Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1578

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1578 Optimization of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Technique Coupled with GC MS for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Trogoderma Variabile

Authors: Thamer Alshuwaili, Yonglin Ren, Bob Du, Manjree Agarwal

Abstract:

The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a major pest of packaged and processed stored products. Warehouse beetle is the common name which was given by Okumura (1972). This pest has been reported to infest 119 different commodities, and it is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Also, it is difficult to control because of the insect's ability to stay without food for long times, and it can survive for years under dry conditions and low-moisture food, and it has also developed resistance to many insecticides. The young larvae of these insects can cause damage to seeds, but older larvae prefer to feed on whole grains. The percentage of damage caused by these insects range between 30-70% in the storage. T. variabile is the species most responsible for causing significant damage in grain stores worldwide. Trogoderma spp. is a huge problem for cereal grains, and there are many countries, such as the USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania who have specific quarantine regulations against possible importation. Also, grain stocks can be almost completely destroyed because of the massive populations the insect may develop. However, the purpose of the current research was to optimize conditions to collect volatile organic compound from Trogoderma variabile at different life stages by using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (FID). Using SPME technique to extract volatile from insects is an efficient, straightforward and nondestructive method. Result of the study shows that 15 insects were optimal number for larvae and adults. Selection of the number of insects depend on the height of the peak area and the number of peaks. Sixteen hours were optimized as the best extraction time for larvae and 8 hours was the optimal number of adults.

Keywords: Trogoderma variabile, warehouse beetle , GC-MS, Solid phase microextraction

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1577 Isolation of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio alginolyticus Strains from Cultured Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L) and Seabream (Sparus auratus L) in Egypt

Authors: M. Khallaf, R. Khalil, H. Ghetas

Abstract:

In the present study, V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were isolated from cultured seabass and seabream at Damietta Governorate, Egypt, during summer season. Isolates were biochemically and molecularly identified using primers for Vhh and Collagenase genes. The most prominent clinical observations of diseased fish were exophthalmia, abdominal distension, and multifocal cutaneous hemorrhagic ulceration on the dorsal musculature and caudal peduncle. Physicochemical characteristics of water samples indicated that the unionized ammonia, nitrate, and hydrogen sulphate concentrations were higher than the acceptable limits. Heavy metals concentrations in water samples exhibited higher concentrations than the permissible levels for fish culture, which was considered as chemical stressors that increase the prevalence of these bacterial diseases. Immune parameters were lower in diseased seabass and seabream than apparently healthy fish. Lesions of different fish organs were identified histopathologically.

Keywords: seabass, seabream, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi

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1576 Identification of Salt Responsive Proteins in Rice Leaf Sheath (Oryza sativa L.) with Nanoliquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-Ngern, Chutima Homwonk, Sittiruk Roytrakul

Abstract:

In this research, we compared the proteomic profile of two rice leaf sheaths under salt stress, Thai moderately salt tolerant rice (Leaung Anan), and high salt tolerant rice (Pokkali). Seeds were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days before NaCl was introduced initially at the level of 12 dS m⁻¹ for 10 days. Then the leaf sheath proteomes were analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE and NanoLC-MS/MS. In this study, 873 proteins were detected. Among these proteins, 219 proteins were known proteins and the other proteins were unnamed and unknown proteins. By using Mev software, we found that only 31 proteins in treated plants of both rice cultivars significantly expressed, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 10 proteins were down-regulated. Interestingly, the intensity of the 3 proteins in the Leaung Anan more expressed than in the Pokkali. The results indicate that the up-regulated proteins were more expressed in less tolerant rice may play an important role in helping rice to survive under salt stress.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, proteomics, rice leaf sheaths, salt stress

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1575 Tourism Related Activities and Floating Garden in Inle Lake, Myanmar

Authors: Thel Phyu Phyu Soe

Abstract:

Myanmar started its new political movement in 2011, opening up to trade, encouraging foreign investment, deepening its financial sectors. The tourism is one of the key sectors to make reform process from the perspective of green economy and green growth. The Inle Lake, second largest lake, famous for broad diversity of cultural and natural assets, become one of the country’s main tourism destination. In the study area, local livelihoods are based on a combination of farming (mainly floating garden) wage labor, tourism, and small business. But the Inle lake water body or water surface area decreased by 96.44 km² within 20 years, from 67.98 km² in 1990 to 56.63 km² in 2010. Floating garden cultivation (hydro phonic farm) is a distinguished characteristic of Inle Lake. Two adjacent villages (A and B) were selected to compare the relationship between tourism access and agricultural production. Ground truthing, focus group discussion, and in-depth questionnaires with floating gardeners were carried out. In A village, 57% of the respondents relied tourism as their major income sources, while almost all the households in B village relied floating gardens as major livelihood. Both satellite image interpretation and community studies highlighted that around 80% of the floating garden become fallow after severe drought in 2010 and easy income access to tourism related activities. The villagers can get 20-30 US$ for round trip guiding to major tourist attraction places.Even though tourism is the major livelihood options for the A village, the poorest households (less than 1500 US$ per year) are those who didn’t own transportation property for tourism related activities. In B village, more than 70% of the households relied floating gardens as their major income sources and less participated in tourism related activities because they don’t have motorboat stand connected to the major tourist attraction areas. Access to tourism related activities (having boat stand where they can guide tourists by boat and sell local products and souvenirs) have much impacted on changes in local people livelihood options. However, tourism may have impacts that are beneficial for one group of a society, but which are negative for another. Income inequality and negative impacts can only be managed effectively if they have been identified, measured and evaluated. The severe drought in 2010, instability of lake water level, high expenses for agriculture assisted the local people to participate in easy access tourism related activities.

Keywords: diminishing, floating garden, livelihood, tourism-related income

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1574 Relationship between Food Inflation and Agriculture Lending Rate in Ghana: A Vector Autoregressive Approach

Authors: Raymond K. Dziwornu

Abstract:

Lending rate of agriculture loan has persistently been high and attributed to risk in the sector. This study examined how food inflation and agriculture lending rate react to each other in Ghana using vector autoregressive approach. Quarterly data from 2006 to 2018 was obtained from the Bank of Ghana quarterly bulletin and the Ghana Statistical Service reports. The study found that a positive standard deviation shock to food inflation causes lending rate of agriculture loan to react negatively in the short run, but positively and steadily in the long run. This suggests the need to direct appropriate policy measures to reduce food inflation and consequently, the cost of credit to the agricultural sector for its growth.

Keywords: food inflation, agriculture, lending rate, vector autoregressive, Ghana

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1573 Effect of Agricultural Extension Services on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Ghana: A Stochastic Meta-Frontier Analysis

Authors: Arnold Missiame

Abstract:

In Ghana, rural dwellers who depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood constitute about 60% of the country’s population. This shows the critical role and potentials of the agricultural sector in helping to achieve Ghana’s vision 2030. With the current threat of climate change and advancements in technology, agricultural extension is not just about technology transfer and improvements in productivity, but it is also about improving the managerial and technical skills of farmers. In Ghana, the government of Ghana as well as other players in the sector like; non-governmental organizations, NGOs, local and international funding agencies, for decades now, have made capacity-building-investments in smallholder farmers by way of extension services delivery. This study sought to compare the technical efficiency of farmers who have access to agricultural extension and farmers who do not in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic meta-frontier model to analyze household survey data comprising 300 smallholder cassava farmers from the Fanteakwa district of Ghana. The farmers were selected through a two-stage sampling technique where 5 communities were purposively selected in the first stage and then 60 smallholder cassava farmers were randomly selected from each of the 5 communities. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data on farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. The results showed that farmers who have access to agricultural extensions services have higher technical efficiencies (TE) and produce much closer to their meta-production frontiers (higher technology gap ratios (TGR) than farmers who do not have access to such extension services. Furthermore, experience in cassava cultivation and formal education significantly improves the technical efficiencies of farmers. The study recommends that the mode and scope of agricultural extension service delivery in the country should be enhanced to ensure that smallholder farmers have easy access to extension agents.

Keywords: agricultural extension, Ghana, smallholder farmers, stochastic meta-frontier model, technical efficiency

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1572 Synthesis and Characterization of Cassava Starch-Zinc Nanocomposite Film for Food Packaging Application

Authors: Adeshina Fadeyibi

Abstract:

Application of pure thermoplastic film in food packaging is greatly limited because of its poor service performance, often enhanced by the addition of organic or inorganic particles in the range of 1–100 nm. Thus, this study was conducted to develop cassava starch zinc-nanocomposite films for applications in food packaging. Three blending ratios of 1000 g cassava starch, 45–55 % (w/w) glycerol and 0–2 % (w/w) zinc nanoparticles were formulated, mixed and mechanically homogenized to form the nanocomposite. Thermoplastic were prepared, from a dispersed mixture of 24 g of the nanocomposite and 600 ml of distilled water, and heated to 90oC for 30 minutes. Plastic molds of 350 ×180 mm dimension and 8, 10 and 12 mm depths were used for film casting and drying at 60oC and 80 % RH for 24 hour. The average thicknesses of the dried films were found to be 15, 16 and 17 µm. The films were characterized based on their barrier, thermal, mechanical and structural properties. The results show that the oxygen and water vapor barrier properties increased with glycerol concentration and decreased with thickness; but the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and d- spacing increased with thickness. The higher degree of d- spacing obtained is a consequence of higher polymer intercalation and exfoliation. Also, only 2 % weight degradation was observed when the films were exposed to temperature between 30–60oC; indicating that they are thermally stable and can be used for packaging applications in the tropics. The mechanical properties of the film were higher than that of the pure thermoplastic but comparable with the LDPE films. The information on the characterized attributes and optimization of the cassava starch zinc-nanocomposite films justifies their alternative application to pure thermoplastic and conventional films for food packaging.

Keywords: synthesis, characterization, casaava Starch, nanocomposite film, packaging

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1571 Analysis of the Response of the Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genotypes under Polyethylene Glycol Mediated Drought Stress in Laboratory Conditions of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Uzma Ayaz Khan, Sanam Bashir, Shahid Iqbal Awan, Sumaira Habib, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Fareed Khan

Abstract:

Drought stress directly affects growth along with the productivity of plants by altering plant water status. The early effect of drought on plant growth is the inhibition of shoot as well as root growth. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to characterize the genetic variability for seedling and morpho-physiological parameters in different sunflower genotypes under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. In this study, a total of twenty-seven genotypes, including two hybrids, eight advanced lines, and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), were tested against drought stress at germination and seedling stages. The material was sown within pots at the laboratory of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics, University of Poonch, Faculty of Agriculture Rawalakot. Five seeds of each genotype were planted in each pot. The experiment was laid out in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design with three replications. Significant means were calculated among traits using analysis of variance (ANOVA) whereas, correlation and principle component analysis also confirmed that germination percentage, root length, proline content, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency, and survival percentage are positively linked with each other hence these traits were responsible for most of variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis verified Ausun, line-2, line-8, 17559, 17578, Hysun-33, 17555, and 17587 as more diverse among all the genotypes.

Keywords: sunflower, genotypes, polyethylene glycol, stress

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1570 Highly Efficient in Vitro Regeneration of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant

Authors: Mahendran Ganesan, Sanjeet Kumar Verma, Zafar Iqbal, Ashish Chandran, Zakir Husain, Shama Afroz, Sana Shahid, Laiq Ur Rahman

Abstract:

Highly efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed for Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, a high prized traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British and the American pharmacopeias, and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medical systems. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various phytohormones for multiple shoot induction. The nodal segments failed to respond in growth regulator free medium. All the concentrations of BAP, Kin and TDZ facilitated shoot bud break and multiple shoot induction. Among the various cytokinins tested, BAP was found to be more effective with respect to initiation and subsequent development of shoots. Of the various concentrations BAP tested, BAP at 4.0 mg/L showed the higher average number of shoot regeneration (10.80 shoots per explant). Kin at 4 mg/L and TDZ at 4 mg/L induced 5.70 and 04.5+0 shoots per explant, respectively. Further increase in concentration did not favour an increase in the number of shoots. However, these shoots failed to elongate further. Hence, addition of GA₃ (1 mg/L) was added to the above medium. This treatment resulted in the elongation of shoots (2.50 cm) and a further increase in the number of microshoots (34.20 shoots/explant). Roots were also induced in the same medium containing BAP (4 mg/L) + GA₃ (1 mg/L) + NAA (0.5 mg/L). In vitro derived plantlets with well-developed roots were transferred to the potting media containing garden soil: sand: vermicompost (2:1:1). Plantlets were covered with a polyethylene bag and irrigated with water. The pots were maintained at 25 ± 2ºC, and then the polyethylene cover was gradually loosened, thus dropping the humidity (65–70%). This procedure subsequently resulted in in vitro hardening of the plantlet.

Keywords: micropropagation, nodal explant, plant growth regulators, Swertia chirayita

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1569 Antagonistic Potential of Trichoderma Strains against Colletotrichum musae

Authors: Shah Md. Asraful Islam, Shabina Yeasmin, Fatima Aktar Mousumi

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the antagonistic potential of three commercially available Trichoderma strains viz., T. harzianum (armigera), T. harzianum (Ispahani), and T. viride against Colletotrichum musae isolates from three banana varieties viz., sagar, sobri, and katali. Mycelial growth rates of C. musae isolates were observed, the highest mycelial growth (11.62, 15.75, and 23.12 mm diameter) was observed by C. musae from sagor banana at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation, respectively. All the Trichoderma strains were capable of growth inhibition of C. musae isolates. After 4 days of duel culture, the highest mycelial growth reduction (10.33 mm diameter) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from sagor banana. Moreover, the highest growth inhibition (46.29%) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from the sobri banana. All the Trichoderma strains fully affected the viability of all the Colletotrichum isolates. Interestingly, both cultural filtrates and mycelial powders of all the Trichoderma strains showed a very nice inhibitory effect against C. musae isolates, where cultural filtrates were more potential than that of mycelial powders. So, all the tested Trichoderma strains may be used for the control of banana anthracnose disease.

Keywords: biological control, banana, anthracnose, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum

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1568 Chemometric Pattern Recognition Analysis of Peach Pomace Encapsulates

Authors: Milica Karadzic Banjac, Strahinja Kovacevic, Jelena Vulic, Ksenija Bibovski, Vanja Seregelj, Gordana Cetkovic, Dragana Cetojevic-Simin, Jasna Canadanovic-Brunet, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic

Abstract:

Using a chemometric classification approach, the grouping among twelve peach pomace encapsulates (whey and pea protein, maltodextrin, and gumma arabica) was revealed. Experimentally obtained data for four different encapsulates regarding their bioactivity before and after in vitro digestions were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Prior to the chemometric analysis, all experimental data were normalized, applying the min-max normalization method. PCA and HCA were performed using Statistica v 10.0 software. PCA analysis resulted in a two-component model that covered 72.89% of the total variance and placed the examined encapsulates in two groups. Clustering is based on Ward’s linkage method and Euclidean distance. HCA analysis confirmed the results obtained with PCA analysis, containing two main clusters with 7 and 5 encapsulates. PCA and HCA contributed to the grouping and emphasizing particular differences between the examined encapsulates tested before and after in vitro digestions. This study is based upon work from Project TR 31044, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

Keywords: chemometrics, principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, encapsulates

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1567 Chemometric Regression Analysis of Radical Scavenging Ability of Kombucha Fermented Kefir-Like Products

Authors: Strahinja Kovacevic, Milica Karadzic Banjac, Jasmina Vitas, Stefan Vukmanovic, Radomir Malbasa, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic

Abstract:

The present study deals with chemometric regression analysis of quality parameters and the radical scavenging ability of kombucha fermented kefir-like products obtained with winter savory (WS), peppermint (P), stinging nettle (SN) and wild thyme tea (WT) kombucha inoculums. Each analyzed sample was described by milk fat content (MF, %), total unsaturated fatty acids content (TUFA, %), monounsaturated fatty acids content (MUFA, %), polyunsaturated fatty acids content (PUFA, %), the ability of free radicals scavenging (RSA Dₚₚₕ, % and RSA.ₒₕ, %) and pH values measured after each hour from the start until the end of fermentation. The aim of the conducted regression analysis was to establish chemometric models which can predict the radical scavenging ability (RSA Dₚₚₕ, % and RSA.ₒₕ, %) of the samples by correlating it with the MF, TUFA, MUFA, PUFA and the pH value at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of fermentation process which lasted between 11 and 17 hours, until pH value of 4.5 was reached. The analysis was carried out applying univariate linear (ULR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) methods on the raw data and the data standardized by the min-max normalization method. The obtained models were characterized by very limited prediction power (poor cross-validation parameters) and weak statistical characteristics. Based on the conducted analysis it can be concluded that the resulting radical scavenging ability cannot be precisely predicted only on the basis of MF, TUFA, MUFA, PUFA content, and pH values, however, other quality parameters should be considered and included in the further modeling. This study is based upon work from project: Kombucha beverages production using alternative substrates from the territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, 142-451-2400/2019-03, supported by Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research of AP Vojvodina.

Keywords: chemometrics, regression analysis, kombucha, quality control

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1566 Microbial Bioagent Triggered Biochemical Response in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inducing Resistance against Grey Blight Disease and Yield Enhancement

Authors: Popy Bora, L. C. Bora, A. Bhattacharya, Sehnaz S. Ahmed

Abstract:

Microbial bioagents, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichoderma viride were assessed for their ability to suppress grey blight caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, a major disease of tea crop in Assam. The expression of defense-related phytochemicals due to the application of these bioagents was also evaluated. The individual bioagents, as well as their combinations, were screened for their bioefficacy against P. theae in vitro using nutrient agar (NA) as basal medium. The treatment comprising a combination of the three bioagents, P. fluorescens, B. subtilis, and T. viride showed significantly the highest inhibition against the pathogen. Bioformulation of effective bioagent combinations was further evaluated under field condition, where significantly highest reduction of grey blight (90.30%), as well as the highest increase in the green leaf yield (10.52q/ha), was recorded due to application of the bioformulation containing the three bioagents. The application of the three bioformulation also recorded an enhanced level of caffeine (4.15%) and polyphenols (22.87%). A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with the microbial bioformulation of the three bioagents. The present investigation indicates the role of microbial agents in suppressing disease, inducing plant defense response, as well as improving the quality of tea.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grey blight, microbial bioagents, Pestalotiopsis theae, phytochemicals, plant defense, tea

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1565 Mycorrhizal Autochthonous Consortium Induced Defense-Related Mechanisms of Olive Trees against Verticillium dahliae

Authors: Hanane Boutaj, Abdelilah Meddich, Said Wahbi, Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi, Allal Douira, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Cherkaoui El Modafar

Abstract:

The present work aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in improving the olive tree resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Inoculated plants with a mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium 'Rhizolive consortium' and pure strain 'Glomus irregulare' were infected after three months with V. dahliae. The improving of olive tree resistance was determined through disease severity, incidence, and defoliation. On the other hand, the defense mechanisms of olive plants were evaluated through lignin content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and polyphenol content. The results revealed that both AMF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced disease development and the rate of defoliation in infected olive plants. Moreover, the contents of lignin were boosted after mycorrhizal inoculation in both the roots and the stems of olive plants, which remained significantly (p < 0.001) higher after the 90th days of V. dahliae inoculation. PAL activity was increased after V. dahliae inoculation in the stems of 'Rhizolive consortium' treatment that were 17 times higher than those in the roots of olive plants. The polyphenol content in the stems was about twice higher than those in the roots. The reduction of disease severity was accompanied by increased levels of lignin content, PAL activity, and polyphenol content, particularly in the stems of olive plants, indicating the strengthening of the olive plant immune system against V. dahliae.

Keywords: olive tree, Mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium, Glomus irregulare, Verticillium dahliae, defense mechanisms

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1564 An Open Loop Distribution Module for Precise and Uniform Drip Fertigation in Soilless Culture

Authors: Juan Ignacio Arango, Andres Diaz, Giacomo Barbieri

Abstract:

In soilless culture, the definition of efficient fertigation strategies is fundamental for the growth of crops. Flexible test-benches able to independently manage groups of crops are key for investigating efficient fertigation practices through experimentation. These test-benches must be able to provide nutrient solution (NS) in a precise, uniform, and repeatable way in order to effectively implement and compare different fertigation strategies. This article describes a distribution module for investigating fertigation practices able to control the fertigation dose and frequency. The proposed solution is characterized in terms of precision, uniformity, and repeatability since these parameters are fundamental in the implementation of effective experiments for the investigation of fertigation practices. After a calibration process, the implemented system reaches a precision of 1mL, a uniformity of 98.5% at a total cost of 735USD.

Keywords: recision horticulture, test-bench, fertigation strategy, automation, flexibility

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1563 Transcriptomic Analysis for Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Secondary Metabolite Production in Narcissus Bulb and in vitro Callus

Authors: Aleya Ferdausi, Meriel Jones, Anthony Halls

Abstract:

The Amaryllidaceae genus Narcissus contains secondary metabolites, which are important sources of bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals indicating that their biological activity extends from the native plant to humans. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) is an effective platform for the identification and functional characterization of candidate genes as well as to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The biotechnological production of secondary metabolites in plant cell or organ cultures has become a tempting alternative to the extraction of whole plant material. The biochemical pathways for the production of secondary metabolites require primary metabolites to undergo a series of modifications catalyzed by enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, methyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, and acyltransferases. Differential gene expression analysis of Narcissus was obtained from two conditions, i.e. field and in vitro callus. Callus was obtained from modified MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with growth regulators and twin-scale explants from Narcissus cv. Carlton bulb. A total of 2153 differentially expressed transcripts were detected in Narcissus bulb and in vitro callus, and 78.95% of those were annotated. It showed the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were present in both conditions i.e. cytochrome P450s, O-methyltransferase (OMTs), NADP/NADPH dehydrogenases or reductases, SAM-synthetases or decarboxylases, 3-ketoacyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid, N-methyltransferase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450s. However, cytochrome P450s and OMTs involved in the later stage of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis were mainly up-regulated in field samples. Whereas, the enzymes involved in initial biosynthetic pathways i.e. fructose biphosphate adolase, aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, hydroxyl methyl glutarate and glutamate synthase leading to the biosynthesis of precursors; tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan for secondary metabolites were up-regulated in callus. The knowledge of probable genes involved in secondary metabolism and their regulation in different tissues will provide insight into the Narcissus plant biology related to alkaloid production.

Keywords: narcissus, callus, transcriptomics, secondary metabolites

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1562 A Decadal Flood Assessment Using Time-Series Satellite Data in Cambodia

Authors: Nguyen-Thanh Son

Abstract:

Flood is among the most frequent and costliest natural hazards. The flood disasters especially affect the poor people in rural areas, who are heavily dependent on agriculture and have lower incomes. Cambodia is identified as one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world, ranked 13th out of 181 countries most affected by the impacts of climate change. Flood monitoring is thus a strategic priority at national and regional levels because policymakers need reliable spatial and temporal information on flood-prone areas to form successful monitoring programs to reduce possible impacts on the country’s economy and people’s likelihood. This study aims to develop methods for flood mapping and assessment from MODIS data in Cambodia. We processed the data for the period from 2000 to 2017, following three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time-series vegetation and water surface indices, (2) delineation of flood-prone areas, and (3) accuracy assessment. The results of flood mapping were verified with the ground reference data, indicating the overall accuracy of 88.7% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.77, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by close agreement between the flood-mapping area and ground reference data, with the correlation coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.94. The seasonally flooded areas observed for 2010, 2015, and 2016 were remarkably smaller than other years, mainly attributed to the El Niño weather phenomenon exacerbated by impacts of climate change. Eventually, although several sources potentially lowered the mapping accuracy of flood-prone areas, including image cloud contamination, mixed-pixel issues, and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, our methods indicated the satisfactory results for delineating spatiotemporal evolutions of floods. The results in the form of quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood distributions could be beneficial to policymakers in evaluating their management strategies for mitigating the negative effects of floods on agriculture and people’s likelihood in the country.

Keywords: MODIS, flood, mapping, Cambodia

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1561 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

Abstract:

Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

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1560 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu

Abstract:

Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: attractants, trapping, mango, Bactrocera dorsalis

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1559 Ethnopharmacological Analysis of Fermented Herbal Concoctions

Authors: Ishmael Ntlhamu

Abstract:

In Limpopo Province, the use of herbal concoctions is becoming very popular. These concoctions are claimed to be capable of treating ulcers, diabetes, certain STDs, blood cleansing, and many more types of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, evaluate the pharmacological effects and consumption safety in herbal concoctions to treat various kinds of ailments in Limpopo. The concoctions were extracted with 80% acetone. Microorganisms in the concoctions were identified using the Vitek 2 compact system. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was determined using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total polyphenol content was quantified. Antioxidant activity was quantified using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and ferric reducing power. Antimicrobial activities were determined using a broth micro-dilution assay and bioautography. Cell viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity. Results showed that concoctions had antioxidant activity. Presence of different phytoconstituents was observed. Isolated microorganisms were identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei, Staphylococcus vitulimus, Enterococcus columbae, Kocuria kristanae, Staphylococcus intermedius, Cryptococcus laurenti. and Burkholderia pseudomallei (highly pathogenic). Therefore, phytochemicals prove that the concoctions can heal as the antimicrobial tests also displayed activity. Moreover, the concoctions did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. However, contaminants raise concerns, not only for consumer safety but also the quality of herbal concoctions available as part of the traditional medicinal practice in Limpopo.

Keywords: antimicrobials, concoctions, cytotoxicity, phytochemicals

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1558 Categorization of Cattle Farmers Based on Market Participation in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Mohammed Ibrahim Girei

Abstract:

Adamawa state is one the major producers of both crop and animals in Nigeria. Agricultural production serves as the major means livelihood of the people in the state. However, the agricultural activities of the farmers in the state are at subsistence level. However integration of these small scale farmers in local, national and international market is paramount importance. The paper was designed to categorize farmers based on market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The multistage sampling procedure was employed. To achieve this procedure, structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the majority of market participants were net sellers (78.51 %) (Sales greater than purchase), net buyers were (purchase greater than sales) 12.95 % and only 9% were autarkic (sales equal purchase). The study recommends that Government should provide more effective security services in cattle farming communities, which is very important as the market participants in the study area were net sellers (producers), it will help in addressing the problem of cattle rustling and promote more investment in cattle industry. There is a need to establish a standard cattle market, veterinary services and grazing reserves in the area so that to facilitate the cattle production and marketing system in the area and to meet up with the challenging of livestock development as a result of rapid human population growth in developing countries like Nigeria.

Keywords: categories, cattle, farmers, market, participation

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1557 Expression Profiling of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Chlorophyll B-Lacking Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Khiem M. Nguyen, Ming C. Yang

Abstract:

Chloroplast pigments are extremely important during photosynthesis since they play essential roles in light absorption and energy transfer. Therefore, understanding the efficiency of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis could facilitate enhancement in photo-assimilates accumulation, and ultimately, in crop yield. The Chl-deficient mutants have been used extensively to study the Chl biosynthetic pathways and the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most leading food crops, serving as staple food for many parts of the world. To author’s best knowledge, Chl b–lacking rice has been found; however the molecular mechanism of Chl biosynthesis still remains unclear compared to wild-type rice. In this study, the ultrastructure analysis, photosynthetic properties, and transcriptome profile of wild-type rice (Norin No.8, N8) and its Chl b-lacking mutant (Chlorina 1, C1) were examined. The finding concluded that total Chl content and Chl b content in the C1 leaves were strongly reduced compared to N8 leaves, suggesting that reduction in the total Chl content contributes to leaf color variation at the physiological level. Plastid ultrastructure of C1 possessed abnormal thylakoid membranes with loss of starch granule, large number of vesicles, and numerous plastoglobuli. The C1 rice also exhibited thinner stacked grana, which was caused by a reduction in the number of thylakoid membranes per granum. Thus, the different Chl a/b ratio of C1 may reflect the abnormal plastid development and function. Transcriptional analysis identified 23 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 671 transcription factors (TFs) that were involved in Chl metabolism, chloroplast development, cell division, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome profile and DEGs revealed that the gene encoding PsbR (PSII core protein) was down-regulated, therefore suggesting that the lower in light-harvesting complex proteins are responsible for the lower photosynthetic capacity in C1. In addition, expression level of cell division protein (FtsZ) genes were significantly reduced in C1, causing chloroplast division defect. A total of 19 DEGs were identified based on KEGG pathway assignment involving Chl biosynthesis pathway. Among these DEGs, the GluTR gene was down-regulated, whereas the UROD, CPOX, and MgCH genes were up-regulated. Observation through qPCR suggested that later stages of Chl biosynthesis were enhanced in C1, whereas the early stages were inhibited. Plastid structure analysis together with transcriptomic analysis suggested that the Chl a/b ratio was amplified both by the reduction in Chl contents accumulation, owning to abnormal chloroplast development, and by the enhanced conversion of Chl b to Chl a. Moreover, the results indicated the same Chl-cycle pattern in the wild-type and C1 rice, indicating another Chl b degradation pathway. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that normal grana stacking, along with the absence of Chl b and greatly reduced levels of Chl a in C1, provide evidence to support the conclusion that other factors along with LHCII proteins are involved in grana stacking. The findings of this study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie different Chl a/b ratios in rice.

Keywords: Chl-deficient mutant, grana stacked, photosynthesis, RNA-Seq, transcriptomic analysis

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1556 Effects of Beeswax Coating on the Properties of Cocoa Bean Shell Based Papers

Authors: Sri Rejeki, Tamrin Tamrin, RH. F. Faradilla, Muhammad N. Ibrahim, Mariana M., Irnawati Irnawati

Abstract:

Cocoa bean shells, despite their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, are still considered as an underutilized agricultural waste. The functional properties and their lignocelluloses content make cocoa bean shells a potential material for paper-based food packaging. In our previous research, we have successfully produced papers from cocoa bean shells that had antioxidant and antibacterial activities. However, the hydrophilic nature of the lignocelluloses of cocoa bean shells hinders the application of the paper to be used as a food packaging. In this research, we aimed to study the effects of beeswax coating on the wettability and mechanical properties of the paper. The coating was done by dipping the papers in beeswax solution several times and in three different beeswax concentrations. The number of dipping and beeswax concentration significantly (p<0.05) affected the water contact angle of the papers. Results show that the water contact angle increases dramatically due to the coating treatment. The control paper or uncoated paper had a contact angle of 40.50o, while the contact angle of the best-coated paper (D3B3: 3x dipping, 3g/10mL beeswax) reached 96.93o. Both tensile strength and percent elongation were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the coating treatment. This showed that beeswax was a potential organic material to improve the hydrophobicity of paper from cocoa bean shells without any undesirable effects on the mechanical properties of the paper.

Keywords: cocoa bean shell, paper, beeswax, coating, contact angle

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1555 Characterization, Classification and Fertility Capability Classification of Three Rice Zones of Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Nathaniel Obasi, Chiamak Chinasa Obasi

Abstract:

Soil characterization and classification provide the basic information necessary to create a functional evaluation and soil classification schemes. Fertility capability classification (FCC) on the other hand is a technical system that groups the soils according to kinds of problems they present for management of soil physical and chemical properties. This research was carried out in Ebonyi state, southeastern Nigeria, which is an agrarian state and a leading rice producing part of southeastern Nigeria. In order to maximize the soil and enhance the productivity of rice in Ebonyi soils, soil classification, and fertility classification information need to be supplied. The state was grouped into three locations according to their agricultural zones namely; Ebonyi north, Ebonyi central and Ebonyi south representing Abakaliki, Ikwo and Ivo locations respectively. Major rice growing areas of the soils were located and two profile pits were sunk in each of the studied zones from which soils were characterized, classified and fertility capability classification (FCC) developed. Soil classification was done using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Taxonomy and correlated with World Reference Base for soil resources. Results obtained classified Abakaliki 1 and Abakaliki 2 as Typic Fluvaquents (Ochric Fluvisols). Ikwo 1 was classified as Vertic Eutrudepts (Eutric Vertisols) while Ikwo 2 was classified as Typic Eutrudepts (Eutric Cambisols). Ivo 1 and Ivo 2 were both classified as Aquic Eutrudepts (Gleyic Leptosols). Fertility capability classification (FCC) revealed that all studied soils had mostly loamy topsoils and subsoils except Ikwo 1 with clayey topsoil. Limitations encountered in the studied soils include; dryness (d), low ECEC (e), low nutrient capital reserve (k) and water logging/ anaerobic condition (gley). Thus, FCC classifications were Ldek for Abakaliki 1 and 2, Ckv for Ikwo 1, LCk for Ikwo 2 while Ivo 1 and 2 were Legk and Lgk respectively.

Keywords: soil classification, soil fertility, limitations, modifiers, Southeastern Nigeria

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1554 Evaluation of Two Earliness Cotton Genotypes in Three Ecological Regions

Authors: Gholamhossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Two earliness cotton genotypes I and II, which had been developed by hybridization and backcross methods between sindise-80 as an early maturing gene parent and two other lines i.e. Red leaf and Bulgare-557 as a second parent, are subjected to different environmental conditions. The early maturing genotypes with coded names of I and II were compared with four native cotton cultivars in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in three ecological regions of Iran from 2016-2017. Two early maturing genotypes along with four native cultivars viz. Varamin, Oltan, Sahel and Arya were planted in Agricultural Research Station of Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar for evaluation. Earliness data were collected for six treatments during two years in the three regions except missing data for the second year of Kashmar. Therefore, missed data were estimated and imputed. For testing the homogeneity of error variances, each experiment at a given location or year is analyzed separately using Hartley and Bartlett’s Chi-square tests and both tests confirmed homogeneity of variance. Combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects were compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests. Finally combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects are compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Keywords: cotton, combined, analysis, earliness

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1553 Low-Cost Monitoring System for Hydroponic Urban Vertical Farms

Authors: Francesco Ruscio, Paolo Paoletti, Jens Thomas, Paul Myers, Sebastiano Fichera

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a low-cost monitoring system for a hydroponic urban vertical farm, enabling its automation and a quantitative assessment of the farm performance. Urban farming has seen increasing interest in the last decade thanks to the development of energy efficient and affordable LED lights; however, the optimal configuration of such systems (i.e. amount of nutrients, light-on time, ambient temperature etc.) is mostly based on the farmers’ experience and empirical guidelines. Moreover, even if simple, the maintenance of such systems is labor intensive as it requires water to be topped-up periodically, mixing of the nutrients etc. To unlock the full potential of urban farming, a quantitative understanding of the role that each variable plays in the growth of the plants is needed, together with a higher degree of automation. The low-cost monitoring system proposed in this paper is a step toward filling this knowledge and technological gap, as it enables collection of sensor data related to water and air temperature, water level, humidity, pressure, light intensity, pH and electric conductivity without requiring any human intervention. More sensors and actuators can also easily be added thanks to the modular design of the proposed platform. Data can be accessed remotely via a simple web interface. The proposed platform can be used both for quantitatively optimizing the setup of the farms and for automating some of the most labor-intensive maintenance activities. Moreover, such monitoring system can also potentially be used for high-level decision making, once enough data are collected.

Keywords: automation, hydroponics, internet of things, monitoring system, urban farming

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1552 Woody Plant Encroachment Effects on the Physical Properties of Vertic Soils in Bela-Bela, Limpopo Province

Authors: Rebone E. Mashapa, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Sandile S. Mthimkhulu

Abstract:

Woody plant encroachment, a land cover transformation that reduces grassland productivity may influence soil physical properties. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of woody plant encroachment on physical properties of vertic soils in a savanna grassland. In this study, we quantified and compared soil bulk density, aggregate stability and porosity in the top and subsoil of an open and woody encroached savanna grassland. The results revealed that soil bulk density increases, while porosity and mean weight diameter decreases with depth in both open and woody encroached grassland soil. Compared to open grassland, soil bulk density was 11% and 10% greater in the topsoil and subsoil, while porosity was 6% and 9% lower in the topsoil and subsoil of woody encroached grassland. Mean weight diameter, an indicator of soil aggregation increased by 38% only in the subsoil of encroached grasslands due to increasing clay content with depth. These results suggest that woody plant encroachment leads to compaction of vertic soils, which in turn reduces pore size distribution.

Keywords: soil depth, soil physical properties, vertic soils, woody plant encroachment

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1551 Silviculture for Climate Change: Future Scenarios for Nigeria Forests

Authors: Azeez O. Ganiyu

Abstract:

Climate change is expected to lead to substantial changes in rainfall patterns in southwest Nigeria, and this may have substantial consequence for forest management and for conservation outcomes throughout the region. We examine three different forest types across an environmental spectrum from semi-arid to humid subtropical and consider their response to water shortages and other environmental stresses; we also explore the potential consequence for conservation and timber production by considering impacts on forest structure and limiting stand density. Analysis of a series of scenarios provides the basis for a critique of existing management practices and suggests practical alternatives to develop resilient forests with minimal diminution of production and environmental services. We specifically discuss practical silviculture interventions that are feasible at the landscape-scale, that are economically viable, and that have the potential to enhance resilience of forest stands. We also discuss incentives to encourage adoption of these approaches by private forest owners. We draw on these case studies in southwestern Nigeria to offer generic principle to assist forest researchers and managers faced with similar challenges elsewhere.

Keywords: climate change, forest, future, silviculture, Nigeria

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1550 Soil Compaction by a Forwarder in Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Erianto I. Putra, Iis Diatin, Muhammad Mujahid, Qi Adlan

Abstract:

Industrial plantation forest is the producer of logs in Indonesia. Several companies of industrial plantation forest have been successfully planted with fast-growing species, and it entered their annual harvesting period. Heavy machines such as forwarders are used in timber harvesting to extract logs from stump to landing site. The negative impact of using such machines are loss of topsoil and soil compaction. Compacted soil is considered unfavorable for plant growth. The research objectives were to analyze the soil bulk density, rut, and cone index of the soil caused by a forwarder passes, to analyze the relation between several times of forwarder passes to the increase of soil bulk density. A Valmet forwarder was used in this research. Soil bulk density at soil surface and cone index from the soil surface to the 50 cm depth of soil were measured at the harvested area. The result showed that soil bulk density increase with the increase of the Valmet forwarder passes. Maximum soil bulk density occurred after 5 times forwarder Valmet passed. The cone index tended to increase from the surface until 50 cm depth of soil. Rut formed and high soil bulk density indicated the soil compaction occurred by the forwarder operation.

Keywords: bulk density, forwarder Valmet, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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1549 Evaluation of Different Cowpea Genotypes Using Grain Yield and Canning Quality Traits

Authors: Magdeline Pakeng Mohlala, R. L. Molatudi, M. A. Mofokeng

Abstract:

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important annual leguminous crop in semi-arid and tropics. Most of cowpea grain production in South Africa is mainly used for domestic consumption, as seed planting and little or none gets to be used in industrial processing; thus, there is a need to expand the utilization of cowpea through industrial processing. Agronomic traits contribute to the understanding of the association between yield and its component traits to facilitate effective selection for yield improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate cowpea genotypes using grain yield and canning quality traits. The field experiment was conducted in two locations in Limpopo Province, namely Syferkuil Agricultural Experimental farm and Ga-Molepo village during 2017/2018 growing season and canning took place at ARC-Grain Crops Potchefstroom. The experiment comprised of 100 cowpea genotypes laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Designs (RCBD). The grain yield, yield components, and canning quality traits were analysed using Genstat software. About 62 genotypes were suitable for canning, 38 were not due to their seed coat texture, and water uptake was less than 80% resulting in too soft (mushy) seeds. Grain yield for RV115, 99k-494-6, ITOOK1263, RV111, RV353 and 53 other genotypes recorded high positive association with number of branches, pods per plant, and number of seeds per pod, unshelled weight and shelled weight for Syferkuil than at Ga-Molepo are therefore recommended for canning quality.

Keywords: agronomic traits, canning quality, genotypes, yield

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