimental method were compared to each other based on cost efficiency, user-friendliness and safety. Results: There is a major difference between the Flemish and the hospitals in the Netherlands (Province Limburg) concerning the approach and method of flushing IV lines after administration of intravenous medication. The residual volumes were measured and laboratory research showed that if flushing was done minimally 1-time equivalent to the residual volume, 95 percent of glucose would be flushed through. Based on the comparison, it became clear that flushing by use of a pre-filled syringe would be the most cost-efficient, user-friendly and safest method. According to laboratory research, the self-developed experimental method is feasible and has the advantage that the remaining fraction of the medication can be administered to the patient in unchanged concentration without dilution. Furthermore, this technique can be applied regardless of the level of the residual volume. Conclusion and Recommendations: It is recommendable to revise the current infusion systems and flushing methods in most hospitals. Aside from education of the hospital staff and alignment on a uniform substantiated protocol, an optimized and clear policy on the reduction of residual volume is necessary for each hospital. It is recommended to flush all IV lines with rinsing fluid with at least the equivalent volume of the residual volume. Further laboratory and clinical research for the self-developed experimental method are needed before this method can be implemented clinically in a broader setting.

Keywords: intravenous medication, infusion therapy, IV flushing, residual volume

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625 Evaluation of Radiological Health Danger Indices Arising from Diagnostic X-Ray Rooms

Authors: Jessica Chukwuyem Molua, Collins O Molua

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The effective dose of selected health care workers who are constantly exposed to X-ray radiation was measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) placed over the lead apron at the chest region in all categories of medical personnel investigated. To measure radiation in all the selected hospitals to ascertain the exposure of x-ray machines at exactly 1m from the primary source. The work was carried out within a year in each of the selected centers. The personnel examination records containing the type of examination each day, peak tube voltage, tube current, and exposure time, including the actual number of films used, were obtained. A total of 40personel were examined in government hospital Agbor, 21 in central hospital Owa Alero and 18 in Okonye hospital The method used here has also been used by other researchers. Findings showed that the results obtained from the three hospitals investigated in this work were found to conform with the recommendations of the National Commission on radiological and protection {NCRP} 70 and 116 protocols. The Radiologist in the three study areas has the highest dose level, but of particular note is the dosage of the radiologist in Okonye hospital. This, as observed, is because the protective shielding parameters were inadequate and this could result in severe health consequences over time.

Keywords: radiology, health, Agbor, Owa

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624 Social Media as a Tool for Medication Adherence and Personal Health Management

Authors: Huang Wei-Chi, Li Wei, Yu Tien-Chieh

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Medication adherence is crucial for treatment success. Adherence problem is common in patients with polypharmacy, especially in the geriatric population who are vulnerable to multiple chronic conditions but averagely less knowledgeable about diseases and medications. In order to help patients take medications appropriately and enhance the understanding of diseases or medications, a Line official account named e-Pharmacist was designed. The line is a popular freeware app with the highest penetration rate (95.7%) in Taiwan. The interface of e-Pharmacist is user-friendly for easy-to-read and convenient operating. Differ from other medication adherence apps, users just added e-Pharmacist as a LINE friend without installing any more apps and the drug lists were automatically downloaded from the personal electronic medical records with security permission. Over and above medication reminder, several additional capabilities were set up and engaged in the platform of e-Pharmacist including prescription refill reservation, laboratory examination consultation, medical appointment registration, and “Daily Health Log” where patients can record and track data of blood pressure/blood sugar and daily meals for self-health management as well as can share the important information to clinical professionals when seeking medical help. Additionally, a Line chatbot was utilized to provide tailored medicine information for the individual user. From July 2020 to March 2022, around 3000 patients added e-pharmacist as Line friends. Every day more than 1500 patients receive messages from e-pharmacist to notify them to take medicine. Thanks to the e-pharmacist alert system and Chatbot, the low-compliance patients (defined by Program on Adherence to Medication, PAM) significantly dropped from 36% to 6%, whereas the high-compliance patients dramatically increased from 13% to 77%. The user satisfaction is 98%. In brief, an e-pharmacist is not only a medication reminder but also a tailored personal assistant with value-added service for health management.

Keywords: e-pharmacist, self-health management, medication reminder, value-added service

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623 Preventing Discharge to No Fixed Address-Youth (NFA-Y)

Authors: Cheryl Forchuk, Sandra Fisman, Steve Cordes, Dan Catunto, Katherine Krakowski, Melissa Jeffrey, John D’Oria

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The discharge of youth aged 16-25 from hospital into homelessness is a prevalent issue despite research indicating social, safety, health and economic detriments on both the individual and community. Lack of stable housing for youth discharged into homelessness results in long-term consequences, including exacerbation of health problems and costly health care service use and hospital readmission. People experiencing homelessness are four times more likely to be readmitted within one month of discharge and hospitals must spend $2,559 more per client. Finding safe housing for these individuals is imperative to their recovery and transition back to the community. People discharged from hospital to homelessness experience challenges, including poor health outcomes and increased hospital readmissions. Youth are the fastest-growing subgroup of people experiencing homelessness in Canada. The needs of youth are unique and include supports related to education, employment opportunities, and age-related service barriers. This study aims to identify the needs of youth at risk of homelessness by evaluating the efficacy of the “Preventing Discharge to No Fixed Address – Youth” (NFA-Y) program, which aims to prevent youth from being discharged from hospital into homelessness. The program connects youth aged 16-25 who are inpatients at London Health Sciences Centre and St. Joseph’s Health Care London to housing and financial support. Supports are offered through collaboration with community partners: Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Canadian Mental Health Association Elgin Middlesex, City of London Coordinated Access, Ontario Works, and Salvation Army’s Housing Stability Bank. This study was reviewed and approved by Western University’s Research Ethics Board. A series of interviews are being conducted with approximately ninety-three youth participants at three time points: baseline (pre-discharge), six, and twelve months post-discharge. Focus groups with participants, health care providers, and community partners are being conducted at three-time points. In addition, administrative data from service providers will be collected and analyzed. Since homelessness has a detrimental effect on recovery, client and community safety, and healthcare expenditure, locating safe housing for psychiatric patients has had a positive impact on treatment, rehabilitation, and the system as a whole. If successful, the findings of this project will offer safe policy alternatives for the prevention of homelessness for at-risk youth, help set them up for success in their future years, and mitigate the rise of the homeless youth population in Canada.

Keywords: youth homelessness, no-fixed address, mental health, homelessness prevention, hospital discharge

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622 ‘Doctor Knows Best’: Reconsidering Paternalism in the NICU

Authors: Rebecca Greenberg, Nipa Chauhan, Rashad Rehman

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Paternalism, in its traditional form, seems largely incompatible with Western medicine. In contrast, Family-Centred Care, a partial response to historically authoritative paternalism, carries its own challenges, particularly when operationalized as family-directed care. Specifically, in neonatology, decision-making is left entirely to Substitute Decision Makers (most commonly parents). Most models of shared decision-making employ both the parents’ and medical team’s perspectives but do not recognize the inherent asymmetry of information and experience – asking parents to act like physicians to evaluate technical data and encourage physicians to refrain from strong medical opinions and proposals. They also do not fully appreciate the difficulties in adjudicating which perspective to prioritize and, moreover, how to mitigate disagreement. Introducing a mild form of paternalism can harness the unique skillset both parents and clinicians bring to shared decision-making and ultimately work towards decision-making in the best interest of the child. The notion expressed here is that within the model of shared decision-making, mild paternalism is prioritized inasmuch as optimal care is prioritized. This mild form of paternalism is known as Beneficent Paternalism and justifies our encouragement for physicians to root down in their own medical expertise to propose treatment plans informed by medical expertise, standards of care, and the parents’ values. This does not mean that we forget that paternalism was historically justified on ‘beneficent’ grounds; however, our recommendation is that a re-integration of mild paternalism is appropriate within our current Western healthcare climate. Through illustrative examples from the NICU, this paper explores the appropriateness and merits of Beneficent Paternalism and ultimately its use in promoting family-centered care, patient’s best interests and reducing moral distress. A distinctive feature of the NICU is the fact that communication regarding a patient’s treatment is exclusively done with substitute decision-makers and not the patient, i.e., the neonate themselves. This leaves the burden of responsibility entirely on substitute decision-makers and the clinical team; the patient in the NICU does not have any prior wishes, values, or beliefs that can guide decision-making on their behalf. Therefore, the wishes, values, and beliefs of the parent become the map upon which clinical proposals are made, giving extra weight to the family’s decision-making responsibility. This leads to why Family Directed Care is common in the NICU, where shared decision-making is mandatory. However, the zone of parental discretion is not as all-encompassing as it is currently considered; there are appropriate times when the clinical team should strongly root down in medical expertise and perhaps take the lead in guiding family decision-making: this is just what it means to adopt Beneficent Paternalism.

Keywords: care, ethics, expertise, NICU, paternalism

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621 Effect of Humor on Pain and Anxiety in Patients with Rheumatoi̇d Arthri̇ti̇s: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Burcu Babadağ Savaş, Nihal Orlu, Güler Balcı Alparslan, Ertuğrul Çolak, Cengiz Korkmaz

Abstract:

Introduction/objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of humor on pain and state anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving biologic intravenous (IV) infusion therapy. Method: The study sample consisted of 36 patients who met the classification criteria for RA and inclusion criteria in a rheumatology outpatient clinic at a university hospital between September 2020 and November 2021. Two sample groups were formed: the intervention group (watching a comedy movie) (n=18) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group consisted of the patient watching a comedy movie of his/her choice from an archive created by the researchers during the biological IV infusion therapy (approximately 90-120 minutes). The data collection instruments used before and after the test were the descriptive identification form, the visual analog scale (VAS), and the state anxiety scale. Results: The mean VAS scores of patients in the intervention group were 5.05 ± 2.01 in the pre-test and 2.61 ± 1.91 in the post-test. The mean state anxiety scores of patients in the intervention group were 45.94 ± 9.97 in the pre-test and 34.22 ± 6.57 in the post-test. Thus, patients who watched comedy movies during biologic IV infusion therapy in the infusion center had a greater reduction in pain scores than the control group and the effect size was small. Although there was a decrease in state anxiety scores in both groups, there was no significant difference between groups and the effect size was not relevant. Conclusions: During IV infusion therapy, watching comedy movies is recommended as a nursing care intervention for reducing pain in patients with RA in cooperation with other health professionals.

Keywords: watching comedy movie, humor, pain, anxiety, nursing, care

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620 Factors Affecting the Success of Premarital Screening Service in Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

Authors: Wafa Al Jabri

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Background: In Middle Eastern Islamic Countries (MEICs), there is a high prevalence of genetic blood disorders (GBDs), particularly sickle cell disease and thalassemia. The GBDs are considered a major public health concern, especially with the increase in affected populations along with the associated psychological, social, and financial cost of management. Despite the availability of premarital screening services (PSS) that aim to identify the asymptomatic carriers of GBDs and provide genetic counseling to couples in order toreduce the prevalence of these diseases; yet, the success rate of PSS is very low due to religious and socio-cultural concerns. Purpose: This paper aims to highlight the factors that affect the success of PSS in MEICs. Methods: A literature review of articles located in CINAHL, PubMed, SCOPUS, and MedLinewas carried out using the following terms: “premarital screening,” “success,” “effectiveness,” and “ genetic blood disorders.” Second, a hand search of the reference lists and Google searches were conducted to find studies that did not exist in the primary database searches. Only studies which are conducted in MEICs countries and published in the last five years were included. Studies that were not published in English were excluded. Results: Fourteen articles were included in the review. The results showed that PSS in most of the MEICs was successful in achieving its objective of identifying high-risk marriages; however, the service failed to meetitsultimate goal of reducing the prevalence of GBDs. Various factors seem to hinder the success of PSS, including poor public awareness, late timing of the screening, culture and social stigma, religious beliefs, availability of prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic abortion, emotional factors, and availability of genetic counseling services. However, poor public awareness, late timing of the screening, and unavailability of adequate counseling services were the most common barriers identified. Conclusion: Overcoming the identified barriers by providing effective health education programs, offering the screening test to young adults at an earlier stage, and tailoring the genetic counseling would be crucial steps to provide a framework for an effective PSS in MEICs.

Keywords: premarital screening, success, effectiveness, and genetic blood disorders

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619 Contribution of Automated Early Warning Score Usage to Patient Safety

Authors: Phang Moon Leng

Abstract:

Automated Early Warning Scores is a newly developed clinical decision tool that is used to streamline and improve the process of obtaining a patient’s vital signs so a clinical decision can be made at an earlier stage to prevent the patient from further deterioration. This technology provides immediate update on the score and clinical decision to be taken based on the outcome. This paper aims to study the use of an automated early warning score system on whether the technology has assisted the hospital in early detection and escalation of clinical condition and improve patient outcome. The hospital adopted the Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) Scoring System and MEWS Clinical Response into Philips IntelliVue Guardian Automated Early Warning Score equipment and studied whether the process has been leaned, whether the use of technology improved the usage & experience of the nurses, and whether the technology has improved patient care and outcome. It was found the steps required to obtain vital signs has been significantly reduced and is used more frequently to obtain patient vital signs. The number of deaths, and length of stay has significantly decreased as clinical decisions can be made and escalated more quickly with the Automated EWS. The automated early warning score equipment has helped improve work efficiency by removing the need for documenting into patient’s EMR. The technology streamlines clinical decision-making and allows faster care and intervention to be carried out and improves overall patient outcome which translates to better care for patient.

Keywords: automated early warning score, clinical quality and safety, patient safety, medical technology

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618 Family Quality of Life in the Context of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease in Oman

Authors: Wafa Al Jabri

Abstract:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that is characterized by a severe painful crisis. SCD among children requires long term dependencies and high caregiving demands that increase the overall family burdens. It is, therefore, essential to examine, support, and promote the well-being of families of children with SCD. Although there has been considerable progress in the international research on family quality of life (FQOL) in recent years; however, research in this field is relatively recent and diverse. Oman is a country in which family quality of life has definitely been under-researched. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to describe the FQOL in families of children with SCD in Oman. The study will also examine the relationships between child, mother, and family-related factors that may influence the overall FQOL. Theoretical Framework: The study is guided by the unified theory of family quality of life to help in understanding the concept of FQOL and the factors that shape it. Method:A convenience sample of 98 mothers of children with SCD will be recruited from the pediatric hematology clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Oman to participate in this descriptive, cross sectional, correlational study. Data will be obtained using a self-administered questionnaire that includes child and mother socio-demographic data, questions about the number of visits and admissions to health care facilities for vaso- occlusive crises (VOCs), the Perceived Stress Scale-10, and the Beachcenter-FQOL scale. Anticipated Results: It is expected to find an association among frequency of VOCs, mother’s perceived stress level, and FQOL in families of children with SCD in Oman. Family type, socio-economic status, and number of SCD children in the family are also expected to influence the overall FQOL. Conclusion: The findings of the study might be pivotal in designing and implementing tailored family-based interventions to improve families’ wellbeing.

Keywords: family quality of life, sickle cell disaes, children, family well-being

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617 Assessment of the Efficacy of Oral Vaccination of Wild Canids and Stray Dogs against Rabies in Azerbaijan

Authors: E. N. Hasanov, K. Y. Yusifova, M. A. Ali

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Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis in domestic and wild carnivores. The goal of our investigation was to analyze the data on oral vaccination of wild canids and stray dogs in Azerbaijan. Before the start of the vaccination campaign conducted by the International Dialogue for Environmental Action (IDEA) Animal Care Center (IACC), all rabies cases in Azerbaijan for the period of 2017-2020 were analyzed. So, 30 regions for oral immunization with the Rabadrop vaccine were selected. In total, 95.9 thousand doses of baits were scattered in 30 regions, 970 (0.97%) remained intact. In addition, a campaign to sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs and cats undoubtedly had a positive impact on reducing the dynamics of rabies incidence. During the period 2017-2020, 2339 dogs and 2962 cats were sterilized and vaccinated under this program. It can be noted that the risk of rabies infection can be reduced through special preventive measures against disease reservoirs, which include oral immunization of wild and stray animals.

Keywords: rabies, vaccination, oral immunization, wild canids, stray dogs, baits, disease reservoirs

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616 Comparing the Effects of Ondansetron and Acupressure in PC6 Point on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergone Elective Cesarean Section: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Nasrin Galehdar, Sedigheh Nadri, Elham Nazari, Isan Darvishi, Abouzar Mohammadi

Abstract:

Background and aim:Nausea and vomiting are complications of cesarean section. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches were applied to decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Ondansetron and acupressure on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergone an elective cesarean section. Materials and method: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. A total of 120 patients were allocated to two equal groups. Four mgs of Ondansetron was administered for the Ondansetron group after clamping the umbilical cord. The acupressure bracelets were fastened in the PC6 point for acupressure group for 15 minutes. The patients were monitored in terms of incidence, severity, and episodes of nausea and vomiting. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 with a significance level of 0.05. Results: There was no significant statistical difference in nausea severity among the groups intra-operatively, in the recovery and surgery wards. The incidence and episodes of vomiting were significantly higher in patients undergone acupressure intra-operatively, in the recovery and surgery wards (P< 0.05). No significant effect of acupressure was reported in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: No significant effect of acupressure was reported in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thus, it is suggested to perform the studies with larger size and comparing the effects of acupressure with other antiemetic medications.

Keywords: ondansetron, acupressure, nausea, vomiting

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615 Intraoperative Inter Pectoral and Sub Serratus Nerve Blocks Reduce Post Operative Opiate Requirements in Breast Augmentation Surgery

Authors: Conor Mccartney, Mark Lee

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Background: An essential component in ambulatory breast augmentation surgery is good analgesia. The demographic undergoing this operation is usually fit, low risk with few comorbidities. These patients do not require long-term hospitalization and do not want to spend excessive time in the hospital for financial reasons. Opiate analgesia can have significant side effects such as nausea, vomiting and sedation. Reducing volumes of postoperative opiates allows faster ambulation and discharge from day surgery. We have developed two targeted nerve blocks that can be applied by the operating surgeon in a matter of seconds under direct vision, not requiring imaging. Anecdotally we found that these targeted nerve blocks reduced opiate requirements and allowed accelerated discharge and faster return to normal activities. This was then tested in a prospective randomized, double-blind trial. Methods: 20 patients were randomized into saline (n = 10) or Ropivicaine adrenaline solution (n = 10). The operating surgeon and anesthetist were blinded to the solution. All patients were closely followed up and morphine equivalents were accurately recorded. Follow-up pain scores were recorded using the Overall Benefit of Analgesia pain questionnaire. Findings: The Ropivicaine nerve blocks significantly reduced opiate requirements postoperatively (p<0.05). Pain scores were significantly decreased in the study group (p<0.05). There were no side effects attributable to the nerve blocks. Conclusions: Intraoperative targeted nerve blocks significantly reduce postoperative opiate requirements in breast augmentation surgery. This results in faster recovery and higher patient satisfaction.

Keywords: breast augmentation, nerve block, postoperative recovery, opiate analgesia, inter pectoral block, sub serratus block

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614 Impact of Emergency Medicine Department Crowding on Mortality

Authors: Morteza Gharibi, Abdolghader Pakniat, Somayeh Bahrampouri

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Introduction: Emergency department (E.R.) crowding is a serious widespread problem in hospitals that leads to irregularities, a slower rate of delivery of services to patients, and a long-term stay. In addition, the long-term stay in the E.D. reduces the possibility of providing services with appropriate quality to other patients who are undergoing medical emergencies, which leads to dissatisfaction among patients. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ED-crowding and the mortality rate of the patients referred to the E.D. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients who expired in first 24 hours of admission were enrolled in the study. Crowding index at the moment of admission was calculated using Edwin Score. The data including history and physical examination, time of arrival in the E.D., diagnosis (using ICD 10 code), time of death, cause of death, demographic information was recoded based on triage forms on admission and patients’ medical files. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics and chi square test, ANOVA tests using SPSS ver. 19. The time of arrival in E.D. to death in crowded E.D. conditions, with an average of five hours and 25 minutes, was significantly higher than the average admission Time of arrival in E.D. to death in active and crowded E.D. conditions. More physicians and nurses can be employed during crowded times to reduce staff fatigue and improve their performance during these hours.

Keywords: mortality, emergency, department, crowding

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