Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1480

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Law and Political Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1480 LGBT+ Migrants: A Cultural and Legislative Comparison in Canada, Italy and Egypt

Authors: Andreas Aceranti, Simonetta Vernocchi, Federica Brondoni, Marco Colorato, Marta Primatesta


This study entitled “LGBT+ migrants: a cultural and legislative comparison in Canada, Italy and Egypt” suggests an analysis of the living conditions of migrants who are members of the LGBT+ community in Canada, Italy and Egypt. The acronym LGBT+ refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and all other gender identities and sexual orientations that do not fit into the male and female binary. This study aims at reflecting on the living conditions of LGBT+ migrants and the relatable difficulties they may face due to the culture and laws of their countries. Migratory flows were examined by providing a definition of "migrant" and the choices that drive a person to migrate elsewhere explained, followed by a focus on the recognition of refugee status related to sexual orientation and gender identity. Furthermore, we will deal with Canada, Italy and Egypt respectively, by analyzing for each country the history and rise of the LGBT+ community, the different laws and especially the migrants’ rights. Finally, the services and associations designed to provide a response to the needs of these people will be analyzed, highlighting the branches which nowadays operate in those areas and the importance of the cultural mediator.

Keywords: LGBTQ+, migrants, international rights, discrimination

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1479 Conditionality in the European Union as a New Instrument to Guarantee the Principle of Separation of Powers

Authors: Ana Neves


The European Union’s multi-level constitutionalism is grounded in an intricate network of vertical and horizontal legal relationships among different levels and types of public authorities. In a very significant way since the 2008 crisis, evolving institutional arrangements and institutional dynamics in the European Union have been progressively impacting Member States and the terms under which national public authorities are organised, interact and exercise their powers. This impact occurs in both macro and micro dimensions. Several examples are relevant here, such as the involvement of national Parliaments in the activities of the European Union, the enhanced integration of public administrations, the side effects of the Council framework decision on the European Arrest Warrant, the European Union Justice Scoreboard, the protection of whistle-blowers regulation, the enhanced cooperation on the establishment of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office, the regime for the protection of the Union budget and the European Rule of Law Mechanism. A common trend or denominator underlies the deepening of institutional interdependence and the increased interactions between the European Union, Member States, and public authorities at different levels. This seems to be conditionality as a general principle. The European multi-level constitutionalism must be considered in the light of this conditionality principle, which does not “imply a relationship of command and obedience”. Nevertheless, it might be more effective or be a very compelling principle. It is as if the extension of the shared rule is being accompanied by a contrapuntal dialogue. The different public authorities at various levels are being called to rethink and readjust themselves within a broader and more plural framework concerning understanding the limitation of power.

Keywords: european union -, multi-level hierarchy, conditionality, separation of powers

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1478 Predicting Options Prices Using Machine Learning

Authors: Krishang Surapaneni


The goal of this project is to determine how to predict important aspects of options, including the ask price. We want to compare different machine learning models to learn the best model and the best hyperparameters for that model for this purpose and data set. Option pricing is a relatively new field, and it can be very complicated and intimidating, especially to inexperienced people, so we want to create a machine learning model that can predict important aspects of an option stock, which can aid in future research. We tested multiple different models and experimented with hyperparameter tuning, trying to find some of the best parameters for a machine-learning model. We tested three different models: a Random Forest Regressor, a linear regressor, and an MLP (multi-layer perceptron) regressor. The most important feature in this experiment is the ask price; this is what we were trying to predict. In the field of stock pricing prediction, there is a large potential for error, so we are unable to determine the accuracy of the models based on if they predict the pricing perfectly. Due to this factor, we determined the accuracy of the model by finding the average percentage difference between the predicted and actual values. We tested the accuracy of the machine learning models by comparing the actual results in the testing data and the predictions made by the models. The linear regression model performed worst, with an average percentage error of 17.46%. The MLP regressor had an average percentage error of 11.45%, and the random forest regressor had an average percentage error of 7.42%

Keywords: finance, linear regression model, machine learning model, neural network, stock price

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1477 The Use of AI to Measure Gross National Happiness

Authors: Riona Dighe


This research attempts to identify an alternative approach to the measurement of Gross National Happiness (GNH). It uses artificial intelligence (AI), incorporating natural language processing (NLP) and sentiment analysis to measure GNH. We use 'off the shelf’ NLP models responsible for the sentiment analysis of a sentence as a building block for this research. We constructed an algorithm using NLP models to derive a sentiment analysis score against sentences. This was then tested against a sample of 20 respondents to derive a sentiment analysis score. The scores generated resembled human responses. By utilising the MLP classifier, decision tree, linear model, and K-nearest neighbors, we were able to obtain a test accuracy of 89.97%, 54.63%, 52.13%, and 47.9%, respectively. This gave us the confidence to use the NLP models against sentences in websites to measure the GNH of a country.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, NLP, sentiment analysis, gross national happiness

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1476 Towards an Equitable Proprietary Regime: Property Rights Over Human Genes as a Case Study

Authors: Aileen Editha


The legal recognition of property rights over human genes is a divisive topic to which there is no resolution. As a frequently discussed topic, scholars and practitioners often highlight the inadequacies of a proprietary regime. However, little has been said in regard to the nature of human genetic materials (HGMs). This paper proposes approaching the issue of property over HGMs from an alternative perspective that looks at the personal and social value and valuation of HGMs. This paper will highlight how the unique and unresolved status of HGMs is incompatible with the main tenets of property and, consequently, contributes to legal ambiguity and uncertainty in the regulation of property rights over human genes. HGMs are perceived as part of nature and a free-for-all while also being within an individual’s private sphere. Additionally, it is also considered to occupy a unique “not-private-nor-public” status. This limbo-like position clashes with property’s fundamental characteristic that relies heavily on a clear public/private dichotomy. Moreover, as property is intrinsically linked to the legal recognition of one’s personhood, this irresolution benefits some while disadvantages others. In particular, it demands the publicization of once-private genes for the “common good” but subsequently encourages privatization (through labor) of these now-public genes. This results in the gain of some (already privileged) individuals while enabling the disenfranchisement of members of minority groups, such as Indigenous communities. This paper will discuss real and intellectual property rights over human genes, such as the right to income or patent rights, in Canada and the US. This paper advocates for a sui generis approach to governing rights and interests over human genes that would not rely on having a strict public/private dichotomy. Not only would this improve legal certainty and clarity, but it would also alleviate—or, at the very least, minimize—the role that the current law plays in further entrenching existing systemic inequalities. Despite the specificity of this topic, this paper argues that there are broader lessons to be learned. This issue is an insightful case study on the interconnection of various principles in law, society, and property, and what must be done when discordance between one or more of those principles has detrimental societal outcomes. Ultimately, it must be remembered that property is an adaptable and malleable instrument that can be developed to ensure it contributes to equity and flourishing.

Keywords: property rights, human genetic materials, critical legal scholarship, systemic inequalities

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1475 Social Networks Global Impact on Protest Movements and Human Rights Activism

Authors: Marcya Burden, Savonna Greer


In the wake of social unrest around the world, protest movements have been captured like never before. As protest movements have evolved, so too have their visibility and sources of coverage. Long gone are the days of print media as our only glimpse into the action surrounding a protest. Now, with social networks such as Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat, we have access to real-time video footage of protest movements and human rights activism that can reach millions of people within seconds. This research paper investigated various social media network platforms’ statistical usage data in the areas of human rights activism and protest movements, paralleling with other past forms of media coverage. This research demonstrates that social networks are extremely important to protest movements and human rights activism. With over 2.9 billion users across social media networks globally, these platforms are the heart of most recent protests and human rights activism. This research shows the paradigm shift from the Selma March of 1965 to the more recent protests of Ferguson in 2014, Ni Una Menos in 2015, and End Sars in 2018. The research findings demonstrate that today, almost anyone may use their social networks to protest movement leaders and human rights activists. From a student to an 80-year-old professor, the possibility of reaching billions of people all over the world is limitless. Findings show that 82% of the world’s internet population is on social networks 1 in every 5 minutes. Over 65% of Americans believe social media highlights important issues. Thus, there is no need to have a formalized group of people or even be known online. A person simply needs to be engaged on their respective social media networks (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat) regarding any cause they are passionate about. Information may be exchanged in real time around the world and a successful protest can begin.

Keywords: activism, protests, human rights, networks

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1474 Measures Adopted by FIFA and UEFA against Russian Athletes: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali, Alena Kozlova


The Russian invasion of Ukraine has tested the mettle of the international community, prompting not only States but also non-state actors to take deterrent action in response. Indeed, international sports organisations, namely FIFA and UEFA, have been rather successful in shifting the power dynamics by introducing a complete ban on the Russian national and club teams. This article aims to inquire into the human rights implications of such actions taken by international sports organisations. First, the article departs from an assessment of the legal status of FIFA and UEFA under international law and reflects on how a legal link could be established vis-à-vis their human rights obligations. Second, it examines the human rights aspects of the impugned measures by FIFA and UEFA on the part of the Russian athletes, further scrutinising them against the international human rights law principle of non-discrimination through a proportionality test. Last, it draws basic pathways for how possible human rights violations committed in the context of measures adopted by such organisations could be remedied, outlining the challenges of arbitration and litigation in Switzerland.

Keywords: FIFA, UEFA, FUR, ban, human rights, Russia, Ukraine, non-state actors

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1473 Battle on Historical Water: An Analysis Roots of conflict between India and Sri Lanka and Victimization of Arrested Indian Fishermen

Authors: Xavier Louis, Madhava Soma Sundaram


The Palk Bay, a narrow strip of water, separates the state of Tamil Nadu in India from north Sri Lanka. The bay, which is 137 km in length and varies from 64 to 137 kilometers in width and is home to more than 580 fish species and chunks of shrimp’s resources, is divided by the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL). The bay, bordering it are five Tamil Nadu districts of India and three Sri Lankan districts and assumes importance as it is one of the areas presenting permanent and serious challenges to both India and Sri Lanka with respect to the fishing rights in the Bay. Fishermen from both sides were enjoying fishing with hormones for centuries. Katchchadeevu is a tiny Island located in the Bay, which was a part of India. After the Katchchadeevu agreement 1974 it became a part of Sri Lanka and a fishing conflict arose between the two countries' fishermen. Fuelling the dispute over Katchatheevu is the overfishing of Indian mechanized trawlers in Palk Bay and the damaging environmental and economic effects of trawling. Since 2008, more than 300 Indian fishermen have been killed by firing by Sri Lankan Navy, nearly 100 fishermen have gone missing and more than 3000 fishermen were arrested and later released after the trials for trespassing into Sri Lankan waters. Currently, more than 120 fishing boats and 29 fishermen are in Sri Lankan custody. This paper attempts to find out the causes of fishing conflict and who has the fishing rights in the mentioned waters, how the international treaties are complied with at the time of arrest and trials, how the arrested fishermen are treated by them and how they suffer from fishermen families without a breadwinner. A Semi-structured interview schedule tool was prepared by the researcher, which is suitable for measuring quantitative and qualitative aspects of the above-mentioned theme. One hundred arrested fishermen were interviewed and recorded their prison experiences in Sri Lanka. The research found that the majority of the fishermen believe that they have the right to fish in the historical water and that the Sri Lankan Naval personnel have brutally attacked the Indian fishermen at the time of the arrest. The majority of the fishermen accepted that they had limited fishing grounds. As a result, they entered Sri Lankan waters for their livelihood. The majority of the fishermen expected that they would also get their belongings back at the time of release, primarily the boats. Most of the arrested fishermen's families face financial crises in the absence of their breadwinners and this situation has created conditions for child labor among the affected families and some fishers migrate to different places for different occupations. The majority of the fishers have trauma about their victimization and face uncertainty in the future of their occupation. We can discuss more the causes and nature of the fishing conflict and the financial and psychological victimization of Indian fishermen in relation to the conflict.

Keywords: palk bay, historical water, fishing conflict, arrested fishermen, victimization

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1472 The Validity of Integrating the Concept of Servant Leadership in the Discourse of Poverty Eradication

Authors: Ocen Walter Onen


In 2018, the World Bank reported that approximately 8.6% of the global population was languishing in multidimensional poverty. This reality both challenged and motivated the research on the topic above. This research critically examined the validity of integrating the concept of servant leadership into the discourse of poverty eradication. The researcher applied documentary research methodology. Therefore, relevant literature, both printed and electronic, was analyzed, and desired data were obtained to enrich the discussion. The main finding from the research shows that; the concept of ‘servant leadership’, despite being paradoxical in nature, has the necessary potential to accelerate the effort of eliminating multidimensional poverty in any given context. Based on that, the researcher recommended that; state-actors, multi-national corporations, development organizations such as the United Nations, and other agencies working to make poverty history in our generation should both prioritize and promotes the integration of the concept of servant leadership in their policies’ formation, organizational leadership and management, and project design, implementation and evaluation of poverty-eradication initiatives.

Keywords: multidimensional poverty, poverty eradication, servant leadership, United Nations

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1471 Administrative and Legal Instruments of Disciplining Maintenance (alimony) Debtors in Poland - A Critical Analysis of their Effectiveness

Authors: Tomasz Kosicki


The subject of the presentation will be the administrative and legal instruments of disciplining maintenance debtors adopted by the Polish legislator, the substantive legal bases of which were adopted in the Act of 7 September 2007 on assistance to persons entitled to maintenance (Journal of Laws of 2022, item 1205). These provisions are complemented by procedural regulations resulting from the Act of 14 June 1960 - Code of Administrative Procedure (Journal of Laws of 2021, item 735, as amended). The first part of the paper will focus on the administrative proceedings regarding the recognition of the debtor as evading maintenance obligations. The initiation of this procedure ex officio is preceded by a number of actions by public administration bodies, including Conducting a maintenance interview with the debtor, during which his health and professional situation and the reasons for non-payment of maintenance are determined, Professional activation in a situation where the lack of payment of maintenance results from the lack of employment. The reasons for initiating the above-mentioned administrative proceedings ex officio will be indicated, taking into account the current views of the judicial decisions. The second part of the paper will focus on the instrument of retaining the driving license of the debtor, who was previously found to be evading maintenance. The author points out that the detention of the driving license is one of the types of administrative sanctions of a very severe nature. Doubts of a constitutional nature will also be highlighted, as well as those concerning the effectiveness of this legal instrument and the protection of the debtor's rights. The thesis will be presented that the administrative procedure for the retention of a driving license does not fulfill its role and especially does not affect the collection of maintenance obligations from debtors. All the considerations will be based on the current and most representative views of the literature on the subject and the jurisprudence of Polish administrative courts.

Keywords: maintenance debtor, administrative proceedings, detention of driving license, administrative sanction, polish administrative law, public administration

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1470 The Political Haunting of “Martyrdom” in the Palestinian Context

Authors: Mai Awad


This paper aims to focus on the phenomenon of martyrdom—particularly its performative aspect—and how social and popular cultural representations address the multiple meanings of the loaded image of a Palestinian martyr. This focus will help us to explore the possible reasons that might push Palestinians to consider pursuing “martyrdom” or suicide operations. Tracing what happened in the past and what is currently happening (that is, haunting) will aid in theorizing how the act/practice of “martyrdom” is produced. It is believed that there are social and political forces, particularly in a colonial society like Palestine, that influence the subject and its experience. But what is unique about this paper is its attempt to disclose the invisible, hidden narratives and complexities of Palestinian life that we do not see. By giving “martyrs” a chance to speak and express their own narratives—since “martyrs” usually leave written letters for their families, which are published after their death—this study must broaden the whole picture and discuss what is missing. The analytic method to be used: For the methodology, the paper recruits discourse analysis as a method for tracing the emergence, circulation, and productivity of the martyrdom discourse across a range of social practices in Palestinians’ everyday life after the Nakba. The paper analyzes the letters that “martyrs” left to their families, relatives, and the Palestinian community after their death. By letting “martyrs” speak for themselves and hearing their unique discourses, the research would suggest that more explanation is needed to describe the “martyr” identity. Hence, it is not possible to study the “martyr” identity in Palestine without understanding the colonial context that governs it and shapes their subjective experience.

Keywords: martyrdom, palestine, haunting, nakba 1948

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1469 Crime Prevention with Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Mehrnoosh Abouzari, Shahrokh Sahraei


Today, with the increase in quantity and quality and variety of crimes, the discussion of crime prevention has faced a serious challenge that human resources alone and with traditional methods will not be effective. One of the developments in the modern world is the presence of artificial intelligence in various fields, including criminal law. In fact, the use of artificial intelligence in criminal investigations and fighting crime is a necessity in today's world. The use of artificial intelligence is far beyond and even separate from other technologies in the struggle against crime. Second, its application in criminal science is different from the discussion of prevention and it comes to the prediction of crime. Crime prevention in terms of the three factors of the offender, the offender and the victim, following a change in the conditions of the three factors, based on the perception of the criminal being wise, and therefore increasing the cost and risk of crime for him in order to desist from delinquency or to make the victim aware of self-care and possibility of exposing him to danger or making it difficult to commit crimes. While the presence of artificial intelligence in the field of combating crime and social damage and dangers, like an all-seeing eye, regardless of time and place, it sees the future and predicts the occurrence of a possible crime, thus prevent the occurrence of crimes. The purpose of this article is to collect and analyze the studies conducted on the use of artificial intelligence in predicting and preventing crime. How capable is this technology in predicting crime and preventing it? The results have shown that the artificial intelligence technologies in use are capable of predicting and preventing crime and can find patterns in the data set. find large ones in a much more efficient way than humans. In crime prediction and prevention, the term artificial intelligence can be used to refer to the increasing use of technologies that apply algorithms to large sets of data to assist or replace police. The use of artificial intelligence in our debate is in predicting and preventing crime, including predicting the time and place of future criminal activities, effective identification of patterns and accurate prediction of future behavior through data mining, machine learning and deep learning, and data analysis, and also the use of neural networks. Because the knowledge of criminologists can provide insight into risk factors for criminal behavior, among other issues, computer scientists can match this knowledge with the datasets that artificial intelligence uses to inform them.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, criminology, crime, prevention, prediction

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1468 Ending the Multibillionaire: A Solution to Poverty and Violations of the Right to Health

Authors: Andreanna Kalasountas


A rampant health crisis is facing America. That health crisis is poverty. Millions of Americans live without knowing when they will eat or where they will sleep. Meanwhile, there are over 600 multi-billionaires in the United States. “In April 2021, U.S. billionaires had nearly twice as much combined wealth than the bottom half of Americans -- $4.56 trillion vs. $2.62 trillion.” It's disturbingly ironic that we live in a country where there are people with more money than they know what to do with (or could spend in a lifetime) while simultaneously, people are losing their life because they do not have enough money to survive. Accordingly, this paper argues for the end of the multi-billionaire; that wealth be capped, captured, and redistributed to the poorest among us. To accomplish this goal, this paper begins by identifying the problem, advocating for a new measurement of poverty; and concludes with a both legal and tax policy solutions and what implementation of those solutions would look like.

Keywords: health and human rights, law and policy, poverty, wealth gap

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1467 Governance in the Age of Artificial intelligence and E- Government

Authors: Mernoosh Abouzari, Shahrokh Sahraei


Electronic government is a way for governments to use new technology that provides people with the necessary facilities for proper access to government information and services, improving the quality of services and providing broad opportunities to participate in democratic processes and institutions. That leads to providing the possibility of easy use of information technology in order to distribute government services to the customer without holidays, which increases people's satisfaction and participation in political and economic activities. The expansion of e-government services and its movement towards intelligentization has the ability to re-establish the relationship between the government and citizens and the elements and components of the government. Electronic government is the result of the use of information and communication technology (ICT), which by implementing it at the government level, in terms of the efficiency and effectiveness of government systems and the way of providing services, tremendous commercial changes are created, which brings people's satisfaction at the wide level will follow. The main level of electronic government services has become objectified today with the presence of artificial intelligence systems, which recent advances in artificial intelligence represent a revolution in the use of machines to support predictive decision-making and Classification of data. With the use of deep learning tools, artificial intelligence can mean a significant improvement in the delivery of services to citizens and uplift the work of public service professionals while also inspiring a new generation of technocrats to enter government. This smart revolution may put aside some functions of the government, change its components, and concepts such as governance, policymaking or democracy will change in front of artificial intelligence technology, and the top-down position in governance may face serious changes, and If governments delay in using artificial intelligence, the balance of power will change and private companies will monopolize everything with their pioneering in this field, and the world order will also depend on rich multinational companies and in fact, Algorithmic systems will become the ruling systems of the world. It can be said that currently, the revolution in information technology and biotechnology has been started by engineers, large economic companies, and scientists who are rarely aware of the political complexities of their decisions and certainly do not represent anyone. Therefore, it seems that if liberalism, nationalism, or any other religion wants to organize the world of 2050, it should not only rationalize the concept of artificial intelligence and complex data algorithm but also mix them in a new and meaningful narrative. Therefore, the changes caused by artificial intelligence in the political and economic order will lead to a major change in the way all countries deal with the phenomenon of digital globalization. In this paper, while debating the role and performance of e-government, we will discuss the efficiency and application of artificial intelligence in e-government, and we will consider the developments resulting from it in the new world and the concepts of governance.

Keywords: electronic government, artificial intelligence, information and communication technology., system

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1466 Inadequacy and Inefficiency of the Scoping Requirements in the Preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment Reports for Dam and Reservoir Projects in Thailand

Authors: Natsuda Rattamanee


Like other countries, Thailand continually experiences strong protests against dam and reservoir proposals, especially large-scale projects. The protestors are constantly worried about the potential significant adverse impacts of the projects on the environment and society. Although project proponents are required by laws to assess the environmental and social impacts of the dam proposals by making environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports and finding mitigation measures before implementing the plans, the outcomes of the assessments often do not lessen the affected people and public’s concerns about the potential negative effects of the projects. One of the main reasons is that Thailand does not have a proper and efficient law to regulate project proponents when determining the scope of environmental impact assessments. Scoping is the crucial second stage of the preparation of an EIA report. The appropriate scope of assessments will allow EIA studies to focus only on the significant effects of the proposed project on particular resources, areas, and communities. It will offer crucial and sufficient information to the decision-makers and the public. The decision to implement the dam and reservoir projects considered based on the assessments with a proper scoping will eventually be more widely accepted by the public and reduce community opposition. The research work seeks to identify flaws in the current requirements of scoping steps under Thai laws and regulations and proposes recommendations to improve the legal scheme. The paper explores the well-established United States laws and relevant rules regulating how lead agencies determine the scope of their environmental impact assessments and some guidelines concerning scoping published by dominant institutions. Policymakers and legislature will find the results of studies helpful in improving the scoping-step requirements of EIA for dam and reservoir projects and reducing the level of anti-dam protests in Thailand.

Keywords: dam and reservoir, EIA, environmental impact assessment, law, scoping, Thailand

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1465 A Saturation Attack Simulation on a Navy Warship Based on Discrete-Event Simulation Models

Authors: Yawei Liang


Threat from cruise missiles is among the most dangerous considerations to a warship in the modern era: anti-ship cruise missiles are fast, accurate, and extremely destructive. In this paper, the goal was to use an object-orientated environment to program a simulation to model a scenario in which a lone frigate is attacked by a wave of missiles fired at given intervals. The parameters of the simulation are modified to examine the relationships between different variables in the situation, and an analysis is performed on various aspects of the defending ship’s equipment. Finally, the results are presented, along with a brief discussion.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, Monte Carlo simulation, naval resource management, weapon-target allocation/assignment

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1464 Killing Your Children to Hurt Your Partner: Motivations for Revenge Filicide

Authors: Melanie Moen, Christiaan Bezuidenhout


Cases of parents murdering their offspring are incomprehensible but sadly as old as humanity itself. The act of killing your own child is known as filicide. Revenge filicide is an act where one parent kills their own offspring for retribution for hurting and upsetting the other parent. The true extent of filicide in South Africa is unknown, but in the United States, filicide constitutes more or less 2.5% of all murders. The focus of this contribution is to extend the knowledge of revenge filicide. Data was collected through court documents and newspaper articles. Newspapers that cover murder cases are between 75% to 100% accurate compared to official sources. Often family-related murders are violent in nature, and for this reason, these crimes receive extensive media coverage. The cases of twenty revenge filicide murderers (14 male and 6 female) were qualitatively analyzed to determine the motivations and offense characteristics of revenge filicide offenders. Findings related to a loss of social identity due to rejection; extreme rage-type anger; external locus of control; sadism; a desire to cause pain, and a need to inflict harm. The initial emotional response may escalate from mild anger to a level of narcissistic rage which eventually culminates in the murdering of the child to punish and hurt the other parent and to restore control. To our knowledge, our study is the first to systematically examine the motivations related to revenge filicides from a South African perspective. Filicide is a complex phenomenon with diverse possibilities and reasons why it occurs. However, it was apparent in this study that the motivations for revenge filicides were often linked to complex personal and interpersonal relationship problems. Further research within this field is imperative.

Keywords: revenge filicide, child murder, rage, anger, narcissistic rage, parent kills child

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1463 Killing for the Great Peace: An Internal Perspective on the Anti-Manchu Theme in the Taiping Movement

Authors: Zihao He


The majority of existing studies on the Taiping Movement (1851-1864) viewed their anti-Manchu attitudes as nationalist agendas: Taiping was aimed at revolting against the Manchu government and establishing a new political regime. To explain these aggressive and violent attitudes towards Manchu, these studies mainly found socio-economic factors and stressed the status of “being deprived”. Even the ‘demon-slaying’ narrative of the Taiping to dehumanize the Manchu tends to be viewed as a “religious tool” to achieve their political, nationalist aim. This paper argues that these studies on Taiping’s anti-Manchu attitudes and behaviors are analyzed from an external angle and have two major problems. Firstly, they distinguished “religion” from “nationalist” or “political”, focusing on the “political” nature of the movement. “Religion” and the religious experience within Taiping were largely ignored. This paper argues that there was no separable and independent “religion” in the Taiping Movement, as opposed to secular, nationalist politics. Secondly, these analyses held an external perspective on Taiping’s anti-Manchu agenda. Demonizing and killing Manchu were viewed as purely political actions. On the contrary, this paper focuses on the internal perspective of anti-Manchu narratives in the Taiping Movement. The method of this paper is mainly textual analysis, focusing on the official documents, edicts, and proclamations of the Taiping movement. It views the writing of the Taiping as a coherent narrative and rhetoric, which was attractive and convincing for its followers. In terms of the main findings, firstly, internal and external perspectives on anti-Manchu violence are different. Externally, violence was viewed as a tool and necessary process to achieve the political goal. However, internally speaking, in Taiping’s writing, violence was a result of Godlessness, which would be solved as far as the faith in God is restored in China. Having a framework of universal love among human beings as sons and daughters of the Heavenly Father and killing was forbidden, the Taiping excluded Manchus from the family of human beings and demonized them. “Demon-slaying” was not violence. It was constructed as a necessary process to achieve the Great Peace. Moreover, Taiping’s anti-Manchu violence was not merely “political.” Rather, the category “religion” and its binary opposition, “secular,” is not suitable for Taiping. A key point related to this argument is the revolutionary violence against the Manchu government, which inherited the traditional “Heavenly Mandate” model. From an internal, theological perspective, anti-Manchu was ordained and commanded by the Heavenly Father. Manchu, as a regime, was standing as a hindrance in the path toward God. Besides, Manchu was not only viewed as a regime, but they were also “demons.” Therefore, the paper examines how Manchus were dehumanized in Taiping’s writings and were situated outside of the consideration of nonviolent and love. Manchu as a regime and Manchu as demons are in a dynamic relationship. As a regime, the Manchu government was preventing Chinese people from worshipping the Heavenly Father, so they were demonized. As they were demons, killing Manchus during the revolt was justified and not viewed as being contradicted the universal love among human beings.

Keywords: anti-manchu, demon-slaying, heavenly mandate, religion and violence, the taiping movement.

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1462 The Epistemology of Human Rights Cherished in Islamic Law and Its Compatibility with International Law

Authors: Malik Imtiaz Ahmad


Human beings are the super organism granted the gift of consciousness of life by the Almighty God and endowed with an intrinsic legal value to their humanity that shall be guarded and protected respecting dignity regardless of your cultural, religious, race, or physical background; you want to be treated equally for a reason for being human. Islam graces the essential integrity of humanity and confirms the freedom and accountability impact on individuality and the open societal sphere, including the moral, economic, and political aspects. Human Rights allow people to live with dignity, equality, justice, freedom, and peace. The Kantian approach to morality expresses that ethical actions follow universal moral laws. Hence, human rights are based upon the normative approaches setting the international standards to promote, guard, and protect the fundamental rights of the people. Islam is a divine religion commanding human rights based upon the principles of social justice and regulates all facets of the moral and spiritual ethics of Muslims besides bringing balance abreast in the non-Muslims to respect their lives with safety and security and property. The Canon law manifests the faith and equality amongst Christianity, regulating the communal dignity to build and promote the sanctity of Holy life (can. 208 to 223). This concept of the community is developed after the insight of the Islamic 'canon law', which is the code of revelation itself and inseparable from the natural part of the salvation of mankind. The etymology and history of human rights is a polemical debate in a preview of Islamic and Western culture. On the other hand, international law is meticulous about the fundamental part of Conon law that focuses on the communal political, social and economic relationship. The evolving process of human rights is considered to be an exclusive universal thought regarding an open society that forms a legal base for the constituent of international instruments of the protection of Human Rights, viz. UDHR. On the other side, Muslim scholars emphasize that human rights are devolving around Islamic law. Both traditions need a dire explanation of contemporary openness for bringing the harmonious universal law acceptable and applicable to the international communities concerning the anthropology of political, economic, and social aspects of a human being.

Keywords: human rights-based approach (HRBA), human rights in Islam, evolution of universal human rights, conflict in western, Islamic human rights

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1461 The Implementation of Anti-Circumvention Legislations in Thai Copyright System

Authors: Chuencheewin Yimfuang


The WIPO copyright treaty (WCT) was established by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). This agreement required the contracting nations to provide adequate protection to technological measures to prevent massive copyright infringement in the internet system. Thailand had to implement the anti-circumvention rules into domestic legislation to comply with this international obligation. The purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the legislative standard under the WCT. It also aims to examine the legal development of technological protection measures in Thailand and demonstrate that the scope of prohibitions under the copyright Act 2022 (NO.5) is similar to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 (DMCA) of the United States (US). It could be found that the anti-circumvention laws of Thailand prohibit the circumvention of access-control technologies, and the regulation on trafficking circumvention devices has been added to the latest version of the Thai Copyright Act. These legislative evolutions have revealed the attempt to reinforce the legal protection of technological measures and copyright holders in order to be in line with global practices. However, the amendment has problems concerning the legal definitions of effective technological measure and the prohibited act of circumvention. The vagueness might affect the scope of protection and the boundary of prohibition. With this aspect, the DMCA will be evaluated and compared to gain guidelines for interpretation and enforcement in Thailand. The lessons and experiences learned from this study might be useful to correct the flaws or at least clarify the ambiguities embodied in Thai copyright legislation.

Keywords: legal development, technological protection measure, circumvention, Thailand

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1460 Europe's War on Refugees: The Increased Need for International Protection and Promotion of Migrant Rights

Authors: Rai Friedman


The recent migrant crisis has revealed an unmet demand for increased international protection and promotion of migrant rights. Europe has found itself at the centre of the migration crisis, being the recipient to the largest number of asylum-seekers since the conclusion of the second World War. Rather than impart a unified humanitarian lens of offering legal protections, the Schengen territory is devising new, preventative measures to confront the influx of asylum-seekers. This paper will focus on the refugee crisis in Europe as it relates to the Central Mediterranean route. To do so, it will outline the increased need for international protection for migrant rights through analyzing historic human rights treaties and conventions; the formation of the current composition of the Schengen area; the evolutionary changes in policies and legal landscapes throughout Europe and the Central Mediterranean route; the vernacular transformation surrounding refugees, migrants, and asylum-seekers; and expose the gaps in international protection. It will also discuss Europe’s critical position, both geographically and conceptually, critiquing the notion of European victimization. Lastly, it will discuss the increased harm of preventative border measures and argue for tangible sustainability solutions through economic programming models in highly vulnerable countries. To do so, this paper will observe a case study in Algeria that has conceded to an economic programming model for forced migrants. In 2017 amid worker shortages, Algeria announced it would grant African migrants’ legal status to become agriculturalists and construction workers. Algeria is one of the few countries along the Central Mediterranean route that has adopted a law to govern foreign nationals’ conditions of entry, stay and circulation. Thereafter, it will provide recommendations for solutions for forced migration along the Central Mediterranean route and advocate for strengthened protections under international law.

Keywords: refugees, migrants, human rights, middle east, Africa, mediterranean, international humanitarian law, policy

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1459 Relationships between Chinese Talented Educated Women

Authors: Jianghe Niu, Zhu Xiao Di


This research uses a qualitative case study of the literature review approach to explore and analyze the relationship between three pairs of famous and talented women in China and uncovers certain regularities. From all kinds of available Chinese materials, such as biographies, memoirs, and news reports, both in papers and from the internet, we carefully selected the following 3 pairs of 6 Chinese women, whose relationships went through upheavals from friendship to jealousy and hostility, and we analyzed many factors contributing to this kind of relationship. (1) Hong Huang and Su Mang, both are leaders in the contemporary Chinese fashion industry as editors-in-chief of major fashion magazines. (2) Lin Huiyin and Xie Bingxin, both are phenomenally successful women in the field of literature and/or architecture throughout most of the 20th century. They are also quite similar in terms of age, family background, professional achievements, and celebrity status, but the former has multiple men's pursuit and admiration, while the latter has fewer. (3) Zhang Ailing and Su Qing, their achievements in the field of literature are remarkably similar, as top two female authors in metropolitan Shanghai during 1940s. They once admired each other's talents very much. Zhang’s husband used to have a relationship with Su Qing, and it was through Su Qing that he met Zhang Ailing. Major Findings: (1) Across the three pairs of case studies, it is observed that the more they are similar to each other in age, family background, education level, career positions, and social statues, the more they are likely to be in discord, jealousy, and hostility. (2) In the relationship between Chinese women, especially between talented, educated women, if there are men involved and one is more adored and favored by men than the other, such as in the 2nd and third pairs, the resulting jealousy deepens the negative relationship between them. (3) The relationship between talented and successful Chinese women, as shown in the third example, where a man was introduced by a woman to her close female friend, and then the man fell in love with her and married her, would undoubtedly deteriorate until jealousy, hatred, and hostility reached climax.

Keywords: relationship, Chinese, women, men

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1458 Assessing Justice, Security and Human Rights Violations in Crisis Situations: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Forbah Julius Ajamah


The protection of human rights and respect of the rule of law in Sub-Saharan African is a constant challenge due to ongoing and protracted conflict situations, political instability, shrinking democratic space and allegations of large-scale corruption in some countries. Conflict and/or crisis is most often resulting from constant violations of individual rights, with the risk increasing when many human rights are violated in a systematic or widespread fashion. Violations related to economic, social and cultural rights at times are as significant as violations of civil and political rights. Cameroon a country in Sub-Saharan African, for many years now has been confronted by numerous crises across different regions. Despite measures carried out, it has been reported that lesser and lesser attention has been placed on various conflict/crisis across Cameroon. To reach a common understanding of how both the economic, social and cultural rights has been violated and related impact on the quality of life, this paper evaluates justice, security and human rights violations in the present crisis situations. Without the prevention of human rights violations, wider conflict and/or crisis, will continue to have a negative impact in the lives of the inhabitants. This paper aims at providing evidence to support the fact that effective prevention requires early identification of risks that could allow for preventive and/or mitigatory measures to be designed and implemented.

Keywords: justice, security, human rights abuses, conflicts, crisis

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1457 The Contribution of the Lomé Charter to Combating Drugs Trafficking at Sea: Nigerian and South African Legal Perspectives

Authors: Obinna Emmanuel Nkomadu


The sea attracts many criminal activities including drug trafficking. The illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances by sea poses a serious threat to maritime security globally. The seizure of drugs, particularly, on the African continent is on the raise. In terms of Southern Africa, South Africa is a major transit point for Latin American drugs and South Africa is the largest market for illicit drugs entering the Southern African region. Nigeria and South Africa have taken a number of steps to address this scourge, but, despite those steps, drugs trafficking at sea continues. For that reason and to combat a number of other threats to maritime security around the continent, a substantial number of AU members in 2016 adopted the African Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (“the Charter”). However, the Charter is yet to come into force due to the number of States required to accede or ratify the Charter. This paper set out the pre-existing international instruments on drugs, to ascertain the domestic laws of Nigeria and South Africa relating to drugs with the relevant provisions of the Lomé Charter in order to establish whether any legal steps are required to ensure that Nigeria and South Africa comply with its obligations under the Charter. Indeed, should Nigeria and South Africa decide to ratify it and should it come into force, both States must cooperate with other relevant States in establishing policies, as well as a regional and continental institutions, and ensure the implementation of such policies. The paper urged the States to urgently ratify the Charter as it is a step in the right direction in the prevention and repression of drugs trafficking on the African maritime domain.

Keywords: cooperation against drugs trafficking at sea, Lomé Charter, maritime security, Nigerian and South Africa legislation on drugs

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1456 Relevance of the Tokyo Trial: A Comparative Perspective

Authors: Nalanda Roy


The project will offer a fresh and critical perspective into the Tokyo Trial judgment led by the Indian Jurist Dr. Radha Binod Pal. The project will focus on the Third World Approach to International Law (TWAIL) methodology to examine the relevance of international law from the post-colonial perspectives. The project will analyze Pal’s dissenting arguments from a new and comparative perspective, apply for work from other disciplines, and create an understanding of the significance of the historic judgment considering its contemporary relevance, and fill in the gaps that exist in the call for global justice.

Keywords: Tokyo trial, third world, judgment, international law

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1455 The Targeted Killing of Soleimani between International Law and US Domestic Law

Authors: Mohammad Yousef


The issue of targeted killing has become a part of modern international law topics, as its spread has been accompanied by the technological development of weapons and military equipment, especially armed drones. Until now, there is no specific definition or legal framework for targeted killing in international law, and the issue of its compatibility with international law is still subject to debate and controversy. The case of the targeted killing of General Qassem Soleimani sparked waves of reactions and discussions between legal scholars and US officials in an argument about the legality of killing him in the light of international law rules and US domestic law. This paper firstly discusses the legality of targeted killing in international law and US domestic law; after that, it studies the legal bases and the legal system that governs these operations, while in the second section, it sheds light on the case of Soleimani’s targeted killing in light of international law and US domestic law, by examining the different views of jurists in this regard.

Keywords: targeted killing, international law, US domestic law, Qassem Soleimani

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1454 Ten Patterns of Organizational Misconduct and a Descriptive Model of Interactions

Authors: Ali Abbas


This paper presents a descriptive model of organizational misconduct based on observed patterns that occur before and after an ethical collapse. The patterns were classified by categorizing media articles in both "for-profit" and "not-for-profit" organizations. Based on the model parameters, the paper provides a descriptive model of various organizational deflection strategies under numerous scenarios, including situations where ethical complaints build-up, situations under which whistleblowers become more prevalent, situations where large scandals that relate to leadership occur, and strategies by which organizations deflect blame when pressure builds up or when media finds out. The model parameters start with the premise of a tolerance to double standards in unethical acts when conducted by leadership or by members of corporate governance. Following this premise, the model explains how organizations engage in discursive strategies to cover up the potential conflicts that arise, including secret agreements and weakening stakeholders who may oppose the organizational acts. Deflection strategies include "preemptive" and "post-complaint" secret agreements, absence of (or vague) documented procedures, engaging in blame and scapegoating, remaining silent on complaints until the media finds out, as well as being slow (if at all) to acknowledge misconduct and fast to cover it up. The results of this paper may be used to guide organizational leaders into the implications of such shortsighted strategies toward unethical acts, even if they are deemed legal. Validation of the model assumptions through numerous media articles is provided.

Keywords: ethical decision making, prediction, scandals, organizational strategies

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1453 International Criminal Prosecution and Core International Crimes

Authors: Ikediobi Lottanna Samuel


Days are gone when perpetrators of core international crimes hide under the cloak of sovereignty to go with impunity. The principle of international criminal responsibility is a reality. This move to end impunity for violation of human rights has led to the creation of international and hybrid tribunals, a permanent international criminal court, and increased prosecution of human rights violations in domestic courts. This article examines the attempts by the international community to bring perpetrators of heinous crimes to book. The work reveals the inadequacy of the current international mechanism for prosecuting core international crimes in order to end the culture of impunity and entrench the culture of accountability. It also identifies that ad hoc international criminal tribunals and the international criminal court face similar challenges ranging from lack of cooperation by nation states, non-existence of hierarchy of crimes, lack of effective enforcement mechanism, limited prosecutorial capacity and agenda, difficulty in apprehending suspects, difficulty in blending different legal tradition, absence of a coherent sentencing guideline, distant location of courts, selective indictment, etc. These challenges adversely affect the functioning of these courts. It is suggested that a more helpful way to end impunity would be to have a more robust and synergistic relationship between national, regional, and international approaches to prosecuting core international crimes.

Keywords: prosecution, criminal, international, tribunal, justice, ad hoc

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1452 The Value and Role of Higher Education in the Police Profession

Authors: Habib Ahmadi, Mohamad Ali Ameri


In this research, the perception and understanding of police officers about the value of higher education have been investigated. A qualitative research approach and phenomenological method were used, and in data analysis, the Claizi method was used. In this research, 17 people with different degrees and occupations were selected by purposive sampling method until saturation and were investigated using a semi-structured interview tool. After the data was collected, recorded, and coded in the Atlas T software, it was formulated in the form of main categories and concepts. The general views of police officers participating in this research show the importance of university education in police jobs(76%). The analysis of participants' experiences led to the identification of seven main categories of the value and role of higher education, including; 1- Improvement of behavior and social skills, 2- Opportunities to improve and improve job performance, 3- Professionalization of police work, 4- Financial motivation, 5- People's satisfaction with police services, 6- Improvement of writing and technical skills Statement, 7- Raising the level of expectation and expectations was misplaced (negative perception). The findings of this study support the positive attitude and professionalism of the educated police. Therefore, considering the change of paradigm in society as well as the change of technologies, more complex organizational designs, and the perception of police officers, it is concluded that the police field needs officers with higher education to enable them to understand the new global environment.

Keywords: lived experience, higher education, police professionalization, perceptions of police officers

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1451 Being Your Own First Responder: A Training to Identify and Respond to Mental Health

Authors: Joe Voshall, Leigha Shoup


In 2022, the Ohio Peace Officer Training Council and the Attorney General required officers to complete a minimum of 24 hours of continued professional training for the year. Much of the training was based on Mental Health or similarly related topics. This includes Officer Wellness and Officer Mental Health. It is becoming clearer that the stigma of Officer / First Responder Mental Health is a topic that is becoming more prevalently faced. To assist officers and first responders in facing mental health issues, we are developing new training. This training will aid in recognizing mental health-related issues in officers/first responders and citizens, as well as further using the same information to better respond and interact with one another and the public. In general, society has many varying views of mental health, much of which is largely over-sensationalized by television, movies, and other forms of entertainment. There has also been a stigma in law enforcement / first responders related to mental health and being weak as a result of on-the-job-related trauma-induced struggles. It is our hope this new training will assist officers and first responders in not only positively facing and addressing their mental health but using their own experience and education to recognize signs and symptoms of mental health within individuals in the community. Further, we hope that through this recognition, officers and first responders can use their experiences and more in-depth understanding to better interact within the field and with the public. Through recognition and better understanding of mental health issues and more positive interaction with the public, additional achievements are likely to result. This includes in the removal of bias and stigma for everyone.

Keywords: law enforcement, mental health, officer related mental health, trauma

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