Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1866

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1866 Vineyard Soils of Karnataka - Characterization, Classification and Soil Site Suitability Evaluation

Authors: Harsha B. R., K. S. Anil Kumar


Land characterization, classification, and soil suitability evaluation of grapes-growing pedons were assessed at fifteen taluks covering four agro climatic zones of Karnataka. Study on problems and potentials of grapes cultivation in selected agro-climatic zones was carried out along with the plant sample analysis. Twenty soil profiles were excavated as study site based on the dominance of area falling under grapes production and existing spatial variability of soils. The detailed information of profiles and horizon wise soil samples were collected to study the morphological, physical, chemical, and fertility characteristics. Climatic analysis and water retention characteristics of soils of major grapes-growing areas were also done. Based on the characterisation and classification study, it was revealed that soils of Doddaballapur (Bangalore Blue and Wine grapes), Bangalore North (GKVK Farm, Rajankunte, and IIHR Farm), Devanahalli, Magadi, Hoskote, Chikkaballapur (Dilkush and Red globe), Yelaburga, Hagari Bommanahalli, Bagalkot (UHS farm) and Indi fall under the soil order Alfisol. Vijaypur pedon of northern dry zone was keyed out as Vertisols whereas, Jamkhandi and Athani as Inceptisols. Properties of Aridisols were observed in B. Bagewadi (Manikchaman and Thompson Seedless) and Afzalpur. Soil fertility status and its mapping using GIS technique revealed that all the nutrients were found to be in adequate range except nitrogen, potassium, zinc, iron, and boron, which indicated the need for application along with organic matter to improve the SOC status. Varieties differed among themselves in yield and plant nutrient composition depending on their age, climatic, soil, and management requirements. Bangalore North (GKVK farm) and Jamkhandi are having medium soil organic carbon stocks of 6.21 and 6.55 kg m⁻³, respectively. Soils of Bangalore North (Rajankunte) were highly suitable (S1) for grapes cultivation. Under northern Karnataka, Vijayapura, B. Bagewadi, Indi, and Afzalpur vineyards were good performers despite the limitations of fertility and free lime content.

Keywords: land characterization, suitability, soil orders, soil organic carbon stock

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1865 Morphological Properties of Soil Profile of Vineyard of Bangalore North (GKVK Farm), Karnataka, India

Authors: Harsha B. R., K. S. Anil Kumar


A profile was dug at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, where grapes were intensively cultivated for 25 years on the dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 m. Demarcation was done on the basis of texture, structure, colour, and the details like depth, texture, colour, consistency, rock fragments, presence of mottles, and structure were recorded and studied according to standard performa of soil profile description. Horizons noticed were Ap, Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, Bt4C, Bt5C and BC with respective depths of 0-13, 13-37, 37-60, 60-78, 78-104, 104-130 and 130-151+ cm. The reddish-brown colour was noticed in Ap, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons. The sub-angular blocky structure was observed in all the layers with slightly acid in reaction. Clear and abrupt smooth boundaries were present between two respective layers with clayey texture in all the horizons except the Ap horizon, which was clay loam in texture. Variegated soil colours and iron concretions were observed in Bt4, Bt5, and BC horizons. Clay skins were observed in Bt and BC horizons. Soils were of highly friable consistency for grapes cultivation.

Keywords: soil morphology, horizons, clay skins, consistency, vineyards

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1864 Transcriptomic Analysis of Fragrant Rice Reveals the Involvement of Post-transcriptional Regulation in Response to Zn Foliar Application

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Sarfraz Shafiq, Xiangru Tang


Alternative splicing (AS) is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism to generate transcripts variability and proteome diversity in plants. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) has a high economic and nutritional value, and the application of micronutrients regulate 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) production, which is responsible for aroma in fragrant rice. However, no systematic investigation of AS events in response to micronutrients (Zn) has been performed in fragrant rice. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of genes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis is also not known. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of AS events under two gradients of Zn treatment in two different fragrant rice cultivars (Meixiangzhan-2 and Xiangyaxiangzhan) was performed. A total of 386 and 598 significant AS events were found in Meixiangzhan-2 treated with low and high doses of Zn, respectively. In Xiangyaxiangzhan, a total of 449 and 598 significant AS events were found in low and high doses of Zn, respectively. Go analysis indicated that these genes were highly enriched in physiological processes, metabolism, and cellular process in both cultivars. However, genotype and dose-dependent AS events were also detected in both cultivars. By comparing differential AS (DAS) events with differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we found a weak overlap among DAS and DEGs in both fragrant rice cultivars, indicating that only a few genes are post-transcriptionally regulated in response to Zn treatment. We further report that Zn differentially regulates the expression of 2-AP biosynthesis-related genes in both cultivars, and Zn treatment altered the editing frequency of SNPs in the genes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis. Finally, we showed that epigenetic modifications associated with active gene transcription are generally enriched over 2-AP biosynthesis-related genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence of the post-transcriptional gene regulation in fragrant rice in response to Zn treatment and highlight that the 2-AP biosynthesis pathway may also be post-transcriptionally regulated through epigenetic modifications. These findings will serve as a cornerstone for further investigation to understand the molecular mechanisms of 2-AP biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

Keywords: fragrant rice, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, gene expression, zinc, alternative splicing, SNPs

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1863 Advances in the Environmentally Friendly Management of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors: Farhan Nayyar, A. Batool


The red palm weevil (RPW), being the most invasive insect pest of palm family, is considered as the most dangerous pest around the globe. As three out of four life stages of weevils are concealed inside the host plants, leaving only the adult stage for controlling it. The use of sex pheromone (Ferrugineol) for the management of red palm weevil is considered as the most rewarding technique of IPM. The current studies were conducted to find the relative potential of four different treatments including Sex pheromone, sex pheromone + date fruit + sugarcane pieces, sex pheromone + ethyl acetate and sex pheromone + jaggary water applied on the attraction behavior of weevils. The treatments were applied randomly at two different locations of Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan including Germ Plasm Unit (GPU) and fruit nursery farm having date palm plants of different ages of four varieties of date palm. The treatments were applied for three consecutive months, including February, March, and April 2022. The pheromone traps were installed at the height of two feet under shade on the western side of date palm plants. The results revealed that among the treatments, T4 consisting of Jaggary water and sex pheromone was found as the most effective treatment and attracted the maximum number of 127 weevils followed by T3 consisting of ethyl acetate and sex pheromone, attracting 53 weevils. In contrast to this, T2 consisting of sex pheromone and date fruit was found as the least effective treatment in attracting red palm weevil and attracted only 15 adult weevils. Among the two selected locations, the population of red palm weevil was found comparatively higher at GPU compared to the nursery farm, Dera Ismail Khan. In conclusion, T4 may be used for the effective and safer management of red palm weevil.

Keywords: red palm weevil, integrated management, sex pheromones, Jaggary water

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1862 Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of the Endocarps Fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae) in Mostaganem

Authors: Sebaa H., Cherifi F., Djabeur Abderrezak M.


Argania spinosa, Sapotaceae sole representative in Algeria and Morocco; hence it is endemic in these regions. However, it is a recognised oil, forage, and timber tree highly adapted to aridity. The exploitation of the argan fruits produces considerable amounts of under or related products. These products, such as the endocarps of a fruit, recuperated after the use of kernels to extract oil. This research studies in detail the contents of total phenolic content was determined by Folin Ciocalteu reagent and Flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay). Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as the percentage of DPPH radical inhibition and IC50 values (μg/mL). Antimicrobial activity evaluated using agar disk diffusion method against reference Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27453, Escherichia coli ATCC 23922. Immature endocarps showed a higher polyphenol content than mature endocarps. The total phenolic content in immature endocarps was found to vary from 983,75+ /- 0.45 to 980,1 +/- 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, whereas in mature endocarps, the polyphenol content ranged from 100,58 mg/g +/- 0.42 to 105 +/- 0.55% mg gallic acid equivalent / g dry weight. The flavonoid content was 16.5 mg equivalent catechin/g dry weight and 9.81mg equivalent catechin /g dry weight for immature and mature endocarp fruits, respectively. DPPH assay of the endocarps extract yielded a half-maximal effective concentration (IC50) value in the immature endocarps (549.33 μg/mL) than in mature endocarps (322 μg/mL). This result can be attributed to the higher phenolics and flavonoid compounds in the immature endocarps. Methanol extract of immature endocarps exhibited antibacterial activity against E.colie (inhibition zone, 11mm).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content, DPPH assay

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1861 Nexus Between Agricultural Insurance Scheme and Performance of Agribusiness in Nigeria

Authors: Festus Epetimehin


Agriculture remains the dominant sector in the rural areas where over 70% of Nigerian reside and it’s still the backbone of our economy. The observed poor performance of farmers in agricultural productivity is due to the nature of risks and uncertainties in agriculture.Agricultural insurance is one of the mechanisms by which farmers can stabilize farm income and investment. The study examined the relationship between agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) and performance of agribusiness in Nigeria. The study adopted exploratory research design which is an ex-ante research approach. One hundred copies of structured questionnaire were administered for the purpose of the study. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed for the study. The correlation analysis of the finding revealed that the independent variable; agricultural insurance scheme (AIS) is positively and significantly correlated with the set of dependent variables; where turnover (ABT)=0.582**, profitability (ABP)=0.321**, solvency (ABS)=0.418**and cost of production (ABC)=0.23** respectively. The regression analysis result also revealed the degree of relationship between the independent variable (AIS) and set of dependent variables where one(1%) percent increase in independent variable will lead to 33.9% (ABT), 9.7% (ABP), 17.5%(ABS) and 1.5%(ABC).The study recommended that the Federal Government in collaboration with the participating Agricultural insurers embark on awareness campaign through to the length and breadth of Nigeria on government support and insurance scheme for farmers. Government should also ensure that the loan and insurance scheme should extend beyond the mechanized farmers and include the intensive subsistence farmers in view of the fact that they are the dominants in most of the farm produce markets.

Keywords: agribusiness, agricultural insurance, performance, turnover, solvency, agricultural risks

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1860 Constraints and Opportunities of Wood Production Value Chain: Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia

Authors: Abduselam Faris, Rijalu Negash, Zera Kedir


This study was initiated to identify constraints and opportunities of the wood production value chain in Southwest Ethiopia. About 385 wood trees growing farmers were randomly interviewed. Similarly, about 30 small-scale wood processors, 30 retailers, 15 local collectors and 5 wholesalers were purposively included in the study. The results of the study indicated that 98.96 % of the smallholder farmers that engaged in the production of wood trees which is used for wood were male-headed, with an average age of 46.88 years. The main activity that the household engaged was agriculture (crop and livestock) which accounts for about 61.56% of the sample respondents. Through value chain mapping of actors, the major value chain participant and supporting actors were identified. On average, the tree-growing farmers generated gross income of 9385.926 Ethiopian birr during the survey year. Among the critical constraints identified along the wood production value chain was limited supply of credit, poor market information dissemination, high interference of brokers, and shortage of machines, inadequate working area and electricity. The availability of forest resources is the leading opportunity in the wood production value chain. Reinforcing the linkage among wood production value chain actors, providing skill training for small-scale processors, and developing suitable policy for wood tree wise use is key recommendations forward.

Keywords: value chain analysis, wood production, southwest Ethiopia, constraints and opportunities

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1859 Seed Quality Aspects of Nightshade (Solanum Nigrum) as Influenced by Gibberellins (GA3) on Seed

Authors: Muga Moses


Plant growth regulators are actively involved in the growth and yield of plants. However, limited information is available on the combined effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes and yield of African nightshade. This experiment will be designed to fill this gap by studying the performance of African nightshade under the application of hormones. Gibberellic acid is a plant growth hormone that promotes cell expansion and division. A greenhouse and laboratory experiment will be conducted at the University of Sussex biotechnology greenhouse and Agriculture laboratory using a growth chamber to study the effect of GA3 on the growth and development attributes of African nightshade. The experiment consists of three replications and 5 treatments and is laid out in a randomized complete block design consisting of various concentrations of GA3. 0ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 150ppm and 200ppm. local farmer seed was grown in plastic pots, 6 seeds then hardening off to remain with four plants per pot at the greenhouse to attain purity of germplasm, proper management until maturity of berries then harvesting and squeezing to get seeds, paper dry on the sun for 7 days. In a laboratory, place 5 Whatman filter paper on glass petri-dish subject to different concentrations of stock solution, count 50 certified and clean, healthy seeds, then arrange on the moist filter paper and mark respectively. Spray with the stock solution twice a day and protrusion of radicle termed as germination count and discard to increase the accuracy of precision. Data will be collected on the application of GA3 to compare synergistic effects on the growth, yield, and nutrient contents on African nightshade.

Keywords: African nightshade, growth, yield, shoot, gibberellins

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1858 The Status of Precision Agricultural Technology Adoption on Row Crop Farms vs. Specialty Crop Farms

Authors: Shirin Ghatrehsamani


Higher efficiency and lower environmental impact are the consequence of using advanced technology in farming. They also help to decrease yield variability by diminishing weather variability impact, optimizing nutrient and pest management as well as reducing competition from weeds. A better understanding of the pros and cons of applying technology and finding the main reason for preventing the utilization of the technology has a significant impact on developing technology adoption among farmers and producers in the digital agriculture era. The results from two surveys carried out in 2019 and 2021 were used to investigate whether the crop types had an impact on the willingness to utilize technology on the farms. The main focus of the questionnaire was on utilizing precision agriculture (PA) technologies among farmers in some parts of the united states. Collected data was analyzed to determine the practical application of various technologies. The survey results showed more similarities in the main reason not to use PA between the two crop types, but the present application of using technology in specialty crops is generally five times larger than in row crops. GPS receiver applications were reported similar for both types of crops. Lack of knowledge and high cost of data handling were cited as the main problems. The most significant difference was among using variable rate technology, which was 43% for specialty crops while was reported 0% for row crops. Pest scouting and mapping were commonly used for specialty crops, while they were rarely applied for row crops. Survey respondents found yield mapping, soil sampling map, and irrigation scheduling were more valuable for specialty crops than row crops in management decisions. About 50% of the respondents would like to share the PA data in both types of crops. Almost 50 % of respondents got their PA information from retailers in both categories, and as the second source, using extension agents were more common in specialty crops than row crops.

Keywords: precision agriculture, smart farming, digital agriculture, technology adoption

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1857 Evaluation of Interspecific Pollination of Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera Carried Out in the Ucayali Region-Peru

Authors: Victor Sotero, Cindy Castro, Ena Velazco, Ursula Monteiro, Dora Garcia


The aim of this study is to carry out the evaluation of the artificial pollination of the female flowers of E. oleifera with pollen of E. guineensis, to obtain the hybrid Palma OXG, which presents two characteristics of interest, such as high resistance to the disease of spear rot and high concentration of oleic acid. The works were carried out with matrices from the experimental fields and INIA in the Province of Colonel Portillo in the Ucayali Region-Peru. From the pollination of five species of E. oleifera, fruits were obtained in two of them, called O7 and O68, with a percentage of 23.6% and 18.6% of fertile fruits. When germination was carried out in a controlled environment of temperature, air, and humidity, only the O17 species were germinated with a yield of 68.7%.

Keywords: Elaeis oleífera, Elaeis guineensis, palm OXG, pollination

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1856 Evaluation of the Pathogenicity Test of Some Entomopathogenic Fungus Isolates against Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) Larvae [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae])

Authors: Tadesse Kebede, Orkun Baris Kovanci


Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta) is one of the most economically important insect pest in tomatoes production. The use of biological control such as entomopathogen fungi isolates would be a long-term and cost-effective solution to control insects pest. Therefore, identifying the most virulent and pathogenic entomopathogen fungi is one of the basic requirements for effective management options to combat Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta). Furthermore, the pathogenicity and virulence difference among entomopathogenfungus strains is not widely well investıgated. The current study was therefore initiated to test the pathogenicity of some entomopathogenic fungus isolates against Tutaabsoluta. The experiment was conducted at Bursa Uludag University, Agiculutre faculty, horticulture department glasshouse in 2020/2021. Tutabasoluta adult were collected, and masslarvae were reared in a growth chamber. Then, ten third instar larvae were inoculated with four entomopathogen fungi isolates (Beuaveriabassania Ak-10, Beuaveriabassania Ak-14, Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11, and Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-12) with different inoculum suspension (0, 1x10⁶, 1x10⁷,,4 × 10⁸, 4× 10⁹ and 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml) in a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Mortality data assessment was done on the 3rd, 5thand 7th days after treatment and analyzed. The analysis of variance for mortality rate revealed significant variations (p<0.05) among entomoptahogen fungi isolates and conidia concentrations. The results revealed thatMetarhziumanisoplai Ak-12was found to show the lowest mortality percentage80.77%, highest LC50 2.3x108, and the longest incubation period, LT50, 4.9 and LT90, 9.9daysand considered to be less pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Beuaveriabassania Ak-10 isolate showed the highest mortality percentage, 91%, and the lowest LT50, 4, and LT90, 7.6 values at 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml, followed by Beuaveriabassania Ak-14 and being considered as the most aggressive bio-agent. Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11 was determined as moderately virulent, having a mortality rate 27-81%. Results also revealed that among conidia concentrations, 1x10⁹ and 1x10¹⁰ suspensions is the most effective, while 1x10⁶ conidia/ml concentration is the least effective. Hence, results indicated that EPF tested were effective against T. absoluta larvae. As the current work revealed the potential variation among entomopathogen fungi isolates and concentration against third instar larvae.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, tomato, metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, biological control

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1855 Phenological and Molecular Genetic Diversity Analysis among Saudi durum Wheat Landraces

Authors: Naser B. Almari, Salem S. Alghamdi, Muhammad Afzal, Mohamed Helmy El Shal


Wheat landraces are a rich genetic resource for boosting agronomic qualities in breeding programs while also providing diversity and unique adaptation to local environmental conditions. These genotypes have grown increasingly important in the face of recent climate change challenges. This research aimed to look at the genetic diversity of Saudi Durum wheat landraces using morpho-phenological and molecular data. The principal components analysis (PCA) analysis recorded 78.47 % variance and 1.064 eigenvalues for the first six PCs of the total, respectively. The significant characters contributed more to the diversity are the length of owns at the tip relative to the length of the ear, culm: glaucosity of the neck, flag leaf: glaucosity of the sheath, flag leaf: anthocyanin coloration of auricles, plant: frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, ear: length, and ear: shape in profile in the PC1. The significant wheat genotypes contributed more in the PC1 (8, 14, 497, 650, 569, 590, 594, 598, 600, 601, and 604). The cluster analysis recorded an 85.42 cophenetic correlation among the 22 wheat genotypes and grouped the genotypes into two main groups. Group, I contain 8 genotypes, however, the 2nd group contains 12 wheat genotypes, while two genotypes (13 and 497) are standing alone in the dendrogram and unable to make a group with any one of the genotypes. The second group was subdivided into two subgroups. The genotypes (14, 602, and 600) were present in the second sub-group. The genotypes were grouped into two main groups. The first group contains 17 genotypes, while the second group contains 3 (8, 977, and 594) wheat genotypes. The genotype (602) was standing alone and unable to make a group with any wheat genotype. The genotypes 650 and 13 also stand alone in the first group. Using the Mantel test, the data recorded a significant (R2 = 0.0006) correlation (phenotypic and genetic) among 22 wheat durum genotypes.

Keywords: durum wheat, PCA, cluster analysis, SRAP, genetic diversity

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1854 Expression of Gro-El under Phloem-Specific Promoter Protects Transgenic Plants against Diverse Begomovirus-Beta Satellite Complex

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Shahid Mansoor, Javeria Qazi, Imran Amin, Musarrat Shaheen


Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major threat to the cotton crop and is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Since multiple begomoviruses and associated satellites are involved in CLCuD, approaches based on the concept of broad-spectrum resistance are essential for effective disease control. Gro-El and G5 are two proteins from whitefly endosymbiont and M13 bacteriophage origin, respectively. Gro-El encapsulates the virus particle when it enters the whitefly and protects the virus from the immune system of the whitefly as well as prevents viral expression in it. This characteristic of Gro-El can be exploited to get resistance against viruses if expressed in plants. G5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, expression of which in transgenic plants will stop viral expression on its binding with ssDNA. The use of tissue-specific promoters is more efficient than constitutive promoters. Transgenics of Nicotiana benthamiana for Gro-El under constitutive promoter and Gro-El under phloem specific promoter were made. In comparison to non-transgenic plants, transgenic plants with Gro-El under NSP promoter showed promising results when challenged against cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB), cotton leaf curl Khokhran virus (CLCuKoV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB) and Pedilenthus leaf curl virus (PedLCV) along with Tobacco leaf curl beta satellite (TbLCB).

Keywords: cotton leaf curl disease, whitefly, endosymbionts, transgenic, resistance

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1853 Machine That Provides Mineral Fertilizer Equal to the Soil on the Slopes

Authors: Huseyn Nuraddin Qurbanov


The reliable food supply of the population of the republic is one of the main directions of the state's economic policy. Grain growing, which is the basis of agriculture, is important in this area. In the cultivation of cereals on the slopes, the application of equal amounts of mineral fertilizers the under the soil before sowing is a very important technological process. The low level of technical equipment in this area prevents producers from providing the country with the necessary quality cereals. Experience in the operation of modern technical means has shown that, at present, there is a need to provide an equal amount of fertilizer on the slopes to under the soil, fully meeting the agro-technical requirements. No fundamental changes have been made to the industrial machines that fertilize the under the soil, and unequal application of fertilizers under the soil on the slopes has been applied. This technological process leads to the destruction of new seedlings and reduced productivity due to intolerance to frost during the winter for the plant planted in the fall. In special climatic conditions, there is an optimal fertilization rate for each agricultural product. The application of fertilizers to the soil is one of the conditions that increase their efficiency in the field. As can be seen, the development of a new technical proposal for fertilizing and plowing the slopes in equal amounts on the slopes, improving the technological and design parameters, and taking into account the physical and mechanical properties of fertilizers is very important. Taking into account the above-mentioned issues, a combined plough was developed in our laboratory. Combined plough carries out pre-sowing technological operation in the cultivation of cereals, providing a smooth equal amount of mineral fertilizers under the soil on the slopes. Mathematical models of a smooth spreader that evenly distributes fertilizers in the field have been developed. Thus, diagrams and graphs obtained without distribution on the 8 partitions of the smooth spreader are constructed under the inclined angles of the slopes. Percentage and productivity of equal distribution in the field were noted by practical and theoretical analysis.

Keywords: combined plough, mineral fertilizer, equal sowing, fertilizer norm, grain-crops, sowing fertilizer

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1852 Examining the Market Challenges That Constrain the Proper Sales of Farming Produces Amongst the Small-Scale Farms

Authors: Simiso Fisokuhle Nyandeni


Climate change has turned out to be a pandemic that has drawn the attention of many countries’ households around the globe, especially those whose livelihood and economic status depend on agricultural productivity. Hence, the agricultural sector is regarded as the sector that is most dependent on climate conditions for its productivity/harvest, yet in recent years this sector has been experiencing drought. However, adaptation seems to be a tool that every farmer looks upon as a solution to their challenges as their productivity keeps on being vulnerable to climate effects. Thus, exposure/access to the market seems to be a major challenge that faces especially small-scale farmers. We, therefore, examine the small-scale farmers’ constraints or challenges towards getting access to the market for them to get proper sales of their farming products. As a result, the adaptation capacity of every farm household varies on the financial status.

Keywords: climate change, small-scale farming, agriculture sector, adaptation

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1851 Effects of Soil Neutron Irradiation in Soil Carbon Neutron Gamma Analysis

Authors: Aleksandr Kavetskiy, Galina Yakubova, Nikolay Sargsyan, Stephen A. Prior, H. Allen Torbert


The carbon sequestration question of modern times requires the development of an in-situ method of measuring soil carbon over large landmasses. Traditional chemical analytical methods used to evaluate large land areas require extensive soil sampling prior to processing for laboratory analysis; collectively, this is labor-intensive and time-consuming. An alternative method is to apply nuclear physics analysis, primarily in the form of pulsed fast-thermal neutron-gamma soil carbon analysis. This method is based on measuring the gamma-ray response that appears upon neutron irradiation of soil. Specific gamma lines with energies of 4.438 MeV appearing from neutron irradiation can be attributed to soil carbon nuclei. Based on measuring gamma line intensity, assessments of soil carbon concentration can be made. This method can be done directly in the field using a specially developed pulsed fast-thermal neutron-gamma system (PFTNA system). This system conducts in-situ analysis in a scanning mode coupled with GPS, which provides soil carbon concentration and distribution over large fields. The system has radiation shielding to minimize the dose rate (within radiation safety guidelines) for safe operator usage. Questions concerning the effect of neutron irradiation on soil health will be addressed. Information regarding absorbed neutron and gamma dose received by soil and its distribution with depth will be discussed in this study. This information was generated based on Monte-Carlo simulations (MCNP6.2 code) of neutron and gamma propagation in soil. Received data were used for the analysis of possible induced irradiation effects. The physical, chemical and biological effects of neutron soil irradiation were considered. From a physical aspect, we considered neutron (produced by the PFTNA system) induction of new isotopes and estimated the possibility of increasing the post-irradiation gamma background by comparisons to the natural background. An insignificant increase in gamma background appeared immediately after irradiation but returned to original values after several minutes due to the decay of short-lived new isotopes. From a chemical aspect, possible radiolysis of water (presented in soil) was considered. Based on stimulations of radiolysis of water, we concluded that the gamma dose rate used cannot produce gamma rays of notable rates. Possible effects of neutron irradiation (by the PFTNA system) on soil biota were also assessed experimentally. No notable changes were noted at the taxonomic level, nor was functional soil diversity affected. Our assessment suggested that the use of a PFTNA system with a neutron flux of 1e7 n/s for soil carbon analysis does not notably affect soil properties or soil health.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, neutron gamma analysis, radiation effect on soil, Monte-Carlo simulation

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1850 Yield and Physiological Evaluation of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Response to Biochar Applications

Authors: Alefsi D. Sanchez-Reinoso, Leonardo Lombardini, Hermann Restrepo


Colombian coffee is recognized worldwide for its mild flavor and aroma. Its cultivation generates a large amount of waste, such as fresh pulp, which leads to environmental, health, and economic problems. Obtaining biochar (BC) by pyrolysis of coffee pulp and its incorporation to the soil can be a complement to the crop mineral nutrition. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the application of BC obtained from coffee pulp on the physiology and agronomic performance of the Castillo variety coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.). The research was developed in field condition experiment, using a three-year-old commercial coffee crop, carried out in Tolima. Four doses of BC (0, 4, 8 and 16 t ha-1) and four levels of chemical fertilization (CF) (0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of the nutritional requirements) were evaluated. Three groups of variables were recorded during the experiment: i) physiological parameters such as Gas exchange, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), biomass, and water status were measured; ii) physical and chemical characteristics of the soil in a commercial coffee crop, and iii) physiochemical and sensorial parameters of roasted beans and coffee beverages. The results indicated that a positive effect was found in plants with 8 t ha-1 BC and fertilization levels of 66 and 100%. Also, a positive effect was observed in coffee trees treated with 8 t ha-1 BC and 100%. In addition, the application of 16 t ha-1 BC increased the soil pHand microbial respiration; reduced the apparent density and state of aggregation of the soil compared to 0 t ha-1 BC. Applications of 8 and 16 t ha-1 BC and 66%-100% chemical fertilization registered greater sensitivity to the aromatic compounds of roasted coffee beans in the electronic nose. Amendments of BC between 8 and 16 t ha-1 and CF between 66% and 100% increased the content of total soluble solids (TSS), reduced the pH, and increased the titratable acidity in beverages of roasted coffee beans. In conclusion, 8 t ha-1 BC of the coffee pulp can be an alternative to supplement the nutrition of coffee seedlings and trees. Applications between 8 and 16 t ha-1 BC support coffee soil management strategies and help the use of solid waste. BC as a complement to chemical fertilization showed a positive effect on the aromatic profile obtained for roasted coffee beans and cup quality attributes.

Keywords: crop yield, cup quality, mineral nutrition, pyrolysis, soil amendment

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1849 Knowledge of Artificial Insemination and Agribusiness Management for Social Innovation in Rural Populations

Authors: Yasser Y. Lenis, Daniela Garcia Gonzalez, Cristian Solarte Bacca, Diego F. Carrillo González, Amy Jo Montgomery, Dursun Barrios


Introduction: Artificial insemination in bovines helps to promote genetic improvement and can positively impact the rural economy. The Colombian armed conflict has forced a large portion of the rural population to abandon their territory, affecting their education, family integration, and economics. Justification: The achievement of education in rural populations was one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made by the United Nations. During the last World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), it was concluded that most of the world’s poor, illiterate and undernourished population lives in rural areas; therefore, access to education is considered one of the most significant challenges for governments in countries with developing economies. Objectives: To study the effects of training in artificial insemination and rural management on the perception of knowledge and the level of knowledge in rural residents affected by the armed conflict in Nariño, Colombia. Methods: The perception of knowledge and the theoretical-practical knowledge of 63 rural residents were evaluated on the topics of bovine agribusiness management, artificial insemination, and genetic improvement through the application of three surveys. 1) evaluated the perceived level of knowledge each rural resident had about each topic using the Likert scale, 2) evaluated the theoretical knowledge before training, and 3) evaluated the theoretical knowledge upon completion of training. Results/discussion: Of the surveyed rural residents, 54% stated that they knew how business management improved the performance of their bovine agribusiness, 54% answered the pre-training knowledge test correctly, while 83% correctly answered the post-training knowledge test. Only 6% of surveyed residents perceived that they had prior knowledge of artificial insemination and reproductive anatomy topics. Before training, 35% of surveyed residents answered correctly on these topics, while upon completion of training, 65% answered correctly. Regarding genetic improvement, 11% of participating rural residents stated that they knew this subject. The correct answers on this topic went from 57% to 89% before and post-training. Conclusion: Rural extension programs contribute to closing knowledge gaps in relation to the use of reproductive biotechnologies and bovine management in rural areas affected by armed conflict.

Keywords: agribusiness, insemination, knowledge, reproduction

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1848 Impact of Climate Change on Pulses Production in Southern Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Khuram Nawaz Sadozai, Awais Habib, Rizwan Ahmad


Climate change and crop production are intrinsically associated with each other. Therefore, this research study is designed to assess the impact of climate change on pulses production in Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province of Pakistan. Two pulses (i.e. chickpea and mung bean) were addressed in this research endeavor with respect to climate change. Climatic variables such as temperature, humidity, and precipitation along with pulsesproduction and area under cultivation of pulses were encompassed as the major variables of this study. Secondary data of climatic variables and crop variables for the period of thirty four years (1986-2020) were obtained from Pakistan Metrological Department and Agriculture Statistics of KP, respectively. Panel data set of chickpea and mung bean crops was estimated separately. The analysis validate that both data sets were a balanced panel data. Hausmanspecificationtest was run separately for both the panel data sets. Estimates of the Hausman tests had suggested the fixed effect model as an appropriate model for chickpea panel data, however random effect model was suggested for estimation of the panel data of mung bean. Major findings confirm that maximum temperature is statistically significant for the chickpea yield. This implies if maximum temperature increases by 1 0C, it can enhance the chickpea yield by 0.0463 units. However, the impact of precipitation was reported insignificant. Furthermore, the humidity was statistically significant and has a positive association with chickpea yield. In case of mung bean, the minimum temperature was significantly contributing in the yield of mung bean. This study concludes that temperature and humidity can significantly contribute to enhance the pulses yield. It is recommendedthat capacity building of pulses growers may be made to adapt the climate change strategies. Moreover, the government may ensure the availability of climate change resistant varieties of pulses to encourage the pulses cultivation.

Keywords: climate chnag E, chickpea, Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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1847 The Effects of Fungicide and Genetics on Fungal Diseases on Wheat in Nebraska With Emphasis on Stem Rust

Authors: Javed Sidiqi, Stephen Baezinger, Stephen Wegulo


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production continues to be challenged by foliar fungal diseases although significant improvement has been made to manage the diseases through developing resistant varieties and the fungicide use to ensure sufficient wheat is produced to meet the growing population’s need. Significant crop losses have been recorded in the history of grain production and yield losses due to fungal diseases, and the trend continues to threat food security in the world and particularly in the less developed countries. The impact of individual fungal diseases on grain yield has been studied extensively to determine crop losses. However, there is limited research available to find out the combined effects of fungal diseases on grain yield and the ways to effectively manage the diseases. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to study the effect of fungal pathogens on grain yield of pre-released winter wheat genotypes in fungicide treated and untreated plots, and to determine whether S7b gene was present in ‘Gage’ wheat as previously hypothesized. Sixty winter wheat genotypes in fungicide treated and untreated plots were studied across four environments. There was a significant effect of fungicide on grain yield consistently across four environments in three years. Fungicide treated wheat lines demonstrated (4,496 kg/ ha-1) grain yield compared to (3,147 kg/ ha-1) grain yield in untreated wheat lines indicating 43% increased grain yield due to severity of foliar fungal diseases. Furthermore, fungicide application also caused an increase in protein concentration from 153 (g kg-1) to 164 (g kg-1) in treated plots in along with test weight from 73 to 77 (kg hL-1) respectively. Gage wheat variety and ISr7b-Ra were crossed to determine presence of Sr7b in Gage. The F2 and F2:3 segregating families were screened and evaluated for stem rust resistance. The segregation of families fell within 15:1 ratio for two separate resistance genes suggesting that Sr7b segregates independently from an unknown resistance gene in Gage that needs to be characterized for its use in the future wheat breeding program to develop resistant wheat varieties.

Keywords: funicide, genetics, foliar diseases, grain

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1846 Integrated Approach Towards Safe Wastewater Reuse in Moroccan Agriculture

Authors: Zakia Hbellaq


The Mediterranean region is considered a hotbed for climate change. Morocco is a semi-arid Mediterranean country facing water shortages and poor water quality. Its limited water resources limit the activities of various economic sectors. Most of Morocco's territory is in arid and desert areas. The potential water resources are estimated at 22 billion m3, which is equivalent to about 700 m3/inhabitant/year, and Morocco is in a state of structural water stress. Strictly speaking, the Kingdom of Morocco is one of the “very riskiest” countries, according to the World Resources Institute (WRI), which oversees the calculation of water stress risk in 167 countries. The surprising results of the Institute (WRI) rank Morocco as one of the riskiest countries in terms of water scarcity, ranking 3.89 out of 5, thus occupying the 23rd place out of a total of 167 countries, which indicates that the demand for water exceeds the available resources. Agriculture with a score of 3.89 is most affected by water stress from irrigation and places a heavy burden on the water table. Irrigation is an unavoidable technical need and has undeniable economic and social benefits given the available resources and climatic conditions. Irrigation, and therefore the agricultural sector, currently uses 86% of its water resources, while industry uses 5.5%. Although its development has undeniable economic and social benefits, it also contributes to the overfishing of most groundwater resources and the surprising decline in levels and deterioration of water quality in some aquifers. In this context, REUSE is one of the proposed solutions to reduce the water footprint of the agricultural sector and alleviate the shortage of water resources. Indeed, wastewater reuse, also known as REUSE (reuse of treated wastewater), is a step forward not only for the circular economy but also for the future, especially in the context of climate change. In particular, water reuse provides an alternative to existing water supplies and can be used to improve water security, sustainability, and resilience. However, given the introduction of organic trace pollutants or, organic micro-pollutants, the absorption of emerging contaminants, and decreasing salinity, it is possible to tackle innovative capabilities to overcome these problems and ensure food and health safety. To this end, attention will be paid to the adoption of an integrated and attractive approach, based on the reinforcement and optimization of the treatments proposed for the elimination of the organic load with particular attention to the elimination of emerging pollutants, to achieve this goal. , membrane bioreactors (MBR) as stand-alone technologies are not able to meet the requirements of WHO guidelines. They will be combined with heterogeneous Fenton processes using persulfate or hydrogen peroxide oxidants. Similarly, adsorption and filtration are applied as tertiary treatment In addition, the evaluation of crop performance in terms of yield, productivity, quality, and safety, through the optimization of Trichoderma sp strains that will be used to increase crop resistance to abiotic stresses, as well as the use of modern omics tools such as transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing and methylation to identify adaptive traits and associated genetic diversity that is tolerant/resistant/resilient to biotic and abiotic stresses. Hence, ensuring this approach will undoubtedly alleviate water scarcity and, likewise, increase the negative and harmful impact of wastewater irrigation on the condition of crops and the health of their consumers.

Keywords: water scarcity, food security, irrigation, agricultural water footprint, reuse, emerging contaminants

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1845 Crops Cold Stress Alleviation by Silicon: Application on Turfgrass

Authors: Taoufik Bettaieb, Sihem Soufi


As a bioactive metalloid, silicon (Si) is an essential element for plant growth and development. It also plays a crucial role in enhancing plants’ resilience to different abiotic and biotic stresses. The morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular background of Si-mediated stress tolerance in plants were unraveled. Cold stress is a severe abiotic stress response to the decrease of plant growth and yield by affecting various physiological activities in plants. Several approaches have been used to alleviate the adverse effects generated from cold stress exposure, but the cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and defensible approach is the supply of silicon. Silicon has the ability to neutralize the harmful impacts of cold stress. Therefore, based on these hypotheses, this study was designed in order to investigate the morphological and physiological background of silicon effects applied at different concentrations on cold stress mitigation during early growth of a turfgrass, namely Paspalum vaginatum Sw. Results show that silicon applied at different concentrations improved the morphological development of Paspalum subjected to cold stress. It is also effective on the photosynthetic apparatus by maintaining stability the photochemical efficiency. As the primary component of cellular membranes, lipids play a critical function in maintaining the structural integrity of plant cells. Silicon application decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and kept on membrane frontline barrier relatively stable under cold stress.

Keywords: crops, cold stress, silicon, abiotic stress

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1844 Avian and Rodent Pest Infestations of Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Evaluation of Attributable Losses in Savanna Transition Environment

Authors: Okwara O. S., Osunsina I. O. O., Pitan O. R., Afolabi C. G.


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to the family poaceae and has become the most popular food. Globally, this crop is been faced with the menace of vertebrate pests, of which birds and rodents are the most implicated. The study avian and rodents’ infestations and the evaluation of attributable losses was carried out in 2020 and 2021 with the objectives of identifying the types of bird and rodent species associated with lowland rice and to determine the infestation levels, damage intensity, and the crop loss induced by these pests. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with the main plots being protected and unprotected groups and the sub-plots being four rice varieties, Ofada, WITA-4, NERICA L-34, and Arica-3. Data collection was done over a 16-week period, and the data obtained were transformed using square root transformation model before Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done at 5% probability level. The results showed the infestation levels of both birds and rodents across all the treatment means of thevarieties as not significantly different (p > 0.05) in both seasons. The damage intensity by these pests in both years were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the means of the varieties, which explains the diverse feeding nature of birds and rodents when it comes to infestations. The infestation level under the protected group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the infestation level recorded under the unprotected group.Consequently, an estimated crop loss of 91.94 % and 90.75 % were recorded in 2020 and 2021, respectively, andthe identified pest birds were Ploceus melanocephalus, Ploceus cuculatus, and Spermestes cucullatus. Conclusively, vertebrates pest cause damage to lowland rice which could result to a high percentage crop loss if left uncontrolled.

Keywords: pests, infestations, evaluation, losses, rodents, avian

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1843 Internet Economy: Enhancing Information Communication Technology Adaptation, Service Delivery, Content and Digital Skills for Small Holder Farmers in Uganda

Authors: Baker Ssekitto, Ambrose Mbogo


The study reveals that indeed agriculture employs over 70% of Uganda’s population, of which majority are youth and women. The study further reveals that over 70% of the farmers are smallholder farmers based in rural areas, whose operations are greatly affected by; climate change, weak digital skills, limited access to productivity knowledge along value chains, limited access to quality farm inputs, weak logistics systems, limited access to quality extension services, weak business intelligence, limited access to quality markets among others. It finds that the emerging 4th industrial revolution powered by artificial intelligence, 5G and data science will provide possibilities of addressing some of these challenges. Furthermore, the study finds that despite rapid development of ICT4Agric Innovation, their uptake is constrained by a number of factors including; limited awareness of these innovations, low internet and smart phone penetration especially in rural areas, lack of appropriate digital skills, inappropriate programmes implementation models which are project and donor driven, limited articulation of value addition to various stakeholders among others. Majority of farmers and other value chain actors lacked knowledge and skills to harness the power of ICTs, especially their application of ICTs in monitoring and evaluation on quality of service in the extension system and farm level processes.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, productivity, ICT4agriculture, value chain, logistics

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1842 Effect of Mannitol on in Vitro Conservation of Local and Exotic Taro-Genotypes (Colocasia Esculenta Var Esculenta)

Authors: Benjamin Bonsu Bruce, Marian Dorcas Quain David Appiah-Kubi, Gertrude Osei-Diko, Harrison Kwame Dapaah


Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is a major staple food and remains a significant crop to many cultural and agricultural customs worldwide. In Ghana, taro is mostly propagated using vegetative material, which is conserved in field collection and recycled from their farms to establish new fields. However, this practice promotes the accumulation of systemic pathogens. Prior exposure to pests and subsequent expression of disease symptoms can also be a huge constraint to sustainable conservation and utilization of taro genetic resources. In vitro, slow growth is one of the most promising techniques to be utilized for conservation. The objective of this study was to find a medium-term in vitro conservation protocol for local and exotic taro genotypes. The medium-term conservation study was conducted using actively growing shoots obtained from in vitro cultures. Explants were cultured to full strength in complete Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with Mannitol at different concentrations (0g/l, 20g/l, 25g/l, and 30g/l). Another medium that was tested as an additional treatment is the White’s medium. The highest number of shoots (6.33) and leaves (22.67) occurred on medium containing 20 and 25g/l mannitol in genotype SAO 006 as compared to other genotypes, whereas 30g/l mannitol was the best to restrict growth for the entire 6 months period in terms of shoot height (22.50cm). The study reveals that mannitol supplemented culture media could reduce the growth of Colocasia plantlets, especially in stem height. Culture growth following 6 months of conservation, showed that healthy shoot cultures of Taro were obtained after 6 months of storage in a medium containing 20gl⁻¹ and 25gl⁻¹ mannitol.

Keywords: complete murashige, skoog medium, culture conditions, mannitol, slow growth conservation

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1841 Globalization of Pesticide Technology and Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur


The pesticide industry is a big supplier of agricultural inputs. The uses of pesticides control weeds, fungal diseases, etc., which causes of yield losses in agricultural production. In agribusiness and agrichemical industry, Globalization of markets, competition and innovation are the dominant trends. By the tradition of increasing the productivity of agro-systems through generic, universally applicable technologies, innovation in the agrichemical industry is limited. The marketing of technology of agriculture needs to deal with some various trends such as locally-organized forces that envision regionalized sustainable agriculture in the future. Agricultural production has changed dramatically over the past century. Before World War second agricultural production was featured as a low input of money, high labor, mixed farming and low yields. Although mineral fertilizers were applied already in the second half of the 19th century, most f the crops were restricted by local climatic, geological and ecological conditions. After World War second, in the period of reconstruction, political and socioeconomic pressure changed the nature of agricultural production. For a growing population, food security at low prices and securing farmer income at acceptable levels became political priorities. Current agricultural policy the new European common agricultural policy is aimed to reduce overproduction, liberalization of world trade and the protection of landscape and natural habitats. Farmers have to increase the quality of their productivity and they have to control costs because of increased competition from the world market. Pesticides should be more effective at lower application doses, less toxic and not pose a threat to groundwater. There is a big debate taking place about how and whether to mitigate the intensive use of pesticides. This debate is about the future of agriculture which is sustainable agriculture. This is possible by moving away from conventional agriculture. Conventional agriculture is featured as high inputs and high yields. The use of pesticides in conventional agriculture implies crop production in a wide range. To move away from conventional agriculture is possible through the gradual adoption of less disturbing and polluting agricultural practices at the level of the cropping system. For a healthy environment for crop production in the future there is a need for the maintenance of chemical, physical or biological properties. There is also required to minimize the emission of volatile compounds in the atmosphere. Companies are limiting themselves to a particular interpretation of sustainable development, characterized by technological optimism and production-maximizing. So the main objective of the paper will present the trends in the pesticide industry and in agricultural production in the era of Globalization. The second objective is to analyze sustainable agriculture. Companies of pesticides seem to have identified biotechnology as a promising alternative and supplement to the conventional business of selling pesticides. The agricultural sector is in the process of transforming its conventional mode of operation. Some experts give suggestions to farmers to move towards precision farming and some suggest engaging in organic farming. The methodology of the paper will be historical and analytical. Both primary and secondary sources will be used.

Keywords: globalization, pesticides, sustainable development, organic farming

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1840 Extreme Heat and Workforce Health in Southern Nevada

Authors: Erick R. Bandala, Kebret Kebede, Nicole Johnson, Rebecca Murray, Destiny Green, John Mejia, Polioptro Martinez-Austria


Summertemperature data from Clark County was collected and used to estimate two different heat-related indexes: the heat index (HI) and excess heat factor (EHF). These two indexes were used jointly with data of health-related deaths in Clark County to assess the effect of extreme heat on the exposed population. The trends of the heat indexes were then analyzed for the 2007-2016 decadeandthe correlation between heat wave episodes and the number of heat-related deaths in the area was estimated. The HI showed that this value has increased significantly in June, July, and August over the last ten years. The same trend was found for the EHF, which showed a clear increase in the severity and number of these events per year. The number of heat wave episodes increased from 1.4 per year during the 1980-2016 period to 1.66 per yearduring the 2007-2016 period. However, a different trend was found for heat-wave-event duration, which decreasedfrom an average of 20.4 days during the trans-decadal period (1980-2016) to 18.1 days during the most recent decade(2007-2016). The number of heat-related deaths was also found to increase from 2007 to 2016, with 2016 with the highest number of heat-related deaths. Both HI and the number of deaths showeda normal-like distribution for June, July, and August, with the peak values reached in late July and early August. The average maximum HI values better correlated with the number of deaths registered in Clark County than the EHF, probably because HI uses the maximum temperature and humidity in its estimation,whereas EHF uses the average medium temperature. However, it is worth testing the EHF of the study zone because it was reported to fit properly in the case of heat-related morbidity. For the overall period, 437 heat-related deaths were registered in Clark County, with 20% of the deaths occurring in June, 52% occurring in July, 18% occurring in August,and the remaining 10% occurring in the other months of the year. The most vulnerable subpopulation was people over 50 years old, for which 76% of the heat-related deaths were registered.Most of the cases were associated with heart disease preconditions. The second most vulnerable subpopulation was young adults (20-50), which accounted for 23% of the heat-related deaths. These deathswere associated with alcoholic/illegal drug intoxication.

Keywords: heat, health, hazards, workforce

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1839 WSN System Warns Atta Cephalotes Climbing in Mango Fruit Trees

Authors: Federico Hahn Schlam, Fermín Martínez Solís


Leaf-cutting ants (Atta cephalotes) forage from mango tree leaves and flowers to feed their colony. Farmers find it difficult to control ants due to the great quantity of trees grown in commercial orchards. In this article, IoT can support farmers for ant detection in real time, as production losses can be considered of 324 US per tree.A wireless sensor network, WSN, was developed to warn the farmer from ant presence in trees during a night. Mango trees were gathered into groups of 9 trees, where the central tree holds the master microcontroller, and the other eight trees presented slave microcontrollers (nodes). At each node, anemitter diode-photodiode unitdetects ants climbing up. A capacitor is chargedand discharged after being sampled every ten minutes. The system usesBLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) to communicate between the master microcontroller by BLE.When ants were detected the number of the tree was transmitted via LoRa from the masterto the producer smartphone to warn him. In this paper, BLE, LoRa, and energy consumption were studied under variable vegetation in the orchard. During 2018, 19 trees were attacked by ants, and ants fed 26.3% of flowers and 73.7% of leaves.

Keywords: BLE, atta cephalotes, LoRa, WSN-smartphone, energy consumption

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1838 Kuwait Environmental Remediation Program: Selection of Native Plants Species for Revegetation Project

Authors: Aisha Al-Barood, Hussain Al-Kandari, Srinivasan Vedhapuri


Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is the stakeholder to implement remediation and revegetation projects inside KOC oil fields. These projects are being implemented under the supervision of Kuwait National Focal Point (KNFP) and funded by the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) as part of the Kuwait Environmental Remediation Program (KERP). During the Gulf war ( 1990-1991), Iraqi troops were exploded many oil wells and severely impacted 114 square kilometers in a desert land, which resulted in the creation of various contaminated features like wet oil lakes, dry oil lakes and oil contaminated piles with total contaminated land, i.e., 26 million m3 of polluted soil in entire KOC oil fields. This has significantly altered the landscape, ecology and habitat of flora and fauna in Kuwait. As per UNCC decision, it is advised to use environment-friendly modern remediation/re-vegetation approaches to accelerate the recovery of native vegetation and restore the ecological functioning and provide a sustainable environment to local wildlife of the oil impacted areas to pre-invasion levels. To achieve this goal, it was considered necessary to reintroduce native plants and create favorable conditions for their establishment and growth. To identify the suitable native plants, KOC conducted Kuwait based market research study to evaluate the potential of the local nurseries for the production of native plants, availability of seeds and seedling of selected native plants and best practices of large-scale irrigation systems. Based on the outcome of this study, KOC collaboration with the Public Authority Of Agriculture Affairs And Fish Resources (PAAF) and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) has developed the Guidelines for the Selection of Native Plants Species for Landscape Gardening and Restoration/Re-vegetation Projects. The purpose of this guideline is to define and refine the process of selection of native species and provide support to managers and technicians who are undertaking rehabilitation/ revegetation works within KOC oilfields to restore Kuwait’s degraded ecosystems. Moreover, this guideline has been endorsed by KNFP. This paper predominantly highlights that the Guidelines for Selection of Native Plants Species will be utilized in the upcoming Revegetation/Restoration project to achieve KERP objectives as well as compliance with UNCC directives and restore the native vegetation.

Keywords: oil contaminated soil, seeding, native plants, revegetation

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1837 Prevention of Biocompounds and Amino Acid Losses in Vernonia amygdalina duringPost Harvest Treatment Using Hot Oil-Aqueous Mixture

Authors: Nneka Nkechi Uchegbu, Temitope Omolayo Fasuan


This study investigated how to reduce bio-compounds and amino acids in V. amygdalina leaf during processing as a functional food ingredient. Fresh V. amygdalina leaf was processed using thermal oil-aqueous mixtures (soybean oil: aqueous and palm oil: aqueous) at 1:40 and 130 (v/v), respectively. Results indicated that the hot soybean oil-aqueous mixture was the most effective in preserving the bio-compounds and amino acids with retention potentials of 80.95% of the bio-compounds at the rate of 90-100%. Hot palm oil-aqueous mixture retained 61.90% of the bio-compounds at the rate of 90-100% and hot aqueous retained 9.52% of the bio-compounds at the same rate. During the debittering process, seven new bio-compounds were formed in the leaves treated with hot soybean oil-aqueous mixture, six in palm oil-aqueous mixture, and only four in hot aqueous leaves. The bio-compounds in the treated leaves have potential functions as antitumor, antioxidants, antihistaminic, anti-ovarian cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, hepatoprotective, antihistaminic, haemolytic 5-α reductase inhibitor, nt, immune-stimulant, diuretic, antiandrogenic, and anaemiagenic. Alkaloids and polyphenols were retained at the rate of 81.34-98.50% using oil: aqueous mixture while aqueous recorded the rate of 33.47-41.46%. Most of the essential amino acids were retained at a rate above 90% through the aid of oil. The process is scalable and could be employed for domestic and industrial applications.

Keywords: V. amygdalina leaf, bio-compounds, oil-aqueous mixture, amino acids

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