Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 310

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Chemical and Materials Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

310 Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfonate Copolymer Auxetic Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Veerabagu, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterion carboxylate and sulfonate polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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309 [email protected] Single Drop Microextraction for In-situ Fluorescence Colorimetric Detection of Dechlorination Reaction

Authors: Yanxue Shang, Jingbin Zeng

Abstract:

Chlorobenzene homologues (CBHs) are a category of environmental pollutants that can not be ignored. They can stay in the environment for a long period and are potentially carcinogenic. The traditional degradation method of CBHs is dechlorination followed by sample preparation and analysis. This is not only time-consuming and laborious but the detection and analysis process are used in conjunction with large-scale instruments. Therefore, this can not achieve rapid and low-cost detection. Compared with traditional sensing methods, colorimetric sensing is simpler and more convenient. In recent years, chromaticity sensors based on fluorescence have attracted more and more attention. Compared with sensing methods based on changes in fluorescence intensity, changes in color gradients are easier to recognize by the naked-eye. Accordingly, this work proposes to use single drop microextraction (SDME) technology to solve the above problems. After the dechlorination reaction was completed, the organic droplet extracts Cl- and realizes fluorescence colorimetric sensing at the same time. This method was integrated sample processing and visual in-situ detection, simplifying the detection process. As a fluorescence colorimetric sensor material, CsPbBr3 was encapsulated in MOF-5 to construct [email protected] fluorescence colorimetric composite. Then the fluorescence colorimetric sensor was constructed by dispersing the composite in SDME organic droplets. When the Br- in CsPbBr3 exchanges with Cl- produced by the dechlorination reactions, it is converted into CsPbCl3. The fluorescence color of the single droplet of SDME will change from green to blue emission, thereby realizing visual observation. Therein, SDME can enhance the concentration and enrichment of Cl- and instead of sample pretreatment. The fluorescence color change of [email protected] can replace the detection process of large-scale instruments to achieve real-time rapid detection. Due to the absorption ability of MOF-5, it can not only improve the stability of CsPbBr3 but induce the adsorption of Cl-. Simultaneously, accelerate the exchange of Br- and Cl- in CsPbBr3 and the detection process of Cl-. The absorption process was verified by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This method exhibits exceptional linearity for Cl- in the range of 10-2 - 10-6 M (10000 μM - 1 μM) with a limit of detection of 10-7 M. Whereafter, the dechlorination reactions of different kinds of CBHs were also carried out with this method, and all had satisfactory detection ability. Also verified the accuracy by gas chromatography (GC), and it was found that the SDME we developed in this work had high credibility. In summary, the in-situ visualization method of dechlorination reaction detection was a combination of sample processing and fluorescence colorimetric sensing. Thus, the strategy researched herein represents a promising method for the visual detection of dechlorination reactions and can be extended for applications in environments, chemical industries, and foods.

Keywords: chlorobenzene homologues, colorimetric sensor, metal halide perovskite, metal organic frameworks, single drop microextraction

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308 Effects of Auxetic Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfate Copolymer Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Vee, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterionic polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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307 Fabrication of Silver Nanowire Based Low Temperature Conductive Ink

Authors: Merve Nur Güven Biçer

Abstract:

Conductive inks are used extensively in electronic devices like sensors, batteries, photovoltaic devices, antennae, and organic light-emitting diodes. These inks are typically made from silver. Wearable technology is another industry that requires inks to be flexible. The aim of this study is the fabrication of low-temperature silver paste by synthesis long silver nanowires.

Keywords: silver ink, conductive ink, low temperature conductive ink, silver nanowire

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306 Kinetic Aspect Investigation of Chitosan / Nanohydroxyapatite / Na ₂CO₃ Gel System

Authors: P. S. D. Perera, S. U. Adikary

Abstract:

The gelation behavior of Chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite sol in the presence of a crosslinking agent Na ₂CO₃ was investigated experimentally. In this case, the gelation time(tgel) was determined by the rheological measurements of the final mixture. The tgel has been determined from dynamic viscosity slope experiments. We found that chitosan/nHA sol with 1% nano-hydroxyapatite and 1.6% Na2CO3 required coagulant performance. Hence Na ₂CO₃ and nanohydroxyapatite concentrations remain constant over the experiment. The order of reaction was first order with respect to chitosan and rate constant of the gel system was 9.0 x 10-4 s-1, respectively, depending on the temperature of the system. The gelation temperature was carried out at 37 ⁰C.

Keywords: kinetics, gelation, sol-gel system, chitosan/ nHA/ Na ₂CO₃ composite

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305 Process Optimization of Mechanochemical Synthesis for the Production of 4,4 Bipyridine Based MOFS using Twin Screw Extrusion and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Ahmed Metawea, Rodrigo Soto, Majeida Kharejesh, Gavin Walker, Ahmad B. Albadarin

Abstract:

In this study, towards a green approach, we have investigated the effect of operating conditions of solvent assessed twin-screw extruder (TSE) for the production of 4, 4-bipyridine (1-dimensional coordinated polymer (1D)) based coordinated polymer using cobalt nitrate as a metal precursor with molar ratio 1:1. Different operating parameters such as solvent percentage, screw speed and feeding rate are considered. The resultant product is characterized using offline characterization methods, namely Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to investigate the product purity and surface morphology. A lower feeding rate increased the product’s quality as more resident time was provided for the reaction to take place. The most important influencing factor was the amount of liquid added. The addition of water helped in facilitating the reaction inside the TSE by increasing the surface area of the reaction for particles

Keywords: MOFS, multivariate analysis, process optimization, chemometric

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304 Synthesis and Use of Bio Polyols in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

Authors: A. Esra Pişkin, L. Yusuf Yivlik

Abstract:

Polyurethane consumption in the world increases every year. Polyetherpolyol, which is the main raw material of polyurethane, is produced from petroleum, and bioresources are needed in polyol production due to the damage it causes to the environment and the consumption of too much energy during the production phase. In this present work, bio polyol was synthesized with castor oil and soybean oil, and its use in rigid polyurethane systems was investigated. Transesterification and ring opening methods were applied for polyol synthesis, and the obtained bio polyols were compared with polyols derived petroleum. The goal of the present study was to synthesize biopolyols and to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of bio polyols.

Keywords: polyurethane, polyol, biopolyol, vegetable oil, foam, rigid polyurethane foam, ring opening, transesterification

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303 Ceiba Speciosa Nanocellulose Obtained from a Sustainable Method as a Potential Reinforcement for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Heloise Sasso Teixeira, Talita Szlapak Franco, Thais Helena Sydenstricker Flores-Sahagun, Milton Vazquez Lepe, Graciela Bolzon Muñiz

Abstract:

Due to the need to reduce the consumption of materials produced from non-renewable sources, the search for new raw materials of natural origin is growing. In this regard, lignocellulosic fibers have great potential. Ceiba sp fibers are found in the fruit of the tree of the same name and have characteristics that differ from other natural fibers. Ceiba fibers are very light, have a high cellulose content, and are hydrophobic due to the presence of waxes on their surface. In this study, Ceiba fiber was used as raw material to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNF), with the potential to be used in polymeric matrices. Due to the characteristics of this fiber, no chemical pretreatment was necessary before the mechanical defibrilation process in a colloidal mill, obtaining sustainable nanocellulose. The CNFs were characterized by Fourier infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), analysis of the rmogravimetic (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, fibers, Brazilian fIbers, lignocellulosic, characterization

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302 Assessment and Characterization of Dual-Hardening Adhesion Promoter for Self-Healing Mechanisms in Metal-Plastic Hybrid System

Authors: Anas Hallak, Latifa Seblini, Juergen Wilde

Abstract:

In mechatronics or sensor technology, plastic housings are used to protect sensitive components from harmful environmental influences, such as moisture, media, or reactive substances. Connections, preferably in the form of metallic lead-frame structures, through the housing wall are required for their electrical supply or control. In this system, an insufficient connection between the plastic component, e.g., Polyamide66, and the metal surface, e.g., copper, due to the incompatibility is dominating. As a result, leakage paths can occur along with the plastic-metal interface. Since adhesive bonding has been established as one of the most important joining processes and its use has expanded significantly, driven by the development of improved high-performance adhesives and bonding techniques, this technology has been involved in metal-plastic hybrid structures. In this study, an epoxy bonding agent from DELO (DUALBOND LT2266) has been used to improve the mechanical and chemical binding between the metal and the polymer. It is an adhesion promoter with two reaction stages. In these, the first stage provides fixation to the lead frame directly after the coating step, which can be done by UV-Exposure for a few seconds. In the second stage, the material will be thermally hardened during injection molding. To analyze the two reaction stages of the primer, dynamic DSC experiments were carried out and correlated with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, the number of crosslinking bonds formed in the system in each reaction stage has also been estimated by a rheological characterization. Those investigations have been performed with different times of UV exposure: 12, 96 s and in an industrial preferred temperature range from -20 to 175°C. The shear viscosity values of primer have been measured as a function of temperature and exposure times. For further interpretation, the storage modulus values have been calculated, and the so-called Booij–Palmen plot has been sketched. The next approach in this study is the self-healing mechanisms in the hydride system in which the primer should flow into micro-damage such as interface, cracks, inhibit them from growing, and close them. The ability of the primer to flow in and penetrate defined capillaries made in Ultramid was investigated. Holes with a diameter of 0.3 mm were produced in injection-molded A3EG7 plates with 4 mm thickness. A copper substrate coated with the DUALBOND was placed on the A3EG7 plate and pressed with a certain force. Metallographic analyses were carried out to verify the filling grade, which showed an almost 95% filling ratio of the capillaries. Finally, to estimate the self-healing mechanism in metal-plastic hybrid systems, characterizations have been done on a simple geometry with a metal inlay developed by the Institute of Polymer Technology in Friedrich-Alexander-University. The specimens have been modified with tungsten wire which was to be pulled out after the injection molding to create a micro-hole in the specimen at the interface between the primer and the polymer. The capability of the primer to heal those micro-cracks upon heating, pressing, and thermal aging has been characterized through metallographic analyses.

Keywords: hybrid structures, self-healing, thermoplastic housing, adhesive

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301 Preparation of Novel Silicone/Graphene-based Nanostructured Surfaces as Fouling Release Coatings

Authors: Mohamed S. Selim, Nesreen A. Fatthallah, Shimaa A. Higazy, Zhifeng Hao, Ping Jing Mo

Abstract:

As marine fouling-release (FR) surfaces, two new superhydrophobic nanocomposite series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loaded with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene oxide/boehmite nanorods (GO-γ-AlOOH) nanofillers were created. The self-cleaning and antifouling capabilities were modified by controlling the nanofillers' shapes and distribution in the silicone matrix. With an average diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of 200 nm, γ-AlOOH nanorods showed a single crystallinity. RGO was made using a hydrothermal process, whereas GO-γ-AlOOH nanocomposites were made using a chemical deposition method for use as fouling-release coating materials. These nanofillers were disseminated in the silicone matrix using the solution casting method to explore the synergetic effects of graphene-based materials on the surface, mechanical, and FR characteristics. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning electron, and atomic force microscopes were used to investigate the surface's hydrophobicity and antifouling capabilities (SEM and AFM). The roughness, superhydrophobicity, and surface mechanical characteristics of coatings all increased the homogeneity of the nanocomposite dispersion. To examine the antifouling effects of the coating systems, laboratory tests were conducted for 30 days using specified bacteria.PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite demonstrated superior antibacterial efficacy against several bacterial strains than PDMS/RGO nanocomposite. The high surface area and stabilizing effects of the GO-γ-AlOOH hybrid nanofillers are to blame for this. The biodegradability percentage of the PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite (3 wt.%) was the lowest (1.6%), while the microbial endurability percentages for gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi were 86.42%, 97.94%, and 85.97%, respectively. The homogeneity of the GO-γ-AlOOH (3 wt.%) dispersion, which had a WCA of 151° and a rough surface, was the most profound superhydrophobic antifouling nanostructured coating.

Keywords: superhydrophobic nanocomposite, fouling release, nanofillers, surface coating

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300 Preparation of Polylactide Nanoparticles by Supercritical Fluid Technology

Authors: Jakub Zágora, Daniela Plachá, Karla Čech Barabaszová, Sylva Holešová, Roman Gábor, Alexandra Muñoz Bonilla, Marta Fernández García

Abstract:

The development of new antimicrobial materials that are not toxic to higher living organisms is a major challenge today. Newly developed materials can have high application potential in biomedicine, coatings, packaging, etc. A combination of commonly used biopolymer polylactide with cationic polymers seems to be very successful in the fight against antimicrobial resistance [1].PLA will play a key role in fulfilling the intention set out in the New Deal announced by the EU commission, as it is a bioplastic that is easily degradable, recyclable, and mass-produced. Also, the development of 3D printing in the context of this initiative, and the actual use of PLA as one of the main materials used for this printing, make the technology around the preparation and modification of PLA quite logical. Moreover, theenvironmentally friendly and energy saving technology like supercritical fluid process (SFP) will be used for their preparation. In a first approach, polylactide nano- and microparticles and structures were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction. The RESS (rapid expansion supercritical fluid solution) method is easier to optimize and shows better particle size control. On the contrary, a highly porous structure was obtained using the SAS (supercritical antisolvent) method. In a second part, the antimicrobial biobased polymer was introduced by SFP.

Keywords: polylactide, antimicrobial polymers, supercritical fluid technology, micronization

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299 Method for Identification of Through Defects of Polymer Films Applied onto Metal Parts

Authors: Yu A. Pluttsova , O. V. Vakhnina , K. B. Zhogova

Abstract:

Nowadays, many devices operate under conditions of enhanced humidity, temperature drops, fog, and vibration. To ensure long-term and uninterruptable equipment operation under adverse conditions, one applies moisture-proof films on products and electronics components, which helps to prevent corrosion, short circuit, allowing a significant increase in device lifecycle. The reliability of such moisture-proof films is mainly determined by their coating uniformity without gaps and cracks. Unprotected product edges, as well as pores in films, can cause device failure during operation. The work objective was to develop an effective, affordable, and profit-proved method for determining the presence of through defects of protective polymer films on the surface of parts made of iron and its alloys. As a diagnostic reagent, one proposed water solution of potassium ferricyanide (III) in hydrochloric acid, this changes the color from yellow to blue according to the reactions; Feº → Fe²⁺ and 4Fe²⁺ + 3[Fe³⁺(CN)₆]³⁻ → Fe ³⁺4[Fe²⁺(CN)₆]₃. There was developed the principle scheme of technological process for determining the presence of polymer films through defects on the surface of parts made of iron and its alloys. There were studied solutions with different diagnostic reagent compositions in water: from 0,1 to 25 mass fractions, %, of potassium ferricyanide (III), and from 5 to 25 mass fractions, %, of hydrochloride acid. The optimal component ratio was chosen. The developed method consists in submerging a part covered with a film into a vessel with a diagnostic reagent. In the polymer film through defect zone, the part material (ferrum) interacts with potassium ferricyanide (III), the color changes to blue. Pilot samples were tested by the developed method for the presence of through defects in the moisture-proof coating. It was revealed that all the studied parts had through defects of the polymer film coating. Thus, the claimed method efficiently reveals polymer film coating through defects on parts made of iron or its alloys, being affordable and profit-proved.

Keywords: diagnostic reagent, metal parts, polimer films, through defects

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298 Optimization of Bio-Based Mixture of Canarium Luzonicum and Calcium Oxide as Coating Material for Reinforcing Steel Bars

Authors: Charizza D. Montarin, Daryl Jae S. Sigue, Gilford Estores

Abstract:

Philippines was moderately vulnerable to corrosion and to prevent this problem, surface coating should be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop and optimize a bio-based mixture of Pili Resin and Lime as Coating Materials. There are three (3) factors to be considered in choosing the best coating material such as chemical adhesion, friction, and the bearing/shear against the steel bar-concrete interface. Fortunately, both proportions of the Bio-based coating materials (50:50 and 65:35) do not have red rust formation complying with ASTM B117 but failed in terms of ASTM D 3359. Splitting failures of concrete were observed in the Unconfined Reinforced Concrete Samples. All of the steel bars (uncoated and coated) surpassed the Minimum Bond strength (NSCP 2015) about 203% to 285%. The experiments were about 1% to 3% of the results from the ANSYS Simulations with and without Salt Spray Test. Using the bio-based and epoxy coatings, normal splitting strengths were declined. However, there has no significant difference between the results. Thus, the bio-based coating materials can be used as an alternative for the epoxy coating materials and it was highly recommended for Low – Rise Building only.

Keywords: Canarium luzonicum, calcium oxide, corrosion, finite element simulations

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297 Study The Role Effect of Poly Pyrrole on LiFePO4 as Positive Electrode

Authors: Atef Youssef, Marwa Mostafa Moharam

Abstract:

The effects of poly pyrrole (PP) addition on LiFePO4 have been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic measurements. PP was prepared with LiFePO₄ in different ways, such as chemically dispersion, insinuation polymerization, and electrochemically polymerization. The EIS results showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of LiFePO₄ was decreased by adding 10% PP polymerized in a situation to 153 vs. 1660  for bare LiFePO₄. The CV curves show that 10% PP added LiFePO₄ had higher electrochemical reactivity for lithium insertion and extraction than the un-doped material. The mean redox potential is E1/2 = 3.45 V vs. Li+/Li. The first discharge curve of the 10% poly pyrrole doped LiFePO₄ showed a mainly flat voltage plateau over the 3.45–3.5 V range, indicating the lithium extraction and insertion reactions between LiFePO₄ and FePO₄. A specific discharge capacity of cells prepared from in-situ 10% PP added LiFePO4to was about 210 vs. 65 mAhg-1 for bare LiFePO₄.

Keywords: liFePO₄, poly pyrrole addition, positive electrode, lithium battery

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296 Fabrication of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers-Reinforced Chitosan-Based Hydrogel for Environmental Applications

Authors: Badr M. Thamer

Abstract:

The use of hydrogels as adsorbents for pollutants removal from wastewater is limited due to their high swelling properties and the difficulty in recovering them after the adsorption process. To overcome these problems, a new hydrogel nanocomposite based on chitosan-g-polyacrylic acid/oxidized electrospun carbon nanofibers (CT-g-PAA/O-ECNFs) was prepared by in-situ grafting polymerization process. The prepared hydrogel nanocomposite was used as a novel effective and highly reusable adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from polluted water with low cost. The morphology and the structure of CT-g-PAA/O-ECNFs were investigated by numerous techniques. The effect of incorporating O-ECNFs on the swelling capability of the prepared hydrogel was explored in distillated water and MB solution at normal pH. The effect of parameters including the ratio of O-ECNFs, contact time, pH, initial concentration, and temperature on the adsorption process were explored. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic were studied by numerous non-linear models. The obtained results confirmed that the incorporation of O-ECNFs into the hydrogel network improved its ability towards MB dye removal with decreasing their swelling capacity. The adsorption process depends on the pH value of the dye solution. Additionally, the adsorption and kinetic results were fitted using the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo second order model (PSO), respectively. Moreover, the new adsorbents can be recycled for at least five cycles keeping its adsorption capacity and can be easily recovered without loss in its initial weight.

Keywords: carbon nanofibers, hydrogels, nanocomposites, water treatment

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295 Accelerated Ageing of Unidirectional Flax Fibers Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Lara Alam, Laetitia Van-Schoors, Olivier Sicot, Shahram Aivazzadeh

Abstract:

Over the last decades, worldwide environmental awareness has grown due to the depletion of raw material resources and global warming. This awareness has prompted the development of new products more environmentally friendly. Among these products are biocomposite materials reinforced with natural fibers. The main challenge in developing the use of biocomposites in exterior applications is the lack of knowledge about their durability and the evolution of their mechanical and physicochemical properties in the long term. Few studies have been carried out on the durability of polypropylene PP-flax composites, which is the aim of this work. For this purpose, composites with unidirectional flax fiber were prepared by thermocompression using virgin and recycled polypropylene. To study the durability of these materials in real conditions, outdoor natural weathering is usually applied. This type of weathering is often slow to assess durability. Therefore, in this work, accelerated aging was mainly used to study the photo-oxidation of PP-flax composites. Xenon arc Weather-Ometer was used to apply two accelerated weathering cycles to understand the effect of the intensity of UV irradiation on photo-oxidation. A multi-scale characterization is carried out to evaluate the variation of the mechanical and physicochemical performance of these composites over time. The results showed that accelerated ageing had a significant effect on the surface of these composites, which consequently affects the properties at the macroscopic scale.

Keywords: biocompoiste, flax fiber, recycled polypropylene, accelerated ageing, photo-oxidation, mechanical properties, physicochemical properties

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294 Exergy Analysis of a Green Dimethyl Ether Production Plant

Authors: Marcello De Falco, Gianluca Natrella, Mauro Capocelli

Abstract:

CO₂ capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce GHG(greenhouse gas) emissions. Many technologies in this field are recently attracting attention. However, since CO₂ is a very stable compound, its utilization as a reagent is energetic intensive. As a consequence, it is unclear whether CCU processes allow for a net reduction of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective and whether these solutions are sustainable. Among the tools to apply for the quantification of the real environmental benefits of CCU technologies, exergy analysis is the most rigorous from a scientific point of view. The exergy of a system is the maximum obtainable work during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with its reference environment through a series of reversible processes in which the system can only interact with such an environment. In other words, exergy is an “opportunity for doing work” and, in real processes, it is destroyed by entropy generation. The exergy-based analysis is useful to evaluate the thermodynamic inefficiencies of processes, to understand and locate the main consumption of fuels or primary energy, to provide an instrument for comparison among different process configurations and to detect solutions to reduce the energy penalties of a process. In this work, the exergy analysis of a process for the production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) from green hydrogen generated through an electrolysis unit and pure CO₂ captured from flue gas is performed. The model simulates the behavior of all units composing the plant (electrolyzer, carbon capture section, DME synthesis reactor, purification step), with the scope to quantify the performance indices based on the II Law of Thermodynamics and to identify the entropy generation points. Then, a plant optimization strategy is proposed to maximize the exergy efficiency.

Keywords: green DME production, exergy analysis, energy penalties, exergy efficiency

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293 Review of Carbon Materials: Application in Alternative Energy Sources and Catalysis

Authors: Marita Pigłowska, Beata Kurc, Maciej Galiński

Abstract:

The application of carbon materials in the branches of the electrochemical industry shows an increasing tendency each year due to the many interesting properties they possess. These are, among others, a well-developed specific surface, porosity, high sorption capacity, good adsorption properties, low bulk density, electrical conductivity and chemical resistance. All these properties allow for their effective use, among others in supercapacitors, which can store electric charges of the order of 100 F due to carbon electrodes constituting the capacitor plates. Coals (including expanded graphite, carbon black, graphite carbon fibers, activated carbon) are commonly used in electrochemical methods of removing oil derivatives from water after tanker disasters, e.g. phenols and their derivatives by their electrochemical anodic oxidation. Phenol can occupy practically the entire surface of carbon material and leave the water clean of hydrophobic impurities. Regeneration of such electrodes is also not complicated, it is carried out by electrochemical methods consisting in unblocking the pores and reducing resistances, and thus their reactivation for subsequent adsorption processes. Graphite is commonly used as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, while due to the limited capacity it offers (372 mAh g-1), new solutions are sought that meet both capacitive, efficiency and economic criteria. Increasingly, biodegradable materials, green materials, biomass, waste (including agricultural waste) are used in order to reuse them and reduce greenhouse effects and, above all, to meet the biodegradability criterion necessary for the production of lithium-ion cells as chemical power sources. The most common of these materials are cellulose, starch, wheat, rice, and corn waste, e.g. from agricultural, paper and pharmaceutical production. Such products are subjected to appropriate treatments depending on the desired application (including chemical, thermal, electrochemical). Starch is a biodegradable polysaccharide that consists of polymeric units such as amylose and amylopectin that build an ordered (linear) and amorphous (branched) structure of the polymer. Carbon is also used as a catalyst. Elemental carbon has become available in many nano-structured forms representing the hybridization combinations found in the primary carbon allotropes, and the materials can be enriched with a large number of surface functional groups. There are many examples of catalytic applications of coal in the literature, but the development of this field has been hampered by the lack of a conceptual approach combining structure and function and a lack of understanding of material synthesis. In the context of catalytic applications, the integrity of carbon environmental management properties and parameters such as metal conductivity range and bond sequence management should be characterized. Such data, along with surface and textured information, can form the basis for the provision of network support services.

Keywords: carbon materials, catalysis, BET, capacitors, lithium ion cell

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292 Aerogel Fabrication Via Modified Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) Process - Needle Valve Pressure Release

Authors: Haibo Zhao, Thomas Andre, Katherine Avery, Alper Kiziltas, Deborah Mielewski

Abstract:

Silica aerogels were fabricated through a modified rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) process. The silica aerogels were made using a tetramethyl orthosilicate precursor and then placed in a hot press and brought to the supercritical point of the solvent, ethanol. In order to control the pressure release without a pressure controller, a needle valve was used. The resulting aerogels were then characterized for their physical and chemical properties and compared to silica aerogels created using similar methods. The aerogels fabricated using this modified RSCE method were found to have similar properties to those in other papers using the unmodified RSCE method. Silica aerogel infused glass blanket composite, graphene reinforced silica aerogel composite were also successfully fabricated by this new method. The modified RSCE process and system is a prototype for better gas outflow control with a lower cost of equipment setup. Potentially, this process could be evolved to a continuous low-cost high-volume production process to meet automotive requirements.

Keywords: aerogel, automotive, rapid supercritical extraction process, low cost production

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291 Liesegang Phenomena: Experimental and Simulation Studies

Authors: Vemula Amalakrishna, S. Pushpavanam

Abstract:

Change and motion characterize and persistently reshape the world around us, on scales from molecular to global. The subtle interplay between change (Reaction) and motion (Diffusion) gives rise to an astonishing intricate spatial or temporal pattern. These pattern formation in nature has been intellectually appealing for many scientists since antiquity. Periodic precipitation patterns, also known as Liesegang patterns (LP), are one of the stimulating examples of such self-assembling reaction-diffusion (RD) systems. LP formation has a great potential in micro and nanotechnology. So far, the research on LPs has been concentrated mostly on how these patterns are forming, retrieving information to build a universal mathematical model for them. Researchers have developed various theoretical models to comprehensively construct the geometrical diversity of LPs. To the best of our knowledge, simulation studies of LPs assume an arbitrary value of RD parameters to explain experimental observation qualitatively. In this work, existing models were studied to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon and challenges pertaining to models were understood and explained. These models are not computationally effective due to the presence of discontinuous precipitation rate in RD equations. To overcome the computational challenges, smoothened Heaviside functions have been introduced, which downsizes the computational time as well. Experiments were performed using a conventional LP system (AgNO₃-K₂Cr₂O₇) to understand the effects of different gels and temperatures on formed LPs. The model is extended for real parameter values to compare the simulated results with experimental data for both 1-D (Cartesian test tubes) and 2-D(cylindrical and Petri dish).

Keywords: reaction-diffusion, spatio-temporal patterns, nucleation and growth, supersaturation

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290 Gut microbiota and their modulating role in pregnant and non-pregnant hypertensive rats fed with selected local wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara TR, Awyinka OA

Abstract:

Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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289 Effect of Aryl Imidazolium Ionic Liquids as Asphaltene Dispersants

Authors: Raghda Ahmed El-Nagar

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Oil spills are one of the most serious environmental issues that have occurred during the production and transportation of petroleum crude oil. Chemical asphaltene dispersants are hazardous to the marine environment, so Ionic liquids (ILs) as asphaltene dispersants are a critical area of study. In this work, different aryl imidazolium ionic liquids were synthesized with high yield and elucidated via tools of analysis (Elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared ILs posses high thermal stability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension, and emulsification index were investigated. Evaluation of synthesized ILs as asphaltene dispersants were assessed at various concentrations, and data reveals high dispersion efficiency.

Keywords: ionic liquids, oil spill, asphaltene dispersants, CMC, efficiency

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288 Mass Transfer in Reactor with Magnetic Field Generator

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas

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The growing interest in magnetic fields applications is visible due to the increased number of articles on this topic published in the last few years. In this study, the influence of various magnetic fields (MF) on the mass transfer process was examined. To carry out the prototype set-up equipped with an MF generator that is able to generate a pulsed magnetic field (PMF), oscillating magnetic field (OMF), rotating magnetic field (RMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) was used. To demonstrate the effect of MF’s on mass transfer, the calcium carbonate precipitation process was selected. To the vessel with attached conductometric probes and placed inside the generator, specific doses of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. Electrical conductivity changes of the mixture inside the vessel were measured over time until equilibrium was established. Measurements were conducted for various MF strengths and concentrations of added chemical compounds. Obtained results were analyzed, which allowed to creation of mathematical correlation models showing the influence of MF’s on the studied process.

Keywords: mass transfer, oscillating magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, static magnetic field

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287 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi

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The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .

Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gas

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286 Effect of Tool Size and Cavity Depth on Response Characteristics during Electric Discharge Machining on Superalloy Metal - An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Sudhanshu Kumar

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Electrical discharge machining, also known as EDM, process is one of the most applicable machining process for removal of material in hard to machine materials like superalloy metals. EDM process utilizes electrical energy into sparks to erode the metals in presence of dielectric medium. In the present investigation, superalloy, Inconel 718 has been selected as workpiece and electrolytic copper as tool electrode. Attempt has been made to understand the effect of size of tool with varying cavity depth during drilling of hole through EDM process. In order to systematic investigate, tool size in terms of tool diameter and cavity depth along with other important electrical parameters namely, peak current, pulse-on time and servo voltage have been varied at three different values and the experiments has been designed using fractional factorial (Taguchi) method. Each experiment has been repeated twice under the same condition in order to understand the variability within the experiments. The effect of variations in parameters has been evaluated in terms of material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness. Results revel that change in tool diameter during machining affects the response characteristics significantly. Larger tool diameter yielded 13% more material removal rate than smaller tool diameter. Analysis of the effect of variation in cavity depth is notable. There is no significant effect of cavity depth on material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface quality. This indicates that number of experiments can be performed to analyze other parameters effect even at smaller depth of cavity which can reduce the cost and time of experiments. Further, statistical analysis has been carried out to identify the interaction effect between parameters.

Keywords: EDM, Inconel 718, material removal rate, roughness, tool wear, tool size

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285 Development of a Table-Top Composite Wire Fabrication System for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Krishna Nand, Mohammad Taufik

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Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In FFF technology, a wire form material (filament) is fed inside a heated chamber, where it gets converted into semi-solid form and extruded out of a nozzle to be deposited on the build platform to fabricate the part. FFF technology is expanding and covering the market at a very rapid rate, so the need of raw materials for 3D printing is also increasing. The cost of 3D printing is directly affected by filament cost. To make 3D printing more economic, a compact and portable filament/wire extrusion system is needed. Wire extrusion systems to extrude ordinary wire/filament made of a single material are available in the market. However, extrusion system to make a composite wire/filament are not available. Hence, in this study, initial efforts have been made to develop a table-top composite wire extruder. The developed system is consisted of mechanical parts, electronics parts, and a control system. A multiple channel hopper, extrusion screw, melting chamber and nozzle, cooling zone, and spool winder are some mechanical parts. While motors, heater, temperature sensor, cooling fans are some electronics parts, which are used to develop this system. A control board has been used to control the various process parameters like – temperature and speed of motors. For the production of composite wire/filament, two different materials could be fed through two channels of hopper, which will be mixed and carried to the heated zone by extrusion screw. The extrusion screw is rotated by a motor, and the speed of this motor will be controlled by the controller as per the requirement of material extrusion rate. In the heated zone, the material will melt with the help of a heating element and extruded out of the nozzle in the form of wire. The developed system occupies less floor space due to the vertical orientation of its heating chamber. It is capable to extrude ordinary filament as well as composite filament, which are compatible with 3D printers available in the market. Further, the developed system could be employed in the research and development of materials, processing, and characterization for 3D printer. The developed system presented in this study could be a better choice for hobbyists and researchers dealing with the fused filament fabrication process to reduce the 3D printing cost significantly by recycling the waste material into 3D printer feed material. Further, it could also be explored as a better alternative for filament production at the commercial level.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D Printing, filament extrusion, pellet extrusion

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284 Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants In Recycled Plastic Toys Using Thermal Desorption GC/MS

Authors: Athena Nguyen, Rojin Belganeh

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In recycling plastics industries, waste plastics are converted into monomers and other useful molecules by chemical reactions. Thermal energy generated by incineration is recovered when waste plastics melt. During the process, Flame retardants containing products get in, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are often used to reduce the flammability of products. Some of the originally formulated brominated flame retardants additives are restricted by the RoHS Directive, such as PBDE and PBB. The determination of BFRs other than those restricted by the RoHS directive is required. Frontier Lab developed a pyrolyzer based on the vertical micro-furnace design. The multi-mode pyrolyzer with different modes of operations, including evolve gas analysis (EGA), flash pyrolysis, thermal desorption, heart cutting, allows users to choose among the techniques for their analysis purposes. The method requires very little sample preparation. The first step is to perform an EGA using temperature programs. This technique provides information about the thermal temperature behaviors of the sample. The EGA thermogram is then used to determine the next steps in the analysis process. In this presentation, with an Optimal thermal temperature zone identified based on EGA thermogram, thermal desorption GC/MS is a chosen technique for the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled plastic toys. Five types of general-purpose brominated flame retardants other than those restricted by the RoHS Directive are determined by the standard addition method.

Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, pyrolyzer, thermal desorption-GC/MS

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283 UVA or UVC Activation of H₂O₂ and S₂O₈²⁻ for Estrogen Degradation towards an Application in Rural Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Anaelle Gabet, Helene Metivier, Christine De Brauer, Gilles Mailhot, Marcello Brigante

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The presence of micropollutants in surface waters has been widely reported around the world, particularly downstream from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Rural WWTPs constitute more than 90 % of the total WWTPs in France. Like conventional ones, they are not able to fully remove micropollutants. Estrogens are excreted by human beings every day and several studies have highlighted their endocrine disruption properties on river wildlife. They are mainly estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Rural WWTPs require cheap and robust tertiary processes. UVC activation of H₂O₂ for HO· generation, a very reactive molecule, has demonstrated its effectiveness. However, UVC rays are dangerous to manipulate and energy-consuming. This is why the ability of UVA rays was investigated in this study. Moreover, the use of S₂O₈²⁻ for SO₄·- generation as an alternative to HO· has emerged in the last few years. Such processes have been widely studied on a lab scale. However, pilot-scale works constitute fewer studies. This study was carried out on a 20-L pilot composed of a 1.12-L UV reactor equipped with a polychromatic UVA lamp or a monochromatic (254 nm) UVC lamp fed in recirculation. Degradation rates of a mixture of spiked E1, E2 and EE2 (5 µM each) were followed by HPLC-UV. Results are expressed in UV dose (mJ.cm-2) received by the compounds of interest to compare UVC and UVA. In every system, estrogen degradation rates followed pseudo-first-order rates. First, experiments were carried out in tap water. All estrogens underwent photolysis under UVC rays, although E1 photolysis is higher. However, only very weak photolysis was observed under UVA rays. Preliminary studies on both oxidants have shown that S₂O₈²⁻ photolysis constants are higher than H₂O₂ under both UVA and UVC rays. Therefore, estrogen degradation rates are about ten times higher in the presence of 1 mM of S₂O₈²⁻ than with one mM of H₂O₂ under both radiations. In the same conditions, the mixture of interest required about 40 times higher UV dose when using UVA rays compared to UVC. However, the UVA/S₂O₈²⁻ system only requires four times more UV dose than the conventional UVC/H₂O₂ system. Further studies were carried out in WWTP effluent with the UVC lamp. When comparing these results to the tap water ones, estrogen degradation rates were more inhibited in the S₂O₈²⁻ system than with H₂O₂. It seems that SO₄·- undergo higher quenching by a real effluent than HO·. Preliminary experiments have shown that natural organic matter is mainly responsible for the radical quenching and that HO and SO₄ both had similar second-order reaction rate constants with dissolved organic matter. However, E1, E2 and EE2 second-order reaction rate constants are about ten times lower with SO₄ than with HO. In conclusion, the UVA/S₂O₈²⁻ system showed encouraging results for the use of UVA rays but further studies in WWTP effluent have to be carried out to confirm this interest. The efficiency of other pollutants in the real matrix also needs to be investigated.

Keywords: AOPs, decontamination, estrogens, radicals, wastewater

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282 Excellent Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Novel Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham

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In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step novel reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. The reverse rolled 90% samples subsequently used for annealing at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures for 1h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains BCC single-phase; upon annealing at 800°C temperature, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures, respectively. The reverse rolled condition, and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high tensile strength (UTS) 1430MPa and 1556 MPa without compromising loss of ductility consists of an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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281 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang

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This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 44