Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1435

Search results for: thin film solar cells.

1435 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulphide (CZTS), and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells.

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1434 Optical and Structural Properties of a ZnS Buffer Layer Fabricated with Deposition Temperature of RF Magnetron Sputtering System

Authors: Won Song, Bo-Ra Koo, Seok Eui Choi, Yong-Taeg Oh, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

Optical properties of sputter-deposited ZnS thin films were investigated as potential replacements for CBD(chemical bath deposition) CdS buffer layers in the application of CIGS solar cells. ZnS thin films were fabricated on glass substrates at RT, 150oC, 200oC, and 250oC with 50 sccm Ar gas using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The crystal structure of the thin film is found to be zinc blende (cubic) structure. Lattice parameter of ZnS is slightly larger than CdS on the plane and thus better matched with that of CIGS. Within a 400-800 nm wavelength region, the average transmittance was larger than 75%. When the deposition temperature of the thin film was increased, the blue shift phenomenon was enhanced. Band gap energy of the ZnS thin film tended to increase as the deposition temperature increased. ZnS thin film is a promising material system for the CIGS buffer layer, in terms of ease of processing, low cost, environmental friendliness, higher transparency, and electrical properties

Keywords: ZnS thin film, Buffer layer, CIGS, Solar cell.

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1433 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

Abstract:

Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: Partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode.

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1432 Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: P. Kumar, D. Eisenhauer, M. M. K. Yousef, Q. Shi, A. S. G. Khalil, M. R. Saber, C. Becker, T. Pullerits, K. J. Karki

Abstract:

In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: Carrier lifetime, Impedance, nano-textured, and photocurrent.

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1431 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n-AlGaAs/p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar

Abstract:

This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%. The efficiency decreases with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: AlGaAs/GaAs, Solar Cells, Environmental parameters, Spectral Variation, SMARTS.

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1430 Effects of Mo Thickness on the Properties of AZO/Mo/AZO Multilayer Thin Films

Authors: Hung-Wei Wu, Chien-Hsun Chu, Ru-Yuan Yang, Chin-Min Hsiung

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the effects of Mo thickness on the properties of AZO/Mo/AZO multilayer thin films for opto-electronics applications. The structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO/Mo/AZO thin films were investigated. Optimization of the thin films coatings resulted with low resistivity of 9.98 × 10-5 )-cm, mobility of 12.75 cm2/V-s, carrier concentration of 1.05 × 1022 cm-3, maximum transmittance of 79.13% over visible spectrum of 380 – 780 nm and Haacke figure of merit (FOM) are 5.95 × 10-2 )-1 under Mo layer thickness of 15 nm. These results indicate an alternative candidate for use as a transparent electrode in solar cells and various displays applications.

Keywords: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, AZO, multilayer, RF magnetron sputtering, AZO/Mo/AZO, thin film, transparent conductive oxides.

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1429 Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by MgO Coating on TiO2 Electrodes

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/MgO composite films were prepared by coating the magnesium acetate solution in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a dip coating method. Concentrations of magnesium acetate solution were varied in a range of 1x10-4 – 1x10-1 M. The TiO2/MgO composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscropy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) , transient voltage decay and I-V test. The TiO2 films and TiO2/MgO composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution. The Dye-sensitized solar cells with the TiO2/MgO/N719 structure showed an optimal concentration of magnesium acetate solution of 1x10-3 M resulting in the MgO film estimated thickness of 0.0963 nm and giving the maximum efficiency of 4.85%. The improved efficiency of dyesensitized solar cell was due to the magnesium oxide film as the wide band gap coating decays the electron back transfer to the triiodide electrolyte and reduce charge recombination.

Keywords: Magnesium oxide thin film, TiO2/MgO composite films, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum, Transient voltage decay

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1428 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

Abstract:

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: Heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco.

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1427 Interfacial Layer Effect on Novel p-Ni1-xO:Li/n-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Feng-Hao Hsu, Na-Fu Wang, Yu-Zen Tsai, Yu-Song Cheng, Cheng-Fu Yang, Mau-Phon Houng

Abstract:

This study fabricates p-type Ni1xO:Li/n-Si heterojunction solar cells (P+/n HJSCs) by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and investigates the effect of substrate temperature on photovoltaic cell properties. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, four point probe, and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared discover the optoelectrical properties of p-Ni1-xO thin films. The results show that p-Ni1-xO thin films deposited at 300 oC has the highest grain size (22.4 nm), average visible transmittance (~42%), and electrical resistivity (2.7 Ωcm). However, the conversion efficiency of cell is shown only 2.33% which is lower than the cell (3.39%) fabricated at room temperature. This result can be mainly attributed to interfacial layer thickness (SiOx) reduces from 2.35 nm to 1.70 nm, as verified by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords: Heterojunction, nickel oxide, solar cells, sputtering.

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1426 Characterization of the Energy Band Diagram of Fabricated SnO2/CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells

Authors: Rasha A. Abdullah, Mohammed. A. Razooqi, Adwan N. H. Al-Ajili

Abstract:

A SnO2/CdS/CdTe heterojunction was fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The fabricated cells were annealed at 573K for periods of 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The structural properties of the solar cells have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. Capacitance- voltage measurements were studied for the as-prepared and annealed cells at a frequency of 102 Hz. The capacitance- voltage measurements indicated that these cells are abrupt. The capacitance decreases with increasing annealing time. The zero bias depletion region width and the carrier concentration increased with increasing annealing time. The carrier transport mechanism for the CdS/CdTe heterojunction in dark is tunneling recombination. The ideality factor is 1.56 and the reverse bias saturation current is 9.6×10-10A. The energy band lineup for the n- CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction was investigated using current - voltage and capacitance - voltage characteristics.

Keywords: SnO2/CdS/CdTe heterojunction, XRD, C-V measurement, I-V measurement, energy band diagram.

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1425 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film.

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1424 Organic Thin Film Transistors based Oligothiophine Derivatives using DZ-Dihexyl(quarter- and sexi-)Thiophene

Authors: Jae-Hong Kwon, Myung-Ho Chung, Tae-Yeon Oh, Hyeon-Seok Bae, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

End-substitution of quarterthiophene and sexithiophene with hexyl groups leads to highly soluble conjugated oligomers,DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene (DH-4T) and DZ-dihexylsexithiophene (DH-6T). We have characterized these oligomers for optical and electrical properties. We fabricated an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) using the above two air-stable p-type organic semiconductor materials. We obtained a stable characteristic curve. The field effect mobility, Pwas calculated to be 3.2910-4 cm2/Vs for DH-6T based OTFT; while the DH-4T based OTFT had 1.8810-5 cm2/Vs.KeywordsOrganic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

Keywords: Organic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

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1423 Investigation of Thin Film Cathode Prepared by Synthesized Nano Pyrite

Authors: S. Kowsari, M. Aghaziarati

Abstract:

Pyrite (FeS2) is a promising candidate for cathode materials in batteries because of it`s high theoretical capacity, low cost and non-toxicity. In this study, nano size iron disulfide thin film was prepared on graphite substrate through a new method as battery cathode. In this way, acetylene black and poly vinylidene fluoride were used as electron conductor and binder, respectively. Fabricated thin films were analyzed by XRD and SEM. These results and electrochemical data confirm improvement of battery discharge capacity in comparison with commercial type of pyrite.

Keywords: Nano pyrite, Thin film, Battery cathode, capacity.

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1422 Vertically Grown p–Type ZnO Nanorod on Ag Thin Film

Authors: Jihyun Park, Tae Il Lee, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

A Silver (Ag) thin film is introduced as a template and doping source for vertically aligned p–type ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were grown using an ammonium hydroxide based hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the Ag thin film was dissolved to generate Ag ions in the solution. The Ag ions can contribute to doping in the wurzite structure of ZnO and the (111) grain of Ag thin film can be the epitaxial temporal template for the (0001) plane of ZnO. Hence, Ag–doped p–type ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on the substrate, which can be an electrode or semiconductor for the device application. To demonstrate the potentials of this idea, p–n diode was fabricated and its electrical characteristics were demonstrated.

Keywords: Ag–doped ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal process, p–n homo–junction diode, p–type ZnO.

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1421 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: Electrodeposition, Non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD.

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1420 Work Function Engineering of Functionally Graded ZnO+Ga2O3 Thin Film for Solar Cell and Organic Light Emitting Diodes Applications

Authors: Yong-Taeg Oh, Won Song, Seok-Eui Choi, Bo-Ra Koo, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

ZnO+Ga2O3 functionally graded thin films (FGTFs) were examined for their potential use as Solar cell and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). FGTF transparent conducting oxides (TCO) were fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The composition gradient was controlled up to 10% by changing the plasma power of the two sputter guns. A Ga2O3+ZnO graded region was placed on the top layer of ZnO. The FGTFs showed up to 80% transmittance. Their surface resistances were reduced to < 10% by increasing the Ga2O3: pure ZnO ratio in the TCO. The FGTFs- work functions could be controlled within a range of 0.18 eV. The controlled work function is a very promising technology because it reduces the contact resistance between the anode and Hall transport layers of OLED and solar cell devices.

Keywords: Work Function, TCO, Functionally Graded Thin Films, Resistance, Transmittance.

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1419 Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters

Authors: F.Belhocine-Nemmar; MS.Belkaid D. Hatem, O Boughias

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of temperature on the different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency, which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the mobility which is a temperature activated process.

Keywords: cells parameters, organic materials, solar cells, temperature effect

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1418 Climate Adaptive Building Shells for Plus-Energy-Buildings, Designed on Bionic Principles

Authors: Andreas Hammer

Abstract:

Six peculiar architecture designs from the Frankfurt University will be discussed within this paper and their future potential of the adaptable and solar thin-film sheets implemented facades will be shown acting and reacting on climate/solar changes of their specific sites. The different aspects, as well as limitations with regard to technical and functional restrictions, will be named.  The design process for a “multi-purpose building”, a “high-rise building refurbishment” and a “biker’s lodge” on the river Rheine valley, has been critically outlined and developed step by step from an international studentship towards an overall energy strategy, that firstly had to push the design to a plus-energy building and secondly had to incorporate bionic aspects into the building skins design. Both main parameters needed to be reviewed and refined during the whole design process. Various basic bionic approaches have been given [e.g. solar ivy TM, flectofin TM or hygroskin TM, which were to experiment with, regarding the use of bendable photovoltaic thin film elements being parts of a hybrid, kinetic façade system.

Keywords: Energy-strategy, photovoltaic in building skins, bionic and bioclimatic design, plus-energy-buildings, solar gain, the harvesting façade, sustainable building concept, high-efficiency building skin, climate adaptive Building Shells (CABS).

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1417 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS.

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1416 Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology

Authors: Ravinu Garg, Naresh V. Datla

Abstract:

We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.

Keywords: Debonding, fracture mechanics, surface topology, thin film adhesion.

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1415 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based On Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: Porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector.

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1414 Fabrication and Characterization of Poly-Si Vertical Nanowire Thin Film Transistor

Authors: N. Shen, T. T. Le, H. Y. Yu, Z. X. Chen, K. T. Win, N. Singh, G. Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical nanowire thin film transistor with gate-all-around architecture, fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. A novel method of fabricating polysilicon vertical nanowires of diameter as small as 30 nm using wet-etch is presented. Both n-type and p-type vertical poly-silicon nanowire transistors exhibit superior electrical characteristics as compared to planar devices. On a poly-crystalline nanowire of 30 nm diameter, high Ion/Ioff ratio of 106, low drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 50 mV/V, and low sub-threshold slope SS~100mV/dec are demonstrated for a device with channel length of 100 nm.

Keywords: Nanowire (NW), Gate-all-around (GAA), polysilicon (poly-Si), thin-film transistor (TFT).

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1413 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V·s at 250°C.

Keywords: Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, Thin-film transistor (TFT).

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1412 The Effect of Chemical Treatment on TL Glow Curves of CdS/ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 and thermal annealing in 400°C, on the defect structures of potentially useful ZnS\CdS solar cell thin films deposited onto quartz substrate and prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole traps are found in the various deposited samples studied. After annealing, however, it was observed that the intensity and activation energy of TL signal increases with loss of the low temperature electron traps.

Keywords: CdS, chemical treatment, heat treatment, Thermoluminescence, trapping parameters, thin film, vacuumdeposition, ZnS

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1411 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj

Abstract:

Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of GaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current

Keywords: GaAs solar cell, 1MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence.

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1410 Highly Efficient Low Power Consumption Tracking Solar Cells for White LED-Based Lighting System

Authors: Theerawut Jinayim, Somchai Arunrungrasmi, Tanes Tanitteerapan, Narong Mungkung

Abstract:

Although White LED lighting systems powered by solar cells have presented for many years, they are not widely used in today application because of their cost and low energy conversion efficiency. The proposed system use the dc power generated by fixed solar cells module to energize White LED light sources that are operated by directly connected White LED with current limitation resistors, resulting in much more power consumption. This paper presents the use of white LED as a general lighting application powered by tracking solar cells module and using pulse to apply the electrical power to the White LED. These systems resulted in high efficiency power conversion, low power consumption, and long light of the white LED.

Keywords: Efficiency, lighting, light-emitting diode, pulse, Solar, white LED.

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1409 A Hybrid Differential Transform Approach for Laser Heating of a Double-Layered Thin Film

Authors: Cheng-Ying Lo

Abstract:

This paper adopted the hybrid differential transform approach for studying heat transfer problems in a gold/chromium thin film with an ultra-short-pulsed laser beam projecting on the gold side. The physical system, formulated based on the hyperbolic two-step heat transfer model, covers three characteristics: (i) coupling effects between the electron/lattice systems, (ii) thermal wave propagation in metals, and (iii) radiation effects along the interface. The differential transform method is used to transfer the governing equations in the time domain into the spectrum equations, which is further discretized in the space domain by the finite difference method. The results, obtained through a recursive process, show that the electron temperature in the gold film can rise up to several thousand degrees before its electron/lattice systems reach equilibrium at only several hundred degrees. The electron and lattice temperatures in the chromium film are much lower than those in the gold film.

Keywords: Differential transform, hyperbolic heat transfer, thin film, ultrashort-pulsed laser.

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1408 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: Crystalline, CuAlS2, evaporation, resistivity, sulfurisation, thickness.

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1407 Tin and Tin-Copper Composite Nanorod Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Applications

Authors: B. D. Polat, O. Keles

Abstract:

Physical vapor deposition under conditions of an obliquely incident flux results in a film formation with an inclined columnar structure. These columns will be oriented toward the vapor source because of the self-shadowing effect, and they are homogenously distributed on the substrate surface because of the limited surface diffusion ability of ad-atoms when there is no additional substrate heating.

In this work, the oblique angle electron beam evaporation technique is used to fabricate thin films containing inclined nanorods. The results demonstrate that depending on the thin film composition, the morphology of the nanorods is changed as well. The galvanostatic analysis of these thin film anodes reveals that a composite CuSn nanorods having approximately 900mAhg-1 of initial discharge capacity, performs higher electrochemical performance compared to pure Sn nanorods containing anode material. The long cycle life and the advanced electrochemical properties of the nanostructured composite electrode might be attributed to its improved mechanical tolerance and enhanced electrical conductivity depending on the Cu presence in the nanorods.

Keywords: Cu-Sn thin film, oblique angle deposition, lithium ion batteries, anode.

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1406 Thermal and Visual Performance of Solar Control Film

Authors: Norzita Jaafar, Nor Zaini Zakaria, Azni Zain Ahmed, Razidah Ismail

Abstract:

The use of solar control film on windows as one of solar passive strategies for building have becoming important and is gaining recognition. Malaysia located close to equator is having warm humid climate with long sunshine hours and abundant solar radiation throughout the year. Hence, befitting solar control on windows is absolutely necessary to capture the daylight whilst moderating thermal impact and eliminating glare problems. This is one of the energy efficient strategies to achieve thermal and visual comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of window solar controls on thermal and visual performance of naturally ventilated buildings. This was conducted via field data monitoring using a test building facility. Four types of window glazing systems were used with three types of solar control films. Data were analysed for thermal and visual impact with reference to thermal and optical characteristics of the films. Results show that for each glazing system, the surface temperature of windows are influenced by the Solar Energy Absorption property, the indoor air temperature are influenced by the Solar Energy Transmittance and Solar Energy Reflectance, and the daylighting by Visible Light Transmission and Shading Coefficient. Further investigations are underway to determine the mathematical relation between thermal energy and visual performance with the thermal and optical characteristics of solar control films.

Keywords: window, solar control film, natural ventilation, thermal performance, visual performance

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