Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 162

Search results for: zinc sulphide.

162 Removal of Hydrogen Sulphide from Air by Means of Fibrous Ion Exchangers

Authors: H. Wasag

Abstract:

The removal of hydrogen sulphide is required for reasons of health, odour problems, safety and corrosivity problems. The means of removing hydrogen sulphide mainly depend on its concentration and kind of medium to be purified. The paper deals with a method of hydrogen sulphide removal from the air by its catalytic oxidation to elemental sulphur with the use of Fe-EDTA complex. The possibility of obtaining fibrous filtering materials able to remove small concentrations of H2S from the air were described. The base of these materials is fibrous ion exchanger with Fe(III)- EDTA complex immobilized on their functional groups. The complex of trivalent iron converts hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur. Bivalent iron formed in the reaction is oxidized by the atmospheric oxygen, so complex of trivalent iron is continuously regenerated and the overall process can be accounted as pseudocatalytic. In the present paper properties of several fibrous catalysts based on ion exchangers with different chemical nature (weak acid,weak base and strong base) were described. It was shown that the main parameters affecting the process of catalytic oxidation are:concentration of hydrogen sulphide in the air, relative humidity of the purified air, the process time and the content of Fe-EDTA complex in the fibres. The data presented show that the filtering layers with anion exchange package are much more active in the catalytic processes of hydrogen sulphide removal than cation exchanger and inert materials. In the addition to the nature of the fibres relative air humidity is a critical factor determining efficiency of the material in the air purification from H2S. It was proved that the most promising carrier of the Fe-EDTA catalyst for hydrogen sulphide oxidation are Fiban A-6 and Fiban AK-22 fibres.

Keywords: hydrogen sulphide, catalytic oxidation, odour control, ion exchange, fibrous ion exchangers, air deodorization

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161 ZnS and Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite as Potential Electron Acceptor for Photovoltaics

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Shikha Jindal

Abstract:

Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. The band gap of the QDs was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of ZnS QD confirm the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend was formed by spin coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75 V and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene QDs nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appear as quasi spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The average particle size of ZnS-graphene nanocomposite QDs was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 104 times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene QDs, with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility and tunable band gap, show a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: Graphene, mobility, nanocomposites, photovoltaics, quantum dots, zinc sulphide.

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160 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. MoroydorDerun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, theraw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3werecharacterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates.The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result,Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR.

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159 Investigation on the Effectiveness of Zinc Sulphate and Biofertilizer on Mustard Plant

Authors: Khin S. Aye

Abstract:

The present work was conducted to find out the effect of biofertilizer formulated with four species of bacteria (two species of Azotobacter and two species of Lysobacter) and zinc sulphate. Field experiments with mustard plant were conducted to study the effectiveness of soil application of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after sowing. Plant height and condition of plant was found to be increased significantly using a mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate than other treatments after 40 days sowing. Three treatments were also used in this field experiment such as bacteria only, zinc sulphate only and mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate. The treatment using a mixture of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer had the best yield (4688.008 kg/ha) within 50 days of sowing and performed better than other treatments. Field experiment using zinc sulphate only was second best yield (3380.75Kg/ha) and biofertilizer only treatment gave (2639.04kg/ha).

Keywords: biofertilizer, zinc sulphate, mustard plant, bacteria

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158 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov

Abstract:

The ferrites ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl and HNO3. The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The charging of five zinc sulfide concentrates was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, inorganic acids, solubility, zinc ferrite.

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157 Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio on the Ultrasonic Synthesis of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, the method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to synthesis the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: Zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency.

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156 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be used as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame retardant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products were analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: Borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis.

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155 Low Temperature Solid-State Zinc Borate Synthesis from ZnO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borates can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. Zinc borate is white, non-hygroscopic and powder type product. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solidstate processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied at low temperatures of 600oC and 700oC using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with several mole ratios. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result the forms of ZnB4O7, Zn3(BO3)2, ZnB2O4 were synthesized and obtained along with the unreacted ZnO.

Keywords: FT-IR, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.

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154 Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Ayo S Afolabi

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of oxygen and micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation will render these minerals more susceptible to react with potassium amyl xanthate collectors, resulting in a higher recovery of nickel and hinder the recovery of other undesired minerals contained in the ore. Higher nickel recoveries were obtained when pure oxygen was used as a bubbling gas rather than the conventional air. Microwave cracking favored the recovery of nickel.

Keywords: Flotation, Conventional air, Oven micro-cracking, Recovery.

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153 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: Supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride.

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152 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: Zinc fertilizers, micro and macro elements, Phyllanthus amarus.

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151 Temperature Effect on the Solid-State Synthesis of Dehydrated Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, N. Baran Acarali, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Turkey has 72 % of total world boron reserves on the basis of B2O3.Borates that is a refined form of boron minerals have a wide range of applications. Zinc borates can be used as multifunctional synergistic additives. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solid-state processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied between 500 and 800°C using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with 1:4 mole ratio. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman Spectrometer. As a result the form of ZnB4O7 was synthesized with the highest crystal score at 800°C.

Keywords: Raman, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.

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150 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Z. C. Chang, S. C. Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, Doped, Sputtering

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149 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: Aging, films, Microstructure, Photoelectric Property.

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148 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption.

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147 Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles Prepared by γ-Radiation Technique

Authors: Azmi Zakaria, Reza Zamiri, Parisa Vaziri, Elias Saion, M. Shahril Husin

Abstract:

In this study we applied thermal lens (TL) technique to study the effect of size on thermal diffusivity of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanofluid prepared by using γ-radiation method containing particles with different sizes. In TL experimental set up a diode laser of wavelength 514 nm and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the excitation source and the probe beam respectively, respectively. The experimental results showed that the thermal diffusivity value of CdS nanofluid increases when the of particle size increased.

Keywords: Thermal diffusivity, nanofluids, thermal lens

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146 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia

Abstract:

PH, temperature and time of extraction of each stage,  agitation speed and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of  zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc  extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by  artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was  employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in  hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.

 

Keywords: Zinc extraction, Efficiency, Neural networks, Operating condition.

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145 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: Broiler, Performance, Phytase, Phosphorus, Zinc.

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144 Zinc Sulfide Concentrates and Optimization of their Roasting in Fluidezed Bed Reactor

Authors: B.S.Boyanov, M.P.Sandalski, K.I.Ivanov

Abstract:

The production of glass, ceramic materials and many non-ferrous metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, etc.), ferrous metals (pig iron) and others is connected with the use of a considerable number of initial solid raw materials. Before carrying out the basic technological processes (oxidized roasting, melting, agglomeration, baking) it is necessary to mix and homogenize the raw materials that have different chemical and phase content, granulometry and humidity. For this purpose zinc sulfide concentrates differing in origin are studied for their more complete characteristics using chemical, X-ray diffraction analyses, DTA and TGA as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy. The phases established in most concentrates are: β-ZnS, mZnS.nFeS, FeS2, CuFeS2, PbS, SiO2 (α-quartz). With the help of the developed by us a Web-based information system for a continued period of time different mix proportions from zinc concentrates are calculated and used in practice (roasting in fluidized bed reactor), which have to conform to the technological requirements of the zinc hydrometallurgical technological scheme.

Keywords: fluidized bed reactor, roasting, Web-based information system, zinc concentrates.

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143 The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania

Authors: Alina Anton, Gheorghe Solcan, Carmen Solcan

Abstract:

The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.

Keywords: Copper, dairy cows, health, milk production, zinc

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142 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin

Authors: E. R. Arakelova, S. G. Grigoryan, F. G. Arsenyan, N. S. Babayan, R. M. Grigoryan, N. K. Sarkisyan

Abstract:

The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide.

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141 New Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Emma R. Arakelova, Stepan G. Grigoryan, Ashot M. Khachatryan, Karapet E. Avjyan, Lilia M. Savchenko, Flora G. Arsenyan

Abstract:

The paper presents a new drugs delivery system, based on the thin film technology. As a model antitumor drug, highly toxic doxorubicin is chosen. The system is based on the technology of obtaining zinc oxide composite of doxorubicin by deposition of nanosize ZnO films on the surface of doxorubicin coating on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering of zinc targets in Ar:O2 medium at room temperature. For doxorubicin zinc oxide compositions in the form of coatings and gels with 180-200nm thick ZnO films, higher (by a factor 2) in vivo (ascitic Ehrlich's carcinoma) antitumor activity is observed at low doses of doxorubicin in comparison with that of the initial preparation at therapeutic doses. The vector character of the doxorubicin zinc oxide composite transport to tumor tissues ensures the increase in antitumor activity as well as decrease of toxicity in comparison with the initial drug.

Keywords: Antitumor activity, doxorubicin, DC magnetron sputtering, zinc oxide.

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140 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulphide (CZTS), and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells.

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139 Combined Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc and Magnesium Borates at 100oC Using ZnO, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Magnesium borate(MB) istechnical ceramic for high heat-resisting, corrosion-resisting, super mechanical strength, superinsulation, light weight, high strength, and high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB) can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. ZB dehydrates above 290°C and anhydrous ZB has thermal resistance about 400°C. In this study, the raw materials of ZnO, MgO and H3BO3 were used with mole ratio of 1:1:9. With the starting materials hydrothermal method was applied at a temperature of 100oC. The reaction time was determined as 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result, the forms of Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], Admontite [MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)] and Mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)] were synthesized.

Keywords: Magnesium borate, zinc borate, XRD, FT-IR.

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138 Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Pourahmad, Sh. Gharipour

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized SiO2@PbS core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.

Keywords: Core-shell, nanostructure, semiconductor, optical property, XRD.

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137 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment

Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.

Keywords: Heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybean.

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136 Effect of Zinc Chloride Activation on Physicochemical Characteristics of Cassava Peel and Waste Bamboo Activated Carbon

Authors: Olayinka Omotosho, Anthony Amori

Abstract:

Cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction are two sources of waste that could constitute serious menace where they exist in large quantities and inadequately handled. The study examined the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbon materials derived from cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction site. Both materials were subjected to carbonization and chemical activation using zinc chloride. Results show that the chemical activation of the materials had a more effect on pore formation in cassava peels than in bamboo materials. Bamboo material exhibited a reverse trend for zinc and sulphate ion decontamination efficiencies as the value of zinc chloride impregnation varied unlike cassava peel carbon biomass which exhibited a more consistent result of decontamination efficiency for the seven contaminants tested. Although waste bamboo biomass exhibited higher adsorption intensity as indicated by values of decontamination for most of the contaminants tested, the cassava peel carbon biomass showed a more balanced adsorption level.

Keywords: Zinc chloride, cassava peels, activated carbon, bamboo waste, SEM.

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135 Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: Gulnaziya Issabayeva, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

Abstract:

commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.

Keywords: Adsorption, biomodification, copper, zinc, palm shell carbon.

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134 Effects of Formic Acid on the Chemical State and Morphology of As-synthesized and Annealed ZnO Films

Authors: Chueh-Jung Huang, Chia-Hung Li, Hsueh-Lung Wang, Tsun-Nan Lin

Abstract:

Zinc oxide thin films with various microstructures were grown on substrates by using HCOOH-sols. The reaction mechanism of the sol system was investigated by performing an XPS analysis of as-synthesized films, due to the products of hydrolysis and condensation in the sol system contributing to the chemical state of the as-synthesized films. The chemical structures of the assynthesized films related to the microstructures of the final annealed films were also studied. The results of the Zn 2p3/2, C 1s and O1s XPS patterns indicate that the hydrolysis reaction in the sol system is strongly influenced by the HCOOH agent. The results of XRD and FE-SEM demonstrated the microstructures of the annealed films are related to the content of hydrolyzed zinc hydrate (Zn-OH) species present, and that content of the Zn-OH species in the sol system increases the HCOOH adding, and these Zn-OH species existing in the sol phase are responsible for large ZnO crystallites in the final annealed films.

Keywords: zinc oxide, hydrolysis catalyst, zinc acetate source, formic acid.

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133 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder.

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