Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1714

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1714 Understanding Feminization of Indian Agriculture and the Dynamics of Intrahousehold Bargaining Power at a Household Level

Authors: Arpit Sachan, Nilanshu Kumar

Abstract:

This paper tries to understand the nuances of feminisation of agriculture in the Indian context and how that is associated with better intrahousehold bargaining power for women. The economic survey of India indicates a constant increase in the share of the female workforce in Indian agriculture in the past few decades. This can be accounted for by many factors like the migration of male workers to urban areas and, therefore, the complete burden of agriculture shifting on the female counterparts. Therefore this study is an attempt to study that how this increase in the female workforce corresponds to a better decision-making ability for women in rural farm households. This paper is an attempt to carefully evaluate this aspect of the feminisation of Indian agriculture. The paper tries to study how various factors that improve the status of women in agriculture change with things like resource ownership. This paper uses both the macro-level and micro-level data to study the dynamics of the proportion of the workforce in agriculture across different states in India and how that has translated into better indicators for women in rural areas. The fall in India’s rank in the global gender wage gap index is alarming in such a context, and this creates a puzzle with increasing female workforce participation. The paper will consider if the condition of women improved over time with the increased share of employment or not? Using field survey data, this paper tries to understand if there exists any digression for some of the indicators both at the macro and micro level. The paper also tries to integrate the economic understanding of gender aspects of the workforce and the sociological stance prevailing in the existing literature. Therefore, this paper takes a mixed-method approach to better understand the role that social structure plays in the improved status of women within and across various households. Therefore, this paper will finally help us understanding if at all there is a feminisation of Indian agriculture or it's just exploitation of a different kind. This study intends to create a distinction between the gendered labour force in Indian agriculture and the complete democratization of Indian agriculture. The study is primarily focused on areas where the exodus of male migrants pushes women to work on agricultural farms. The question posits is whether it is the willingness of women to work in agriculture or is it urbanisation and development-induced conditions that make women work in agriculture as farm labourers? The motive is to understand if factors like resource ownership and the ability to autonomous decision-making are interlinked with an increased proportion of the female workforce or not? Based on this framework, we finally provide a brief comment on policy implications of government intervention in improving Indian agriculture and the gender aspects associated with it.

Keywords: Migration, Agriculture, Decision-making, feminisation, intrahousehold bargaining, farm households

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1713 Exploring Wool Characteristics That Determine Wool Price in South Africa

Authors: Mashford Zenda

Abstract:

This study set out to investigate the wool characteristics that determine the wool price in the South, based on the secondary data for 2009 to 2018 from Cape Wools auction. This study applied an experimental research design. Firstly, to evaluate the effect of wool characteristics on (fibre diameter/fineness, clean yield, and vegetable matter) on merino and white wool that contributes to the determination of wool price in South Africa. This study has included all wool classes such as merino and white wool backs, bellies, fleeces, coarse and colour (white wool only), lox, and pieces when investigating wool characteristics that determine the wool price. A multiple regression analysis of price/kilogram of merino wool and white wool backs, lox, pieces, fleeces, and bellies was applied on three variables (fibre diameter, vegetable matter, and clean yield). Fibre diameter/fineness made a statistically significant contribution to the prediction of wool price after all other independent variables were controlled for (p < 0.05). A one decimal unit (micron) increase in fibre diameter resulted in a 0.273 unit (decrease in wool price (Rand/Kilogram) after all other independent variables are taken into account. There was no statistically significant association between vegetable matter and wool price after all other independent variables were controlled (p > 0.05). Therefore, the association between vegetable matter and wool price that was noted was probably due to chance alone. There was a statistically significant association between clean yield and wool price, with a one decimal unit increase in clean yield associated with a 0.125 unit increase in wool price (Rand/Kilogram) after all other variables were controlled. Lastly, the predicted price for white wool was 0.417 Rand/kilogram less than that predicted for Merino wool, with all other variables held constant.

Keywords: fibre diameter, clean yield, vegetable matter, wool price, merino wool, white wool

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1712 Societal Acceptability Conditions of Genome Editing for Upland Rice in Madagascar

Authors: Anny Lucrece Nlend Nkott, Ludovic Temple

Abstract:

The appearance in 2012 of the CRISPR-CaS9 genome editing technique marks a turning point in the field of genetics. This technique would make it possible to create new varieties quickly and cheaply. Although some consider CRISPR-CaS9 to be revolutionary, others consider it a potential societal threat. To document the controversy, we explain the socioeconomic conditions under which this technique could be accepted for the creation of a rainfed rice variety in Madagascar. The methodological framework is based on 38 individual and semistructured interviews, a multistakeholder forum with 27 participants, and a survey of 148 rice producers. Results reveal that the acceptability of genome editing requires (i) strengthening the seed system through the operationalization of regulatory structures and the upgrading of stakeholders' knowledge of genetically modified organisms, (ii) assessing the effects of the edited variety on biodiversity and soil nitrogen dynamics, and (iii) strengthening the technical and human capacities of the biosafety body. Structural mechanisms for regulating the seed system are necessary to ensure safe experimentation of genome editing techniques. Organizational innovation also appears to be necessary. The study documents how collective learning between communities of scientists and nonscientists is a component of systemic processes of varietal innovation. This study was carried out with the financial support of the GENERICE project (Generation and Deployment of Genome-Edited, Nitrogen-use-Efficient Rice Varieties), funded by the Agropolis Foundation.

Keywords: Innovation System, seed system, CRISPR-Cas9, varietal innovation

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1711 Analysis of Veterinary Drug Residues and Pesticide Residues in Beehive Products

Authors: Alba Luna Jimenez, Maria Dolores Hernando

Abstract:

The administration of veterinary treatments at higher doses than the recommended Varroa mite control in beehive matrices has the potential to generate residues in the honeybee colony and in the derived products for consumption. Honeybee colonies can also be indirectly exposed to residues of plant protection products when foraging in crops, wildflowers near the crops, or in urban gardens just after spraying. The study evaluates the presence of both types of residues, veterinary treatments, and pesticides in beeswax, bee bread, and honey. The study was carried out in apiaries located in agricultural zones and forest areas in Andalusia, Spain. Up to nineteen residues were identified above LOQ using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by a modified QuEChERs method. Chlorfenvinphos was detected in beeswax and bee bread despite its use is not authorized for Varroa mite control. Residues of fluvalinate-tau, authorized as veterinary treatment, were detected in most of the samples of beeswax and bee bread, presumably due to overdose or also to its potential for accumulation associated with its marked liposolubility. Residues of plant protection products were also detected in samples of beeswax and bee bread. Pesticide residues were detected above the LOQ that was established at 5 µg.kg⁻¹, which is the minimum concentration that can be quantified with acceptable accuracy and precision, as described in the European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis SANTE/11945/2015. No residues of phytosanitary treatments used in agriculture were detected in honey.

Keywords: Veterinary Treatment, pesticide residues, Varroa destructor, honeybee colony, mass spectrometry analysis

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1710 Quantification of Glucosinolates in Turnip Greens and Turnip Tops by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: S. Obregon-Cano, R. Moreno-Rojas, E. Cartea-Gonzalez, A. De Haro-Bailon

Abstract:

The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for screening the total glucosinolate (t-GSL) content, and also, the aliphatic glucosinolates gluconapin (GNA), progoitrin (PRO) and glucobrassicanapin (GBN) in turnip greens and turnip tops was assessed. This crop is grown for edible leaves and stems for human consumption. The reference values for glucosinolates, as they were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography on the vegetable samples, were regressed against different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression (calibration set of samples n= 350). The resulting models were satisfactory, with calibration coefficient values from 0.72 (GBN) to 0.98 (tGSL). The predictive ability of the equations obtained was tested using a set of samples (n=70) independent of the calibration set. The determination coefficients and prediction errors (SEP) obtained in the external validation were: GNA=0.94 (SEP=3.49); PRO=0.41 (SEP=1.08); GBN=0.55 (SEP=0.60); tGSL=0.96 (SEP=3.28). These results show that the equations developed for total glucosinolates, as well as for gluconapin can be used for screening these compounds in the leaves and stems of this species. In addition, the progoitrin and glucobrassicanapin equations obtained can be used to identify those samples with high, medium and low contents. The calibration equations obtained were accurate enough for a fast, non-destructive and reliable analysis of the content in GNA and tGSL directly from NIR spectra. The equations for PRO and GBN can be employed to identify samples with high, medium and low contents.

Keywords: NIRS, Brassica rapa, glucosinolates, gluconapin, turnip greens

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1709 Aggregate Supply Response of Some Livestock Commodities in Algeria: Cointegration- Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Amine M. Benmehaia, Amine Oulmane

Abstract:

The supply response of agricultural commodities to changes in price incentives is an important issue for the success of any policy reform in the agricultural sector. This study aims to quantify the responsiveness of producers of some livestock commodities to price incentives in Algerian context. Time series analysis is used on annual data for a period of 52 years (1966-2018). Both co-integration and vector error correction model (VECM) are used through the Nerlove model of partial adjustment. The study attempts to determine the long-run and short-run relationships along with the magnitudes of disequilibria in the selected commodities. Results show that the short-run price elasticities are low in cow and sheep meat sectors (8.7 and 8% respectively), while their respective long-run elasticities are 16.5 and 10.5, whereas eggs and milk have very high short-run price elasticities (82 and 90% respectively) with long-run elasticities of 40 and 46 respectively. The error correction coefficient, reflecting the speed of adjustment towards the long-run equilibrium, is statistically significant and have the expected negative sign. Its estimates are 12.7 for cow meat, 33.5 for sheep meat, 46.7 for eggs and 8.4 for milk. It seems that cow meat and milk producers have a weak feedback of about 12.7% and 8.4% respectively of the previous year's disequilibrium from the long-run price elasticity, whereas sheep meat and eggs producers adjust to correct long run disequilibrium with a high speed of adjustment (33.5% and 46.7 % respectively). The implication of this is that much more in-depth research is needed to identify those factors that affect agricultural supply and to describe the effect of factors that shift supply in response to price incentives. This could provide valuable information for government in the use of appropriate policy measures.

Keywords: Livestock, vector error correction model, Algeria, cointegration, supply response

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1708 Applying GIS Geographic Weighted Regression Analysis to Assess Local Factors Impeding Smallholder Farmers from Participating in Agribusiness Markets: A Case Study of Vihiga County, Western Kenya

Authors: Mwehe Mathenge, Ben G. J. S. Sonneveld, Jacqueline E. W. Broerse

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers are important drivers of agriculture productivity, food security, and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, they are faced with myriad challenges in their efforts at participating in agribusiness markets. How the geographic explicit factors existing at the local level interact to impede smallholder farmers' decision to participates (or not) in agribusiness markets is not well understood. Deconstructing the spatial complexity of the local environment could provide a deeper insight into how geographically explicit determinants promote or impede resource-poor smallholder farmers from participating in agribusiness. This paper’s objective was to identify, map, and analyze local spatial autocorrelation in factors that impede poor smallholders from participating in agribusiness markets. Data were collected using geocoded researcher-administered survey questionnaires from 392 households in Western Kenya. Three spatial statistics methods in geographic information system (GIS) were used to analyze data -Global Moran’s I, Cluster and Outliers Analysis (Anselin Local Moran’s I), and geographically weighted regression. The results of Global Moran’s I reveal the presence of spatial patterns in the dataset that was not caused by spatial randomness of data. Subsequently, Anselin Local Moran’s I result identified spatially and statistically significant local spatial clustering (hot spots and cold spots) in factors hindering smallholder participation. Finally, the geographically weighted regression results unearthed those specific geographic explicit factors impeding market participation in the study area. The results confirm that geographically explicit factors are indispensable in influencing the smallholder farming decisions, and policymakers should take cognizance of them. Additionally, this research demonstrated how geospatial explicit analysis conducted at the local level, using geographically disaggregated data, could help in identifying households and localities where the most impoverished and resource-poor smallholder households reside. In designing spatially targeted interventions, policymakers could benefit from geospatial analysis methods in understanding complex geographic factors and processes that interact to influence smallholder farmers' decision-making processes and choices.

Keywords: Spatial statistics, GIS, smallholder farmers, agribusiness markets, disaggregated spatial data

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1707 Agile Real-Time Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Image Processing System for Drone Imagery in Digital Agriculture

Authors: Sabiha Shahid Antora, Young Ki Chang

Abstract:

Along with various farm management technologies, imagery is an important tool that facilitates crop assessment, monitoring, and management. As a consequence, drone imaging technology is playing a vital role to capture the state of the entire field for yield mapping, crop scouting, weed detection, and so on. Although it is essential to inspect the cultivable lands in real-time for making rapid decisions regarding field variable inputs to combat stresses and diseases, drone imagery is still evolving in this area of interest. Cost margin and post-processing complexions of the image stream are the main challenges of imaging technology. Therefore, this proposed project involves the cost-effective field programmable gate array (FPGA) based image processing device that would process the image stream in real-time as well as providing the processed output to support on-the-spot decisions in the crop field. As a result, the real-time FPGA-based image processing system would reduce operating costs while minimizing a few intermediate steps to deliver scalable field decisions.

Keywords:

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1706 Adaptive Strategies to Nutrient Deficiency of Doubled Diploid Citrumelo 4475: A Prospective Study Based on Structural, Ultrastructural, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters

Authors: J. Oustric, L. Berti, J. Santini

Abstract:

Nowadays, the objective of durable agriculture, and in particular organic agriculture, is to reduce the level of fertilizer inputs used in crops. Limiting the quantity of fertilizer inputs would optimize the economical result and minimizing the environmental impact. Nutrient deficiency, particularly of a major nutrient (N, P, and K), can seriously affect fruit production and quality. In citrus crops, rootstock/scion combinations. In citrus crop, scion/rootstock combinations are used frequently to improve tolerance to various abiotic stresses. New rootstocks are needed to respond to these constraints, and the use of new tetraploid rootstocks better adapted to lower nutrient intake could offer a promising way forward. The aim of this work was to determine whether a better tolerance to nutrient deficiency could be observed in a doubled diploid seedling and whether this tolerance could be observed in common clementine scion if used as rootstocks. We selected diploid (CM2x) and doubled diploid (CM4x) Citrumelo 4475 seedlings and common clementine (C) grafted onto Citrumelo 4475 diploid (C/CM2x) and doubled diploid (C/CM4x) rootstocks. Nutrient deficiency effects on the seedlings and scion/rootstock combinations were analyzed by studying anatomical, structural and ultrastructural determinants (chlorosis, stomata, ostiole and cells and their organelles), photosynthetic properties (leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pₙₑₜ), stomatal conductance (gₛ), chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fᵥ/Fₘ)) and oxidative marker (malondialdehyde). Nutrient deficiency affected differently foliar tissues, physiological parameters, and oxidative metabolism in leaves of seedlings depending on their ploidy level and of common clementine scion depending on their rootstocks ploidy level. Both CM4x and C/CM4x presented lower foliar damages (chlorosis, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and plastoglobuli), photosynthesis processes alteration (Pₙₑₜ, gₛ, and Fᵥ/Fₘ), and malondialdehyde accumulation than CM2x and C/CM2x after nutrient deficiency. Doubled diploid Citrumelo 4475 can improve nutrient deficiency tolerance, and its use as a rootstock allows to confer this tolerance to the common clementine scion.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress, nutrient deficiency, polyploid rootstocks

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1705 An Assessment of Vegetable Farmers’ Perceptions about Post-harvest Loss Sources in Ghana

Authors: Kofi Kyei, Kenchi Matsui

Abstract:

Loss of vegetable products has been a major constraint in the post-harvest chain. Sources of post-harvest loss in the vegetable industry start from the time of harvesting to its handling and at the various market centers. Identifying vegetable farmers’ perceptions about post-harvest loss sources is one way of addressing this issue. In this paper, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about sources of post-harvest losses in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We also identified the factors that influence their perceptions. To clearly understand farmers’ perceptions, we selected Sekyere-Kumawu District in the Ashanti Region. Sekyere-Kumawu District is one of the major producers of vegetables in the Region. Based on a questionnaire survey, 100 vegetable farmers growing tomato, pepper, okra, cabbage, and garden egg were purposely selected from five communities in Sekyere-Kumawu District. For farmers’ perceptions, the five points Likert scale was employed. On a scale from 1 (no loss) to 5 (extremely high loss), we processed the scores for each vegetable harvest. To clarify factors influencing farmers’ perceptions, the Pearson Correlation analysis was used. Our findings revealed that farmers perceive post-harvest loss by pest infestation as the most extreme loss. However, vegetable farmers did not perceive loss during transportation as a serious source of post-harvest loss. The Pearson Correlation analysis results further revealed that farmers’ age, gender, level of education, and years of experience had an influence on their perceptions. This paper then discusses some recommendations to minimize the post-harvest loss in the region.

Keywords: Ashanti Region, pest infestation, post-harvest loss, vegetable farmers

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1704 Influence of Magnetic Bio-Stimulation Effects on Pre-Sown Hybrid Sunflower Seeds Germination, Growth, and on the Percentage of Antioxidant Activities

Authors: Nighat Zia-ud-Den, Shazia Anwer Bukhari

Abstract:

In the present study, sunflower seeds were exposed to magnetic bio-stimulation at different milli Tesla, and their effects were studied. The present study addressed to establish the effectiveness of magnetic bio-stimulation on seed germination, growth, and other dynamics of crop growth. The changes in physiological characters, i.e. the growth parameters of seedlings (biomass, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root shoot leaf and fruit, leaf area, the height of plants, number of leaves, and number of fruits per plant) and antioxidant activities were measured. The parameters related to germination and growth were measured under controlled conditions while they changed significantly compared with that of the control. These changes suggested that magnetic seed stimulator enhanced the inner energy of seeds, which contributed to the acceleration of the growth and development of seedlings. Moreover, pretreatment with a magnetic field was found to be a positive impact on sunflower seeds germination, growth, and other biochemical parameters.

Keywords: biochemical parameters, antioxidant activities, sunflower seeds, physical priming method

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1703 First Attempts Using High-Throughput Sequencing in Senecio from the Andes

Authors: L. Salomon, P. Sklenar

Abstract:

The Andes hold the highest plant species diversity in the world. How this occurred is one of the most intriguing questions in studies addressing the origin and patterning of plant diversity worldwide. Recently, the explosive adaptive radiations found in high Andean groups have been pointed as triggers to this spectacular diversity. The Andes is the species-richest area for the biggest genus from the Asteraceae family: Senecio. There, the genus presents an incredible diversity of species, striking growth form variation, and large niche span. Even when some studies tried to disentangle the evolutionary story for some Andean species in Senecio, they obtained partially resolved and low supported phylogenies, as expected for recently radiated groups. The high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches have proved to be a powerful tool answering phylogenetic questions in those groups whose evolutionary stories are recent and traditional techniques like Sanger sequencing are not informative enough. Although these tools have been used to understand the evolution of an increasing number of Andean groups, nowadays, their scope has not been applied for Senecio. This project aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the mechanisms shaping the hyper diversity of Senecio in the Andean region, using HTS focusing on Senecio ser. Culcitium (Asteraceae), recently recircumscribed. Firstly, reconstructing a highly resolved and supported phylogeny, and after assessing the role of allopatric differentiation, hybridization, and genome duplication in the diversification of the group. Using the Hyb-Seq approach, combining target enrichment using Asteraceae COS loci baits and genome skimming, more than 100 new accessions were generated. HybPhyloMaker and HybPiper pipelines were used for the phylogenetic analyses, and another pipeline in development (Paralogue Wizard) was used to deal with paralogues. RAxML was used to generate gene trees and Astral for species tree reconstruction. Phyparts were used to explore as first step of gene tree discordance along the clades. Fully resolved with moderated supported trees were obtained, showing Senecio ser. Culcitium as monophyletic. Within the group, some species formed well-supported clades with morphologically related species, while some species would not have exclusive ancestry, in concordance with previous studies using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) showing geographical differentiation. Discordance between gene trees was detected. Paralogues were detected for many loci, indicating possible genome duplications; ploidy level estimation using flow cytometry will be carried out during the next months in order to identify the role of this process in the diversification of the group. Likewise, TreeSetViz package for Mesquite, hierarchical likelihood ratio congruence test using Concaterpillar, and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), will be used to evaluate the congruence among different inheritance patterns. In order to evaluate the influence of hybridization and Incomplete Lineage Sorting (ILS) in each resultant clade from the phylogeny, Joly et al.'s 2009 method in a coalescent scenario and Paterson’s D-statistic will be performed. Even when the main discordance sources between gene trees were not explored in detail yet, the data show that at least to some degree, processes such as genome duplication, hybridization, and/or ILS could be involved in the evolution of the group.

Keywords: Hybridization, Adaptive Radiations, Andes, genome duplication, Senecio

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1702 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak

Abstract:

The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L, ISSR markers, ampelography, autochthonous cultivars

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1701 Opportunities for Reducing Post-Harvest Losses of Cactus Pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) to Improve Small-Holder Farmers Income in Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Value Chain Approach

Authors: Meron Zenaselase Rata, Euridice Leyequien Abarca

Abstract:

The production of major crops in Northern Ethiopia, especially the Tigray Region, is at subsistence level due to drought, erratic rainfall, and poor soil fertility. Since cactus pear is a drought-resistant plant, it is considered as a lifesaver fruit and a strategy for poverty reduction in a drought-affected area of the region. Despite its contribution to household income and food security in the area, the cactus pear sub-sector is experiencing many constraints with limited attention given to its post-harvest loss management. Therefore, this research was carried out to identify opportunities for reducing post-harvest losses and recommend possible strategies to reduce post-harvest losses, thereby improving production and smallholder’s income. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were employed to collect the data. Ganta Afeshum district was selected from Eastern Tigray, and two peasant associations (Buket and Golea) were also selected from the district purposively for being potential in cactus pear production. Simple random sampling techniques were employed to survey 30 households from each of the two peasant associations, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Moreover, in this research 2 collectors, 2 wholesalers, 1 processor, 3 retailers, 2 consumers were interviewed; and two focus group discussion was also done with 14 key farmers using semi-structured checklist; and key informant interview with governmental and non-governmental organizations were interviewed to gather more information about the cactus pear production, post-harvest losses, the strategies used to reduce the post-harvest losses and suggestions to improve the post-harvest management. To enter and analyze the quantitative data, SPSS version 20 was used, whereas MS-word were used to transcribe the qualitative data. The data were presented using frequency and descriptive tables and graphs. The data analysis was also done using a chain map, correlations, stakeholder matrix, and gross margin. Mean comparisons like ANOVA and t-test between variables were used. The analysis result shows that the present cactus pear value chain involves main actors and supporters. However, there is inadequate information flow and informal market linkages among actors in the cactus pear value chain. The farmer's gross margin is higher when they sell to the processor than sell to collectors. The significant postharvest loss in the cactus pear value chain is at the producer level, followed by wholesalers and retailers. The maximum and minimum volume of post-harvest losses at the producer level is 4212 and 240 kgs per season. The post-harvest loss was caused by limited farmers skill on-farm management and harvesting, low market price, limited market information, absence of producer organization, poor post-harvest handling, absence of cold storage, absence of collection centers, poor infrastructure, inadequate credit access, using traditional transportation system, absence of quality control, illegal traders, inadequate research and extension services and using inappropriate packaging material. Therefore, some of the recommendations were providing adequate practical training, forming producer organizations, and constructing collection centers.

Keywords: Profit margin, cactus pear, post-harvest losses, value-chain

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1700 Stability Analysis of Green Coffee Export Markets of Ethiopia: Markov-Chain Analysis

Authors: Gabriel Woldu, Maria Sassi

Abstract:

Coffee performs a pivotal role in Ethiopia's GDP, revenue, employment, domestic demand, and export earnings. Ethiopia's coffee production and exports show high variability in the amount of production and export earnings. Despite being the continent's fifth-largest coffee producer, Ethiopia has not developed its ability to shine as a major exporter in the globe's green coffee exports. Ethiopian coffee exports were not stable and had high volume and earnings fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of the export of coffee variation to different importing nations using a first-order Markov Chain model. 14 years of time-series data has been used to examine the direction and structural change in the export of coffee. A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was used to determine the annual growth rate in the coffee export quantity, value, and per-unit price over the study period. The major export markets for Ethiopian coffee were Germany, Japan, and the USA, which were more stable, while countries such as France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia were less stable and had low retention rates for Ethiopian coffee. The study, therefore, recommends that Ethiopia should again revitalize its market to France, Italy, Belgium, and Saudi Arabia, as these countries are the major coffee-consuming countries in the world to boost its export stake to the global coffee markets in the future. In order to further enhance export stability, the Ethiopian Government and other stakeholders in the coffee sector should have to work on reducing the volatility of coffee output and exports in order to improve production and quality efficiency, so that stabilize markets as well as to make the product attractive and price competitive in the importing countries.

Keywords: Markov Chain, coffee, Ethiopia, CAGR, direction of trade

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1699 Impact of Flooding on Food Calorie Intake and Health Outcomes among Small Holder Farm Households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Cornelius Michael Ekenta, Aderonke Bashirat Mohammed, Sefi Ahmed

Abstract:

The research examined the impact of flooding on food calorie intake and health challenges among smallholder farm households in Koton Karfe Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select 130 farm households in selected villages in the area. Primary data were generated through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Double Difference Estimator (DDE), Calorie Intake Estimation Function, t-test, and multiple regressions. The result shows that farm households lost an average of 132, 950kg of selected crops amounting to about N20m ($56, 542) loose in income. Food daily calorie intake indicates a loss of an average of 715.18Kcal, showing a significant difference in calorie intake before and after flooding (t = 2.0629) at 5% probability. Furthermore, the health challenges most prevalent during flooding were malaria fever, typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery. The determinants of daily calorie intake were age, household size, level of income, flooding, health challenges, and food price. The study concluded that flooding had negative impacts on crop output and income, daily food calorie intact, and health challenges of a farm household in the study area. It was recommended that the State Government should make adequate and proper arrangements to relocate residents of the area at the warning of possible flooding by the National Metrological Centre and should, through the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), provide relieve items to the residents to cushion the effects of the flooding.

Keywords: Cholera, Impact, Flooding, calorie, health challenges

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1698 Crickets as Social Business Model for Rural Women in Colombia

Authors: Diego Cruz, Helbert Arevalo, Diana Vernot

Abstract:

In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said that insect production for food and feed could become an economic opportunity for rural women in developing countries. However, since then, just a few initiatives worldwide had tried to implement this kind of project in zones of tropical countries without previous experience in cricket production and insect human consumption, such as Colombia. In this project, ArthroFood company and the University of La Sabana join efforts to make a holistic multi-perspective analysis from biological, economic, culinary, and social sides of the Gryllodes sigillatus production by rural women of the municipality of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, Colombia. From a biological and economic perspective, G. sigillatus production in a 60m2 greenhouse was evaluated considering the effect of rearing density and substrates on final weight and length, developing time, survival rate, and proximate composition. Additionally, the production cost and labor hours were recorded for five months. On the other hand, from a socio- economic side, the intention of the rural women to implement cricket farms or micro-entrepreneurship around insect production was evaluated after developing ethnographies and empowerment, entrepreneurship, and cricket production workshops. Finally, the results of the elaboration of culinary recipes with cricket powder incorporating cultural aspects of the context of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, will be presented. This project represents Colombia's first attempt to create a social business model of cricket production involving rural women, academies, the private sector, and local authorities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, developing country, cricket production, edible insects, insect culinary recipes

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1697 Scaling out Sustainable Land Use Systems in Colombia: Some Insights and Implications from Two Regional Case Studies

Authors: Martha Lilia Del Rio Duque, Michelle Bonatti, Katharina Loehr, Marcos Lana, Tatiana Rodriguez, Stefan Sieber

Abstract:

Nowadays, most agricultural practices can reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services. To enhance environmentally friendly food production and to maximize social and economic benefits, sustainable land use systems (SLUS) are one of the most critical strategies increasingly/strongly promoted by donors organizations, international agencies, and policymakers. This process involves the question of how SLUS can be scaled out also large-scale landscapes and not merely isolated experiments. As SLUS are context-specific strategies, diffusion and replication of successful SLUS in Colombia required the identification of main factors that facilitate this scaling out process. We applied a case study approach to investigate the scaling out process of SLUS in cocoa and livestock sector within peacebuilding territories in Colombia, specifically, in Cesar and Caqueta region. These two regions are contrasting, but both have a current trend of increasing land degradation. Presently in Colombia, Caqueta is one of the most deforested departments, and Cesar has some most degraded soils. Following a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted with agroforestry experts in both regions to analyze (1) what does it mean a sustainable land use system in Cocoa/Livestock, specifically in Caqueta or Cesar and (2) to identify the key elements at the level of the following dimensions: biophysical, economic and profitability, market, social, policy and institutions that can explain how and why SLUS are replicated and spread among more producers. The Interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA to identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within data. As the results show, key themes, among which: premium market, solid regional markets and price stability, water availability and management, generational renewal, land use knowledge and diversification, producer organization and certifications are crucial to understand how the SLUS can have an impact across large-scale landscapes and how the scaling out process can be set up best in order to be successful across different contexts. The analysis further reveals which key factors might affect SLUS efficiency.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Colombia, cocoa sector, livestock sector, sustainable land use system

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1696 Pollination Effectiveness of Native Bee Species in Quality Seed Production of Berseem

Authors: Awais Ahmad, Mudssar Ali

Abstract:

Berseem is the major fodder crop grown in Pakistan and is highly preferred by cattle farmers due to its multicut nature and nutritious value. The quality seed production in berseem is largely dependent upon the activities of insect pollinators, particularly bees. In order to determine the effectiveness of native bee species in quality seed production of berseem, an experiment was conducted in the research field of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. The pollinator community of berseem was composed of four bees, three syrphid fly, and two butterfly species. Pesudapis sp. was the most abundant insect visitor, followed by Apis mellifera and A. dorsata. The visitation rate of A. mellifera was found highest, followed by Pesudapis sp. and A. dorsata. Moreover, single-visit efficacy in terms of seed per head and 1000 seed weight proved A. mellifera and Pesudapis sp as the most effective pollinators. Conserving these bee species may lead to sustainable berseem seed production in Pakistan.

Keywords: honey bees, syrphid fly, visitation rate, single visit

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1695 The Molecular Analysis of Effect of Phytohormones and Spermidine on Tomato Growth under Biotic Stress

Authors: Rumana Keyani, Haleema Sadia, Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Humaira Yasmin, Sidra Zahoor

Abstract:

Tomato is a significant crop of the world and is one of the staple foods of Pakistan. A vast number of plant pathogens from simple viruses to complex parasites cause diseases in tomatoes but fungal infection in our country is quite high. Sometimes the symptoms are too harsh destroying the crop altogether. Countries like our own with continuously increasing massive population and limited resources cannot afford such an economic loss. There is an array of morphological, genetic, biochemical and molecular processes involved in plant resistance mechanisms to biotic stress. The study of different metabolic pathways like Jasmonic acid (JA) pathways and most importantly signaling molecules like ROS/RNS and their redoxin enzymes i.e. TRX and NRX is crucial to disease management, contributing to healthy plant growth. So, improving tolerance in crop plants against biotic stresses is a dire need of our country and world as whole. In the current study, fungal pathogenic strains Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani were used to inoculate tomatoes to check the defense responses of tomato plant against these pathogens at molecular as well as phenotypic level with jasmonic acid and spermidine pretreatment. All the growth parameters (root and shoot length, dry and weight root, shoot weight measured 7 days post-inoculation, exhibited that infection drastically declined the growth of the plant whereas jasmonic acid and spermidine assisted the plants to cope up with the infection. Thus, JA and Spermidine treatments maintained comparatively better growth factors. Antioxidant assays and expression analysis through real time quantitative PCR following time course experiment at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals also exhibited that activation of JA defense genes and a polyamine Spermidine helps in mediating tomato responses against fungal infection when used alone but the two treatments combined mask the effect of each other.

Keywords: Fungal Infection, tomato, spermidine, jasmonic acid defence

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1694 Cultivating Social-Ecological Resilience, Harvesting Biocultural Resistance in Southern Andes

Authors: Constanza Monterrubio-Solis, Jose Tomas Ibarra

Abstract:

The fertile interdependence of social-ecological systems reveals itself in the interactions between native forests and seeds, home gardens, kitchens, foraging activities, local knowledge, and food practices, creating particular flavors and food meanings as part of cultural identities within territories. Resilience in local-food systems, from a relational perspective, can be understood as the balance between persistence and adaptability to change. Food growing, preparation, and consumption are constantly changing and adapting as expressions of agency of female and male indigenous peoples and peasants. This paper explores local food systems’ expressions of resilience in the la Araucanía region of Chile, namely: diversity, redundancy, buffer capacity, modularity, self-organization, governance, learning, equity, and decision-making. Applying ethnographic research methods (participant observation, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews), this work reflects on the experience developed through work with Mapuche women cultivating home gardens in the region since 2012; it looks to material and symbolic elements of resilience in the local indigenous food systems. Local food systems show indeed indicators of social-ecological resilience. The biocultural memory is expressed in affection to particular flavors and recipes, the cultural importance of seeds and reciprocity networks, as well as an accurate knowledge about the indicators of the seasons and weather, which have allowed local food systems to thrive with a strong cultural foundation. Furthermore, these elements turn into biocultural resistance in the face of the current institutional pressures for rural specialization, processes of cultural assimilation such as agroecosystems and diet homogenization, as well as structural threats towards the diversity and freedom of native seeds. Thus, the resilience-resistance dynamic shown by the social-ecological systems of the southern Andes is daily expressed in the local food systems and flavors and is key for diverse and culturally sound social-ecological health.

Keywords: biocultural heritage, indigenous food systems, social-ecological resilience, southern Andes

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1693 The Growth Curve of Gompertz Model in Body Weight of Slovak Mixed-Sex Goose Breeds

Authors: Cyril Hrncar, Jozef Bujko, Widya P. B. Putra

Abstract:

The growth curve of poultry is important to evaluate the farming management system. This study was aimed to estimate the growth curve of body weight in goose. The growth curve in this study was estimated with non-linear Gompertz model through CurveExpert 1.4. software. Three Slovak mixed-sex goose breeds of Landes (L), Pomeranian (P) and Steinbacher (S) were used in this study. Total of 28 geese (10 L, 8 P and 10 S) were used to estimate the growth curve. Research showed that the asymptotic weight (A) in those geese were reached of 5332.51 g (L), 6186.14 g (P) and 5048.27 g (S). Thus, the maturing rate (k) in each breed were similar (0.05 g/day). The weight of inflection was reached of 1960.48 g (L), 2274.32 g (P) and 1855.98 g (S). The time of inflection (ti) was reached of 25.6 days (L), 26.2 days (P) and 27.80 days (S). The maximum growth rate (MGR) was reached of 98.02 g/day (L), 113.72 g/day (P) and 92.80 g/day (S). Hence, the coefficient of determination (R2) in Gompertz model was 0.99 for each breed. It can be concluded that Pomeranian geese had highest of growth trait than the other breeds.

Keywords: body weight, inflection, growth curve, Slovak geese, Gompertz model

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1692 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama

Abstract:

Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: Tobacco, Community, honey, perceptions

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1691 Effect of Climate Variability on Children Health Outcomes in Rural Uganda

Authors: Emily Injete Amondo, Alisher Mirzabaev, Emmanuel Rukundo

Abstract:

Children in rural farming households are often vulnerable to a multitude of risks, including health risks associated with climate change and variability. Cognizant of this, this study empirically traced the relationship between climate variability and nutritional health outcomes in rural children while identifying the cause-and-effect transmission mechanisms. We combined four waves of the rich Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS), part of the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS) for the period 2009-2014, with long-term and high-frequency rainfall and temperature datasets. Self-reported drought and flood shock variables were further used in separate regressions for triangulation purposes and robustness checks. Panel fixed effects regressions were applied in the empirical analysis, accounting for a variety of causal identification issues. The results showed significant negative outcomes for children’s anthropometric measurements due to the impacts of moderate and extreme droughts, extreme wet spells, and heatwaves. On the contrary, moderate wet spells were positively linked with nutritional measures. Agricultural production and child diarrhea were the main transmission channels, with heatwaves, droughts, and high rainfall variability negatively affecting crop output. The probability of diarrhea was positively related to increases in temperature and dry spells. Results further revealed that children in households who engaged in ex-ante or anticipatory risk-reducing strategies such as savings had better health outcomes as opposed to those engaged in ex-post coping such as involuntary change of diet. These results highlight the importance of adaptation in smoothing the harmful effects of climate variability on the health of rural households and children in Uganda.

Keywords: Agricultural Production, Diarrhea, extreme weather events, undernutrition, gridded weather data

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1690 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: Gene expression, drought stress, C. communis, biotypes

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1689 Livestock Activity Monitoring Using Movement Rate Based on Subtract Image

Authors: Keunho Park, Sunghwan Jeong

Abstract:

The 4th Industrial Revolution, the next-generation industrial revolution, which is made up of convergence of information and communication technology (ICT), is no exception to the livestock industry, and various studies are being conducted to apply the livestock smart farm. In order to monitor livestock using sensors, it is necessary to drill holes in the organs such as the nose, ears, and even the stomach of the livestock to wear or insert the sensor into the livestock. This increases the stress of livestock, which in turn lowers the quality of livestock products or raises the issue of animal ethics, which has become a major issue in recent years. In this paper, we conducted a study to monitor livestock activity based on vision technology, effectively monitoring livestock activity without increasing animal stress and violating animal ethics. The movement rate was calculated based on the difference images between the frames, and the livestock activity was evaluated. As a result, the average F1-score was 96.67.

Keywords: Machine Vision, Livestock, barn monitoring, smart farm

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1688 Anthocyanins as Markers of Enhanced Plant Defence in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Exposed to Copper Stress

Authors: Fadime Eryılmaz Pehlivan

Abstract:

Anthocyanins are important plant pigments having roles in many physiological and ecological functions; that are controlled by numerous regulatory factors. The accumulation of anthocyanins in Z. mays cause the plants stems to exhibit red coloration when encountering gradually increasing copper treatments (1, 5, and 10 mM of Cu in a period of 5 days) on maize seedlings. Stress injury was measured in terms of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents dramatically increased by increasing concentrations of Cu stress. MDA and H2O2 levels were found to significantly increase at high Cu treatments (5 and 10 mM of Cu). Chlorophyll content was observed to be highest at 1 mM Cu and then decreased at 5 and 10 mM of Cu. In addition, significant increases were determined in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under high Cu concentrations, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POX) activities showed no change. Treatments above 5 and 10 mM of Cu triggered copper stress in maize seedlings. The results of this study provide evidence that maize seedlings represent a high tolerance to gradually increasing copper treatments. Improved copper tolerance may relate to high anthocyanin, and carotenoid content besides antioxidant enzyme activity may improve the metal chelating ability of anthocyanin pigments. Data presented in this study may also contribute to a better understanding of phytoremediation studies in maize exposed to high copper contenting soils.

Keywords: Copper, antioxidant, maize, anthocyanin

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1687 Degradation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides (Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid) Using Biochar of Rice Husk and Fruit Peels

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Sadia Bashir, Muhammad Awais Khalid, Aamir Ghafoor, Zara Hussain, Mashal Shahid

Abstract:

The irrational use of insecticides in everyday life has drawn attention worldwide towards its harmful effects. To mitigate the toxic effects of insecticides to humans, present study was planned on the degradation/detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Biocarbon of fruit peels (Banana & Watermelon) and biochar (activated or non-activated) of rice husk was utilized as adsorbents for degradation of selected pesticides. Both activated and non-activated biochar were prepared for treatment and then applied in different concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 ppm) and dosage (1.0 to 2.5g) to insecticides (Acetamiprid & Imidacloprid) as well as studied at different times (30-120 minutes). Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with Photodiode array detector was used to quantify the insecticides. Results depicted that activated biochar of rice husk minimized the 73% concentrations of both insecticides however, watermelon activated biocarbon degraded 72% of imidacloprid and 56% of acetamiprid. Results proved the efficiency of the method employed and it was also inferred that high concentration of biocarbon resulted in larger percentage of degradation. The applied method is cheaper, easy and accessible that can be used to minimize the pesticide residues in animal feed. Degradation using biochar proved significant degradation, eco-friendly and economic method to reduce toxicity of insecticides.

Keywords: Insecticides, HPLC, Biochar, imidacloprid, acetamiprid

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1686 Urban Roof Farming: A Smart City Solution Leading to Sustainability

Authors: Phibankhamti Ryngnga

Abstract:

It is a common phenomenon worldwide that farmland has been gradually converted for urban development particularly in the 21st century keeping in mind the population increase on the other hand. Since food demand and supply are not in equilibrium in urban set up, therefore, there is a need for alternative to feed the hungry urban settlers worldwide. In this regard, urban rooftop farming is the only way out to meet the growing demand for food production with the extra benefits of making our urban areas and cities greener and when the populace is exposed to nature and vegetation, it in turn provides an array of psychological benefits, from decreased anxiety to increased productivity. Bare roofs in cities absorb and then radiate heat — a phenomenon known as the “heat island effect. This increases energy usage and contributes to the poor air quality that often plagues big cities. But Urban rooftop farming do provide many solutions to help cool buildings, ultimately reducing carbon emissions, and by growing food in the communities they serve, rooftop farmers lessen the environmental impact of food transportation. This paper will emphasise the significance of Urban roof farming in the present century which in itself a multi-solution to various city problems.

Keywords: Sustainability, Urban, roof farming, smart solution

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1685 Performance Evaluation of Iar Multi Crop Thresher

Authors: Idris Idris Sunusi, U.S. Muhammed, N.A. Sale, I.B. Dalha, N.A. Adam

Abstract:

Threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damages are among the important parameters used in rating the performance of agricultural threshers. To be acceptable to farmers, threshers should have high threshing efficiency and low grain. The objective of the research is to evaluate the performances of the thresher using sorghum and millet, the performances parameters considered are; threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage. For millet, four drum speed levels; 700, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm were considered while for sorghum; 600, 700, 800 and 900 rpm were considered. The feed rate levels were 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg/min for both sorghum and millet; the levels of moisture content were 8.93 and 10.38% for sorghum and 9.21 and 10.81% for millet. For millet the test result showed a maximum of 98.37 threshing efficiencies and a minimum of 0.24% mechanical grain damage while for sorghum the test result indicated a maximum of 99.38 threshing efficiencies, and a minimum of 0.75% mechanical grain damage. In comparison to the previous thresher, the threshing efficiency and mechanical grain damage of the modified machine has improved by 2.01% and 330.56% for millet and 5.31%, 287.64% for sorghum. Also analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, the effect of drum speed, feed rate and moisture content were significant on the performance parameters.

Keywords: Threshing Efficiency, Mechanical Grain Damages, Sorghum and Millet, Multi Crop Thresher

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