Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 701

Search results for: wind turbine blade

701 Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Twisted-Blade Darrieus Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

Abstract:

A complete CAD procedure to model a twisted-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented with the aim of determining some practical guidelines to be used for the generation of an easily-meshable CAD geometry to be adopted as the basis of both CFD and FEM numerical simulations.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), twisted blade, CAD, 3D modeling.

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700 Starting Torque Study of Darrieus Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Douak, Z. Aouachria

Abstract:

The aim of our study is to project an optimized wind turbine of Darrieus type. This type of wind turbine is characterized by a low starting torque in comparison with the Savonius rotor allowing them to operate for a period greater than wind speed. This led us to reconsider the Darrieus rotor to optimize a design which will increase its starting torque. The study of a system of monitoring and control of the angle of attack of blade profile, which allows an auto start to wind speeds as low as possible is presented for the straight blade of Darrieus turbine. The study continues to extend to other configurations namely those of parabolic type.

Keywords: Darrieus turbine, pitch angle, self-stating, wind energy.

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699 Development of Wind Turbine Simulator for Generator Torque Control

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Joon-Young Park, Ki-Yong Oh, Jun-Shin Park

Abstract:

Wind turbine should be controlled to capture maximum wind energy and to prevent the turbine from being stalled. To achieve those two goals, wind turbine controller controls torque on generator and limits input torque from wind by pitching blade. Usually, torque on generator is controlled using inverter torque set point. However, verifying a control algorithm in actual wind turbine needs a lot of efforts to test and the actual wind turbine could be broken while testing a control algorithm. So, several software have developed and commercialized by Garrad Hassan, GH Bladed, and NREL, FAST. Even though, those programs can simulate control system modeling with subroutines or DLLs. However, those simulation programs are not able to emulate detailed generator or PMSG. In this paper, a small size wind turbine simulator is developed with induction motor and small size drive train. The developed system can simulate wind turbine control algorithm in the region before rated power.

Keywords: Wind turbine, simulator, wind turbine control, wind turbine torque control

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698 A Comparison between Hybrid and Experimental Extended Polars for the Numerical Prediction of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance using Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A dynamic stall-corrected Blade Element-Momentum algorithm based on a hybrid polar is validated through the comparison with Sandia experimental measurements on a 5-m diameter wind turbine of Troposkien shape. Different dynamic stall models are evaluated. The numerical predictions obtained using the extended aerodynamic coefficients provided by both Sheldal and Klimas and Raciti Castelli et al. are compared to experimental data, determining the potential of the hybrid database for the numerical prediction of vertical-axis wind turbine performances.

Keywords: Darrieus wind turbine, Blade Element-Momentum Theory, extended airfoil database, hybrid database, Sandia 5-m wind turbine.

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697 Experimental Tests of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Twisted Blades

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

An experimental campaign of measurements for a Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented for open field conditions. The turbine is characterized by a twisted bladed design, each blade being placed at a fixed distance from the rotational shaft. The experimental setup to perform the acquisitions is described. The results are lower than expected, due to the high influence of the wind shear.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine, Darrieus wind turbine, twisted blades, experimental measurements, wind shear.

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696 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa J. Noronha, Faber A. Saldanha

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: Cohesive zone modeling, fatigue, segmentation, wind turbine blade.

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695 Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Han Kim

Abstract:

In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Multi-Body Dynamics (CMBD), Reynolds-averageNavier-Stokes (RANS), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), FiniteElement Method (FEM)

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694 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

The effect of a 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in this study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and stall characteristics. The aim of use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from the mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from the hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e., the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: Fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, Wells turbine.

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693 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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692 Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation. Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine blade cooling.

Keywords: Water injection, wet compression, gas turbine, turbine blade cooling.

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691 Evaluation of the Effect of Rotor Solidity on the Performance of a H-Darrieus Turbine Adopting a Blade Element-Momentum Algorithm

Authors: G. Bedon, M. Raciti Castelli, E. Benini

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluating the effect of rotor solidity - in terms of chord length for a given rotor diameter - on the performances of a small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine. The proposed work focuses on both power production and rotor power coefficient, considering also the structural constraints deriving from the centrifugal forces due to rotor angular velocity. Also the smoothness of the resulting power curves have been investigated, in order to evaluate the controllability of the corresponding rotor architectures.

Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Darrieus, solidity, Blade Element-Momentum

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690 CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades

Authors: R.S. Amano, R.J. Malloy

Abstract:

Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of energy such as coal. Most blades available for commercial grade wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil shaped cross sections. These blades are found to be very efficient at lower wind speeds in comparison to the potential energy that can be extracted. However as the oncoming wind speed increases the efficiency of the blades decreases as they approach a stall point. This paper explores the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the blades at higher wind speeds while maintaining efficiency at the lower wind speeds. The design intends to maintain efficiency at lower wind speeds by selecting the appropriate orientation and size of the airfoil cross sections based on a low oncoming wind speed and given constant rotation rate. The blades will be made more efficient at higher wind speeds by implementing a swept blade profile. Performance was investigated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Keywords: CFD, wind turbine blade, renewable energy.

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689 An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds

Authors: Z. Saleh, E. J. Avital, T. Korakianitis

Abstract:

The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow and thus increase the turbine efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip leakage flow, transonic flow.

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688 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even-dough decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also fund that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power)above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: Probability, Stochastic, Probability density function, Turbulence.

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687 Computational Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling: Effect of Turbulator Geometry in Helicoidal Cooling Duct

Authors: Chandrakant R Kini, Satish Shenoy B, Yagnesh Sharma N.

Abstract:

In a bid to improve turbine entry temperature for maximizing the thermal efficiency of the HP stage gas turbine blade, an attempt is made in this paper to compare the performance of helicoidal ducted blade cooling with turbulator of different geometric proportion. It is found from analysis that there is significant improvement in cooling characteristics for turbine blade with turbulator geometry having larger e/D ratio. Also it is found from analysis, performance is vastly improved for greater thickness of turbulator geometry.

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, turbine blade cooling, helicoidal cooling duct, turbulator.

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686 Effect of Blade Number on a Straight-Bladed Vertical-Axis Darreius Wind Turbine

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a mean for reducing the torque variation during the revolution of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) by increasing the blade number. For this purpose, twodimensional CDF analysis have been performed on a straight-bladed Darreius-type rotor. After describing the computational model, a complete campaign of simulations based on full RANS unsteady calculations is proposed for a three, four and five-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0025 airfoil. For each proposed rotor configuration, flow field characteristics are investigated at several values of tip speed ratio, allowing a quantification of the influence of blade number on flow geometric features and dynamic quantities, such as rotor torque and power. Finally, torque and power curves are compared for the analyzed architectures, achieving a quantification of the effect of blade number on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, blade number

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685 Numerical Investigation of the Optimal Spatial Domain Discretization for the 2-D Analysis of a Darrieus Vertical-Axis Water Turbine

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

The optimal grid spacing and turbulence model for the 2D numerical analysis of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) operating in a 2 m/s freestream current has been investigated. The results of five different spatial domain discretizations and two turbulence models (k-ω SST and k-ε RNG) have been compared, in order to gain the optimal y+ parameter distribution along the blade walls during a full rotor revolution. The resulting optimal mesh has appeared to be quite similar to that obtained for the numerical analysis of a vertical-axis wind turbine.

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, NACA 0025, blade y+.

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684 Comparison of Two Airfoil Sections for Application in Straight-Bladed Darrieus VAWT

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine depending on blade geometrical section. It consists of an analytical code coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the desired blade geometry based on the desired blade design geometric parameters. Such module is then linked to a finite volume commercial CFD code for the calculation of rotor performance by integration of the aerodynamic forces along the perimeter of each blade for a full period of revolution.After describing and validating the computational model with experimental data, the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two candidate airfoil sections, that is a classical symmetrical NACA 0021 blade profile and the recently developed DU 06-W-200 non-symmetric and laminar blade profile.Through a full CFD campaign of analysis, the effects of blade geometrical section on angle of attack are first investigated and then the overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the influence of airfoil geometry on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: Wind turbine, NACA 0021, DU 06-W-200.

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683 A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: T. Unchim, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.

Keywords: DFIG, wind speed, PI controller, the output power.

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682 Performance Characteristics of Some Small Scale Wind Turbines Fabricated in Tanzania

Authors: Talam K. E, Kainkwa R. M.

Abstract:

In this study, a field testing has been carried out to assess the power characteristics of some small scale wind turbines fabricated by one native technician from Tanzania. Two Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), one with five and other with sixteen blades were installed at a height of 2.4m above the ground. The rotation speed of the rotor blade and wind speed approaching the turbines were measured simultaneously. The data obtained were used to determine how the power coefficient varies as a function of tip speed ratio and also the way in which the output power compares with available power in the wind for each turbine. For the sixteen-bladed wind turbine the maximum value of power coefficient of about 0.14 was found to occur at a tip speed ratio of around 0.65 while for the five bladed, these extreme values were respectively attained at approximately 0.2 and 1.7. The five bladed-wind turbine was found to have a higher power efficiency of about 37.5% which is higher compared to the sixteen bladed wind turbine whose corresponding value was 14.37%. This is what would be expected, as the smaller the number of blades of a wind turbine, the higher the electric power efficiency and vice versa. Some of the main reasons for the low efficiency of these machines may be due to the low aerodynamic efficiency of the turbine or low efficiency of the transmission mechanisms such as gearbox and generator which were not examined in this study. It is recommended that some other researches be done to investigate the power efficiency of such machines from different manufacturers in the country. The manufacturers should also be encouraged to use fewer blades in their designs so as to improve the efficiency and at the same time reduce materials used to fabricate the blades. The power efficiency of the electric generators used in the locally fabricated wind turbines should also be examined.

Keywords: Tip speed ratio, Power coefficients and power efficiency.

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681 Numerical Evaluation of the Contribution of Inertial and Aerodynamic Forces on VAWT Blade Loading

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of the contribution of both inertial and aerodynamic forces on the blade loads of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is presented. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations - based on full RANS unsteady calculations - is proposed for a three-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0021 airfoil. For each analyzed angular velocity, the combined effect of pressure and viscous forces acting on every rotor blade are compared to the corresponding centrifugal forces, due to the revolution of the turbine, thus achieving a preliminary estimation of the correlation between overall rotor efficiency and structural blade loads.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, aerodynamic forces, inertial loadings.

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680 The Comparison of Form Drag and Profile Dragof a Wind Turbine Blade Section in Pitching Oscillation

Authors: M. R. Soltani, M. Seddighi, M. Mahmoudi

Abstract:

Extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted to investigate the unsteady flow field over and behind a 2D model of a 660 kW wind turbine blade section in pitching motion. The surface pressure and wake dynamic pressure variation at a distance of 1.5 chord length from trailing edge were measured by pressure transducers during several oscillating cycles at 3 reduced frequencies and oscillating amplitudes. Moreover, form drag and linear momentum deficit are extracted and compared at various conditions. The results show that the wake velocity field and surface pressure of the model have similar behavior before and after the airfoil beyond the static stall angle of attack. In addition, the effects of reduced frequency and oscillation amplitudes are discussed.

Keywords: Pitching motion, form drag, Profile drag, windturbine.

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679 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, İlkay Yavrucuk

Abstract:

This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: Adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control.

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678 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. This issue is extremely important in research and development (R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: Direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management.

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677 Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: C. Amer, M. Sahin

Abstract:

The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, Fiber Reinforced Composites, Horizontal axis wind turbine blade, Hand-wet layup, Modal Testing.

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676 LQR Control for a Multi-MW Wind Turbine

Authors: Trung-Kien Pham, Yoonsu Nam, Hyungun Kim, Jaehoon Son

Abstract:

This paper addresses linear quadratic regulation (LQR) for variable speed variable pitch wind turbines. Because of the inherent nonlinearity of wind turbine, a set of operating conditions is identified and then a LQR controller is designed for each operating point. The feedback controller gains are then interpolated linearly to get control law for the entire operating region. Besides, the aerodynamic torque and effective wind speed are estimated online to get the gain-scheduling variable for implementing the controller. The potential of the method is verified through simulation with the help of MATLAB/Simulink and GH Bladed. The performance and mechanical load when using LQR are also compared with that when using PI controller.

Keywords: variable speed variable pitch wind turbine, multi-MW size wind turbine, wind energy conversion system, LQR control.

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675 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba

Abstract:

This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: Wind turbine, modeling, emulator, electrical generator, renewable energy, induction motor drive, field oriented control, real time control, wind turbine emulator, pitch angle control.

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674 Reliability-based Selection of Wind Turbines for Large-Scale Wind Farms

Authors: M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, A. Salehi Dobakhshari

Abstract:

This paper presents a reliability-based approach to select appropriate wind turbine types for a wind farm considering site-specific wind speed patterns. An actual wind farm in the northern region of Iran with the wind speed registration of one year is studied in this paper. An analytic approach based on total probability theorem is utilized in this paper to model the probabilistic behavior of both turbines- availability and wind speed. Well-known probabilistic reliability indices such as loss of load expectation (LOLE), expected energy not supplied (EENS) and incremental peak load carrying capability (IPLCC) for wind power integration in the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) are examined. The most appropriate turbine type achieving the highest reliability level is chosen for the studied wind farm.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Generator, Wind Farm, Power System Reliability, Wind Turbine Type Selection

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673 Dynamic Modeling of Underplateform Damper used in Turbomachinery

Authors: Vikas Rastogi, Vipan Kumar, Loveleen Kumar Bhagi

Abstract:

The present work deals with the structural analysis of turbine blades and modeling of turbine blades. A common failure mode for turbine machines is high cycle of fatigue of compressor and turbine blades due to high dynamic stresses caused by blade vibration and resonance within the operation range of the machinery. In this work, proper damping system will be analyzed to reduce the vibrating blade. The main focus of the work is the modeling of under platform damper to evaluate the dynamic analysis of turbine-blade vibrations. The system is analyzed using Bond graph technique. Bond graph is one of the most convenient ways to represent a system from the physical aspect in foreground. It has advantage of putting together multi-energy domains of a system in a single representation in a unified manner. The bond graph model of dry friction damper is simulated on SYMBOLS-shakti® software. In this work, the blades are modeled as Timoshenko beam. Blade Vibrations under different working conditions are being analyzed numerically.

Keywords: Turbine blade vibrations, Friction dampers, Timoshenko Beam, Bond graph modeling.

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672 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: Physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction.

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