Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1093

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Law and Political Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1093 Evaluation of Environmental and Social Management System of Green Climate Fund's Accredited Entities: A Qualitative Approach Applied to Environmental and Social System

Authors: Sima Majnooni

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Green Climate Fund's environmental and social management framework (GCF). The environmental and social management framework ensures the accredited entity considers the GCF's accreditation standards and effectively implements each of the GCF-funded projects. The GCF requires all accredited entities to meet basic transparency and accountability standards as well as environmental and social safeguards (ESMS). In doing so, the accredited entity sets up different independent units. One of these units is called the Grievance Mechanism. When allegations of environmental and social harms are raised in association with GCF-funded activities, affected parties can contact the entity’s grievance unit. One of the most challenging things about the accredited entity's grievance unit is the lack of available information and resources on the entities' websites. Many AEs have anti-corruption or anti-money laundering unit, but they do not have the environmental and social unit for affected people. This paper will argue the effectiveness of environmental and social grievance mechanisms of AEs by using a qualitative approach to indicate how many of AEs have a poor or an effective GRM. Some ESMSs seem highly effective. On the other hand, other mechanisms lack basic requirements such as a clear, transparent, uniform procedure and a definitive timetable. We have looked at each AE mechanism not only in light of how the website goes into detail regarding the process of grievance mechanism but also in light of their risk category. Many mechanisms appear inadequate for the lower level risk category entities (C) and, even surprisingly, for many higher-risk categories (A). We found; in most cases, the grievance mechanism of AEs seems vague.

Keywords: green climate fund, international climate finance, grievance mechanism, vague environmental and social policies, lower and higher risk category

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1092 The Role of Intellectual Security Immunisation in Reducing Extremism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1979 – 2019

Authors: Anas Abdulrahman A. Almiman

Abstract:

In recent decades, efforts to combat extremism have focused on non-physical dimensions, as various countries have attempted to raise security awareness or promote authentic and moderate Islamic education. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most successful and unique cases because it has focused on the immunization of Islamic intellectual security to combat extremism. This study aims to define the concept and importance of Islamic intellectual security in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through a descriptive-analytical study. It describes the potential role of Islamic intellectual security immunization in reducing extremism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1979 to 2019, identifying various factors that connect Islamic intellectual security immunization to extremism reduction. One such factor is the MISK Foundation’s forums and conferences intended to raise Islamic intellectual security and reduce intellectual deviation, thus reducing extremism. It concludes that the common significant factor for Islamic intellectual deviation is direct commands and prohibitions. This study supports the efforts made by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to immunize Islamic intellectual security and fight extremism as a consequence.

Keywords: Islamic, Saudi Arabia, Extremism, intellectual security immunization

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1091 Enhancing a Recidivism Prediction Tool with Machine Learning: Effectiveness and Algorithmic Fairness

Authors: Marzieh Karimihaghighi, Carlos Castillo

Abstract:

This work studies how Machine Learning (ML) may be used to increase the effectiveness of a criminal recidivism risk assessment tool, RisCanvi. The two key dimensions of this analysis are predictive accuracy and algorithmic fairness. ML-based prediction models obtained in this study are more accurate at predicting criminal recidivism than the manually-created formula used in RisCanvi, achieving an AUC of 0.76 and 0.73 in predicting violent and general recidivism respectively. However, the improvements are small, and it is noticed that algorithmic discrimination can easily be introduced between groups such as national vs foreigner, or young vs old. It is described how effectiveness and algorithmic fairness objectives can be balanced, applying a method in which a single error disparity in terms of generalized false positive rate is minimized, while calibration is maintained across groups. Obtained results show that this bias mitigation procedure can substantially reduce generalized false positive rate disparities across multiple groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that ML-based criminal recidivism risk prediction should not be introduced without applying algorithmic bias mitigation procedures.

Keywords: recidivism, algorithmic fairness, criminal risk assessment, equalized odds

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1090 Geopolitical Architecture: The Strategic Complex in Indo Pacific Region

Authors: Muzammil Dar

Abstract:

The confluence of trans-national interests and divergent approaches followed by multiple actors has surrounded the Indo-Pacific region with myriad of strategic complexes- Geo-Political, Geo-economic, and security. This paper has thus made a humble attempt to understand the Indo-Pacific strategic predicament from Asia-Pacific perspective. The portmanteau of Indo-Pacific strategic gamble has multiple actors from global powers to regional actors. On the indo-pacific waters, not only flow trade relations, but the tides of conflicts and controversies are striking these actors against each other. The alliance formation and infrastructure building has built-in threat perceptions from rivals vice-versa. The assertiveness of China as a reality and India’s ideological doctrine of peace and friendship, as well as American rebalancing against China, could be seen as clear and bright on the Indo-Pacific strategic portmanteau. ASEAN and Japan, too, have oscillating posturing in the strategic dilemma. The aim and objective of the paper are to sketch out the prospectus and prejudices of Indo-pacific strategic complex.

Keywords: Asia Pacific, Indo Pacific, security and growth for all in the region, SAGAR, ASEAN China

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1089 A Call for Justice and a New Economic Paradigm: Analyzing Counterhegemonic Discourses for Indigenous Peoples' Rights and Environmental Protection in Philippine Alternative Media

Authors: B. F. Espiritu

Abstract:

This paper examines the resistance of the Lumad people, the indigenous peoples in Mindanao, Southern Philippines, and of environmental and human rights activists to the Philippine government's neoliberal policies and their call for justice and a new economic paradigm that will uphold peoples' rights and environmental protection in two alternative media online sites. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on indigenous resistance to neoliberal globalization and the quest for a new economic paradigm that upholds social justice for the marginalized in society, empathy and compassion for those who depend on the land for their survival, and environmental sustainability. The study analyzes the discourses in selected news articles from Davao Today and Kalikasan (translated to English as 'Nature') People's Network for the Environment’s statements and advocacy articles for the Lumad and the environment from 2018 to February 2020. The study reveals that the alternative media news articles and the advocacy articles contain statements that expose the oppression and violation of human rights of the Lumad people, farmers, government environmental workers, and environmental activists as shown in their killings, illegal arrest and detention, displacement of the indigenous peoples, destruction of their schools by the military and paramilitary groups, and environmental plunder and destruction with the government's permit for the entry and operation of extractive and agribusiness industries in the Lumad ancestral lands. Anchored on Christian Fuch's theory of alternative media as critical media and Bert Cammaerts' theorization of alternative media as counterhegemonic media that are part of civil society and form a third voice between state media and commercial media, the study reveals the counterhegemonic discourses of the news and advocacy articles that oppose the dominant economic system of neoliberalism which oppresses the people who depend on the land for their survival. Furthermore, the news and advocacy articles seek to advance social struggles that transform society towards the realization of cooperative potentials or a new economic paradigm that upholds economic democracy, where the local people, including the indigenous people, are economically empowered their environment and protected towards the realization of self-sustaining communities. The study highlights the call for justice, empathy, and compassion for both the people and the environment and the need for a new economic paradigm wherein indigenous peoples and local communities are empowered towards becoming self-sustaining communities in a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Human Rights, Environmental Sustainability, Alternative Media, indigenous resistance

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1088 Community Resilience to Violent Extremism: A Case Study of Swat in the Wake of Operation Rah-E-Raast

Authors: Khushboo Ejaz

Abstract:

Community Resilience to Violent Extremism gain importance in the post 9/11 scenario. Resilience is a word that came from the engineering domain. Prior to 9/11, this word community resilience has been used in disasters and natural hazards. The literature on Community Resilience has been published in different multiethnic and multi-religious communities. There is less data and research done on Pakistan’s Community resilience experience. This research is a case study; how local community showed resilience against violent extremism of Tehrik-e-Taliban Swat in the wake of Operation Rah-e- Raast. Qualitative research based on interviews and focus group discussions from male and female groups of different Tehsils of Swat has been carried out to highlight the Community Resilience to Violent Extremism of Tehrik- e- Taliban and Tehrik- e- Nifaz- e -Shariat- e-Muhamadi (TNSM) .NVivo software has been used for data analysis and highlighting all factors of Community Resilience to Violent extremism (CRVE) in Swat . Recommendations has been made in the end to suggest Civil Society Organizations, NGOs and government departments in order to facilitate and enhance community resilience of tribal and rural areas affected by violent elements in Pakistan. This study will fill the gap in literature related to CRVE policies in Pakistani context.

Keywords: Pakistan, Community Resilience, SWAT, operation Rah -e Raast, counter extremism

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1087 Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Idris Idris, Dr. Said Saeed Saeed

Abstract:

Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to question the authority of the government. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates to explore building community resilience against terrorism and empowering community members and implement strategies for strengthening community resilience. For data collection a mixed methods methodology will be used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis will be employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings of the study will be interpreted and recommendations will be furnished accordingly. Study results will be disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after the completion, the project team will be in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience.

Keywords: Violent Extremism, Community Resilience, community empowerment, leadership role, community Role

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1086 Absence of Arbitrator Duty of Disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996

Authors: Qusai Alshahwan

Abstract:

The arbitrator’s duties of independence and impartiality play a significant role in delivering arbitral awards which legitimate the fundamental of arbitration concepts. For this reason, the international and national arbitration rules require arbitrators to be independent and impartial to solve the arbitration disputes fairly between the parties. However, solving the disputes fairly also requires arbitrators to disclose any existing conflicts of interest with the parties to avoid misunderstanding and late challenges. In contrary with the international and national arbitration rules, the English Arbitration Act 1996 does not include independence as a separate ground for arbitrator’s removal, and importantly the English Arbitration Act 1996 is deliberately silent to the arbitrator duty of disclosure. The absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure is an issue had generated uncertainty and concerns for the arbitration community under the English jurisdiction, particularly when the English courts rejected the IBA guidelines of arbitrator conflict of interest such as in case of Halliburton v Chubb for example. This article is highlighting on the legal consequences of the absence of arbitrator duty of disclosure under the English Arbitration Act 1996 and the arbitrator's contractual obligations.

Keywords: Arbitration, independence, impartiality, duty of disclosure, English Arbitration Act 1996

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1085 Victimization in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study

Authors: Mehmet Budak, Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

Abstract:

Objectives: In this research, we studied the extent of exposure to physical violence and committing violence in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison to a control group consisting of patients with psychiatric diseases other than psychotic and mood disorders. Method: Between August 2019 and October 2019, a total of 100 hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (clinically in remission, Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale < 30) were sequentially studied while undergoing inpatient treatment at Erenkoy Mental Health Training and Research Hospital. From the outpatient clinic, 50 patients with psychiatric disorders other than psychotic disorders or mood disorders were consecutively included as a control group. All participants were evaluated by the sociodemographic data that also questions the history of violence, physical examination, bilateral comparative hand, and forearm anterior-posterior and lateral radiography. Results: While 59% of patients with schizophrenia and 28% of the control group stated that they were exposed to physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p < 0,001); a defensive wound or fracture was detected in 29% of patients with schizophrenia and 2% of the control group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 61% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 32% of the control group expressed that they committed physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p: 0.001). A self-destructive wound or fracture was detected in 53% of the patients with schizophrenia and 24% of the control group (p: 0,001). In the schizophrenia group, the rate of committing physical violence is higher in those with substance use compared to those without substance use (p:0.049). Also, wounds and bone fractures (boxer’s fracture) resulting from self-injury are more common in schizophrenia patients with substance use (p:0,002). In the schizophrenia group, defensive wounds and parry fractures (which are located in the hand, forearm, and arm usually occur as a result of a trial to shield the face against an aggressive attack and are known to be the indicators of interpersonal violence) are higher in those with substance use compared to those who do not (p:0,007). Conclusion: This study shows that exposure to physical violence and the rate of violence is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the control group. It is observed that schizophrenia patients who are stigmatized as being aggressive are more exposed to violence. Substance use in schizophrenia patients increases both exposure to physical violence and the use of physical violence. Physical examination and anamnesis that question violence are important tools to reveal the exposure to violence in patients. Furthermore, some specific bone fractures and wounds could be used to detect victimization even after plenty of time passes.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, fracture, substance use, physical violence

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1084 Understanding Psychological Distress and Protection Issues among Children Associated with Armed Groups

Authors: Grace Onubedo

Abstract:

The primary objective of this research study is to contribute to and deepen the understanding of the realities and conditions for which children recruited by violent extremist organisations in Nigeria live, as well as ascertain the state of their mental health following their reunification with either family or protection workers. The research is intended to contribute to a more focused child protection programming agenda for children associated with armed forces and groups in Nigeria and the wider conflict setting. The extent to which violence has affected the psychological well-being and mental health of children abducted and exposed to activities of Violent Extremist groups remains a largely empirical question. This research attempts to answer the following research questions with the aim of providing further evidences for informed programming: I. What are the demographic characteristics of children associated with armed groups? II. What is the state of their mental health? III. What is the relationship between their background and their mental health?

Keywords: Children, Psychological distress, Counterterrorism, psychosocial support, armed groups

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1083 Ex-Offenders’ Labeling, Stigmatization and Unsuccessful Re-Integration as Factors Leading into Recidivism: A South African Context

Authors: Tshimangadzo Oscar Magadze

Abstract:

For successful re-integration, the individual offender must adapt and transform, which requires that the offender should adopt and internalize socially approved norms, attitudes, values, and beliefs. However, the offender’s labeling and community stigmatization decide the destination of the offender. Community involvement in ex-offenders’ re-integration is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism and to control overcrowding in our correctional facilities. Crime is a social problem that requires society to come together to fight against it. This study was conducted in the Limpopo Province in Vhembe District Municipality within four local municipalities, namely Musina, Makhado, Mutale, and Thulamela. A total number of 30 participants were interviewed, and all were members of the Community Corrections Forums. This was necessitated by the fact that Musina is a very small area, which compelled the Department of Correctional Services to combine the two (Musina and Makhado) into one social re-integration entity. This is a qualitative research study where participants were selected through the use of purposive sampling. Participants were selected based on the value they would add to this study in order to achieve the objectives. The data collection method of this study was the focus group, which comprised of 3 groups of 10 participants each. Thulamela and Mutale local municipalities formed a group with (10) participants each, whereas Musina (2) and Makhado (8) formed another. Results indicate that the current situation is not conducive for re-integration to be successful. Participants raised many factors that need serious redress, namely offenders’ discrimination, lack of forgiveness by members of the community, which is fuelled by lack of community awareness due to the failure of the Department of Correctional Services in educating communities on ex-offenders re-integration.

Keywords: labeling, stigmatization, re-integration, Ex-Offender

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1082 Theorization of Dalit Feminism: Critical Reflection on Caste

Authors: Sheetal Dinkar Kamble

Abstract:

The philosophy of Dalit women revolves around the question of how gender and caste inequality manifest itself in social institutions such as the workplace, home, community, rural economy, and the public and private spaces. On the other hand, Dalit feminism explains the range of untouchability related discriminatory practices and how they incorporate the factor of gender in all social relationships. Gender theories are needed to explain how the caste system works on gendered assumptions and are selectively subject to the notion of caste in established ways of life and the punishments for deviating from them. Dalit feminists working in the field of traditional philosophy, from anthropology to epistemology, have introduced new concepts and approaches that would have to form the basis of their philosophy. It also presents philosophical knowledge of caste, gender, religion, class, and sexuality. They are bringing a particularly feminist lens on the issues of globalization, human rights, popular culture, and caste. Dalit women’s philosophy leads to Dalit feminism and knowledge creation. It is an analysis of caste history, contributions, and the challenges faced by Dalit women in rural India. The researcher claims that the method of the case study, to understand caste and gender involved in the discussion of Dalit feminist philosophy, is important. This study will contribute towards the development of dynamic theoretical frameworks directed towards social justice and equality.

Keywords: Gender, Religion, Class, caste

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1081 The Importance of Patenting and Technology Exports as Indicators of Economic Development

Authors: Hugo Rodriguez

Abstract:

The patenting of inventions is the result of an organized effort to achieve technological improvement and its consequent positive impact on the population's standard of living. Technology exports, either of high-tech goods or of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services, represent the level of acceptance that world markets have of that technology acquired or developed by a country, either in public or private settings. A quantitative measure of the above variables is expected to have a positive and relevant impact on the level of economic development of the countries, measured on this first occasion through their level of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). And in that sense, it not only explains the performance of an economy but the difference between nations. We present an econometric model where we seek to explain the difference between the GDP levels of 178 countries through their different performance in the outputs of the technological production process. We take the variables of Patenting, ICT Exports and High Technology Exports as results of the innovation process. This model achieves an explanatory power for four annual cuts (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015) equivalent to an adjusted r2 of 0.91, 0.87, 0.91 and 0.96, respectively.

Keywords: Development, Technology, Patents, exports

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1080 Unaccompanied Children: An Overview on National and European Law

Authors: Cinzia Valente

Abstract:

Over the last few years, national legislators have been forced to deal with social changes that have had important repercussions in family law and children’s law. This growing focus on minors has provoked important reforms, specifically on issues relating to the welfare and protection of children. My presentation focuses on the issue of migrant children in particular I refer to unaccompanied children, or ‘children on the move’, or separate children or any other term defining migrant minors who cross national borders seeking protection or better opportunities. They arrive often illegally, on the European territory without a responsible adult who take care of them. There is a common assumption that migrants are running away from conflicts, poverty and human rights abuse and they arrive in a foreign country hoping a better life; children without persons who takes care of them encounter some difficulties in their integration in the host country. The migration flows recorded in recent decades towards EU countries, and Italy in particular, have imposed an intense pressure to modernize institutions, services and specific legal frameworks, with the aim of responding adequately to the needs of foreign individuals, as well as ensuring a good level of living standards and facilitating integration, especially for migrant children. The object of my paper is the analysis of the Italian rules, practices and services existing in favor of unaccompanied children (foster care, reunification, acquisition of citizenship and other) in comparison with other European legal systems on the same thematic with a comparative method. Highlighting European standards to find common principles for the best solution to children's problems is the conclusive aim of my presentation.

Keywords: Migration, Children, Family Law, Uniform Law

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1079 Obligation, the Shifting Nature of Physician-Patient Relationship, and the Basic Healthcare Reform in Mainland China

Authors: Jia Liu

Abstract:

This article explores the shifting nature of physician-patient relationship in mainland China. Specifically, it takes the physician-patient relationship during the barefoot doctor program in 1968-1978, the marketization of healthcare services in 1978-2002, and the healthcare reform in 2003-2020 as three typical historical periods, illustrating how the nature of the physician-patient relationship has changed over time in mainland China. Drawing on recent jurisprudential literature that emphasizes the roles and functions done by and through obligation rather than right, it explores how the obligations of physicians and patients along with the implementation of informed consent, marketization of the healthcare system, and the basic healthcare reform have affected their relationship. One key feature of this article is that it analyzes the ways in which commodification and decommodification of healthcare have defined and in many different ways have determined the expectations and practices of physicians and patients, which illustrates how the trust between physicians and patients threatens to collapse and the bond between the citizen and the state fails to be firmly established in the mainland Chinese healthcare context. It also pays special attention to the role played by law and legal institutions—for instance, the implementation of informed consent and the liability law—in being complicit in facilitating the decoupling of the practices of physicians and patients from their ethical senses of obligation and undermining the bond (the trust relationship) between them.

Keywords: Healthcare, Marketization, physician-patient relationship, sense of obligation

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1078 Investment Guide in Qatar

Authors: Mohamad Farhad Bakhtiyariyan

Abstract:

One of the manner to earning profit and having a high income, is investing in an acceptable market. Every the thinker brain knows, investing in the business world today, maybe, have a manifold profit or lead to failure. So, before entering in the investment market, we must have a comprehensive and sufficient awareness, know markets, acquainted with the main industrial activities, know the rules and regulation and consider the conditions of society. Qatar, as a one of the richest countries in the world, can be a good destination for investment. The inflation rate, taxes, easiness of the importing, company registration, ease of exporting process, profitable and appropriate markets, simple and applicable rules, all of this has made Qatar, one of the best and gainful investment countries. Above all, Qatar 2022 world cup event, has led of investment in this country efficiently and profitable method. In this paper, first, we have introduced the Qatar and its location, also looked at the countries international markets during the world cup and we have described the impact of the world cup on business, and then the laws and regulations of the Qatar in the field of investment, company registration, ownership by foreigners, obtaining residency by investors, export and import process in second part its examined, and in third part, major investment markets, principal industrial activities in Qatar, markets affected by the world cup and the main needs of this country in various fields during the world cup, have been investigated.

Keywords: Investment, Markets, Qatar, world cup

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1077 The New Far-Right: The Social Construction of Hatred against the Contemporary Islamic Community in Multicultural Australia

Authors: Angel Adams

Abstract:

In Australia, the contemporary social construction of hatred against the Islamic community was facilitated through the mainstream media. Australian public figures who have depicted Muslims and Islam not only as potential terrorists but also as incompatible with the country’s values and identities have helped to increase the level of fear against the Islamic community, leading sympathetic far-right movements to shift discussions towards anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim rhetoric. Political opportunities combined with a socially constructed narrative of fear of the ‘other’, introduced during the White Australia Policy of 1901, has allowed extreme and radical far-right movements to justify hate against the contemporary Australian Islamic community. This study aims to answer the following question: How does Australia’s founding provide a fertile environment to the spread of hatred against the contemporary Islamic community? The paper demonstrates that a forged social construct of grievances concerning the Islamic community in Australia has led to a surge in supply of far-right activism to combat what has become a perceived ‘national threat’. In essence, Australia’s history of a fear of the ‘other’ brings challenges to a multicultural society, and can potentially lead to a more unstable socio-political environment where abuse and violence are normalized and more likely to develop. Furthermore, the paper aims to bring a more nuanced understanding of what is considered ‘new far-right’ discourses with shared anti-Islam and anti-Muslim agendas in Australia. The political opportunity structures theory was the mechanism used to determine how new forms of far-right groups have become more mainstream in Australia. Previous studies on far-right groups in Australia have relied on qualitative data, but further empirical research in this area is sorely needed. Above all, this paper clarifies how hatred against minorities can have a negative impact on wider communities and allow a global narrative of ‘us’ versus ‘them’ to erupt from the fringes of society in Australia.

Keywords: Islamophobia, Political Violence, Australia, Nationalism, Social Construction, far-right, political opportunity structures

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1076 Employees’ Satisfaction and Engagement in UAE: Antecedents and Outcomes

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Ahmed Hassan Almarzooqi

Abstract:

Employee satisfaction, engagement, and performance are crucial for successful organizations. The performance of the employees now depends on their satisfaction level and whether they are satisfied with the management. Due to this fact, the organizations are now measuring the satisfaction level of their employees to increase profitability, productivity, and turnover. The aim of this research is to inspect the antecedents which direct in the direction of significant employee engagement and good job fit by finding the relationship between employee satisfaction and engagement. Based on an inclusive literature review on the employees’ satisfaction, engagement and performance, this research will conduct a study and survey in the UAE organizations in order to develop a framework for evaluating the impact of factors like employee satisfaction and engagement on the operation as an outcome by using statistical analysis. This study will allow in understanding the advantages of containing satisfied employees and how they perform in their peak motivation to make the company more profitable and competitive.

Keywords: outcomes, antecedents, employees’ satisfaction, employees’ engagement

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1075 Fear of Gender-Based Crime and Women Empowerment: An Empirical Study among the Urban Residents of Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Biro Judit

Abstract:

Fear of gender-based crime and fear of crime victimization for women is a major concern in the urban areas of Bangladesh. Based on the recent data from various human rights organizations and international literature the study found that gender-based crime especially sexual assault and rape are increasing in Bangladesh at a significant rate in comparison to other countries. The major focus of the study was to identify the relationship between fear of gender-based crime and women empowerment. To explore the fact the study followed the mixed methodological approach comprising with quantitative and qualitative methods and used secondary information from national and international sources. Corresponding global pictures the present study found that gender, age, complexion, social position, and ethnicity were more common factors of sexual assault and victimization in Bangladesh which lead to women become more fearful about crime victimization than men. Fear of gender-based crime traumatizes women which leads to withdrawal of their non-essential everyday works and some time from the essential works based on their social position, financial status, and social honor in the society. The increasing crime rate also increases the propensity to fear of criminal victimization, traumatization, and feeling of helplessness which make them vulnerable. The patriarchal culture and practices in Bangladesh based on religious culture and established social norms women always feel defenseless therefore they withdraw themselves from various social activities and own interest. Women who have already victimized feel more fear and become traumatized, and who do not victimize yet but know the severity of victimization from the media and others’ have the feeling of fear of crime. Women who find themselves as weak bonding and low networks with their neighbors and living for a short duration have a feeling of more fear and avoid visiting a certain place in a certain time and avoid some social activities. The study found the young women have more possibilities to become victimized through the feeling of fear of crime is higher among elderly women than young. Though women feel fear of all kinds of crime but usually all aged women are more fearful of sexual assault and rape than other violent crimes. Therefore, elderly women and another person in the family does not allow younger girls to go and involve outside activities to secure their family status. On the other hand, fear of crime in public transport is more common to all aged women at a higher level and sometimes they compromise their freedom, independence, financial opportunities, the job only to avoid the perceived threat, and save their social and cultural honor. The study also explores that fear of crime does not always depend on crime rate but the crime news, the severity of the crime, delay justice, the ineffectiveness of police, bail of criminals, corruption and political favoritism, etc. Finally, the study shows that the fear of gender-based crime and violence is working as a potential barrier to ensuring women's empowerment in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Women Empowerment, fear of crime, sexual assaults, rape, compromise personal freedom, fear of gender-based crime, fear of violent crime victimization, withdrawal from regular activities

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1074 The Need to Enhance Online Consumer Protection in KSA

Authors: Abdulrahman Aloufi

Abstract:

E-commerce has evolved to become a functional and mainstream tool of global trading, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consequently, online consumers need protection just as much as consumers in the offline world. In 2019, the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia established a so-called ‘e-commerce law’; however, this law does not cover the court enforcement of contracts entered into by international vendors, so it is not applicable in cross-border situations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the gaps present in this new e-commerce law in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: consumer protection, e-commerce law, Saudi consumer, international vendor

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1073 Italian Colonial Strategy in Libya and the Conflict of Super Powers

Authors: Mohamed Basheer Abdul Atti Hassan

Abstract:

This research paper will follow the main outlines of the Italian colonization in Libya in a historical geopolitical approach; before we reach the contemporary map. In this study, we are also concerned with following the chain's links, not as drama in time, but as a strategy in place, so that it draws to us a map of power and the distribution of political formations throughout this period within and around Libya. From the sum of these variable distributions and successive balances, we can come up with the basic principles that determined the Italian history in Libya and formed its political entity, which is a compass of guidance and an indication of the future.

Keywords: Conflict, colonization, Political History, Mediterranean

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1072 The Situation in Afghanistan as a Step Forward in Putting an End to Impunity

Authors: Jelena Radmanovic

Abstract:

On 5 March 2020, the International Criminal Court has decided to authorize the investigation into the crimes allegedly committed on the territory of Afghanistan after 1 May 2003. The said determination has raised several controversies, including the recently imposed sanctions by the United States, furthering the United States' long-standing rejection of the authority of the International Criminal Court. The purpose of this research is to address the said investigation in light of its importance for the prevention of impunity in the cases where the perpetrators are nationals of Non-Party States to the Rome Statute. Difficulties that the International Criminal Court has been facing, concerning the establishment of its jurisdiction in those instances where an involved state is not a Party to the Rome Statute, have become the most significant stumbling block undermining the importance, integrity, and influence of the Court. The Situation in Afghanistan raises even further concern, bearing in mind that the Prosecutor’s Request for authorization of an investigation pursuant to article 15 from 20 November 2017 has initially been rejected with the ‘interests of justice’ as an applied rationale. The first method used for the present research is the description of the actual events regarding the aforementioned decisions and the following reactions in the international community, while with the second method – the method of conceptual analysis, the research will address the decisions pertaining to the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction and will attempt to address the mentioned Decision of 5 March 2020 as an example of good practice and a precedent that should be followed in all similar situations. The research will attempt parsing the reasons used by the International Criminal Court, giving rather greater attention to the latter decision that has authorized the investigation and the points raised by the officials of the United States. It is a find of this research that the International Criminal Court, together with other similar judicial instances (Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), has presented the world with the possibility of non-impunity, attempting to prosecute those responsible for the gravest of crimes known to the humanity and has shown that such persons should not enjoy the benefits of their immunities, with its focus primarily on the victims of such crimes. Whilst it is an issue that will most certainly be addressed further in the future, with the situations that will be brought before the International Criminal Court, the present research will make an attempt at pointing to the significance of the situation in Afghanistan, the International Criminal Court as such and the international criminal justice as a whole, for the purpose of putting an end to impunity.

Keywords: International Criminal Court, sanctions, United States, Afghanistan, impunity

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1071 The confluence of Societal Dogmas and Extremist (Religious) Ideologies: A Case Study of Male Youth Involved in Violent Extremism in Sargodha and Jhang, Punjab

Authors: Tehmina Aslam

Abstract:

South-Asian societies elicit a male-dominant hierarchy, socio-economically and politico-religiously. The aim of the study was to examine the contribution of gender to violent extremism in order to devise means for its control in Pakistan. A qualitative case study based on interviews was conducted of de-radicalized former militants who were affiliated to militant organizations such as Sipahe Sahaba Pakistan, Lashkare Jhangvi, Laskhare Taibah, and Jaishe Mohammad, and who resided in Sargodha and Jhang, cities of the Punjab. The study exuded three main findings: first, gender alone was insufficient to motivate a male youth to resort to violent extremism; second, gender segregation made a male youth more vulnerable to an extremist ideology; and third, male gender was more prone to the influence of an extremist misguided religious ideology that pandered to male chauvinistic (societal dogmas constructing a male identity) needs and offered a male youth an opportunity to reinforce male dominance in society. The conclusion drawn was that the confluence of societal dogmas and extremist (religious) ideologies offered the major resistance against preventing violent extremism and, without dealing with both of them simultaneously, the tendency in male youth to resorting to violent extremism could not be dissipated.

Keywords: Youth, Violent Extremism, Countering Violent Extremism, preventing violent extremism

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1070 The Flashnews as a Commercial Session of Political Marketing: The Content Analysis of the Embedded Political Narratives in Non-Political Media Products

Authors: Zsolt Szabolcsi

Abstract:

Political communication in Hungary has undergone a significant change in the 2010s. One element of the transformation is the Flashnews. This media product was launched in March 2015 and since then 40-50 blocks are broadcasted, daily, on 5 channels. Flashnews blocks are condensed news sessions, containing the summary of political narratives. It starts with the introduction of the narrator, then, usually four news topics are presented and, finally, the narrator concludes the block. The block lasts only one minute and, therefore, it provides a blink session into the main narratives of political communication at the time. Beyond its rapid pace, what makes its avoidance difficult is that these blocks are always in the first position in the commercial break of a non-political media product. Although it is only one minute long, its significance is high. The content of the Flashnews reflects the main governmental narratives and, therefore, the Flashnews is part of the agenda-setting capacity of political communication. It reaches media consumers who have limited knowledge and interest in politics, and their use of media products is not politically related. For this audience, the Flashnews pops up in the same way as commercials. Due to its structure and appearance, the impact of Flashnews seems to be similar to commercials, imbedded into the break of media products. It activates existing knowledge constructs, builds up associational links and maintains their presence in a way that the recipient is not aware of the phenomenon. The research aims to examine the extent to which the Flashnews and the main news narratives are identical in their content. This aim is realized with the content analysis of the two news products by examining the Flashnews and the evening news during main sport events from 2016 to 2018. The initial hypothesis of the research is that Flashnews is a contribution to the news management technique for an effective articulation of political narratives in public service media channels.

Keywords: Political Communication, political marketing, flashnews, news management

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1069 Rethinking the Use of Online Dispute Resolution in Resolving Cross-Border Small E-Disputes in EU

Authors: Sajedeh Salehi, Marco Giacalone

Abstract:

This paper examines the role of existing online dispute resolution (ODR) mechanisms and their effects on ameliorating access to justice – as a protected right by Art. 47 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights – for consumers in EU. The major focus of this study will be on evaluating ODR as the means of dispute resolution for Business-to-Consumer (B2C) cross-border small claims raised in e-commerce transactions. The authors will elaborate the consequences of implementing ODR methods in the context of recent developments in EU regulatory safeguards on promoting consumer protection. In this analysis, both non-judiciary and judiciary ODR redress mechanisms are considered, however, the significant consideration is given to – obligatory and non-obligatory – judiciary ODR methods. For that purpose, this paper will particularly investigate the impact of the EU ODR platform as well as the European Small Claims Procedure (ESCP) Regulation 861/2007 and their role on accelerating the access to justice for consumers in B2C e-disputes. Although, considerable volume of research has been carried out on ODR for consumer claims, rather less (or no-) attention has been paid to provide a combined doctrinal and empirical evaluation of ODR’s potential in resolving cross-border small e-disputes, in EU. Hence, the methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (surveys) research methods which will be mainly based on the data acquired through the findings of the Small Claims Analysis Net (SCAN) project. This project contributes towards examining the ESCP Regulation implementation and efficiency in providing consumers with a legal watershed through using the ODR for their transnational small claims. The outcomes of this research may benefit both academia and policymakers at national and international level.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Access to justice, Consumers, small e-Disputes

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1068 Enhancement of Accountability within the South African Public Sector: Knowledge Gained from the Case of a National Commissioner of the South African Police Service

Authors: Y. Nanabhay

Abstract:

This paper scrutinizes the literature on accountability and nonaccountability and then presents an analysis of a South African case which demonstrated consequences of a lack of accountability. Ethical conduct displayed by members of the public sector is integral to creating a sustainable democratic government, which upholds the constitutional tenets of accountability, transparency, and professional ethicality. Furthermore, a true constitutional democracy emphasises and advocates the notion of service leadership that nurtures public participation and engages with citizens in a positive manner. Ethical conduct in the public sector earns public trust; it is hence a key principle in good governance. Yet, in the years since the advent of democracy in South Africa, the government has been plagued by rampant corruption and maladministration by public officials and politicians in leadership positions. The external control measures passed by government in an attempt to ensure ethicality and accountability within the public sector include codes of ethics, rules of conduct and the enactment of legislation. These are intended to shape the mindset of members of the public sector, with the ultimate aim of an efficient, effective, ethical, responsive, and accountable public service. The purpose of the paper is to analyse internal control systems and accountability within the public sector and to present reasons for nonaccountability by means of a selected case study. The selected case study is the corruption trial of Jackie Selebi, who served as National Commissioner of the South African Police Service but was dismissed from the post. The reasons for non-accountability in the public sector, as well as recommendations based on the findings to enhance accountability, will be undertaken. The case study demonstrates the experience and impact of corruption and/or maladministration, as a result of a lack of accountability, which has contributed to the increasing loss of confidence in political leadership in the country as elsewhere in the world. The literature is applied to the rise and fall of Jackie Selebi, erstwhile National Commissioner of the South African Police Service and President of Interpol, as a case study of nonaccountability.

Keywords: Corruption, Public Sector, Internal control, Public Accountability, maladministration, non-compliance, oversight mechanisms

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1067 Awareness and Manifestations of Animus as a Way to Gender Equality

Authors: A. Khananyan

Abstract:

Currently, most of the work of UN Women and numerous feminist organizations in the world is devoted to fighting against gender inequality and physical and psychological domestic violence directed at women. The author suggests that this work will become more effective if the vigorous activity of organizations is accompanied by specially developed psychotherapeutic approach and work, which are based on the Jungian analysis, concepts of collective unconscious and Anima and Animus of C.G.Jung, the theory of cultural unconscious of J.L.Henderson and G.J.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. The collective unconscious is inherent to all human beings, the cultural unconscious is different depending on the type of culture. The author has long-term psychotherapeutic practice with patients from different countries of Central Asia and the Middle East over the past 20 years. According to the definition of Hofstede, these cultures are called 'collectivist'. A part of the patients went through the sufferings of physical violence and sexual abuse, the other part - through different kinds of psychological violence, such us devaluation, gaslighting, emotional blackmail, ignorance, isolation, and intimidation. In her psychotherapeutic work, she, as a Jungian analyst, asked herself the question: which unconscious sides of the psyche of women, especially in a collectivist culture, make them 'let' domestic violence to occur and be hidden for years, which most often has a tragic outcome? The author found and researched such phenomenon as 'cultural complex of repression of Animus,' which belongs to the cultural unconscious of collectivist culture. This complex has a huge impact on women and has repressed animus in women’s psyche. Before the discovery of Jung's theory, the psyche of a woman was considered exclusively as feminine, without the right to Animus as masculine side and manifestations, as a phenomenon that has 'less creative potential and social value than masculinity of men.' The Discovery of Animus as the masculine side of a woman’s psyche opened up new prospects for psychotherapy of women and women’s development in any area. A. Khananyan suggests that the purpose of this repression is the creation of a unipolar feminine image of a woman without the presence or with an extremely insignificant presence of Animus, which alienates women from her true self. This idealized image obligates women to fulfill the role prescribed in this way in the family and society. At the slightest manifestation of Animus - when a girl shows independent behavior, she is being punished and instilled with feelings of shame and guilt, and this is accompanied by edification words that girls should not do this. The awareness of Animus and its manifestation in the author’s psychotherapeutic process leads to the significant transformation of the psyche of women, the release from feelings of guilt, shame, and the state of the victim of any forms of violence. It also contributes to raising the level of self-awareness, identity, and self-realization, since not only legal laws and achieved rights ensure the safety of life and relationships, but also the psychic wholeness and mental state of women.

Keywords: Gender equality, cultural complex, manifestation of Animus, repression of Animus

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1066 Examining Terrorism through a Constructivist Framework: Case Study of the Islamic State

Authors: Shivani Yadav

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The Study of terrorism lends itself to the constructivist framework as constructivism focuses on the importance of ideas and norms in shaping interests and identities. Constructivism is pertinent to understand the phenomenon of a terrorist organization like the Islamic State (IS), which opportunistically utilizes radical ideas and norms to shape its ‘politics of identity’. This ‘identity’, which is at the helm of preferences and interests of actors, in turn, shapes actions. The paper argues that an effective counter-terrorism policy must recognize the importance of ideas in order to counter the threat arising from acts of radicalism and terrorism. Traditional theories of international relations, with an emphasis on state-centric security problematic, exhibit several limitations and problems in interpreting the phenomena of terrorism. With the changing global order, these theories have failed to adapt to the changing dimensions of terrorism, especially ‘newer’ actors like the Islamic State (IS). The paper observes that IS distinguishes itself from other terrorist organizations in the way that it recruits and spreads its propaganda. Not only are its methods different, but also its tools (like social media) are new. Traditionally, too, force alone has rarely been sufficient to counter terrorism, but it seems especially impossible to completely root out an organization like IS. Time is ripe to change the discourse around terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies. The counter-terrorism measures adopted by states, which primarily focus on mitigating threats to the national security of the state, are preoccupied with statist objectives of the continuance of state institutions and maintenance of order. This limitation prevents these theories from addressing the questions of justice and the ‘human’ aspects of ideas and identity. These counter-terrorism strategies adopt a problem-solving approach that attempts to treat the symptoms without diagnosing the disease. Hence, these restrictive strategies fail to look beyond calculated retaliation against violent actions in order to address the underlying causes of discontent pertaining to ‘why’ actors turn violent in the first place. What traditional theories also overlook is that overt acts of violence may have several causal factors behind them, some of which are rooted in the structural state system. Exploring these root causes through the constructivist framework helps to decipher the process of ‘construction of terror’ and to move beyond the ‘what’ in theorization in order to describe ‘why’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ terrorism occurs. Study of terrorism would much benefit from a constructivist analysis in order to explore non-military options while countering the ideology propagated by the IS.

Keywords: constructivism, Counter terrorism, Islamic State, politics of identity

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1065 Dealing with Neighbors: River Water Sharing between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Authors: Ashutosh Pujari

Abstract:

The sharing of natural resources is one of the most important aspects of relations between two neighboring countries, especially when it is a resource that has a presence in both the countries in question. River water is an important resource that is shared between India and its neighbors, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh. India shares Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum rivers with Pakistan, while with Bangladesh, it shares Ganges and Brahmaputra. However, it is interesting to note how does India deals with her sharing of water with these two countries. Although water sharing with both the countries has been dotted by irritants over the years, relations with Bangladesh is undoubtedly better in this respect. Given the common history of the region, this paper analyses the reasons behind this difference in the relationship between India and her neighbors and its implications for the present times. Through critical analysis of literature and the official policy of all the governments involved and the narratives present, this paper tries to present understand how India’s relations with its neighbors are a function of geopolitics, culture, and perceptions on both sides.

Keywords: Geopolitics, river water sharing, India-Pakistan relations, India-Bangladesh relations

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1064 A Critique of The English And Nigerian Marine Insurance Laws on Insurable Interest

Authors: Omotolani Victoria Somoye

Abstract:

The paper examines modern approaches to the insurable interest, which is a fundamental principle of insurance law that affects the enforceability of insurance contracts. The study starts by examining the competing definitions of the nature of the insurable interest doctrine. It finds that while legal interest theory is seen to be sufficient as the test of insurable interest, the paper argues on how this approach deprives the insured of a full indemnity of losses suffered. The problem with the Nigerian and English current legislative framework is that it defines insurable interest as a legally recognized interest of the insured in the subject matter of insurance. However, other countries like Australia, the United States, South Africa, and more recently, Canada, have rejected the English test and trodden their own path along the factual expectancy line. The study justifies the rationale behind the departure of similar common law jurisdictions and argues that the English and Nigerian position, which appears to be too rigid, harsh on the insured, and no longer fit for purpose in the 21st century, should be revised. The paper concludes that the common law doctrine does not represent better interests of certainty, justice, and fairness, as well as not meeting the policy behind the requirement of insurable interest. This paper adopts a doctrinal comparative research methodology to examine complex areas of insurable interest in selected countries and work out some suggestions for reforming the Nigerian and English laws by referring to the approaches of other jurisdictions.

Keywords: Insurance, Common Law, Australia, Nigeria, Insurable Interest, English law

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