Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1697

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1697 Adaptive Strategies to Nutrient Deficiency of Doubled Diploid Citrumelo 4475: A Prospective Study Based on Structural, Ultrastructural, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters

Authors: J. Oustric, L. Berti, J. Santini

Abstract:

Nowadays, the objective of durable agriculture, and in particular organic agriculture, is to reduce the level of fertilizer inputs used in crops. Limiting the quantity of fertilizer inputs would optimize the economical result and minimizing the environmental impact. Nutrient deficiency, particularly of a major nutrient (N, P, and K), can seriously affect fruit production and quality. In citrus crops, rootstock/scion combinations. In citrus crop, scion/rootstock combinations are used frequently to improve tolerance to various abiotic stresses. New rootstocks are needed to respond to these constraints, and the use of new tetraploid rootstocks better adapted to lower nutrient intake could offer a promising way forward. The aim of this work was to determine whether a better tolerance to nutrient deficiency could be observed in a doubled diploid seedling and whether this tolerance could be observed in common clementine scion if used as rootstocks. We selected diploid (CM2x) and doubled diploid (CM4x) Citrumelo 4475 seedlings and common clementine (C) grafted onto Citrumelo 4475 diploid (C/CM2x) and doubled diploid (C/CM4x) rootstocks. Nutrient deficiency effects on the seedlings and scion/rootstock combinations were analyzed by studying anatomical, structural and ultrastructural determinants (chlorosis, stomata, ostiole and cells and their organelles), photosynthetic properties (leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pₙₑₜ), stomatal conductance (gₛ), chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fᵥ/Fₘ)) and oxidative marker (malondialdehyde). Nutrient deficiency affected differently foliar tissues, physiological parameters, and oxidative metabolism in leaves of seedlings depending on their ploidy level and of common clementine scion depending on their rootstocks ploidy level. Both CM4x and C/CM4x presented lower foliar damages (chlorosis, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and plastoglobuli), photosynthesis processes alteration (Pₙₑₜ, gₛ, and Fᵥ/Fₘ), and malondialdehyde accumulation than CM2x and C/CM2x after nutrient deficiency. Doubled diploid Citrumelo 4475 can improve nutrient deficiency tolerance, and its use as a rootstock allows to confer this tolerance to the common clementine scion.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress, nutrient deficiency, polyploid rootstocks

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1696 Automating Land Cover Classification Using Time Series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Scripting Case Study

Authors: Zahn Munch, Ayodeji S. Adesuyi

Abstract:

Automation of land cover mapping can provide a cost-effective alternative to manual processing and classification of multiple satellite images. This study describes the development of an automated technique for identifying agricultural land cover using a custom scripting tool developed on an ArcGIS/Python platform. The tool integrates study area selection, reprojection, classification, and accuracy assessment using geo-processing tools combined with custom-built scripts in Python, incorporating the Scikit-learn Python library to integrate machine learning algorithms. Multiple ensemble classifiers were implemented in a workflow automation tool (MEAWAT). MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data (MOD13Q1), as well as NDVI extracted from Landsat 8 were used in the analysis. NDVI phenology was extracted for three agricultural land cover classes and used to create training data for the classification. Using MEAWAT, classification accuracies in excess of 70% were achieved for MODIS data with decision tree and ensemble classifiers, random forest, extra-tree, and Adaboost, a meta-estimator. An accuracy of 89% was achieved using a boosted random forest classifier on Landsat 8 data. It was demonstrated that a better classification output was derived using MEAWAT on higher resolution satellite imagery provided good training data are available. These findings highlight the potential of MEAWAT for large dataset land cover classification using different satellite imagery.

Keywords: Decision trees, Land Cover, landsat, MODIS, scripting, Python, NDVI, ensemble classifiers

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1695 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak

Abstract:

The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L, ISSR markers, ampelography, autochthonous cultivars

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1694 Opportunities for Reducing Post-Harvest Losses of Cactus Pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) to Improve Small-Holder Farmers Income in Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Value Chain Approach

Authors: Meron Zenaselase Rata, Euridice Leyequien Abarca

Abstract:

The production of major crops in Northern Ethiopia, especially the Tigray Region, is at subsistence level due to drought, erratic rainfall, and poor soil fertility. Since cactus pear is a drought-resistant plant, it is considered as a lifesaver fruit and a strategy for poverty reduction in a drought-affected area of the region. Despite its contribution to household income and food security in the area, the cactus pear sub-sector is experiencing many constraints with limited attention given to its post-harvest loss management. Therefore, this research was carried out to identify opportunities for reducing post-harvest losses and recommend possible strategies to reduce post-harvest losses, thereby improving production and smallholder’s income. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were employed to collect the data. Ganta Afeshum district was selected from Eastern Tigray, and two peasant associations (Buket and Golea) were also selected from the district purposively for being potential in cactus pear production. Simple random sampling techniques were employed to survey 30 households from each of the two peasant associations, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Moreover, in this research 2 collectors, 2 wholesalers, 1 processor, 3 retailers, 2 consumers were interviewed; and two focus group discussion was also done with 14 key farmers using semi-structured checklist; and key informant interview with governmental and non-governmental organizations were interviewed to gather more information about the cactus pear production, post-harvest losses, the strategies used to reduce the post-harvest losses and suggestions to improve the post-harvest management. To enter and analyze the quantitative data, SPSS version 20 was used, whereas MS-word were used to transcribe the qualitative data. The data were presented using frequency and descriptive tables and graphs. The data analysis was also done using a chain map, correlations, stakeholder matrix, and gross margin. Mean comparisons like ANOVA and t-test between variables were used. The analysis result shows that the present cactus pear value chain involves main actors and supporters. However, there is inadequate information flow and informal market linkages among actors in the cactus pear value chain. The farmer's gross margin is higher when they sell to the processor than sell to collectors. The significant postharvest loss in the cactus pear value chain is at the producer level, followed by wholesalers and retailers. The maximum and minimum volume of post-harvest losses at the producer level is 4212 and 240 kgs per season. The post-harvest loss was caused by limited farmers skill on-farm management and harvesting, low market price, limited market information, absence of producer organization, poor post-harvest handling, absence of cold storage, absence of collection centers, poor infrastructure, inadequate credit access, using traditional transportation system, absence of quality control, illegal traders, inadequate research and extension services and using inappropriate packaging material. Therefore, some of the recommendations were providing adequate practical training, forming producer organizations, and constructing collection centers.

Keywords: Profit margin, cactus pear, post-harvest losses, value-chain

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1693 Stability Analysis of Green Coffee Export Markets of Ethiopia: Markov-Chain Analysis

Authors: Gabriel Woldu, Maria Sassi

Abstract:

Coffee performs a pivotal role in Ethiopia's GDP, revenue, employment, domestic demand, and export earnings. Ethiopia's coffee production and exports show high variability in the amount of production and export earnings. Despite being the continent's fifth-largest coffee producer, Ethiopia has not developed its ability to shine as a major exporter in the globe's green coffee exports. Ethiopian coffee exports were not stable and had high volume and earnings fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of the export of coffee variation to different importing nations using a first-order Markov Chain model. 14 years of time-series data has been used to examine the direction and structural change in the export of coffee. A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was used to determine the annual growth rate in the coffee export quantity, value, and per-unit price over the study period. The major export markets for Ethiopian coffee were Germany, Japan, and the USA, which were more stable, while countries such as France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia were less stable and had low retention rates for Ethiopian coffee. The study, therefore, recommends that Ethiopia should again revitalize its market to France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia, as these countries are the major coffee-consuming countries in the world to boost its export stake to the global coffee markets in the future. In order to further enhance export stability, the Ethiopian Government and other stakeholders in the coffee sector should have to work on reducing the volatility of coffee output and exports in order to improve production and quality efficiency, so that stabilize markets as well as to make the product attractive and price competitive in the importing countries.

Keywords: Markov Chain, coffee, Ethiopia, CAGR, direction of trade

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1692 Impact of Flooding on Food Calorie Intake and Health Outcomes among Small Holder Farm Households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Michael Ekenta, Aderonke Bashirat Mohammed, Sefi Ahmed

Abstract:

The research examined the impact of flooding on food calorie intake and health challenges among smallholder farm households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 130 farm households in selected villages in the area. Primary data were generated through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Double Difference Estimator (DDE), Calorie Intake Estimation Function, t-test, and multiple regressions. The result shows that farm households lost an average of 132, 950kg of selected crops amounting to about N20m ($56, 542) loose in income. Food daily calorie intake indicates a loss of an average of 715.18Kcal, showing a significant difference in calorie intake before and after flooding (t = 2.0629) at 5% probability. Furthermore, the health challenges most prevalent during flooding were malaria fever, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. The determinants of daily calorie intake were age, household size, level of income, flooding, health challenges, and food price. The study concluded that flooding had negative impacts on crop output and income, daily food calorie intact, and health challenges of a farm household in the study area. It was recommended that the State Government should make adequate and proper arrangements to relocate residents of the area at the warning of possible flooding by the National Metrological Centre and should, through the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), provide relieve items to the residents to cushion the effects of the flooding.

Keywords: Cholera, Impact, Flooding, calorie, health challenges

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1691 Scaling out Sustainable Land Use Systems in Colombia: Some Insights and Implications from Two Regional Case Studies

Authors: Martha Lilia Del Rio Duque, Michelle Bonatti, Katharina Loehr, Marcos Lana, Tatiana Rodriguez, Stefan Sieber

Abstract:

Nowadays, most agricultural practices can reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services. To enhance environmentally friendly food production and to maximize social and economic benefits, sustainable land use systems (SLUS) are one of the most critical strategies increasingly/strongly promoted by donors organizations, international agencies, and policymakers. This process involves the question of how SLUS can be scaled out also large-scale landscapes and not merely isolated experiments. As SLUS are context-specific strategies, diffusion and replication of successful SLUS in Colombia required the identification of main factors that facilitate this scaling out process. We applied a case study approach to investigate the scaling out process of SLUS in cocoa and livestock sector within peacebuilding territories in Colombia, specifically, in Cesar and Caqueta region. These two regions are contrasting, but both have a current trend of increasing land degradation. Presently in Colombia, Caqueta is one of the most deforested departments, and Cesar has some most degraded soils. Following a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted with agroforestry experts in both regions to analyze (1) what does it mean a sustainable land use system in Cocoa/Livestock, specifically in Caqueta or Cesar and (2) to identify the key elements at the level of the following dimensions: biophysical, economic and profitability, market, social, policy and institutions that can explain how and why SLUS are replicated and spread among more producers. The Interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA to identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within data. As the results show, key themes, among which: premium market, solid regional markets and price stability, water availability and management, generational renewal, land use knowledge and diversification, producer organization and certifications are crucial to understand how the SLUS can have an impact across large-scale landscapes and how the scaling out process can be set up best in order to be successful across different contexts. The analysis further reveals which key factors might affect SLUS efficiency.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Colombia, cocoa sector, livestock sector, sustainable land use system

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1690 The Molecular Analysis of Effect of Phytohormones and Spermidine on Tomato Growth under Biotic Stress

Authors: Haleema Sadia, Rumana Keyani, Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Humaira Yasmin, Sidra Zahoor

Abstract:

Tomato is a significant crop of the world and is one of the staple foods of Pakistan. A vast number of plant pathogens from simple viruses to complex parasites cause diseases in tomatoes but fungal infection in our country is quite high. Sometimes the symptoms are too harsh destroying the crop altogether. Countries like our own with continuously increasing massive population and limited resources cannot afford such an economic loss. There is an array of morphological, genetic, biochemical and molecular processes involved in plant resistance mechanisms to biotic stress. The study of different metabolic pathways like Jasmonic acid (JA) pathways and most importantly signaling molecules like ROS/RNS and their redoxin enzymes i.e. TRX and NRX is crucial to disease management, contributing to healthy plant growth. So, improving tolerance in crop plants against biotic stresses is a dire need of our country and world as whole. In the current study, fungal pathogenic strains Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani were used to inoculate tomatoes to check the defense responses of tomato plant against these pathogens at molecular as well as phenotypic level with jasmonic acid and spermidine pretreatment. All the growth parameters (root and shoot length, dry and weight root, shoot weight measured 7 days post-inoculation, exhibited that infection drastically declined the growth of the plant whereas jasmonic acid and spermidine assisted the plants to cope up with the infection. Thus, JA and Spermidine treatments maintained comparatively better growth factors. Antioxidant assays and expression analysis through real time quantitative PCR following time course experiment at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals also exhibited that activation of JA defense genes and a polyamine Spermidine helps in mediating tomato responses against fungal infection when used alone but the two treatments combined mask the effect of each other.

Keywords: Fungal Infection, tomato, spermidine, jasmonic acid defence

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1689 The Growth Curve of Gompertz Model in Body Weight of Slovak Mixed-Sex Goose Breeds

Authors: Cyril Hrncar, Jozef Bujko, Widya P. B. Putra

Abstract:

The growth curve of poultry is important to evaluate the farming management system. This study was aimed to estimate the growth curve of body weight in goose. The growth curve in this study was estimated with non-linear Gompertz model through CurveExpert 1.4. software. Three Slovak mixed-sex goose breeds of Landes (L), Pomeranian (P) and Steinbacher (S) were used in this study. Total of 28 geese (10 L, 8 P and 10 S) were used to estimate the growth curve. Research showed that the asymptotic weight (A) in those geese were reached of 5332.51 g (L), 6186.14 g (P) and 5048.27 g (S). Thus, the maturing rate (k) in each breed were similar (0.05 g/day). The weight of inflection was reached of 1960.48 g (L), 2274.32 g (P) and 1855.98 g (S). The time of inflection (ti) was reached of 25.6 days (L), 26.2 days (P) and 27.80 days (S). The maximum growth rate (MGR) was reached of 98.02 g/day (L), 113.72 g/day (P) and 92.80 g/day (S). Hence, the coefficient of determination (R2) in Gompertz model was 0.99 for each breed. It can be concluded that Pomeranian geese had highest of growth trait than the other breeds.

Keywords: body weight, inflection, growth curve, Slovak geese, Gompertz model

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1688 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama

Abstract:

Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: Tobacco, Community, honey, perceptions

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1687 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: Gene expression, drought stress, C. communis, biotypes

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1686 Anthocyanins as Markers of Enhanced Plant Defence in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Exposed to Copper Stress

Authors: Fadime Eryılmaz Pehlivan

Abstract:

Anthocyanins are important plant pigments having roles in many physiological and ecological functions; that are controlled by numerous regulatory factors. The accumulation of anthocyanins in Z. mays cause the plants stems to exhibit red coloration when encountering gradually increasing copper treatments (1, 5, and 10 mM of Cu in a period of 5 days) on maize seedlings. Stress injury was measured in terms of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents dramatically increased by increasing concentrations of Cu stress. MDA and H2O2 levels were found to significantly increase at high Cu treatments (5 and 10 mM of Cu). Chlorophyll content was observed to be highest at 1 mM Cu and then decreased at 5 and 10 mM of Cu. In addition, significant increases were determined in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under high Cu concentrations, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POX) activities showed no change. Treatments above 5 and 10 mM of Cu triggered copper stress in maize seedlings. The results of this study provide evidence that maize seedlings represent a high tolerance to gradually increasing copper treatments. Improved copper tolerance may relate to high anthocyanin, and carotenoid content besides antioxidant enzyme activity may improve the metal chelating ability of anthocyanin pigments. Data presented in this study may also contribute to a better understanding of phytoremediation studies in maize exposed to high copper contenting soils.

Keywords: Copper, antioxidant, maize, anthocyanin

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1685 Degradation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides (Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid) Using Biochar of Rice Husk and Fruit Peels

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Aamir Ghafoor, Sadia Bashir, Muhammad Awais Khalid, Zara Hussain, Mashal Shahid

Abstract:

The irrational use of insecticides in everyday life has drawn attention worldwide towards its harmful effects. To mitigate the toxic effects of insecticides to humans, present study was planned on the degradation/detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Biocarbon of fruit peels (Banana & Watermelon) and biochar (activated or non-activated) of rice husk was utilized as adsorbents for degradation of selected pesticides. Both activated and non-activated biochar were prepared for treatment and then applied in different concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 ppm) and dosage (1.0 to 2.5g) to insecticides (Acetamiprid & Imidacloprid) as well as studied at different times (30-120 minutes). Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with Photodiode array detector was used to quantify the insecticides. Results depicted that activated biochar of rice husk minimized the 73% concentrations of both insecticides however, watermelon activated biocarbon degraded 72% of imidacloprid and 56% of acetamiprid. Results proved the efficiency of the method employed and it was also inferred that high concentration of biocarbon resulted in larger percentage of degradation. The applied method is cheaper, easy and accessible that can be used to minimize the pesticide residues in animal feed. Degradation using biochar proved significant degradation, eco-friendly and economic method to reduce toxicity of insecticides.

Keywords: Insecticides, HPLC, Biochar, imidacloprid, acetamiprid

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1684 Urban Roof Farming: A Smart City Solution Leading to Sustainability

Authors: Phibankhamti Ryngnga

Abstract:

It is a common phenomenon worldwide that farmland has been gradually converted for urban development particularly in the 21st century keeping in mind the population increase on the other hand. Since food demand and supply are not in equilibrium in urban set up, therefore, there is a need for alternative to feed the hungry urban settlers worldwide. In this regard, urban rooftop farming is the only way out to meet the growing demand for food production with the extra benefits of making our urban areas and cities greener and when the populace is exposed to nature and vegetation, it in turn provides an array of psychological benefits, from decreased anxiety to increased productivity. Bare roofs in cities absorb and then radiate heat — a phenomenon known as the “heat island effect. This increases energy usage and contributes to the poor air quality that often plagues big cities. But Urban rooftop farming do provide many solutions to help cool buildings, ultimately reducing carbon emissions, and by growing food in the communities they serve, rooftop farmers lessen the environmental impact of food transportation. This paper will emphasise the significance of Urban roof farming in the present century which in itself a multi-solution to various city problems.

Keywords: Sustainability, Urban, roof farming, smart solution

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1683 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam

Abstract:

Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

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1682 Development and Power Characterization of an IoT Network for Agricultural Imaging Applications

Authors: Jacob Wahl, Jane Zhang

Abstract:

This paper describes the development and characterization of a prototype IoT network for use with agricultural imaging and monitoring applications. The sensor and gateway nodes are designed using the ESP32 SoC with integrated Bluetooth Low Energy 4.2 and Wi-Fi. A development board, the Arducam IoTai ESP32, is used for prototyping, testing, and power measurements. Google’s Firebase is used as the cloud storage site for image data collected by the sensor. The sensor node captures images using the OV2640 2MP camera module and transmits the image data to the gateway via Bluetooth Low Energy. The gateway then uploads the collected images to Firebase via a known nearby Wi-Fi network connection. This image data can then be processed and analyzed by computer vision and machine learning pipelines to assess crop growth or other needs. The sensor node achieves a wireless transmission data throughput of 220kbps while consuming 150mA of current; the sensor sleeps at 162µA. The sensor node device lifetime is estimated to be 682 days on a 6600mAh LiPo battery while acquiring five images per day based on the development board power measurements. This network can be utilized by any application that requires high data rates, low power consumption, short-range communication, and large amounts of data to be transmitted at low-frequency intervals.

Keywords: IoT, Smart Farming, bluetooth low energy, ESP32, firebase cloud

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1681 Wheat Production and Market in Afghanistan

Authors: Fayiz Saifurahman, Noori Fida Mohammad

Abstract:

Afghanistan produces the highest rate of wheat, it is the first source of food, and food security in Afghanistan is dependent on the availability of wheat. Although Afghanistan is the main producer of wheat, on the other hand, Afghanistan is the largest importers of flour. The objective of this study is to assess the structure and dynamics of the wheat market in Afghanistan, can compute with foreign markets, and increase the level of production. To complete this, a broad series of secondary data was complied with, group discussions and interviews with farmers, agricultural and market experts. The research findings propose that; the government should adopt different policies to support the local market. The government should distribute the seed, support financially and technically to increase wheat production.

Keywords: Production, Wheat, import, Afghanistan

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1680 Heavy Metal Contents in Vegetable Oils of Kazakhstan Origin and Life Risk Assessment

Authors: A. E. Mukhametov, M. T. Yerbulekova, G. A. Tuyakova, G. Aitkhozhayeva, D. R. Dautkanova

Abstract:

The accumulation of heavy metals in food is a constant problem in many parts of the world. Vegetable oils are widely used, both for cooking and for processing in the food industry, meeting the main dietary requirements. One of the main chemical pollutants, heavy metals, is usually found in vegetable oils. These chemical pollutants are carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunotoxic, harmful to consumption and have a negative effect on human health even in trace amounts. Residues of these substances can easily accumulate in vegetable oil during cultivation, processing and storage. In this article, the content of the concentration of heavy metal ions in vegetable oils of Kazakhstan production is studied: sunflower, rapeseed, safflower and linseed oil. Heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel, were determined in three repetitions by the method of flame atomic absorption. Analysis of vegetable oil samples revealed that the largest lead contamination (Pb) was determined to be 0.065 mg/kg in linseed oil. The content of cadmium (Cd) in the largest amount of 0.009 mg/kg was found in safflower oil. Arsenic (As) content was determined in rapeseed and safflower oils at 0.003 mg/kg, and arsenic (As) was not detected in linseed and sunflower oil. The nickel (Ni) content in the largest amount of 0.433 mg/kg was in linseed oil. The heavy metal contents in the test samples complied with the requirements of regulatory documents for vegetable oils. An assessment of the health risk of vegetable oils with a daily consumption of 36 g per day shows that all samples of vegetable oils produced in Kazakhstan are safe for consumption. But further monitoring is needed, since all these metals are toxic and their harmful effects become apparent only after several years of exposure.

Keywords: Food Safety, sunflower oil, linseed oil, vegetable oil, toxic metals, safflower oil, rape oil

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1679 Effects of Adding Gypsum in Agricultural Land on Mitigating Splash Erosion on Sandy Loam and Loam Soil Textures, Afghanistan

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani

Abstract:

Splash erosion in field has affected by factors; slope, rain intensity, soil properties, and plant cover. And also, soil erosion affects not only farmland productivity but also water quality downstream. There are a number of potential soil conservation practices, but many of these are complicated and relatively expensive, such as buffer strips, agro-forestry, counter banking, catchment canal, terracing, surface mulching, reduced tillage, etc. However, mitigation soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding gypsum mineral on mitigating splash erosion caused by rain drop. The research was conducted in soil laboratory Badam Bagh Agricultural Researching Farm, Kabul, Afghanistan. The stainless steel cores were used, and constant water pressure was controlled by a Mariotte’s bottle with kinetic energy of raindrops 2.36 x 10⁻⁵J. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 and 10 t ha⁻¹ and using a sandy loam and loam soil textures. The result was showed an average soil loss from sandy loam soil texture; control was 8.22%, 4.31% and 4.06% similar from loam soil texture, control was 7.26%, 2.89%, and 2.72% respectively. The application of gypsum mineral significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dispersion of soil particles caused by the impact of raindrops compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the addition of gypsum was effective as a measure for mitigating splash erosion.

Keywords: gypsum, Afghanistan, soil loss, splash erosion

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1678 The Impact of Food Inflation on Poverty: An Analysis of the Different Households in the Philippines

Authors: Kara Gianina D. Rosas, Jade Emily L. Tong

Abstract:

This study assesses the vulnerability of households to food price shocks. Using the Philippines as a case study, the researchers aim to understand how such shocks can cause food insecurity in different types of households. This paper measures the impact of actual food price changes during the food crisis of 2006-2009 on poverty in relation to their spatial location. Households are classified as rural or urban and agricultural or non-agricultural. By treating food prices and consumption patterns as heterogeneous, this study differs from conventional poverty analysis as actual prices are used. Merging the Family, Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) with the Consumer Price Index dataset (CPI), the researchers were able to determine the effects on poverty measures, specifically, headcount index, poverty gap, and poverty severity. The study finds that, without other interventions, food inflation would lead to a significant increase in the number of households that fall below the poverty threshold, except for households whose income is derived from agricultural activities. It also finds that much of the inflation during these years was fueled by the rise in staple food prices. Essentially, this paper aims to broaden the economic perspective of policymakers with regard to the heterogeneity of impacts of inflation through analyzing the deeper microeconomic levels of different subgroups. In hopes of finding a solution to lessen the inequality gap of poverty between the rural and urban poor, this paper aims to aid policymakers in creating projects targeted towards food insecurity.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty gap, urban poor, rural poor, food inflation, agricultural households, non-agricultural households, net consumption ratio, head count index, poverty severity

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1677 Allelopathic Effect of Foliar Extracts of Leucaena leucocephala on Germination and Growth Behavior of Zea mays L.

Authors: Guru Prasad Satsangi, Shiv Shankar Gautam

Abstract:

Allelopathy is a potential area of research for sustainable agriculture. It is environmentally safe, can conserve the available resources, and also may mitigate the problems raised by synthetic chemicals. The allelo-chemicals are secondary metabolites produced by plants, which are the byproducts of the primary metabolic process. These allelo-chemicals may be stimulatory, inhibitory, or may have no effect on the growth of the other plants. It has been observed in the present study that foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala showed an inhibitory effect on the germination of the test crop maize. The results revealed that at different concentrations of Leucaena leucocephala foliar extract, caused a significant inhibition in germination and growth behavior of Zea mays L. seedlings. Minimum germination and growth occurred in 100 % concentration, and an increase in extract concentrations result in a decrease in the germination. Bioassay also depicted that this inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract as the higher concentration having a lesser stimulatory effect or vice versa. The phytochemical analysis of the secondary metabolites from foliar extracts of Leucaena leucocephala L. showed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, and flavanoids. Among various extracts, the presence of methanol extract was found in a significant amount of phytochemicals, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Leaves showed a significantly higher amount of the allelochemicals.

Keywords: Zea mays L, allelopathic effect, germination /growth behavior, foliar extracts, Leucaena leucceophala

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1676 Stilbenes as Sustainable Antimicrobial Compounds to Control Vitis Vinifera Diseases

Authors: Jean-Michel Mérillon, Tristan Richard, David Taillis, Oussama Becissa, Julien Gabaston, Stephanie Cluzet

Abstract:

Nowadays, there is a strong pressure to reduce the phytosanitary inputs of synthetic chemistry in vineyards. It is, therefore, necessary to find viable alternatives in order to protect the vine against its major diseases. For this purpose, we suggest the use of a plant extract enriched in antimicrobial compounds. Being produced from vine trunks and roots, which are co-products of wine production, the extract produced is part of a circular economy. The antimicrobial molecules present in this plant material are polyphenols and, more particularly, stilbenes, which are derived from a common base, the resveratrol unit, and that are well known vine phytoalexins. The stilbenoids were extracted from trunks and roots (30/70, w/w) by a double extraction with ethyl acetate followed by enrichment by liquid-liquid extraction. The produced extract was characterized by UHPLC-MS, then its antimicrobial activities were tested on Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea in the laboratory and/or in greenhouse and in vineyard. The major compounds were purified, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on B. cinerea. Moreover, after its spraying, the effect of the stilbene extract on the plant defence status was evaluated by analysis of defence gene expression. UHPLC-MS analysis revealed that the extract contains 50% stilbenes with resveratrol, ε-viniferin and r-viniferin as major compounds. The extract showed antimicrobial activities on P. viticola with IC₅₀ and IC₁₀₀ respectively of 90 and 300 mg/L in the laboratory. In addition, it inhibited 40% of downy mildew development in greenhouse. However, probably because of the sensitivity of stilbenes to the environment, such as UV degradation, no activity has been observed in vineyard towards P. viticola development. For B. cinerea, the extract IC50 was 123 mg/L, with resveratrol and ε-viniferin being the most active stilbenes (IC₅₀ of 88 and 142 mg/L, respectively). The analysis of the expression of defence genes revealed that the extract can induce the expression of some defence genes 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment, meaning that the extract has a defence-stimulating effect at least for the first three days after treatment. In conclusion, we produced a plant extract enriched in stilbenes with antimicrobial properties against two major grapevine pathogenic agents P. viticola and B. cinerea. In addition, we showed that this extract displayed eliciting activity of plant defences. This extract can therefore represent, after formulation development, a viable eco-friendly alternative for vineyard protection. Subsequently, the effect of the stilbenoid extract on primary metabolism will be evaluated by quantitative NMR.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, bioprotection, grapevine, Plasmopara viticola, stilbene

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1675 Efficacy of Plant Extracts on Insect Pests of Watermelon and Their Effects on Nutritional Contents of the Fruits

Authors: Fatai Olaitan Alao, Thimoty Abiodun Adebayo, Oladele Abiodun Olaniran

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Teaching and Research farm during the major and minor planting season , 2017 to determine the effects of Annona squamosa (Linn.) and Moringa oleifera (Lam) extracts on insect pests of watermelon and their effects on nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Synthetic insecticide and untreated plots were included in the treatments for comparison. Selected plants were prepared with cold water and each plant extracts was applied at three different concentrations (5,10 and 20% v/v). Data were collected on population density of insect pests, number of aborted fruits, number of defoliated flowers , the yield was calculated in t/ha, nutritional and fatty acid contents were determine using gas chromatography. The results show that the two major insects were observed - Diabrotica undicimpunctata and Dacus cucurbitea. The tested plant extracts had about 65% control of the observed insect pests when compared with the control and the two plant extracts had the same insecticidal efficacy. However, the applied plant extracts at 20% v/v had higher insecticidal effects than the other tested concentrations. Significant higher yield was observed on the plant extracts treated plants compared with untreated plants which had the least yield() but none of the plant extracts performed effectively as Lambdachyalothrin in the control of insect pests and yield. Meanwhile, the tested plant extracts significantly improved the proximate and fatty acid contents of watermelon fruits while Lambdachyalothrin contributed negatively to the nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Therefore, A. squpmosa and M. oleifera can be used in the management of insect pests and to improve the nutritional contents of the watermelon especially in the organic farming system.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, annona squamosa, watermelon, Dacus cucubitea, Diabrotical undicimpunctata

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1674 Climatic and Environmental Variables Do Not Affect the Diversity of Possible Phytoplasmic Vector Insects Associated with Quercus humboltii Oak Trees in Bogota, Colombia

Authors: J. Lamilla-Monje, C. Solano-Puerto, L. Franco-Lara

Abstract:

Trees play an essential role in cities due to their ability to provide multiple ecosystem goods and services. Bogota trees are threatened by factors such as pests, pathogens, contamination, among others. Among the pathogens, phytoplasmas are a potential risk for urban trees, generating symptoms that affect the ecosystem services that these trees provide in Bogota, an example of this is the affectation of Q. humboldtii by phytoplasmas, these bacteria are transmitted for insects of the order Hemiptera, this is why the objective of this work was to know if the climatic variables (humidity, precipitation, and temperature) and environmental variables (PM10 and PM2.5) could be related to the distribution of the Oak Quercus entomofauna and specifically with the phytoplasma vector insects in Bogota. For this study, the sampling points were distributed in areas of the city with contrasting variables in two types of locations: parks and streets. A total of 68 trees were sampled in which the associated insects were collected using two methodologies: jameo and agitation traps. The results show that insects of the order Hemiptera were the most abundant, including a total of 1682 individuals represented by 29 morphotypes, within this order individuals from eight families were collected (Aphidae, Aradidae, Berytidae, Cicadellidae, Issidae, Membracidae, Miridae, and Psyllidae), finding as possible vectors the families Cicadellidae, Membracidae, and Psyllidae with 959, 8 and 14 individuals respectively. Within the Cicadellidae family, 21 morphotypes were found, being reported as vectors in the literature: Amplicephalus, Exitianus atratus, Haldorus sp., Xestocephalus desertorum, Idiocerinae sp., Scaphytopius sp., the Membracidae family was represented by two morphotypes and the Psyllidae by one. Results that suggest that there is no correlation between climatic and environmental variables with the diversity of insects associated with oak. Knowing the vector insects of phytoplasmas in oak trees will complete the pathosystem and generate effective vector control.

Keywords: Diversity, vector insects, phytoplasmas, Cicadellidae

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1673 Normal and Peaberry Coffee Beans Classification from Green Coffee Bean Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Hira Lal Gope, Hidekazu Fukai

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a system which can identify and sort peaberries automatically at low cost for coffee producers in developing countries. In this paper, the focus is on the classification of peaberries and normal coffee beans using image processing and machine learning techniques. The peaberry is not bad and not a normal bean. The peaberry is born in an only single seed, relatively round seed from a coffee cherry instead of the usual flat-sided pair of beans. It has another value and flavor. To make the taste of the coffee better, it is necessary to separate the peaberry and normal bean before green coffee beans roasting. Otherwise, the taste of total beans will be mixed, and it will be bad. In roaster procedure time, all the beans shape, size, and weight must be unique; otherwise, the larger bean will take more time for roasting inside. The peaberry has a different size and different shape even though they have the same weight as normal beans. The peaberry roasts slower than other normal beans. Therefore, neither technique provides a good option to select the peaberries. Defect beans, e.g., sour, broken, black, and fade bean, are easy to check and pick up manually by hand. On the other hand, the peaberry pick up is very difficult even for trained specialists because the shape and color of the peaberry are similar to normal beans. In this study, we use image processing and machine learning techniques to discriminate the normal and peaberry bean as a part of the sorting system. As the first step, we applied Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as machine learning techniques to discriminate the peaberry and normal bean. As a result, better performance was obtained with CNN than with SVM for the discrimination of the peaberry. The trained artificial neural network with high performance CPU and GPU in this work will be simply installed into the inexpensive and low in calculation Raspberry Pi system. We assume that this system will be used in under developed countries. The study evaluates and compares the feasibility of the methods in terms of accuracy of classification and processing speed.

Keywords: Sorting, Convolutional Neural Networks, support vector machine, coffee bean, peaberry

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1672 Influence of Environmental Temperature on Dairy Herd Performance and Behaviour

Authors: J. Walsh, L. Krpalkova, A. Carvalho, S. Campbell, S. Harapanahalli, N. O' Mahony

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stressors on the performance of lactating dairy cows and discuss some future trends. There exists a relationship between the meteorological data and milk yield prediction accuracy in pasture-based dairy systems. New precision technologies are available and are being developed to improve the sustainability of the dairy industry. Some of these technologies focus on welfare of individual animals on dairy farms. These technologies allow the automatic identification of animal behaviour and health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection demands and long-term animal healthcare costs. The data set consisted of records from 489 dairy cows at two dairy farms and temperature measured from the nearest meteorological weather station in 2018. The effects of temperature on milk production and behaviour of animals were analyzed. The statistical results indicate different effects of temperature on milk yield and behaviour. The “comfort zone” for animals is in the range 10 °C to 20 °C. Dairy cows out of this zone had to decrease or increase their metabolic heat production, and it affected their milk production and behaviour.

Keywords: Behavior, temperature, milk yield, precision technologies

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1671 Characterization, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv. Plant Extracts

Authors: Nneka Augustina Akwu, Yougasphree Naidoo

Abstract:

Molecular advancement in technology has created a means whereby the atoms and molecules (solid forms) of certain materials such as plants, can now be reduced to a range of 1-100 nanometres. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out at room temperature (RT) 25 ± 2°C and 80°C, using the metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa as reductants and stabilizing agents. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transforms infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRF) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The AgNPs were biologically evaluated for antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities. The phytochemical and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of metabolites that act as reducing and capping agents, while the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the biosynthesized NPs showed absorption between 380-460 nm, confirming AgNP synthesis. The Zeta potential values were between -9.1 and -20.6 mV with a hydrodynamics diameter ranging from 38.3 to 46.7 nm. SEM and HRTEM analyses revealed that AgNPs were predominately spherical with an average particle size of 2- 31 nm for the leaves and 5-27 nm for the stem bark. The cytotoxicity IC50 values of the AgNPs against HeLa, Caco-2 and MCF-7 were >1 mg/mL. The AgNPs were sensitive to all strains of bacteria used, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) being more sensitive to the AgNPs. Our findings propose that antibacterial and anticancer agents could be derived from these AgNPs of G. lasiocarpa, and warrant their further investigation.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Silver Nanoparticles, antioxidant, Grewia lasiocarpa, Zeta potentials

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1670 Impact of Aquaculture on Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bukola Dawodu, Titilayo Shodeinde

Abstract:

Aquaculture practice in Nigeria is an industry that includes fish development in a controlled situation. It has developed through various stages and stages with its latent capacity yet to be completely tapped. To avow this potential in adding to human advancement, nourishment security and improved way of life, the aquaculture business requires new approaches. Subsequently, this seminar paper reviews the impact of aquaculture on sustainable development in Nigeria. The examination received on subjective research strategy. The segments and the frameworks of business fish cultivating were completely talked about. Additionally, imperatives to business fish cultivating in the area were explained. The systems for advancing business aquaculture, for example, increment in consciousness of aquaculture items, financing of aquaculture data sources, preparing and labor improvement, government support, arrangement of fish ranchers agreeable social orders, access to advances and credit offices, advancement of research exercises, viable fisheries approaches, great institutional structure, and decreasing the degrees of defilement and instability in the district, were plainly brought up as a veritable devices, for changing the current situation with aquaculture in Niger Delta, through arranged, engaged and composed compelling administration procedures, by singular ranchers, government organizations and applicable foundations for economical advancement of the locale specifically and the nation by and large.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Sustainability, Research, Nigeria

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1669 Potential Application of Selected Halotolerant PSB Isolated from Rhizospheric Soil of Chenopodium quinoa in Plant Growth Promotion

Authors: Ismail Mahdi, Nidal Fahsi, Mohamed Hafidi, Abdelmounaim Allaoui, Latefa Biskri

Abstract:

To meet the worldwide demand for food, smart management of arable lands is needed. This could be achieved through sustainable approaches such as the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms including bacteria. Phosphate (P) solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by associated bacteria. In the present study, we isolated and screened 14 strains from the rhizosphere of Chenopodium quinoa wild grown in the experimental farm of UM6P and assessed their plant growth promoting properties. Next, they were identified by using 16S rRNA and Cpn60 genes sequencing as Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. These strains showed dispersed capacities to solubilize P (up to 346 mg L−1) following five days of incubation in NBRIP broth. We also assessed their abilities for indole acetic acid (IAA) production (up to 795,3 µg ml−1) and in vitro salt tolerance. Three Bacillus strains QA1, QA2, and S8 tolerated high salt stress induced by NaCl with a maximum tolerable concentration of 8%. Three performant isolates, QA1, S6 and QF11, were further selected for seed germination assay because of their pronounced abilities in terms of P solubilization, IAA production and salt tolerance. The early plant growth potential of tested strains showed that inoculated quinoa seeds displayed greater germination rate and higher seedlings growth under bacterial treatments. The positive effect on seed germination traits strongly suggests that the tested strains are growth promoting, halotolerant and P solubilizing bacteria which could be exploited as biofertilizers.

Keywords: seed germination, salt tolerance, quinoa, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, IAA

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1668 Evaluation of Wheat Varieties for Water Use Efficiency under Staggering Sowing Times and Variable Irrigation Regimes under Timely and Late Sown Conditions

Authors: Vaibhav Baliyan, S. S. Parihar

Abstract:

With the rise in temperature during reproductive phase and moisture stress, winter wheat yields are likely to decrease because of limited plant growth, higher rate of night respiration, higher spikelet sterility or number of grains per spike and restricted embryo development thereby reducing grain number. Crop management practices play a pivotal role in minimizing adverse effects of terminal heat stress on wheat production. Amongst various agronomic management practices, adjusting sowing date, crop cultivars and irrigation scheduling have been realized to be simple yet powerful, implementable and eco-friendly mitigation strategies to sustain yields under elevated temperature conditions. Taking into account, large variability in wheat production in space and time, a study was conducted to identify the suitable wheat varieties under both early and late planting with suitable irrigation schedule for minimizing terminal heat stress effect and thereby improving wheat production. Experiments were conducted at research farms of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, separately for timely and late sown conditions with suitable varieties with staggering dates of sowing from 1st November to 30th November in case of timely sown and from 1st December to 31st December for late sown condition. The irrigation schedule followed for both the experiments were 100% of ETc (evapotranspiration of crop), 80% of ETc and 60% of ETc. Results of the timely sown experiment indicated that 1st November sowing resulted in higher grain yield followed by 10th November. However, delay in sowing thereafter resulted in gradual decrease in yield and the maximum reduction was noticed under 30th November sowing. Amongst the varieties, HD3086 produced higher grain yield compared to other varieties. Irrigation applied based on 100% of ETc gave higher yield comparable to 80% of ETc but both were significantly higher than 60% of ETc. It was further observed that even liberal irrigation under 100% of ETc could not compensate the yield under delayed sowing suggesting that rise in temperature beyond January adversely affected the growth and development of crop as well as forced maturity resulting in significant reduction of yield attributing characters due to terminal heat stress. Similar observations were recorded under late sown experiment too. Planting on 1st December along with 100% ETc of irrigation schedule resulted in significantly higher grain yield as compared to other dates and irrigation regimes. Further, it was observed that reduction in yield under late sown conditions was significantly large than the timely sown conditions irrespective of the variety grown and irrigation schedule followed. Delayed sowing resulted in reducing crop growth period and forced maturity in turn led to significant deterioration in all the yield attributing characters and there by reduction in yield suggesting that terminal heat stress had greater impact on yield under late sown crop than timely sown due to temperature rise coinciding with reproductive phase of the crop.

Keywords: Climate, Mitigation, irrigation, Wheat

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