Abstracts | Chemical and Materials Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 548

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

548 Physico-Chemical Characterization of an Algerian Biomass: Application in the Adsorption of an Organic Pollutant

Authors: Djelloul Addad, Fatiha Belkhadem Mokhtari

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the retention of methylene blue (MB) by biomass. The Biomass is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption (IRTF). Results show that the biomass contains organic and mineral substances. The effect of certain physicochemical parameters on the adsorption of MB is studied (effect of the pH). This study shows that the increase in the initial concentration of MB leads to an increase in the adsorbed quantity. The adsorption efficiency of MB decreases with increasing biomass mass. The adsorption kinetics show that the adsorption is rapid, and the maximum amount is reached after 120 min of contact time. It is noted that the pH has no great influence on the adsorption. The isotherms are best modelled by the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic study of adsorption shows that the adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic.

Keywords: dyes, adsorption, biomass, methylene blue, langmuir

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547 Smart Energy Storage: W₁₈O₄₉ NW/Ti₃C₂Tₓ Composite-Enabled All Solid State Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors

Authors: Muhammad Hassan, Kemal Celebi

Abstract:

Developing a highly efficient electrochromic energy storage device with sufficient color fluctuation and significant electrochemical performance is highly desirable for practical energy-saving applications. Here, to achieve a highly stable material with a large electrochemical storage capacity, a W₁₈O₄₉ NW/Ti₃C₂Tₓ composite has been fabricated and deposited on a pre-assembled Ag and W₁₈O₄₉ NW conductive network by Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The resulting hybrid electrode composed of 15 layers of W₁₈O₄₉ NW/Ti₃C₂Tₓ exhibits an areal capacitance of 125 mF/cm², with a fast and reversible switching response. An optical modulation of 98.2% can be maintained at a current density of 5 mAcm⁻². Using this electrode, we fabricated a bifunctional symmetric electrochromic supercapacitor device having an energy density of 10.26 μWh/cm² and a power density of 0.605 mW/cm², with high capacity retention and full columbic efficiency over 4000 charge-discharge cycles. Meanwhile, the device displays remarkable electrochromic characteristics, including fast switching time (5 s for coloring and 7 s for bleaching) and a significant coloration efficiency of 116 cm²/C with good optical modulation stability. In addition, the device exhibits remarkable mechanical flexibility and fast switching while being stable over 100 bending cycles, which is promising for real-world applications.

Keywords: MXene, nanowires, supercapacitor, ion diffusion, electrochromic, coloration efficiency

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546 Partially Phosphorylated Polyvinyl Phosphate-PPVP Composite: Synthesis and Its Potentiality for Zr (IV) Extraction from an Acidic Medium

Authors: Khaled Alshamari

Abstract:

Synthesized partially phosphorylated polyvinyl phosphate derivative (PPVP) was functionalized to extract Zirconium (IV) from Egyptian zircon sand. The specifications for the PPVP composite were approved effectively via different techniques, namely, FT-IR, XPS, BET, EDX, TGA, HNMR, C-NMR, GC-MS, XRD and ICP-OES analyses, which demonstrated a satisfactory synthesis of PPVP and zircon dissolution from Egyptian zircon sand. Factors controlling parameters, such as pH values, shaking time, initial zirconium concentration, PPVP dose, nitrate ions concentration, co-ions, temperature and eluting agents, have been optimized. At 25 ◦C, pH 0, 20 min shaking, 0.05 mol/L zirconium ions and 0.5 mol/L nitrate ions, PPVP has an exciting preservation potential of 195 mg/g, equivalent to 390 mg/L zirconium ions. From the extraction–distribution isotherm, the practical outcomes of Langmuir’s modeling are better than the Freundlich model, with a theoretical value of 196.07 mg/g, which is more in line with the experimental results of 195 mg/g. The zirconium ions adsorption onto the PPVP composite follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a theoretical capacity value of 204.08 mg/g. According to thermodynamic potential, the extraction process was expected to be an exothermic, spontaneous and beneficial extraction at low temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters ∆S (−0.03 kJ/mol), ∆H (−12.22 kJ/mol) and ∆G were also considered. As the temperature grows, ∆G values increase from −2.948 kJ/mol at 298 K to −1.941 kJ/mol at 338 K. Zirconium ions may be eluted from the working loaded PPVP by 0.025M HNO₃, with a 99% efficiency rate. It was found that zirconium ions revealed good separation factors towards some co-ions such as Hf⁴+ (28.82), Fe³+ (10.64), Ti⁴+ (28.82), V⁵+ (86.46) and U⁶+ (68.17). A successful alkali fusion technique with NaOH flux followed by the extraction with PPVP is used to obtain a high-purity zirconia concentrate with a zircon content of 72.77 % and a purity of 98.29%. As a result of this, the improved factors could finally be used.

Keywords: zirconium extraction, partially phosphorylated polyvinyl phosphate (PPVP), acidic medium, zircon

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545 The Optimization Of an Industrial Reycling Line : The Effect of Processing Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene (PE) Blends

Authors: Alae Lamtai, Said Elkoun, Hniya Kharmoudi, Mathieu Robert, Carl Diez

Abstract:

This study applies Taguchi's design of experiment methodology and grey relational analysis (GRA) for multi objective optimization of an industrial recycling line. This last is composed mainly of a mono and twin-screw extruder and a filtration system. Experiments were performed according to L_16 standard orthogonal array based on five process parameters namely: mono screw design, screw speed of the mono and twin-screw extruder, melt pump pressure and filter mesh size. The objective of this optimization is to decrease the loss of Stress Crack resistance (SCR) using Notched Crack Ligament Stress (NCLS) test and increase the gain of the elongation at break, flexural modulus, and Izod impact strength of the Polyethylene (PE) blend before and after recycling. Based on Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), the optimal setting of process parameters was identified, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that mono-screw design and screw speed of the mono and twin-screw extruder impact significantly the mechanical properties of recycled Polyethylene (PE) blend.

Keywords: mechanical recycling, stress cracking resistance (SCR), anova, taguchi, grey relational analysis

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544 Preformed Au Colloidal Nanoparticles Immobilised on NiO as Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysts for Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol

Authors: Khaled Alshammari

Abstract:

A facile approach to synthesizing highly active and stable Au/NiO catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitro-aromatics is reported. Preformed gold nanoparticles have been immobilized onto NiO using a colloidal method. In this article, the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH4 has been used as a model reaction to investigate the catalytic activity of synthesized Au/NiO catalysts. In addition, we report a systematic study of the reduction kinetics and the influence of specific reaction parameters such as (i) temperature, (ii) stirring rate, (iii) sodium borohydride concentration and (iv) substrate/metal molar ratio. The reaction has been performed at a substrate/metal molar ratio of 7.4, a ratio significantly higher than previously reported. The reusability of the catalyst has been examined, with little to no decrease in activity observed over 5 catalytic cycles. Systematic variation of Au loading reveals the successful synthesis of low-cost and efficient Au/NiO catalysts at very low Au content and using high substrate/metal molar ratios.

Keywords: nonochemistry, catalyst, nanoparticles supported, characterization of materials, colloidal nanoparticles

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543 Polar Nanoregions in Lead-Free Relaxor Ceramics: Unveiling through Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mohammed Mesrar, Hamza El Malki, Hamza Mesrar

Abstract:

In this study, ceramics of (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 x(K0.5 Bi0.5)TiO3 were synthesized through a conventional calcination process (solid-state method) at 1000°C for 4 hours, with x(%) values ranging from 0.0 to 100. Room temperature XRD patterns confirmed the phase formation of the samples. The Rietveld refinement method was employed to verify the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x(%)=16-20. We investigated the average crystallite size and lattice strain using Scherrer's formula and Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. SEM image analyses provided additional evidence of the impact of doping on structural growth under low temperatures. Relaxation time extracted from Z″(f) and M″(f) spectra for x(%) = 0.0, 12, 16, 20, and 30 followed the Arrhenius law, revealing the presence of three distinct relaxation mechanisms with varying activation energies. The shoulder response in M″(f) indirectly indicated the existence of highly polarizable entities in the samples, serving as a signature of polar nanoregions (PNRs) within the grains.In this study, ceramics of (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 x(K0.5 Bi0.5)TiO3 were synthesized through a conventional calcination process (solid-state method) at 1000°C for 4 hours, with x(%) values ranging from 0.0 to 100. Room temperature XRD patterns confirmed the phase formation of the samples. The Rietveld refinement method was employed to verify the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) at x(%)=16-20. We investigated the average crystallite size and lattice strain using Scherrer's formula and Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. SEM image analyses provided additional evidence of the impact of doping on structural growth under low temperatures. Relaxation time extracted from Z″(f) and M″(f) spectra for x(%) = 0.0, 12, 16, 20, and 30 followed the Arrhenius law, revealing the presence of three distinct relaxation mechanisms with varying activation energies. The shoulder response in M″(f) indirectly indicated the existence of highly polarizable entities in the samples, serving as a signature of polar nanoregions (PNRs) within the grains.

Keywords: (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 x(K0.5 Bi0.5)TiO3, Rietveld refinement, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Williamson-Hall plots, charge density distribution, dielectric properties

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542 Photocatalytic Degradation of Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ Core-Shell Nanocomposites Under UV Irradiation Against Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B Dyes

Authors: S. Divya, M. Jose

Abstract:

Over the past years, industrial dyes have emerged as a significant threat to aquatic life, extensively detected in drinking water and groundwater, thus contributing to water pollution due to their improper and excessive use. To address this issue, the utilization of core-shell structures has been prioritized as it demonstrates remarkable efficiency in utilizing light energy for catalytic reactions and exhibiting excellent photocatalytic activity despite the availability of various photocatalysts. This work focuses on the photocatalytic degradation of Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ CSNs under UV light irradiation against MB and RhB dyes. Different characterization techniques, including XRD, FTIR, and TEM analyses, were employed to reveal the material's structure, functional groups, and morphological features. VSM and XPS analyses confirmed the soft, paramagnetic nature and chemical states with respective atomic percentages, respectively. Optical band gaps, determined using the Tauc plot model, indicated 4.24 eV and 4.13 eV for Nd₂O₃ NPs and Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ CSNs, respectively. The reduced bandgap energy of Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ CSNs enhances light absorption in the UV range, potentially leading to improved photocatalytic efficiency. The Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ CSNs exhibited greater degradation efficiency, reaching 95% and 96% against MB and RhB dyes, while Nd₂O₃ NPs showed 90% and 92%, respectively. The enhanced efficiency of Nd₂O₃@SiO₂ CSNs can be attributed to the larger specific surface area provided by the SiO₂ shell, as confirmed by surface area analysis using the BET surface area analyzer through N₂ adsorption-desorption.

Keywords: core shell nanocomposites, rare earth oxides, photocatalysis, advanced oxidation process

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541 SAR and B₁ Considerations for Multi-Nuclear RF Body Coils

Authors: Ria Forner

Abstract:

Introduction: Due to increases in the SNR at 7T and above, it becomes more favourable to make use of X-nuclear imaging. Integrated body coils tuned to 120MHz for 31P, 79MHz for 23Na, and 75 MHz for 13C at 7T were simulated with a human male, female, or child body model to assess strategies of use for metabolic MR imaging in the body. Methods: B1 and SAR efficiencies in the heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys were assessed using numerical simulations over the three frequencies with phase shimming. Results: B1+ efficiency is highly variable over the different organs, particularly for the highest frequency; however, local SAR efficiency remains relatively constant over the frequencies in all subjects. Although the optimal phase settings vary, one generic phase setting can be identified for each frequency at which the penalty in B1+ is at a max of 10%. Discussion: The simulations provide practical strategies for power optimization, B1 management, and maintaining safety. As expected, the B1 field is similar at 75MHz and 79MHz, but reduced at 120MHz. However, the B1 remains relatively constant when normalised by the square root of the peak local SAR. This is in contradiction to generalized SAR considerations of 1H MRI at different field strengths, which is defined by global SAR instead. Conclusion: Although the B1 decreases with frequency, SAR efficiency remains constant throughout the investigated frequency range. It is possible to shim the body coil to obtain a maximum of 10% extra B1+ in a specific organ in a body when compared to a generic setting.

Keywords: birdcage, multi-nuclear, B1 shimming, 7 Tesla MRI, liver, kidneys, heart, spleen

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540 Additive Manufacturing – Application to Next Generation Structured Packing (SpiroPak)

Authors: Biao Sun, Tejas Bhatelia, Vishnu Pareek, Ranjeet Utikar, Moses Tadé

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D printing, with the continuing advances in parallel processing and computational modeling, has created a paradigm shift (with significant radical thinking) in the design and operation of chemical processing plants, especially LNG plants. With the rising energy demands, environmental pressures, and economic challenges, there is a continuing industrial need for disruptive technologies such as AM, which possess capabilities that can drastically reduce the cost of manufacturing and operations of chemical processing plants in the future. However, the continuing challenge for 3D printing is its lack of adaptability in re-designing the process plant equipment coupled with the non-existent theory or models that could assist in selecting the optimal candidates out of the countless potential fabrications that are possible using AM. One of the most common packings used in the LNG process is structured packing in the packed column (which is a unit operation) in the process. In this work, we present an example of an optimum strategy for the application of AM to this important unit operation. Packed columns use a packing material through which the gas phase passes and comes into contact with the liquid phase flowing over the packing, typically performing the necessary mass transfer to enrich the products, etc. Structured packing consists of stacks of corrugated sheets, typically inclined between 40-70° from the plane. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to test and model various geometries to study the governing hydrodynamic characteristics. The results demonstrate that the costly iterative experimental process can be minimized. Furthermore, they also improve the understanding of the fundamental physics of the system at the multiscale level. SpiroPak, patented by Curtin University, represents an innovative structured packing solution currently at a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5~6. This packing exhibits remarkable characteristics, offering a substantial increase in surface area while significantly enhancing hydrodynamic and mass transfer performance. Recent studies have revealed that SpiroPak can reduce pressure drop by 50~70% compared to commonly used commercial packings, and it can achieve 20~50% greater mass transfer efficiency (particularly in CO2 absorption applications). The implementation of SpiroPak has the potential to reduce the overall size of columns and decrease power consumption, resulting in cost savings for both capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) when applied to retrofitting existing systems or incorporated into new processes. Furthermore, pilot to large-scale tests is currently underway to further advance and refine this technology.

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, structured packing (SpiroPak)

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539 Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius Leaves Extracts against Some Selected Clinical Isolates

Authors: Isa Usman Balan, Umar Aliyu, Ahmad Tijjani Muhammed

Abstract:

The laboratory scale experiment was conducted to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of epiphytic neem leaves (Tapinanthusdodoneifolius) extracts on some selected clinical isolates. The samples were collected using polythene bags to avoid unnecessary contamination of the plants, and they were collected from the old site garden of the BUK. The phytochemical screening and antibacterial test were carried out in the Chemistry and Biology laboratory, respectively at Bayero University Kano (BUK). The result obtained showed that carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, phenol, saponins and flavonoids are present in the ethanolic extract. However, chloroform extract showed only glycosides, phenols, and carbohydrates. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the ethanolic extracts and bacterial isolates (p<0.05).

Keywords: phytochemical screening, antibacterial, clinical isolates, epiphytic neem leaves, Tapinanthus dodoneifolius

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538 Effect of Micaceous Iron Oxide and Nanocrystalline Al on the Electrochemical Behavior of Aliphatic Amine Cured Epoxy Coating

Authors: Asiful H. Seikh, Jabair A. Mohammed, Ubair A. Samad, Mohammad A. Alam, Saeed M. Al-Zahrani, El-Sayed M. Sherif

Abstract:

Three coating formulations were fabricated by incorporating different percentages of MIO (micaceous iron oxide ) (1, 2, and wt%) with ball-milled nanocrystalline Al (2 wt%) particles, which was optimized earlier. These coatings were characterized by means of different methods, namely, SEM, TGA, pendulum hardness, scratch test, and nano-indentation. The EIS measurements were carried out to report the effect of adding MIO powder in fabricated coatings on their corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions. In order to report the effect of immersion time on the corrosion and degradation of the prepared coatings, the EIS data were also acquired after various exposure periods of time, i.e., 1 h, 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 30 d in the test chloride solution. It has been found that the obtained EIS data for the fabricated coatings proved that the presence of 2% MIO provided the highest corrosion resistance amongst all coatings and that effect was recorded after all immersion periods of time. But, the MIO-incorporated coatings have less corrosion resistance than Al based epoxy coatings. It was also shown that with prolonged immersion, the resistance to corrosion declined after 7d, then with a longer period of immersion, i.e. 14 d, 21 d, and 30 d increases the resistance to corrosion by forming oxide products on the coatings surface. The results obtained from both mechanical and electrochemical testing confirmed that the fabricated coating with 2 wt% Al exhibited better hardness and higher resistance to corrosion as compared to coatings with 1 wt% Al and 3 wt% Al.

Keywords: epoxy coatings, nanomaterials, corrosion resistance, EIS, nanoindentation

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537 Chitin Nanocrystals as Sustainable Surfactant Alternative for Enhancing Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stability in Oil and Gas Fields

Authors: A. Altomi, A. Alhebshi, M. Rasm, B. Osman

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This study explored the application of chitin nanocrystals (ChiNCs), derived from a renewable and environmentally friendly material, as stabilizers for oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. O/W emulsions are commonly used in various applications but are prone to instability and degradation over time. Instability can occur due to factors such as flocculation, coalescence, and gravitational separation, including creaming and sedimentation, either independently or simultaneously. To produce ChiNCs, chitin powder underwent acid hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that ChiNCs exhibited a needle-like morphology, with lengths ranging from 200 to 800 nm and widths ranging from 20 to 80 nm. The surface charge of ChiNCs was negative at pH values above 7 and positive at pH values below 7. The rheological properties of O/W emulsions stabilized by ChiNCs were compared to those stabilized by synthetic surfactants, namely Tween 80 and CTAB. The emulsions stabilized by ChiNCs demonstrated higher yield stress and lower shear viscosity compared to those stabilized by synthetic surfactants. This indicates that ChiNC-stabilized emulsions are more stable and less prone to breakdown. Based on these findings, ChiNCs show promise as an alternative to synthetic surfactants for stabilizing O/W emulsions.

Keywords: chitin nanocrystals, colloidal pickering, emulsion rheology, oil-in-water, synthetic surfactant

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536 Intensified Electrochemical H₂O₂ Synthesis and Highly Efficient Pollutant Removal Enabled by Nickel Oxides with Surface Engineered Facets and Vacancies

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Thao Thi Le, Dongyup Shin, Jong Min Kim

Abstract:

Electrochemical hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) synthesis holds significant promise for decentralized environmental remediation through the electro-Fenton process. However, challenges persist, such as the absence of robust electrocatalysts for the selective two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e⁻ ORR) and the high cost and sluggish kinetics of conventional electro-Fenton systems in treating highly concentrated wastewater. This study introduces an efficient water treatment system for removing substantial quantities of organic pollutants using an advanced electro-Fenton system coupled with a high-valent NiO catalyst. By employing a precipitation method involving crystal facet and cation vacancy engineering, a trivalent Ni (Ni³⁺)-rich NiO catalyst with a (111)-domain-exposed crystal facet, named {111}-NivO, was synthesized. This catalyst exhibited a remarkable 96% selectivity and a high mass activity of 59 A g⁻¹ for H₂O₂ production, outperforming all previously reported Ni-based catalysts. Furthermore, an advanced electro-Fenton system, integrated with a flow cell for electrochemical H₂O₂ production, was utilized to achieve 100% removal of 50 ppm bisphenol A (BPA) in 200 mL of wastewater under heavy-duty conditions, reaching a superior rapid degradation rate (4 min, k = 1.125 min⁻¹), approximately 102 times faster than the conventional electro-Fenton system. The hyper-efficiency is attributed to the continuous and appropriate supply of H₂O₂, the provision of O₂, and the timely recycling of the electrolyte under high current density operation. This catalyst also demonstrated a 93% removal of total organic carbon after 2 hours of operation and can be applied for efficient removal of highly concentrated phenol pollutants from aqueous systems, which opens new avenues for wastewater treatment.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide production, nickel oxides, crystal facet and cation vacancy engineering, wastewater treatment, flow cell, electro-Fenton

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535 Designing ZIF67 Derivatives Using Ammonia-Based Fluorine Complex as Structure-Directing Agent for Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Lu-Yin Lin

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The morphology of electroactive material is highly related to energy storage ability. Structure-directing agent (SDA) can design electroactive materials with favorable surface properties. Zeolitic imidazolate framework 67 (ZIF67) is one of the potential electroactive materials for energy storage devices. The SDA concept is less applied to designing ZIF67 derivatives in previous studies. An in-situ technique with ammonium fluoride (NH₄F) as SDA is proposed to produce a ZIF67 derivative with highly improved energy storage ability. Attracted by the effective in-situ technique, the NH₄F, ammonium bifluoride (NH₄HF₂), and ammonium tetrafluoroborate (NH₄BF₄) are first used as SDA to synthesize ZIF67 derivatives in one-step solution process as electroactive material of energy storage devices. The mechanisms of forming ZIF67 derivatives synthesized with different SDAs are discussed to explain the SDA effects on physical and electrochemical properties. The largest specific capacitance (CF) of 1527.0 Fg-¹ and the capacity of 296.9 mAhg-¹ are obtained for the ZIF67 derivative prepared using NH₄BF₄ as SDA. The energy storage device composed of the optimal ZIF67 derivative and carbon electrodes presents a maximum energy density of 15.1 Whkg-¹ at the power density of 857 Wkg-¹. The CF retention of 90% and Coulombic efficiency larger than 98% are also obtained after 5000 cycles.

Keywords: ammonium bifluoride, ammonium tetrafluoroborate, energy storage device, one-step solution process, structure-directing agent, zeolitic imidazolate framework 67

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534 Polyimide Supported Membrane Made of 2D-Coordination-Crosslinked Polyimide for Rapid Molecular Separation in Multi-Solvent Environments

Authors: Netsanet Kebede Hundessa

Abstract:

Substrate modification of thin film composite (TFC) membranes with various crosslinkers is typically necessary for organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) applications. This modification is aimed at enhancing membrane stability and solvent resistance, but it often results in a decline in permeance. This study introduces a distinct approach by developing a coordination-crosslinked polyimide substrate, which differs from the covalently-crosslinked substrates traditionally used. This developed substrate achieves enhanced solvent resistance, improved hydrophilicity, and optimized porous microstructure simultaneously. The study investigates the effects of an alkaline coagulation bath, subsequent ion exchange, and further solvent activation. The resulting TFC membrane successfully overcomes the typical permeability-selectivity trade-off of OSN membranes. It demonstrates significantly improved solvent permeance (1.5–2 times higher than previously reported data) with values of 65.2 LMH/bar for methanol, 33.1 LMH/bar for ethanol, and 59.1 LMH/bar for acetone while maintaining competitive solute rejection (>98% for Rose Bengal). This research is expected to provide a new direction for developing high-performance OSN composite membranes and other separation applications.

Keywords: metal coordinatiom, thin film composite membrane, organic solvent nanofiltration, solvent activation

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533 Use of Activated Carbon from Olive Stone for CO₂ Capture in Porous Mortars

Authors: A. González-Caro, A. M. Merino-Lechuga, D. Suescum-Morales, E. Fernández-Ledesma, J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Fernández-Rodríguez

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the most significant issues today. Since the 19th century, the rise in temperature has not only been due to natural change, but also to human activities, which have been the main cause of climate change, mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. The boom in the construction sector in recent years is also one of the main contributors to CO₂ emissions into the atmosphere; for example, for every tonne of cement produced, 1 tonne of CO₂ is emitted into the atmosphere. Most of the research being carried out in this sector is focused on reducing the large environmental impact generated during the manufacturing process of building materials. In detail, this research focuses on the recovery of waste from olive oil mills. Spain is the world's largest producer of olive oil, and this sector generates a large amount of waste and by-products such as olive pits, “alpechín” or “alpeorujo”. This olive stone by means of a pyrosilisis process gives rise to the production of active carbon. The process causes the carbon to develop many internal spaces. This study is based on the manufacture of porous mortars with Portland cement and natural limestone sand, with an addition of 5% and 10% of activated carbon. Two curing environments were used: i) dry chamber, with a humidity of 65 ± 10% and temperature of 21 ± 2 ºC and an atmospheric CO₂ concentration (approximately 0.04%); ii) accelerated carbonation chamber, with a humidity of 65 ± 10% and temperature of 21 ± 2 ºC and an atmospheric CO₂ concentration of 5%. In addition to eliminating waste from an industry, the aim of this study is to reduce atmospheric CO₂. For this purpose, first, a physicochemical and mineralogical characterisation of all raw materials was carried out, using techniques such as fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The particle size and specific surface area of the activated carbon were determined. Subsequently, tests were carried out on the hardened mortar, such as thermogravimetric analysis (to determine the percentage of CO₂ capture), as well as mechanical properties, density, porosity, and water absorption. It was concluded that the activated carbon acts as a sink for CO₂, causing it to be trapped inside the voids. This increases CO₂ capture by 300% with the addition of 10% activated carbon at 7 days of curing. There was an increase in compressive strength of 17.5% with the CO₂ chamber after 7 days of curing using 10% activated carbon compared to the dry chamber.

Keywords: olive stone, activated carbon, porous mortar, CO₂ capture, economy circular

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532 Influence of CO₂ on the Curing of Permeable Concrete

Authors: A. M. Merino-Lechuga, A. González-Caro, D. Suescum-Morales, E. Fernández-Ledesma, J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Fernández-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Since the mid-19th century, the boom in the economy and industry has grown exponentially. This has led to an increase in pollution due to rising Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and the accumulation of waste, leading to an increasingly imminent future scarcity of raw materials and natural resources. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is one of the primary greenhouse gases, accounting for up to 55% of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The manufacturing of construction materials generates approximately 73% of CO₂ emissions, with Portland cement production contributing to 41% of this figure. Hence, there is scientific and social alarm regarding the carbon footprint of construction materials and their influence on climate change. Carbonation of concrete is a natural process whereby CO₂ from the environment penetrates the material, primarily through pores and microcracks. Once inside, carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and/or CSH, yielding calcium carbonates (CaCO3) and silica gel. Consequently, construction materials act as carbon sinks. This research investigated the effect of accelerated carbonation on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of two types of non-structural vibrated concrete pavers (conventional and draining) made from natural aggregates and two types of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW). Natural aggregates were replaced by recycled aggregates using a volumetric substitution method, and the CO₂ capture capacity was calculated. Two curing environments were utilized: a carbonation chamber with 5% CO₂ and a standard climatic chamber with atmospheric CO₂ concentration. Additionally, the effect of curing times of 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days on concrete properties was analyzed. Accelerated carbonation in-creased the apparent dry density, reduced water-accessible porosity, improved compressive strength, and decreased setting time to achieve greater mechanical strength. The maximum CO₂ capture ratio was achieved with the use of recycled concrete aggregate (52.52 kg/t) in the draining paver. Accelerated carbonation conditions led to a 525% increase in carbon capture compared to curing under atmospheric conditions. Accelerated carbonation of cement-based products containing recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste is a promising technology for CO₂ capture and utilization, offering a means to mitigate the effects of climate change and promote the new paradigm of circular economy.

Keywords: accelerated carbonation, CO₂ curing, CO₂ uptake and construction and demolition waste., circular economy

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531 Harnessing the Power of Mixed Ligand Complexes: Enhancing Antimicrobial Activities with Thiosemicarbazones

Authors: Sakshi Gupta, Seema Joshi

Abstract:

Thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) have garnered significant attention in coordination chemistry due to their versatile coordination modes and pharmacological properties. Mixed ligand complexes of TSCs represent a promising area of research, offering enhanced antimicrobial activities compared to their parent compounds. This review provides an overview of the synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of mixed ligand complexes incorporating thiosemicarbazones. The synthesis of mixed ligand complexes typically involves the reaction of a metal salt with TSC ligands and additional ligands, such as nitrogen- or oxygen-based ligands. Various transition metals, including copper, nickel, and cobalt, have been employed to form mixed ligand complexes with TSCs. Characterization techniques such as spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis are commonly utilized to confirm the structures of these complexes. One of the key advantages of mixed ligand complexes is their enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to pure TSC compounds. The synergistic effect between the TSC ligands and additional ligands contributes to increased efficacy, possibly through improved metal-ligand interactions or enhanced membrane permeability. Furthermore, mixed ligand complexes offer the potential for selective targeting of microbial species while minimizing toxicity to mammalian cells. This selectivity arises from the specific interactions between the metal center, TSC ligands, and biological targets within microbial cells. Such targeted antimicrobial activity is crucial for developing effective treatments with minimal side effects. Moreover, the versatility of mixed ligand complexes allows for the design of tailored antimicrobial agents with optimized properties. By varying the metal ion, TSC ligands, and additional ligands, researchers can fine-tune the physicochemical properties and biological activities of these complexes. This tunability opens avenues for the development of novel antimicrobial agents with improved efficacy and reduced resistance. In conclusion, mixed ligand complexes of thiosemicarbazones represent a promising class of compounds with potent antimicrobial activities. Further research in this field holds great potential for the development of novel therapeutic agents to combat microbial infections effectively.

Keywords: metal complex, thiosemicarbazones, mixed ligand, selective targeting, antimicrobial activity

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530 Assessment of a Coupled Geothermal-Solar Thermal Based Hydrogen Production System

Authors: Maryam Hamlehdar, Guillermo A. Narsilio

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To enhance the feasibility of utilising geothermal hot sedimentary aquifers (HSAs) for clean hydrogen production, one approach is the implementation of solar-integrated geothermal energy systems. This detailed modelling study conducts a thermo-economic assessment of an advanced Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)-based hydrogen production system that uses low-temperature geothermal reservoirs, with a specific focus on hot sedimentary aquifers (HSAs) over a 30-year period. In the proposed hybrid system, solar-thermal energy is used to raise the water temperature extracted from the geothermal production well. This temperature increase leads to a higher steam output, powering the turbine and subsequently enhancing the electricity output for running the electrolyser. Thermodynamic modeling of a parabolic trough solar (PTS) collector is developed and integrated with modeling for a geothermal-based configuration. This configuration includes a closed regenerator cycle (CRC), proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser, and thermoelectric generator (TEG). Following this, the study investigates the impact of solar energy use on the temperature enhancement of the geothermal reservoir. It assesses the resulting consequences on the lifecycle performance of the hydrogen production system in comparison with a standalone geothermal system. The results indicate that, with the appropriate solar collector area, a combined solar-geothermal hydrogen production system outperforms a standalone geothermal system in both cost and rate of production. These findings underscore a solar-assisted geothermal hybrid system holds the potential to generate lower-cost hydrogen with enhanced efficiency, thereby boosting the appeal of numerous low to medium-temperature geothermal sources for hydrogen production.

Keywords: clean hydrogen production, integrated solar-geothermal, low-temperature geothermal energy, numerical modelling

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529 Sustainable Nanoengineering of Copper Oxide: Harnessing Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Capabilities

Authors: Yemane Tadesse Gebreslassie, Fisseha Guesh Gebremeskel

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Nanotechnology has made remarkable advancements in recent years, revolutionizing various scientific fields, industries, and research institutions through the utilization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Among these nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have garnered significant attention due to their versatile properties and wide-range applications, particularly, as effective antimicrobial and anticancer agents. CuO NPs can be synthesized using different methods, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. However, conventional chemical and physical approaches are expensive, resource-intensive, and involve the use of hazardous chemicals, which can pose risks to human health and the environment. In contrast, biological synthesis provides a sustainable and cost-effective alternative by eliminating chemical pollutants and allowing for the production of CuO NPs of tailored sizes and shapes. This comprehensive review focused on the green synthesis of CuO NPs using various biological resources, such as plants, microorganisms, and other biological derivatives. Current knowledge and recent trends in green synthesis methods for CuO NPs are discussed, with a specific emphasis on their biomedical applications, particularly in combating cancer and microbial infections. This review highlights the significant potential of CuO NPs in addressing these diseases. By capitalizing on the advantages of biological synthesis, such as environmental safety and the ability to customize nanoparticle characteristics, CuO NPs have emerged as promising therapeutic agents for a wide range of conditions. This review presents compelling findings, demonstrating the remarkable achievements of biologically synthesized CuO NPs as therapeutic agents. Their unique properties and mechanisms enable effective combating against cancer cells and various harmful microbial infections. CuO NPs exhibit potent anticancer activity through diverse mechanisms, including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, and modulation of signaling pathways. Additionally, their antimicrobial activity manifests through various mechanisms, such as disrupting microbial membranes, generating reactive oxygen species, and interfering with microbial enzymes. This review offers valuable insights into the substantial potential of biologically synthesized CuO NPs as an alternative approach for future therapeutic interventions against cancer and microbial infections.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticles, green synthesis, nanotechnology, microbial infection

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528 Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of a Copolymer (PANI/PEDOT:PSS) for Application in Supercapacitors

Authors: Naima Boudieb, Mohamed Loucif Seaid, Imad Rati, Imane Benammane

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The aim of this study is to synthesis of a copolymer PANI/PEDOT:PSS by electrochemical means to apply in supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) is a conductive polymer; it was synthesized by electrochemical polymerization. It exhibits very stable properties in different environments, whereas PEDOT:PSS is a conductive polymer based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(styrene sulfonate)(PSS). It is commonly used with polyaniline to improve its electrical conductivity. Several physicochemical and electrochemical techniques were used for the characterization of PANI/PEDOT:PSS: cyclic voltammetry (VC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential, SEM, X-ray diffraction, etc. The results showed that the PANI/PEDOT:PSS composite is a promising material for supercapacitors due to its high electrical conductivity and high porosity. Electrochemical and physicochemical characterization tests have shown that the composite has high electrical and structural performances, making it a material of choice for high-performance energy storage applications.

Keywords: energy storage, supercapacitors, SIE, VC, PANI, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, polystyrene sulfonate

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527 Corrosion Inhibition of Brass in Phosphoric Acid Solution by 2-(5-Methyl-2-Nitro-1H-Imidazol-1-Yl) Ethyl Benzoate

Authors: R. Khrifou, M. Galai, R. Touir, M. Ebn Touhami, Y. Ramli

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A 2-(5-methyl-2-Nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl benzoate (IMDZ-B) was synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, NMR, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Its effect on brass corrosion in 1.0 M H₃PO₄ solution was investigated by using electrochemical measurements coupled with X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The polarization measurements showed that the IMDZ-B acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. Indeed, it is found that the IMDZ-B compound is a very good inhibitor, and its inhibition efficiency increases with concentration to reach a maximum of 99.5 % at 10-³ M. In addition, the obtained electrochemical parameters from impedance indicated that the IMDZ-B molecules act by adsorption on metallic surfaces. This adsorption was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. However, the temperature effect on the performance of IMDZ-B was also studied. It is found that the IMDZ-B takes its performance at high temperatures. In addition, the obtained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters showed that the IMDZ-B molecules act via two adsorption modes, physisorption and chemisorptions, and its process is endothermic and spontaneous. Finally, the XRD and SEM/EDX analyses confirmed the electrochemical obtained results.

Keywords: low concentration, anti-corrosion brass, IMDZ-B product, phosphoric acid solution, electrochemical, SEM\EDAX analysis

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526 The Reducing Agent of Glycerol for the Reduction of Metal Oxides under Microwave Heating

Authors: Kianoosh Shojae

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In recent years, the environmental challenges due to the excessive use of fossil fuels have led to heightened greenhouse gas production. In response, biodiesel has emerged as a cleaner alternative, offering reduced pollutant emissions compared to traditional fuels. The large-scale production of biodiesel, involving ester exchange of animal fats or vegetable oils, results in a surplus of crude glycerin. With environmental regulations on the rise and an increasing demand for biodiesel, glycerin production has seen a significant upswing. This paper focuses on the economic significance of glycerin through its pyrolysis as a raw material, particularly in the synthesis of metals. As industries pivoted towards cleaner fuels, glycerin, as a byproduct of biodiesel production, is poised to remain a cost-effective and surplus product. In this work, for evaluating the possible performance of using the gaseous products from the pyrolysis reaction of glycerol, we concerned the glycerin pyrolysis reactions, emphasizing the catalytic role of activated carbon, various reaction pathways and the impact of carrier gas flow rate on hydrogen production, providing valuable insights into the evolving landscape of sustainable fuel alternatives.

Keywords: biodiesel, glycerin pyrolysis, activated carbon catalysis, syngas

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525 Collaborative Data Refinement for Enhanced Ionic Conductivity Prediction in Garnet-Type Materials

Authors: Zakaria Kharbouch, Mustapha Bouchaara, F. Elkouihen, A. Habbal, A. Ratnani, A. Faik

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Solid-state lithium-ion batteries have garnered increasing interest in modern energy research due to their potential for safer, more efficient, and sustainable energy storage systems. Among the critical components of these batteries, the electrolyte plays a pivotal role, with LLZO garnet-based electrolytes showing significant promise. Garnet materials offer intrinsic advantages such as high Li-ion conductivity, wide electrochemical stability, and excellent compatibility with lithium metal anodes. However, optimizing ionic conductivity in garnet structures poses a complex challenge, primarily due to the multitude of potential dopants that can be incorporated into the LLZO crystal lattice. The complexity of material design, influenced by numerous dopant options, requires a systematic method to find the most effective combinations. This study highlights the utility of machine learning (ML) techniques in the materials discovery process to navigate the complex range of factors in garnet-based electrolytes. Collaborators from the materials science and ML fields worked with a comprehensive dataset previously employed in a similar study and collected from various literature sources. This dataset served as the foundation for an extensive data refinement phase, where meticulous error identification, correction, outlier removal, and garnet-specific feature engineering were conducted. This rigorous process substantially improved the dataset's quality, ensuring it accurately captured the underlying physical and chemical principles governing garnet ionic conductivity. The data refinement effort resulted in a significant improvement in the predictive performance of the machine learning model. Originally starting at an accuracy of 0.32, the model underwent substantial refinement, ultimately achieving an accuracy of 0.88. This enhancement highlights the effectiveness of the interdisciplinary approach and underscores the substantial potential of machine learning techniques in materials science research.

Keywords: lithium batteries, all-solid-state batteries, machine learning, solid state electrolytes

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524 Discovery of Two-dimensional Hexagonal MBene HfBO

Authors: Nanxi Miao, Junjie Wang

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The discovery of 2D materials with distinct compositions and properties has been a research aim since the report of graphene. One of the latest members of the 2D material family is MXene, which is produced from the topochemical deintercalation of the A layer from a laminate MAX phase. Recently, analogous 2D MBenes (transitional metal borides) have been predicted by theoretical calculations as excellent alternatives in applications such as metal-ion batteries, magnetic devices, and catalysts. However, the practical applications of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal borides (MBenes) have been severely hindered by the lack of accessible MBenes because of the difficulties in the selective etching of traditional ternary MAB phases with orthorhombic symmetry (ort-MAB). Here, we discover a family of ternary hexagonal MAB (h-MAB) phases and 2D hexagonal MBenes (h-MBenes) by ab initio predictions and experiments. Calculations suggest that the ternary h-MAB phases are more suitable precursors for MBenes than the ort-MAB phases. Based on the prediction, we report the experimental synthesis of h-MBene HfBO by selective removal of in from h-MAB Hf2InB2. The synthesized 2D HfBO delivered a specific capacity of 420 mAh g-1 as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries, demonstrating the potential for energy-storage applications. The discovery of this h-MBene HfBO added a new member to the growing family of 2D materials and provided opportunities for a wide range of novel applications.

Keywords: 2D materials, DFT calculations, high-throughput screening, lithium-ion batteries

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523 Project Production Control (PPC) Implementation for an Offshore Facilities Construction Project

Authors: Muhammad Hakim Bin Mat Tasir, Erwan Shahfizad Hasidan, Hamidah Makmor Bakry, M. Hafiz B. Izhar

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Every key performance indicator used to monitor a project’s construction progress emphasizes trade productivity or specific commodity run-down curves. Examples include the productivity of welding by the number of joints completed per day, quantity of NDT (Non-Destructive Tests) inspection per day, etc. This perspective is based on progress and productivity; however, it does not enable a system perspective of how we produce. This paper uses a project production system perspective by which projects are a collection of production systems comprising the interconnected network of processes and operations that represent all the work activities to execute a project from start to finish. Furthermore, it also uses the 5 Levels of production system optimization as a frame. The goal of the paper is to describe the application of Project Production Control (PPC) to control and improve the performance of several production processes associated with the fabrication and assembly of a Central Processing Platform (CPP) Jacket, part of an offshore mega project. More specifically, the fabrication and assembly of buoyancy tanks as they were identified as part of the critical path and required the highest demand for capacity. In total, seven buoyancy tanks were built, with a total estimated weight of 2,200 metric tons. These huge buoyancy tanks were designed to be reversed launching and self-upending of the jacket, easily retractable, and reusable for the next project, ensuring sustainability. Results showed that an effective application of PPC not only positively impacted construction progress and productivity but also exposed sources of detrimental variability as the focus of continuous improvement practices. This approach augmented conventional project management practices, and the results had a high impact on construction scheduling, planning, and control.

Keywords: offshore, construction, project management, sustainability

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522 Cellulose Nanocrystals from Melon Plant Residues: A Sustainable and Renewable Source

Authors: Asiya Rezzouq, Mehdi El Bouchti, Omar Cherkaoui, Sanaa Majid, Souad Zyade

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In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the exploration of new renewable and non-conventional sources for the production of biodegradable nanomaterials. Nature harbours valuable cellulose-rich materials that have so far been under-exploited and can be used to create cellulose derivatives such as cellulose microfibres (CMFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). These unconventional sources have considerable potential as alternatives to conventional sources such as wood and cotton. By using agricultural waste to produce these cellulose derivatives, we are responding to the global call for sustainable solutions to environmental and economic challenges. Responsible management of agricultural waste is increasingly crucial to reducing the environmental consequences of its disposal, including soil and water pollution, while making efficient use of these untapped resources. In this study, the main objective was to extract cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from melon plant residues using methods that are both efficient and sustainable. To achieve this high-quality extraction, we followed a well-defined protocol involving several key steps: pre-treatment of the residues by grinding, filtration and chemical purification to obtain high-quality (CMF) with a yield of 52% relative to the initial mass of the melon plant residue. Acid hydrolysis was then carried out using phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid to convert (CMF) into cellulose nanocrystals. The extracted cellulose nanocrystals were subjected to in-depth characterization using advanced techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The resulting cellulose nanocrystals have exceptional properties, including a large specific surface area, high thermal stability and high mechanical strength, making them suitable for a variety of applications, including as reinforcements for composite materials. In summary, the study highlights the potential for recovering agricultural melon waste to produce high-quality cellulose nanocrystals with promising applications in industry, nanotechnology, and biotechnology, thereby contributing to environmental and economic sustainability.

Keywords: cellulose, melon plant residues, cellulose nanocrystals, properties, applications, composite materials

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521 The Influence of Coarse Aggregate Morphology on Concrete Workability: A Case Study with Algerian Crushed Limestone

Authors: Ahmed Boufedah Badissi, Ahmed Beroual, Farid Boursas

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This research aims to elucidate the role of coarse aggregate in influencing the fresh properties of normal-strength concrete. Specifically, it is aimed to identify the optimal gradation of coarse aggregate to enhance workability. While existing literature discusses the impact of aggregate granularity on concrete workability, more numerical data or models need to quantify the relationship between workability, granularity, and coarse aggregate shape. The main objective is to create a model that describes how coarse aggregate morphology contributes to fresh concrete properties. To investigate the effect of coarse aggregate gradation on Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) workability, various combinations of coarse aggregates (4/22.4 mm) were produced in the laboratory, utilizing three elementary classes: finer coarse aggregate 4/8 mm (Fca), medium coarse aggregate 8/16 mm (Mca), and coarser coarse aggregate 16/22.4 mm (Cca). We introduced a factor, FCR (Finer to Coarser coarse aggregate Ratio), as a numerical parameter to provide a quantitative evaluation and more detailed results analysis. Quantitative characterization parameters for coarse aggregate morphology were established, exploring the influence of particle size distribution, specific surface, and aggregate shape on workability. The research findings are significant for establishing correlations between coarse aggregate morphology and concrete properties. FCR emerges as a valuable tool for predicting the impact of aggregate gradation variations on concrete. The results of this study create a valuable database for construction professionals and concrete producers, affirming that the fresh properties of NSC are intricately linked to coarse aggregate morphology, particularly gradation.

Keywords: morphology, coarse aggregate, workability, fresh properties, gradation

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520 Development of a Data-Driven Method for Diagnosing the State of Health of Battery Cells, Based on the Use of an Electrochemical Aging Model, with a View to Their Use in Second Life

Authors: Desplanches Maxime

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Accurate estimation of the remaining useful life of lithium-ion batteries for electronic devices is crucial. Data-driven methodologies encounter challenges related to data volume and acquisition protocols, particularly in capturing a comprehensive range of aging indicators. To address these limitations, we propose a hybrid approach that integrates an electrochemical model with state-of-the-art data analysis techniques, yielding a comprehensive database. Our methodology involves infusing an aging phenomenon into a Newman model, leading to the creation of an extensive database capturing various aging states based on non-destructive parameters. This database serves as a robust foundation for subsequent analysis. Leveraging advanced data analysis techniques, notably principal component analysis and t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding, we extract pivotal information from the data. This information is harnessed to construct a regression function using either random forest or support vector machine algorithms. The resulting predictor demonstrates a 5% error margin in estimating remaining battery life, providing actionable insights for optimizing usage. Furthermore, the database was built from the Newman model calibrated for aging and performance using data from a European project called Teesmat. The model was then initialized numerous times with different aging values, for instance, with varying thicknesses of SEI (Solid Electrolyte Interphase). This comprehensive approach ensures a thorough exploration of battery aging dynamics, enhancing the accuracy and reliability of our predictive model. Of particular importance is our reliance on the database generated through the integration of the electrochemical model. This database serves as a crucial asset in advancing our understanding of aging states. Beyond its capability for precise remaining life predictions, this database-driven approach offers valuable insights for optimizing battery usage and adapting the predictor to various scenarios. This underscores the practical significance of our method in facilitating better decision-making regarding lithium-ion battery management.

Keywords: Li-ion battery, aging, diagnostics, data analysis, prediction, machine learning, electrochemical model, regression

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519 Defining New Limits in Hybrid Perovskites: Single-Crystal Solar Cells with Exceptional Electron Diffusion Length Reaching Half Millimeters

Authors: Bekir Turedi

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Exploiting the potential of perovskite single-crystal solar cells in optoelectronic applications necessitates overcoming a significant challenge: the low charge collection efficiency at increased thickness, which has restricted their deployment in radiation detectors and nuclear batteries. Our research details a promising approach to this problem, wherein we have successfully fabricated single-crystal MAPbI3 solar cells employing a space-limited inverse temperature crystallization (ITC) methodology. Remarkably, these cells, up to 400-fold thicker than current-generation perovskite polycrystalline films, maintain a high charge collection efficiency even without external bias. The crux of this achievement lies in the long electron diffusion length within these cells, estimated to be around 0.45 mm. This extended diffusion length ensures the conservation of high charge collection and power conversion efficiencies, even as the thickness of the cells increases. Fabricated cells at 110, 214, and 290 µm thickness manifested power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 20.0, 18.4, and 14.7% respectively. The single crystals demonstrated nearly optimal charge collection, even when their thickness exceeded 200 µm. Devices of thickness 108, 214, and 290 µm maintained 98.6, 94.3, and 80.4% of charge collection efficiency relative to their maximum theoretical short-circuit current value, respectively. Additionally, we have proposed an innovative, self-consistent technique for ascertaining the electron-diffusion length in perovskite single crystals under operational conditions. The computed electron-diffusion length approximated 446 µm, significantly surpassing previously reported values for this material. In conclusion, our findings underscore the feasibility of fabricating halide perovskite single-crystal solar cells of hundreds of micrometers in thickness while preserving high charge extraction efficiency and PCE. This advancement paves the way for developing perovskite-based optoelectronics necessitating thicker active layers, such as X-ray detectors and nuclear batteries.

Keywords: perovskite, solar cell, single crystal, diffusion length

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