Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 200

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

200 Synthesis and Characterization of Partially Oxidized Graphite Oxide for Solar Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Fabien Salaun, Hassane Naji, Noureddine Lebaz

Abstract:

The graphene oxide (GO) material has attracted much attention for solar energy applications. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of partially oxidized graphite oxide (GTO). GTO was obtained by modified Hummers method, which is based on the chemical oxidation of natural graphite. Several samples were prepared with different oxidation degree by an adjustment of the oxidizing agent’s amount. The effect of the oxidation degree on the chemical structure and on the morphology of GTO was determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermal stability of GTO was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in Nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate high degree oxidation of graphite oxide for each sample, proving that the process is efficient. The GTO synthesized by modified Hummers method shows promising characteristics. Graphene oxide (GO) obtained by exfoliation of GTO are recognized as a good candidate for thermal energy storage, and it will be used as solid shell material in the encapsulation of phase change materials (PCM).

Keywords: modified hummers method, graphite oxide, oxidation degree, solar energy storage

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199 Electrochemical Oxidation of Nitrogen-Rich Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Julia Ciarlini, Alejandro Montoya

Abstract:

This work investigated the electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (35990 mg O₂·L⁻¹), ammonia (1538 mg N·L⁻¹), and organic nitrogen (2943 mg N·L⁻¹) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode and stainless steel as cathode. Organics in solution included refractory N-heterocyclic compounds, e.g. pyrazines, that impart toxicity to the water and cannot be treated by conventional biological methods. The wastewater also contained phosphate, sulphate, and chloride, among other ions. Detailed studies of the fate of nitrogen during the electrochemical oxidation of wastewater with such a complex composition are still scarce in the literature but are of utmost importance to design efficient electrochemical processes for water pollution mitigation. The performance of the electro-oxidation was compared between the current densities of 30 and 50 mA·cm⁻² without the addition of extra chemicals or pH adjustment. The main physicochemical properties of the water, including COD, nitrogen species concentration, pH, and colour, were measured throughout the electrolysis, as well as the cell voltage. The process resulted in high COD and colour removal and mineralization of organic nitrogen into mainly ammonia and nitrate, besides inducing the precipitation of phosphates and carbonates on the cathode surface. The mineralization rates in terms of charge consumed were higher at 30 mA·cm⁻², when the electrolysis eliminated up to 99% of the COD and 82% of the organic nitrogen content, in addition to 96% removal of colour. Nitrogen predominantly remained in solution as ammonia and nitrate, with only 7 to 11% total nitrogen removal. The evolution of nitrogen speciation was sensitive to the current density and is discussed in detail in this work. Experimental studies with model organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds were also performed to elucidate the observed behaviour. The electrochemical oxidation with BDD anode and stainless steel cathode proved to be remarkably effective for the decomposition of refractory N-heterocyclic compounds into bioavailable nitrogen forms. Moreover, this occurs simultaneously to COD and colour removal and possible phosphate recovery, opening an opportunity for designing a one-pot solution to complex water contamination.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond, electrochemical oxidation, nitrogen-rich wastewater, refractory pollutants

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198 Multi-Matrix Composites: Development of a Method for Partial Impregnation of Textile Preforms

Authors: Simon Konze, Axel Spickenheuer, Gert Heinrich

Abstract:

In conventional composite manufacturing processes, reinforcing fibers are usually impregnated only with a single matrix material, leaving the potential for further functional integration open. Multi-matrix composites (MMC) are structures comprising at least two different material compositions for the reinforcing fiber embedding matrix component. The purpose of MMCs is to locally influence the physical properties in part. However, the local insertion of the various matrix components into a fiber preform is a major challenge from a manufacturing point of view. Depending on the desired contour detailing of the various matrix regions, MMCs can predominantly only be produced with high manual effort. To automate such processes, the Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden e.V. (IPF) and research partners currently develop an impregnation method, in which a print head is applied to partially impregnate predefined areas of fiber preforms with low-viscosity elastomer. The intention is to block these zones for a subsequent epoxy resin infusion, which is carried out to impregnate the remaining dry fibers. For multi-matrix composites, it is important that all materials involved adhere well to each other and that the matrix materials do not blend over larger areas during the consolidation process unless this is explicitly intended. In the research project, a material combination, as well as a suitable consolidation procedure that both meet these requirements, have already been determined, as the results of a wide range of tests have shown. By partially impregnating a straight line within a fiber preform with elastomeric matrix, that region, for instance, can be functionalized as a hinge. Such structures have already been successfully manufactured manually at the IPF by applying the elaborated material combination and consolidation technique. Currently, our work focusses on the development of an elastomer print head as well as a CAM tool, in order to perform that task with high reproducibility in a fraction of the time. The prototypes applied are based on conventional fused deposition modeling 3D printers. As the project progresses, the final version of the elastomer print head will be installed on a tailored fiber placement machine in order to enable the production of a preform with variable-axial fiber reinforcement and a subsequent partial impregnation of the fibers on the same machine. Once working, this process opens up completely new possibilities in the design and manufacturing of multi-matrix composites and can save significant efforts, which would be required to manufacture such integral design solutions manually.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, multi-matrix composites, tailored fiber placement, variable stiffness composites

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197 Investigation of Acidizing Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran derivatives (AP) on mild steel in 15% HCl was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, weight loss, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, DFT and molecular dynamic simulation. The adsorption of APs on the surface of mild steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitors are mixed type with cathodic predominance. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface. The theoretical data obtained are, in most cases, in agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: acidizing inhibitor, pyran derivatives, DFT, molecular simulation, mild steel, EIS

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196 H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O Catalyzed Synthesis and X-ray Study of α-Aminophosphonates

Authors: Sarra Boughaba

Abstract:

The α-aminophosphonates have received considerable attention in organic and medicinal chemistry because of their structural resemblance with α-amino acids. They are used as antitumor agents, anti-inflammatory and antibiotics. As a result, a number of procedures have been developed for their synthesis. However, many of these methods suffer from some disadvantages such as long reaction times, environmental pollution caused by utilization of organic solvents, and expensive catalyst. On the other hand, thiazole components, particularly 2-aminothiazole is an important class of heterocyclic compounds. They appear in the structure of natural products and biologically actives compounds, thiamine (vitamin-B), and some antibiotics drugs (penicillin, micrococcin). In the past few years, heteropolyacids have received great attention as environmentally benign catalysts for organic synthetic processes, they possess unique physicochemical properties, such as super-acidity, high thermal and chemical stability, ability to accept and release electrons and high proton mobility, and the possibility of varying their acidity and oxidizing potential. In this study, an efficient and eco-friendly process has been developed for the synthesis of α-aminophosphonates containing aminothiazole moiety via Kabachnik-Field reaction catalyzed by H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O as reusable catalyst, by condensation of aromatic aldehydes, 2-aminothiazole and triethylphosphite under free conditions. The X-ray crystallographic data of obtained compounds were provided. The main advantages of our protocol include the absence of solvent in the reaction, easy work-up, short reaction time, atom-economy and reusability of catalyst without significant loss of its activity.

Keywords: aminophosphonates, green synthesis, H₆P₂W₁₈O₆₂.14H₂O catalyst, x-ray study

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195 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

Authors: Ali Driouiche, Said Mohareb, Abdallah Hadfi

Abstract:

In Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf 'Ocean'. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

Keywords: Agadir, irrigation, scaling water, wastewater

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194 Determination of Bromides, Chlorides and Fluorides in Case of Their Joint Presence in Ion-Conducting Electrolyte

Authors: V. Golubeva, O. Vakhnina, I. Konopkina, N. Gerasimova, N. Taturina, K. Zhogova

Abstract:

To improve chemical current sources, the ion-conducting electrolytes based on Li halides (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-LiBr-KBr, LiCl-LiBr-LiF) are developed. It is necessary to have chemical analytical methods for determination of halides to control the electrolytes technology. The methods of classical analytical chemistry are of interest, as they are characterized by high accuracy. Using these methods is a difficult task because halides have similar chemical properties. The objective of this work is to develop a titrimetric method for determining the content of bromides, chlorides, and fluorides in their joint presence in an ion-conducting electrolyte. In accordance with the developed method of analysis to determine fluorides, electrolyte sample is dissolved in diluted HCl acid; fluorides are titrated by La(NO₃)₃ solution with potentiometric indication of equivalence point, fluoride ion-selective electrode is used as sensor. Chlorides and bromides do not form a hardly soluble compound with La and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the bromides, the sample is dissolved in a diluted H₂SO₄ acid. The bromides are oxidized with a solution of KIO₃ to Br₂, which is removed from the reaction zone by boiling. Excess of KIO₃ is titrated by iodometric method. The content of bromides is calculated from the amount of KIO₃ spent on Br₂ oxidation. Chlorides and fluorides are not oxidized by KIO₃ and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the chlorides, the sample is dissolved in diluted HNO₃ acid and the total content of chlorides and bromides is determined by method of visual mercurometric titration with diphenylcarbazone indicator. Fluorides do not form a hardly soluble compound with mercury and do not interfere with determination. The content of chlorides is calculated taking into account the content of bromides in the sample of electrolyte. The validation of the developed analytical method was evaluated by analyzing internal reference material with known chlorides, bromides and fluorides content. The analytical method allows to determine chlorides, bromides and fluorides in case of their joint presence in ion-conducting electrolyte within the range and with relative total error (δ): for bromides from 60.0 to 65.0 %, δ = ± 2.1 %; for chlorides from 8.0 to 15.0 %, δ = ± 3.6 %; for fluorides from 5.0 to 8.0%, ± 1.5% . The analytical method allows to analyze electrolytes and mixtures that contain chlorides, bromides, fluorides of alkali metals and their mixtures (K, Na, Li).

Keywords: bromides, chlorides, fluorides, ion-conducting electrolyte

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193 Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different Heat Treatments on Phase Transformation and Superelasticity of NiTi Alloy

Authors: Erfan Asghari Fesaghandis, Reza Ghaffari Adli, Abbas Kianvash, Hossein Aghajani, Homa Homaie

Abstract:

NiTi alloys possess magnificent superelastic, shape memory, high strength and biocompatible properties. For improving mechanical properties, foremost, superelasticity behavior, heat treatment process is carried out. In this paper, two different heat treatment methods were undertaken: (1) solid solution, and (2) aging. The effect of each treatment in a constant time is investigated. Five samples were prepared to study the structure and optimize mechanical properties under different time and temperature. For measuring the upper plateau stress, lower plateau stress and residual strain, tensile test is carried out. The samples were aged at two different temperatures to see difference between aging temperatures. The sample aged at 500 °C has a bigger crystallite size and lower amount of Ni which causes the mentioned sample to possess poor pseudo elasticity behaviour than the other aged sample. The sample aged at 460 °C has shown remarkable superelastic properties. The mentioned sample’s higher plateau is 580 MPa with the lowest residual strain (0.17%) while other samples have possessed higher residual strains. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the produced phases.

Keywords: heat treatment, phase transformation, superelasticity, NiTi alloy

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192 Atomic Hydrogen Storage in Hexagonal GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu Rare Earth Compounds: A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: A. Kellou, L. Rouaiguia, L. Rabahi

Abstract:

In the present work, the atomic hydrogen absorption trend in the GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu rare earth compounds within the hexagonal CaCu5 type of crystal structure (space group P6/mmm) is investigated. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to study the site preference of atomic hydrogen at 0K. The octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are considered. The formation energies and structural properties are determined in order to evaluate hydrogen effects on the stability of the studied compounds. The energetic diagram of hydrogen storage is established and compared in GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu. The magnetic properties of the selected compounds are determined using spin polarized calculations. The obtained results are discussed with and without hydrogen addition taking into account available theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, rare earth compounds, structural and magnetic properties

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191 Nucleophile Mediated Addition-Fragmentation Generation of Aryl Radicals from Aryl Diazonium Salts

Authors: Elene Tatunashvili, Bun Chan, Philippe E. Nashar, Christopher S. P. McErlean

Abstract:

The reduction of aryl diazonium salts is one of the most efficient ways to generate aryl radicals for use in a wide range of transformations, including Sandmeyer-type reactions, Meerwein arylations of olefins and Gomberg-Bachmann-Hey arylations of heteroaromatic systems. The aryl diazonium species can be reduced electrochemically, by UV irradiation, inner-sphere and outer-sphere single electron transfer processes (SET) from metal salts, SET from photo-excited organic catalysts or fragmentation of adducts with weak bases (acetate, hydroxide, etc.). This paper details an approach for the metal-free reduction of aryl diazonium salts, which facilitates the efficient synthesis of various aromatic compounds under exceedingly mild reaction conditions. By measuring the oxidation potential of a number of organic molecules, a series of nucleophiles were identified that reduce aryl diazonium salts via the addition-fragmentation mechanism. This approach leads to unprecedented operational simplicity: The reactions are very rapid and proceed in the open air; there is no need for external irradiation or heating, and the process is compatible with a large number of radical reactions. We illustrate these advantages by using the addition-fragmentation strategy to regioselectively arylate a series of heterocyclic compounds, to synthesize ketones by arylation of silyl enol ethers, and to synthesize benzothiophene and phenanthrene derivatives by radical annulation reactions.

Keywords: diazonium salts, hantzsch esters, oxygen, radical reactions, synthetic methods

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190 Encapsulation of Various Sized Particles into a Hollow-Type Spherical Bacterial Cellulose Gel by Particle-Preloaded Droplet Cultivation

Authors: Toru Hoshi, Masashige Suzuki, Takao Aoyagi

Abstract:

Encapsulation technology has been studied in various application fields, such as pharmaceuticals, food sciences, paints, cosmetics, and adhesives. Specifically, the encapsulation of islet cells has withdrawn much attention, and they would be effective in treatment for type I diabetes. Many types of natural and synthetic polymers have been investigated for the optimal material, which show selective permeability, that permit passive diffusion of glucose, insulin, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other nutrients while preventing direct contact of the encapsulated cells with immune cells. Recently, we have successfully prepared a hollow-type spherical bacterial cellulose (HSBC) gel. The gelatinous membrane of the HSBC gel was formed by the network structure of cellulose nanofibers with a diameter of approximately 30 nm. Various molecules that are smaller than the pore size of the cellulose nanofiber network can permeate through the gelatinous membrane of HSBC gel, according to Fickian diffusion. HSBC gel with excellent mechanical properties, acid and base resistance, selective permeability by size exclusion can be suitable for cell encapsulation. However, HSBC gel prepared by conventional methods could not load particles larger than the pore size of the BC gelatinous membrane. We have attempted to encapsulate target substances larger than the pore size and investigated two encapsulating methods. The first method is to produce the BC gelatinous membrane on the surface of the core that is a spherical alginate gel with a diameter of 2 to 3 mm containing target substances. In this method, the BC gelatinous membrane was biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus at the interface between the cell suspension attached to the alginate gel and the silicone oil. The second method is to produce the BC gel membrane on the interface between the silicone oil and cell suspension, including the spherical alginate gel with a diameter of about 1 mm containing target substances. After the BC gelatinous membrane was formed, an alginate gel was dissolved in a phosphate buffer to prepare an HSBC gel with target substances. Glass beads with a diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm, cosmetic glitter with a diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm, and fluorescent beads with diameter of a 5.0-5.9 µm were used as model substances to be encapsulated within the HSBC gel. Encapsulated substances could not pass through the BC gelatinous membrane of the HSBC gel and did not leak from the interior space of the HSBC gel. Also, the BC gelatinous membrane prevented the invasion of the substances larger than the pore size into the HSBC gel.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, hollow sphere, encapsulation, selective permeability

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189 An Impregnated Active Layer Mode of Solution Combustion Synthesis as a Tool for the Solution Combustion Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Zhanna Yermekova, Sergey Roslyakov

Abstract:

Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is the unique method which multiple times has proved itself as an effective and efficient approach for the versatile synthesis of a variety of materials. It has significant advantages such as relatively simple handling process, high rates of product synthesis, mixing of the precursors on a molecular level, and fabrication of the nanoproducts as a result. Nowadays, an overwhelming majority of solution combustion investigations performed through the volume combustion synthesis (VCS) where the entire liquid precursor is heated until the combustion self-initiates throughout the volume. Less amount of the experiments devoted to the steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. Under the beforementioned regime, the precursor solution is dried until the gel-like media, and later on, the gel substance is locally ignited. In such a case, a combustion wave propagates in a self-sustaining mode as in conventional solid combustion synthesis. Even less attention is given to the impregnated active layer (IAL) mode of solution combustion. An IAL approach to the synthesis is implying that the solution combustion of the precursors should be initiated on the surface of the third chemical or inside the third substance. This work is aiming to emphasize an underestimated role of the impregnated active layer mode of the solution combustion synthesis for the fundamental studies of the combustion mechanisms. It also serves the purpose of popularizing the technical terms and clarifying the difference between them. In order to do so, the solution combustion synthesis of γ-FeNi (PDF#47-1417) alloy has been accomplished within short (seconds) one-step reaction of metal precursors with hexamethylenetetramine (HTMA) fuel. An idea of the special role of the Ni in a process of alloy formation was suggested and confirmed with the particularly organized set of experiments. The first set of experiments were conducted in a conventional steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. An alloy was synthesized as a single monophasic product. In two other experiments, the synthesis was divided into two independent processes which are possible under the IAL mode of solution combustion. The sequence of the process was changed according to the equations which are describing an Experiment A and B below: Experiment A: Step 1. Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = FeO + gas products; Step 2. FeO + Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + FeO + gas products; Experiment B: Step 1. Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + gas products; Step 2. Ni + Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = Fe₃Ni₂+ traces (Ni + FeO). Based on the IAL experiment results, one can see that combustion of the Fe(NO₃)₃9H₂O on the surface of the Ni is leading to the alloy formation while presence of the already formed FeO does not affect the Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA reaction in any way and Ni is the main product of the synthesis.

Keywords: alloy, hexamethylenetetramine, impregnated active layer mode, mechanism, solution combustion synthesis

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188 Cost-Effective Development of 3D Network Hydrogels Based on Multivalent Dendritic Polyglycerol and Polyethylene Glycol for Biosensing Applications

Authors: Boonya Thongrom, Rainer Haag

Abstract:

The development of biosensors is a remaining challenge today due to their limitations concerning stability, and sensitivity for biological applications. In order to improve the practical performance of biosensors, stable 3D hydrogel networks made from crosslinked polymers have been used. Polymeric precursors comprising many hydroxy groups are an excellent option for the fabrication of hydrogels because they are not toxic to the microenvironment. Dendritic polyglycerol (dPG), a bioinert multifunctional building block, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a macromolecular crosslinker are water-soluble precursors for the formation of hydrogel networks. They provide a suitable environment for biomolecules, tunable mesh size, and homogeneous distribution. Click chemistry is a well-known synthetic technique, which is fast, facile, selective, and highly efficient for the process of hydrogel formation. Thiol-click reactions are one of the most popular reactions which have been widely used in biological, physical and engineering applications, due to their high reactivity, high degree of conversions, lack of byproducts, ease of control and especially the requirement of low-cost starting materials. The hydrogels were synthesized with aqueous PEG dithiol acting as linker molecules, dPG acrylates as a multivalency hub along with streptavidin as a biosensing probe. These components are then mixed and form in situ hydrogels based on thiol-Michael click reaction. The sensitivity is proven by strong noncovalent streptavidin-biotin affinity essay. The functionalization of the two components can be carried out with inexpensive materials in a facile straightforward method and results in both approximately 85% yields. The applicability of the streptavidin encapsulated hydrogels was characterized by fluorescence leaching and quantification assays. In case of leaching tests, fluorescence-labeled streptavidin was encapsulated and its amount of leakage was calculated during incubation over a period of time. In the quantification assay, fluorescence-labeled biotin was used to quantify the intact binding sites of the encapsulated streptavidin. The promising data obtained support the hypothesis for application of these hydrogels as effective biosensing platforms.

Keywords: biosensor application, dendritic polyglycerol, 3D Network hydrogels, polyethylene glycol

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187 Modification of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters with Polyether Block for Segmented Copolymers with Elastothemoplastic Properties

Authors: I. Irska, S. Paszkiewicz, D. Pawlikowska, E. Piesowicz, A. Linares, T. A. Ezquerra

Abstract:

Due to the number of advantages such as high tensile strength, sensitivity to hydrolytic degradation, and biocompatibility poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most common polyesters for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, PLA is a rigid, brittle polymer with low heat distortion temperature and slow crystallization rate. In order to broaden the range of PLA applications, it is necessary to improve these properties. In recent years a number of new strategies have been evolved to obtain PLA-based materials with improved characteristics, including manipulation of crystallinity, plasticization, blending, and incorporation into block copolymers. Among the other methods, synthesis of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters has been attracting considerable attention as they may combine the mechanical performance of aromatic polyesters with biodegradability known from aliphatic ones. Given the need for highly flexible biodegradable polymers, in this contribution, a series of aromatic-aliphatic based on poly(butylene terephthalate) and poly(lactic acid) (PBT-b-PLA) copolyesters exhibiting superior mechanical properties were copolymerized with an additional poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) soft block. The structure and properties of both series were characterized by means of attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and dynamic mechanical, thermal analysis (DMTA). Moreover, the related changes in tensile properties have been evaluated and discussed. Lastly, the viscoelastic properties of synthesized poly(ester-ether) copolymers were investigated in detail by step cycle tensile tests. The block lengths decreased with the advance of treatment, and the block-random diblock terpolymers of (PBT-ran-PLA)-b-PTMO were obtained. DSC and DMTA analysis confirmed unambiguously that synthesized poly(ester-ether) copolymers are microphase-separated systems. The introduction of polyether co-units resulted in a decrease in crystallinity degree and melting temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that only PBT blocks are able to crystallize. The mechanical properties of (PBT-ran-PLA)-b-PTMO copolymers are a result of a unique arrangement of immiscible hard and soft blocks, providing both strength and elasticity.

Keywords: aliphatic-aromatic copolymers, multiblock copolymers, phase behavior, thermoplastic elastomers

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186 Defects Analysis, Components Distribution, and Properties Simulation in the Fuel Cells and Batteries by 2D and 3D Characterization Techniques

Authors: Amir Peyman Soleymani, Jasna Jankovic

Abstract:

The augmented demand of the clean and renewable energy has necessitated the fuel cell and battery industries to produce more efficient devices at the lower prices, which can be achieved through the improvement of the electrode. Microstructural characterization, as one of the main materials development tools, plays a pivotal role in the production of better clean energy devices. In this study, methods for characterization and studying of the defects and components distribution were performed on the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes in 2D and 3D. The particles distribution, porosity, mechanical defects, and component distribution were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), SEM-Focused Ion Beam (SEM-FIB), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). The 3D results obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) revealed the pathways for electron and ion conductivity and defects progression maps. Computer-aided methods (Avizo) were employed to simulate the properties and performance of the microstructure in the electrodes. The suggestions were provided to improve the performance of PEMFCs and LIBs by adjusting the microstructure and the distribution of the components in the electrodes.

Keywords: PEM fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, 2D and 3D imaging, materials characterizations

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185 Relationship between Functional Properties and Supramolecular Structure of the Poly(Trimethylene 2,5-Furanoate) Based Multiblock Copolymers with Aliphatic Polyethers or Aliphatic Polyesters

Authors: S. Paszkiewicz, A. Zubkiewicz, A. Szymczyk, D. Pawlikowska, I. Irska, E. Piesowicz, A. Linares, T. A. Ezquerra

Abstract:

Over the last century, the world has become increasingly dependent on oil as its main source of chemicals and energy. Driven largely by the strong economic growth of India and China, demand for oil is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. This growth in demand, combined with diminishing reserves, will require the development of new, sustainable sources for fuels and bulk chemicals. Biomass is an attractive alternative feedstock, as it is widely available carbon source apart from oil and coal. Nowadays, academic and industrial research in the field of polymer materials is strongly oriented towards bio-based alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics with enhanced properties for advanced applications. In this context, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a biomass-based chemical product derived from lignocellulose, is one of the most high-potential biobased building blocks for polymers and the first candidate to replace the petro-derived terephthalic acid. FDCA has been identified as one of the top 12 chemicals in the future, which may be used as a platform chemical for the synthesis of biomass-based polyester. The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterize the multiblock copolymers containing rigid segments of poly(trimethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PTF) and soft segments of poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) with excellent elastic properties or aliphatic polyesters of polycaprolactone (PCL). Two series of PTF based copolymers, i.e., PTF-block-PTMO-T and PTF-block-PCL-T, with different content of flexible segments were synthesized by means of a two-step melt polycondensation process and characterized by various methods. The rigid segments of PTF, as well as the flexible PTMO/or PCL ones, were randomly distributed along the chain. On the basis of 1H NMR, SAXS and WAXS, DSC an DMTA results, one can conclude that both phases were thermodynamically immiscible and the values of phase transition temperatures varied with the composition of the copolymer. The copolymers containing 25, 35 and 45wt.% of flexible segments (PTMO) exhibited elastomeric property characteristics. Moreover, with respect to the flexible segments content, the temperatures corresponding to 5%, 25%, 50% and 90% mass loss as well as the values of tensile modulus decrease with the increasing content of aliphatic polyether or aliphatic polyester in the composition.

Keywords: furan based polymers, multiblock copolymers, supramolecular structure, functional properties

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184 Chemical Technology Approach for Obtaining Carbon Structures Containing Reinforced Ceramic Materials Based on Alumina

Authors: T. Kuchukhidze, N. Jalagonia, T. Archuadze, G. Bokuchava

Abstract:

The growing scientific-technological progress in modern civilization causes actuality of producing construction materials which can successfully work in conditions of high temperature, radiation, pressure, speed, and chemically aggressive environment. Such extreme conditions can withstand very few types of materials and among them, ceramic materials are in the first place. Corundum ceramics is the most useful material for creation of constructive nodes and products of various purposes for its low cost, easy accessibility to raw materials and good combination of physical-chemical properties. However, ceramic composite materials have one disadvantage; they are less plastics and have lower toughness. In order to increase the plasticity, the ceramics are reinforced by various dopants, that reduces the growth of the cracks. It is shown, that adding of even small amount of carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as reinforcing material significantly improves mechanical properties of the products, keeping at the same time advantages of alundum ceramics. Graphene in composite material acts in the same way as inorganic dopants (MgO, ZrO2, SiC and others) and performs the role of aluminum oxide inhibitor, as it creates shell, that gives possibility to reduce sintering temperature and at the same time it acts as damper, because scattering of a shock wave takes place on carbon structures. Application of different structural modification of carbon (graphene, nanotube and others) as reinforced material, gives possibility to create multi-purpose highly requested composite materials based on alundum ceramics. In the present work offers simplified technology for obtaining of aluminum oxide ceramics, reinforced with carbon nanostructures, during which chemical modification with doping carbon nanostructures will be implemented in the process of synthesis of final powdery composite – Alumina. In charge doping carbon nanostructures connected to matrix substance with C-O-Al bonds, that provide their homogeneous spatial distribution. In ceramic obtained as a result of consolidation of such powders carbon fragments equally distributed in the entire matrix of aluminum oxide, that cause increase of bending strength and crack-resistance. The proposed way to prepare the charge simplifies the technological process, decreases energy consumption, synthesis duration and therefore requires less financial expenses. In the implementation of this work, modern instrumental methods were used: electronic and optical microscopy, X-ray structural and granulometric analysis, UV, IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: ceramic materials, α-Al₂O₃, carbon nanostructures, composites, characterization, hot-pressing

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183 Regioselective Nucleophilic Substitution of the Baylis-Hillman Adducts with Iodine

Authors: Zahid Shafiq, Li Liu, Dong Wang, Yong-Jun Chen

Abstract:

As synthetic organic methods are increasingly concerned with the growing importance of sustainable chemistry, iodine recently has emerged as an inexpensive, non-toxic, readily available and environmentally benign catalyst for various organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yields with high regio- and chemoselectivity. Iodine has found widespread applications in various organic synthesis such as Michael addition, coupling reaction and also in the multicomponent synthesis where it can efficiently activate C=C, C=O, C=N, and so forth. Iodine not only has been shown to be an efficient mild Lewis acid in various processes, but also due to its moderate nature, and water tolerance, reactions catalyzed by iodine can be effectively carried out in neutral media under very mild conditions. We have successfully described an efficient procedure for the nucleophilic substitution of the Baylis-Hillman (BH) adducts and their corresponding acetates with indoles to get α-substitution product using catalytic Silver Triflate (AgOTf) as Lewis acid. At this point, we were interested to develop an environmentally benign catalytic system to effect this substitution reaction and to avoid the use of metal Lewis acid as a catalyst. Since, we observed the formation of -product during the course of the reaction, we also became interested to explore the reaction conditions in order to control regioselectivity and to obtain both regioisomers. The developed methodology resulted in regioselective substitution products with controlled selectivity. Further, the substitution products were used to synthesize various Tri- and Tetracyclo Azepino indole derivatives via reductive amination.

Keywords: indole, regioselective, Baylis-Hillman, substitution

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182 Effect of Preparation Temperature on Producing Graphene Oxide by Chemical Oxidation Approach

Authors: Rashad Al-Gaashani, Muataz A. Atieh

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of preparation temperature, namely room temperature (RT), 40, 60, and 85°C, on producing of high-quality graphene oxide (GO) has been investigated. GO samples have been prepared by chemical oxidation of graphite via a safe improved chemical technique using a blend of two deferent acids: sulphuric acid (H₂SO₄) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) with volume ratio 4:1, respectively. potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were applied as oxidizing agents. In this work, sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) was excluded, so the emission of hazardous explosive gases such as NO₂ and N₂O₂ was shunned. Ice and oil baths were used to carefully control the temperature. Several characterization instruments including X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to study and compare the synthesized samples. The results indicated that GO can be prepared at RT with graphite oxide, and the purity of GO increased with rising of the solvent temperature. Optical properties of GO samples were studied using UV-vis absorption spectra.

Keywords: chemical method, graphite, graphene oxide, optical properties

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181 Drug-Based Nanoparticles: Comparative Study of the Effect Drug Type on Release Kinetics and Cell Viability

Authors: Chukwudalu C. Nwazojie, Wole W. Soboyejo, John Obayemi, Ali Salifu Azeko, Sandra M. Jusu, Chinyerem M. Onyekanne

Abstract:

The conventional methods for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer include bulk systematic mammography, ultrasound, dynamic contrast-enhanced fast 3D gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymer microspheres for disease (cancer) targeting and treatment have enormous potential to enhance the approaches that are used today. The goal is to produce an implantable biomedical device for localized breast cancer drug delivery within Africa and the world. The main advantage of localized delivery is that it reduces the amount of drug that is needed to have a therapeutic effect. Polymer blends of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), which are biodegradable, is used as a drug excipient. This work focuses on the development of PLGA-PCL (poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blended with based injectable drug microspheres and are loaded with anticancer drugs (prodigiosin (PG), and paclitaxel (PTX) control) and also the conjugated forms of the drug functionalized with LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) (PG-LHRH, and PTX- LHRH control), using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA-PCL (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). Comparative study of the various drugs release kinetics and degradation mechanisms of the PLGA-PCL with an encapsulated drug is achieved, and the implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-PCL loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple-negative breast tumor.

Keywords: cancer, polymers, drug kinetics, nanoparticles

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180 A Modified Periodic 2D Cellular Re-Entrant Honeycomb Model to Enhance the Auxetic Elastic Properties

Authors: Sohaib Z. Khan, Farrukh Mustahsan, Essam R. I. Mahmoud, S. H. Masood

Abstract:

Materials or structures that contract laterally on the application of a compressive load and vice versa are said to be Auxetic materials which exhibit Negative Poisson’s Ratio (NPR). Numerous auxetic structures are proposed in the literature. One of the most studied periodic auxetic structure is the re-entrant honeycomb model. In this paper, a modified re-entrant model is proposed to enhance the auxetic behavior. The paper aimed to investigate the elastic behaviour of the proposed model to improve Young’s modulus and NPR by evaluating the analytical model. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is also conducted to support the analytical results. A significant increment in Young’s modulus and NPR can be achieved in one of the two orthogonal directions of the loading at the cost of compromising these values in other direction. The proposed modification resulted in lower relative densities when compared to the existing re-entrant honeycomb structure. A trade-off in the elastic properties in one direction at low relative density makes the proposed model suitable for uni-direction applications where higher stiffness and NPR is required, and strength to weight ratio is important.

Keywords: 2D model, auxetic materials, re-entrant honeycomb, negative Poisson's ratio

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179 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Chitosan Based Composite Hydrogels for Biomedical and Non-Biomedical Applications

Authors: K. Uyanga, W. Daoud

Abstract:

Hydrogels have attracted much academic and industrial attention due to their unique properties and potential biomedical and non-biomedical applications. Limitations on extending their applications have resulted from the synthesis of hydrogels using toxic materials and complex irreproducible processing techniques. In order to promote environmental sustainability, hydrogel efficiency, and wider application, this study focused on the synthesis of composite hydrogels matrices from an edible non-toxic crosslinker-citric acid (CA) using a simple low energy processing method based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CSN) natural polymers. Composite hydrogels were developed by chemical crosslinking. The results demonstrated that CMC:2CSN:CA exhibited good performance properties and super-absorbency 21× its original weight. This makes it promising for biomedical applications such as chronic wound healing and regeneration, next generation skin substitute, in situ bone regeneration and cell delivery. On the other hand, CMC:CSN:CA exhibited durable well-structured internal network with minimum swelling degrees, water absorbency, excellent gel fraction, and infra-red reflectance. These properties make it a suitable composite hydrogel matrix for warming effect and controlled and efficient release of loaded materials. CMC:2CSN:CA and CMC:CSN:CA composite hydrogels developed also exhibited excellent chemical, morphological, and thermal properties.

Keywords: citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, zinc nitrate hexahydrate

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178 Adsorption: A Decision Maker in the Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol on Co-Catalysts Doped TiO₂

Authors: Dileep Maarisetty, Janaki Komandur, Saroj S. Baral

Abstract:

In the current work, photocatalytic degradation of phenol was carried both in UV and visible light to find the slowest step that is limiting the rate of photo-degradation process. Characterization such as XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TEM, XPS, UV-DRS, PL, BET, UPS, ESR and zeta potential experiments were conducted to assess the credibility of catalysts in boosting the photocatalytic activity. To explore the synergy, TiO₂ was doped with graphene and alumina. The orbital hybridization with alumina doping (mediated by graphene) resulted in higher electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO₂ to alumina surface where oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) occur. Besides, the doping of alumina and graphene introduced defects into Ti lattice and helped in improving the adsorptive properties of modified photo-catalyst. Results showed that these defects promoted the oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) on the catalyst’s surface. ORR activity aims at producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS species oxidizes the phenol molecules which is adsorbed on the surface of photo-catalysts, thereby driving the photocatalytic reactions. Since mass transfer is considered as rate limiting step, various mathematical models were applied to the experimental data to probe the best fit. By varying the parameters, it was found that intra-particle diffusion was the slowest step in the degradation process. Lagergren model gave the best R² values indicating the nature of rate kinetics. Similarly, different adsorption isotherms were employed and realized that Langmuir isotherm suits the best with tremendous increase in uptake capacity (mg/g) of TiO₂-rGO-Al₂O₃ as compared undoped TiO₂. This further assisted in higher adsorption of phenol molecules. The results obtained from experimental, kinetic modelling and adsorption isotherms; it is concluded that apart from changes in surface, optoelectronic and morphological properties that enhanced the photocatalytic activity, the intra-particle diffusion within the catalyst’s pores serve as rate-limiting step in deciding the fate of photo-catalytic degradation of phenol.

Keywords: ORR, phenol degradation, photo-catalyst, rate kinetics

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177 Structural, Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of Iron-Doped Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ Perovskite

Authors: Ismail Al-Yahmadi, Abbasher Gismelseed, Fatma Al-Mammari, Ahmed Al-Rawas, Ali Yousif, Imaddin Al-Omari, Hisham Widatallah, Mohamed Elzain

Abstract:

The influence of Fe-doping on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄FeₓMn₁₋ₓO₃ (0≤ x ≤0.5) were investigated. The samples were synthesized by auto-combustion Sol-Gel method. The phase purity, crystallinity, and the structural properties for all prepared samples were examined by X-ray diffraction. XRD refinement indicates that the samples are crystallized in the orthorhombic single-phase with Pnma space group. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurements under a magnetic applied field of 0.02 T reveals that the samples with (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) exhibit a paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition with decreasing temperature. The Curie temperature decreased with increasing Fe content from 256 K for x =0.0 to 80 K for x =0.3 due to increasing of antiferromagnetic superexchange (SE) interaction coupling. Moreover, the magnetization as a function of applied magnetic field (M-H) curves was measured at 2 K, and 300 K. the results of such measurements confirm the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. The magnetic entropy change|∆SM | was evaluated using Maxwell's relation. The maximum values of the magnetic entropy change |-∆SMax |for x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 are found to be 15.35, 5.13, 3.36, 1.08 J/kg.K for an applied magnetic field of 9 T. Our result on magnetocaloric properties suggests that the parent sample Nd₀.₆Sr₀.₄MnO₃ could be a good refrigerant for low-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

Keywords: manganite perovskite, magnetocaloric effect, X-ray diffraction, relative cooling power

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176 Crystallization Fouling from Potable Water in Heat Exchangers and Evaporators

Authors: Amthal Al-Gailani, Olujide Sanni, Thibaut Charpentier, Anne Neville

Abstract:

Formation of inorganic scale on heat transfer surfaces is a serious problem encountered in industrial, commercial, and domestic heat exchangers and systems. Several industries use potable/groundwater sources such as rivers, lakes, and oceans to use water as a working fluid in heat exchangers and steamers. As potable/surface water contains diverse salt ionic species, the scaling kinetics and deposit morphology are expected to be different from those found in artificially hardened solutions. In this work, scale formation on the heat transfer surfaces from potable water has been studied using a once-through open flow cell under atmospheric pressure. The surface scaling mechanism and deposit morphology are investigated at high surface temperature. Thus the water evaporation process has to be considered. The effect of surface temperature, flow rate, and inhibitor deployment on the thermal resistance and morphology of the scale have been investigated. The study findings show how an increase in surface temperature enhances the crystallization reaction kinetics on the surface. There is an increase in the amount of scale and the resistance to heat transfer. The fluid flow rate also increases the fouling resistance and the thickness of the scale layer.

Keywords: fouling, heat exchanger, thermal resistance, crystallization, potable water

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175 Mathematical Model for Interaction Energy of Toroidal Molecules and Other Nanostructures

Authors: Pakhapoom Sarapat, James M. Hill, Duangkamon Baowan

Abstract:

Carbon nanotori provide several properties such as high tensile strength and heat resistance. They are promised to be ideal structures for encapsulation, and their encapsulation ability can be determined by the interaction energy between the carbon nanotori and the encapsulated nanostructures. Such interaction energy is evaluated using Lennard-Jones potential and continuum approximation. Here, four problems relating to toroidal molecules are determined in order to find the most stable configuration. Firstly, the interaction energy between a carbon nanotorus and an atom is examined. The second problem relates to the energy of a fullerene encapsulated inside a carbon nanotorus. Next, the interaction energy between two symmetrically situated and parallel nanotori is considered. Finally, the classical mechanics is applied to model the interaction energy between the toroidal structure of cyclodextrin and the spherical DNA molecules. These mathematical models might be exploited to study a number of promising devices for future developments in bio and nanotechnology.

Keywords: carbon nanotori, continuum approximation, interaction energy, Lennard-Jones potential, nanotechnology

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174 Thermo-Mechanical Approach to Evaluate Softening Behavior of Polystyrene: Validation and Modeling

Authors: Salah Al-Enezi, Rashed Al-Zufairi, Naseer Ahmad

Abstract:

A Thermo-mechanical technique was developed to determine softening point temperature/glass transition temperature (Tg) of polystyrene exposed to high pressures. The design utilizes the ability of carbon dioxide to lower the glass transition temperature of polymers and acts as plasticizer. In this apparatus, the sorption of carbon dioxide to induce softening of polymers as a function of temperature/pressure is performed and the extent of softening is measured in three-point-flexural-bending mode. The polymer strip was placed in the cell in contact with the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). CO2 was pumped into the cell from a supply cylinder to reach high pressure. The results clearly showed that full softening point of the samples, accompanied by a large deformation on the polymer strip. The deflection curves are initially relatively flat and then undergo a dramatic increase as the temperature is elevated. It was found that increasing the pressure of CO2 causes the temperature curves to shift from higher to lower by increment of about 45 K, over the pressure range of 0-120 bars. The obtained experimental Tg values were validated with the values reported in the literature. Finally, it is concluded that the defection model fits consistently to the generated experimental results, which attempts to describe in more detail how the central deflection of a thin polymer strip affected by the CO2 diffusions in the polymeric samples.

Keywords: softening, high-pressure, polystyrene, CO₂ diffusions

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173 Characterization of Optical Systems for Intraocular Projection

Authors: Charles Q. Yu, Victoria H. Fan, Ahmed F. Al-Qahtani, Ibraim Viera

Abstract:

Introduction: Over 12 million people are blind due to opacity of the cornea, the clear tissue forming the front of the eye. Current methods use plastic implants to produce a clear optical pathway into the eye but are limited by a high rate of complications. New implants utilizing completely inside-the-eye projection technology can overcome blindness due to scarring of the eye by producing images on the retina without need for a clear optical pathway into the eye and may be free of the complications of traditional treatments. However, the interior of the eye is a challenging location for the design of optical focusing systems which can produce a sufficiently high quality image. No optical focusing systems have previously been characterized for this purpose. Methods: 3 optical focusing systems for intraocular (inside the eye) projection were designed and then modeled with ray tracing software, including a pinhole system, a planoconvex, and an achromatic system. These were then constructed using off-the-shelf components and tested in the laboratory. Weight, size, magnification, depth of focus, image quality and brightness were characterized. Results: Image quality increased with complexity of system design, as did weight and size. A dual achromatic doublet optical system produced the highest image quality. The visual acuity equivalent achieved with this system was better than 20/200. Its weight was less than that of the natural human crystalline lens. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that high quality images can be produced by optical systems sufficiently small and light to be implanted within the eye.

Keywords: focusing, projection, blindness, cornea , achromatic, pinhole

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172 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie

Abstract:

Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: Spent bleaching earth, reactivation, regeneration, thermal treatment, dye removal, thermodynamic

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171 Dual Electrochemical Immunosensor for IL-13Rα2 and E-Cadherin Determination in Cell, Serum and Tissues from Cancer Patients

Authors: Amira ben Hassine, A. Valverde, V. Serafín, C. Muñoz-San Martín, M. Garranzo-Asensio, M. Gamella, R. Barderas, M. Pedrero, N. Raouafi, S. Campuzano, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J. M. Pingarrón

Abstract:

This work describes the development of a dual electrochemical immunosensing platform for accurate determination of two target proteins, IL-13 Receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and E-cadherin (E-cad). The proposed methodology is based on the use of sandwich immunosensing approaches (involving horseradish peroxidase-labeled detector antibodies) implemented onto magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed dual carbon electrodes (SPdCEs). The magnetic bioconjugates were captured onto SPdCEs and the amperometric transduction was performed using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the developed bio platform demonstrates linear concentration ranges of 1.0–25 and 5.0-100 ng mL-1, detection limits of 0.28 and 1.04 ng mL-1 for E-cad and IL-13Rα2, respectively, and excellent selectivity against other non-target proteins. The developed immuno-platform also offers a good reproducibility among amperometric responses provided by nine different sensors constructed in the same manner (Relative Standard Deviation values of 3.1% for E-cad and 4.3% for IL-13Rα2). Moreover, obtained results confirm the practical applicability of this bio-platform for the accurate determination of the endogenous levels of both extracellular receptors in colon cancer cells (both intact and lysed) with different metastatic potential and serum and tissues from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at different grades. Interesting features in terms of, simplicity, speed, portability and sample amount required to provide quantitative results, make this immuno-platform more compatible than conventional methodologies with the clinical diagnosis and prognosis at the point of care.

Keywords: electrochemistry, mmunosensors, biosensors, E-cadherin, IL-13 receptor α2, cancer colorectal

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