Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: speckle

17 New Wavelet-Based Superresolution Algorithm for Speckle Reduction in SAR Images

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel projection algorithm, the Projection Onto Span Algorithm (POSA) for wavelet-based superresolution and removing speckle (in wavelet domain) of unknown variance from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Although the POSA is good as a new superresolution algorithm for image enhancement, image metrology and biometric identification, here one will use it like a tool of despeckling, being the first time that an algorithm of super-resolution is used for despeckling of SAR images. Specifically, the speckled SAR image is decomposed into wavelet subbands; POSA is applied to the high subbands, and reconstruct a SAR image from the modified detail coefficients. Experimental results demonstrate that the new method compares favorably to several other despeckling methods on test SAR images.

Keywords: Projection, speckle, superresolution, synthetic aperture radar, thresholding, wavelets.

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16 Dynamic Ultrasound Scatterer Simulation Model Using Field-II and FEM for Speckle Tracking

Authors: Aws Al-azawi, John Soraghan

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in the use of ultrasonic speckle tracking for biomedical image formation of tissue deformation. Speckle tracking is angle independent and has an ability to differentiate soft tissue into benign and malignant regions. In this paper a simulation model for dynamic ultrasound scatterer is presented. The model composes Field-II ultrasonic scatterers and FEM (ANSYS-11) nodes as a regional tissue deformation. A performance evaluation is presented on axial displacement and strain fields estimation of a uniformly elastic model, using speckle tracking based 1D cross-correlation of optimally segmented pre and post-deformation frames. Optimum correlation window length is investigated in terms of highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a selected region of interest of a smoothed displacement field. Finally, gradient based strain field of both smoothed and non-smoothed displacement fields are compared. Simulation results from the model are shown to compare favorably with FEM results.

Keywords: Speckle tracking, tissue deformation, ultrasonic simulation.

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15 Effect Comparison of Speckle Noise Reduction Filters on 2D-Echocardigraphic Images

Authors: Faten A. Dawood, Rahmita W. Rahmat, Suhaini B. Kadiman, Lili N. Abdullah, Mohd D. Zamrin

Abstract:

Echocardiography imaging is one of the most common diagnostic tests that are widely used for assessing the abnormalities of the regional heart ventricle function. The main goal of the image enhancement task in 2D-echocardiography (2DE) is to solve two major anatomical structure problems; speckle noise and low quality. Therefore, speckle noise reduction is one of the important steps that used as a pre-processing to reduce the distortion effects in 2DE image segmentation. In this paper, we present the common filters that based on some form of low-pass spatial smoothing filters such as Mean, Gaussian, and Median. The Laplacian filter was used as a high-pass sharpening filter. A comparative analysis was presented to test the effectiveness of these filters after being applied to original 2DE images of 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Three statistical quantity measures: root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate the filter performance quantitatively on the output enhanced image.

Keywords: Gaussian operator, median filter, speckle texture, peak signal-to-ratio

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14 SVM-Based Detection of SAR Images in Partially Developed Speckle Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to real SAR images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected SAR images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (the detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: Least Square-Support Vector Machine, SyntheticAperture Radar. Partially Developed Speckle, Multi-Look Model.

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13 Advanced Stochastic Models for Partially Developed Speckle

Authors: Jihad S. Daba (Jean-Pierre Dubois), Philip Jreije

Abstract:

Speckled images arise when coherent microwave, optical, and acoustic imaging techniques are used to image an object, surface or scene. Examples of coherent imaging systems include synthetic aperture radar, laser imaging systems, imaging sonar systems, and medical ultrasound systems. Speckle noise is a form of object or target induced noise that results when the surface of the object is Rayleigh rough compared to the wavelength of the illuminating radiation. Detection and estimation in images corrupted by speckle noise is complicated by the nature of the noise and is not as straightforward as detection and estimation in additive noise. In this work, we derive stochastic models for speckle noise, with an emphasis on speckle as it arises in medical ultrasound images. The motivation for this work is the problem of segmentation and tissue classification using ultrasound imaging. Modeling of speckle in this context involves partially developed speckle model where an underlying Poisson point process modulates a Gram-Charlier series of Laguerre weighted exponential functions, resulting in a doubly stochastic filtered Poisson point process. The statistical distribution of partially developed speckle is derived in a closed canonical form. It is observed that as the mean number of scatterers in a resolution cell is increased, the probability density function approaches an exponential distribution. This is consistent with fully developed speckle noise as demonstrated by the Central Limit theorem.

Keywords: Doubly stochastic filtered process, Poisson point process, segmentation, speckle, ultrasound

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12 Speckle Characterization in Laser Projector Display

Authors: Meifang Xu, Yunbo Shi, Guoxian Tang, Jun Liu, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Speckle phenomena results from when coherent radiation is reflected from a rough surface. Characterizing the speckle strongly depends on the measurement condition and experimental setup. In this paper we report the experimental results produced with different parameters in the setup. We investigated the factors which affects the speckle contrast, such as, F-number, gamma value and exposure time of the camera, rather than geometric factors like the distance between the projector lens to the screen, the viewing distance, etc. The measurement results show that the speckle contrast decreases by decreasing F-number, by increasing gamma value, and slightly affects by exposure time of the camera and the gain value of the camera.

Keywords: Characterization, laser projector, speckle

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11 Frequency and Amplitude Measurement of a Vibrating Object in Water Using Ultrasonic Speckle Technique

Authors: Hongmao Zhu, Jun Chu, Lei Shen, Zhihua Luo

Abstract:

The principle of frequency and amplitude measurement of a vibrating object in water using ultrasonic speckle technique is presented in this paper. Compared with other traditional techniques, the ultrasonic speckle technique can be applied to vibration measurement of a nonmetal object with rough surface in water in a noncontact way. The relationship between speckle movement and object movement was analyzed. Based on this study, an ultrasonic speckle measurement system was set up. With this system the frequency and amplitude of an underwater vibrating cantilever beam was detected. The result shows that the experimental data is in good agreement with the calibrating data.

Keywords: Frequency, Amplitude, Vibration measurement, Ultrasonic speckle

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10 Non-Invasive Capillary Blood Flow Measurement: Laser Speckle and Laser Doppler

Authors: A.K.Jayanthy, N.Sujatha, M.Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract:

Microcirculation is essential for the proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of blood flow in the capillaries is therefore of great interest to clinicians. A comparison has been carried out using the developed non-invasive, non-contact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based technique and as well as a commercially available laser Doppler blood flowmeter (LDF) to evaluate blood flow at the finger tip and elbow and is presented here. The LSCI technique gives more quantitative information on the velocity of blood when compared to the perfusion values obtained using the LDF. Measurement of blood flow in capillaries can be of great interest to clinicians in the diagnosis of vascular diseases of the upper extremities.

Keywords: Blood flow, Laser Doppler flowmeter, LSCI, speckle

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9 Scatterer Density in Nonlinear Diffusion for Speckle Reduction in Ultrasound Imaging: The Isotropic Case

Authors: Ahmed Badawi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method for speckle reduction in medical ultrasound imaging while preserving the edges with the added advantages of adaptive noise filtering and speed. A nonlinear image diffusion method that incorporates local image parameter, namely, scatterer density in addition to gradient, to weight the nonlinear diffusion process, is proposed. The method was tested for the isotropic case with a contrast detail phantom and varieties of clinical ultrasound images, and then compared to linear and some other diffusion enhancement methods. Different diffusion parameters were tested and tuned to best reduce speckle noise and preserve edges. The method showed superior performance measured both quantitatively and qualitatively when incorporating scatterer density into the diffusivity function. The proposed filter can be used as a preprocessing step for ultrasound image enhancement before applying automatic segmentation, automatic volumetric calculations, or 3D ultrasound volume rendering.

Keywords: Ultrasound imaging, Nonlinear isotropic diffusion, Speckle noise, Scattering.

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8 Scatterer Density in Edge and Coherence Enhancing Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion for Medical Ultrasound Speckle Reduction

Authors: Ahmed Badawi, J. Michael Johnson, Mohamed Mahfouz

Abstract:

This paper proposes new enhancement models to the methods of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to greatly reduce speckle and preserve image features in medical ultrasound images. By incorporating local physical characteristics of the image, in this case scatterer density, in addition to the gradient, into existing tensorbased image diffusion methods, we were able to greatly improve the performance of the existing filtering methods, namely edge enhancing (EE) and coherence enhancing (CE) diffusion. The new enhancement methods were tested using various ultrasound images, including phantom and some clinical images, to determine the amount of speckle reduction, edge, and coherence enhancements. Scatterer density weighted nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (SDWNAD) for ultrasound images consistently outperformed its traditional tensor-based counterparts that use gradient only to weight the diffusivity function. SDWNAD is shown to greatly reduce speckle noise while preserving image features as edges, orientation coherence, and scatterer density. SDWNAD superior performances over nonlinear coherent diffusion (NCD), speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), adaptive weighted median filter (AWMF), wavelet shrinkage (WS), and wavelet shrinkage with contrast enhancement (WSCE), make these methods ideal preprocessing steps for automatic segmentation in ultrasound imaging.

Keywords: Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, ultrasound imaging, speckle reduction, scatterer density estimation, edge based enhancement, coherence enhancement.

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7 Detection of Ultrasonic Images in the Presence of a Random Number of Scatterers: A Statistical Learning Approach

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of medical ultrasound images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to clinical ultrasound images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected ultrasound images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: LS-SVM, medical ultrasound imaging, partially developed speckle, multi-look model.

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6 Kalman-s Shrinkage for Wavelet-Based Despeckling of SAR Images

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Alberto E. Giraldez

Abstract:

In this paper, a new probability density function (pdf) is proposed to model the statistics of wavelet coefficients, and a simple Kalman-s filter is derived from the new pdf using Bayesian estimation theory. Specifically, we decompose the speckled image into wavelet subbands, we apply the Kalman-s filter to the high subbands, and reconstruct a despeckled image from the modified detail coefficients. Experimental results demonstrate that our method compares favorably to several other despeckling methods on test synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images.

Keywords: Kalman's filter, shrinkage, speckle, wavelets.

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5 Evaluation of Edge Configuration in Medical Echo Images Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Ching-Fen Jiang

Abstract:

Edge detection is usually the first step in medical image processing. However, the difficulty increases when a conventional kernel-based edge detector is applied to ultrasonic images with a textural pattern and speckle noise. We designed an adaptive diffusion filter to remove speckle noise while preserving the initial edges detected by using a Sobel edge detector. We also propose a genetic algorithm for edge selection to form complete boundaries of the detected entities. We designed two fitness functions to evaluate whether a criterion with a complex edge configuration can render a better result than a simple criterion such as the strength of gradient. The edges obtained by using a complex fitness function are thicker and more fragmented than those obtained by using a simple fitness function, suggesting that a complex edge selecting scheme is not necessary for good edge detection in medical ultrasonic images; instead, a proper noise-smoothing filter is the key.

Keywords: edge detection, ultrasonic images, speckle noise

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4 Speckle Reducing Contourlet Transform for Medical Ultrasound Images

Authors: P.S. Hiremath, Prema T. Akkasaligar, Sharan Badiger

Abstract:

Speckle noise affects all coherent imaging systems including medical ultrasound. In medical images, noise suppression is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A tradeoff between noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Even though wavelets have been extensively used for denoising speckle images, we have found that denoising using contourlets gives much better performance in terms of SNR, PSNR, MSE, variance and correlation coefficient. The objective of the paper is to determine the number of levels of Laplacian pyramidal decomposition, the number of directional decompositions to perform on each pyramidal level and thresholding schemes which yields optimal despeckling of medical ultrasound images, in particular. The proposed method consists of the log transformed original ultrasound image being subjected to contourlet transform, to obtain contourlet coefficients. The transformed image is denoised by applying thresholding techniques on individual band pass sub bands using a Bayes shrinkage rule. We quantify the achieved performance improvement.

Keywords: Contourlet transform, Despeckling, Pyramidal directionalfilter bank, Thresholding.

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3 Improved Segmentation of Speckled Images Using an Arithmetic-to-Geometric Mean Ratio Kernel

Authors: J. Daba, J. Dubois

Abstract:

In this work, we improve a previously developed segmentation scheme aimed at extracting edge information from speckled images using a maximum likelihood edge detector. The scheme was based on finding a threshold for the probability density function of a new kernel defined as the arithmetic mean-to-geometric mean ratio field over a circular neighborhood set and, in a general context, is founded on a likelihood random field model (LRFM). The segmentation algorithm was applied to discriminated speckle areas obtained using simple elliptic discriminant functions based on measures of the signal-to-noise ratio with fractional order moments. A rigorous stochastic analysis was used to derive an exact expression for the cumulative density function of the probability density function of the random field. Based on this, an accurate probability of error was derived and the performance of the scheme was analysed. The improved segmentation scheme performed well for both simulated and real images and showed superior results to those previously obtained using the original LRFM scheme and standard edge detection methods. In particular, the false alarm probability was markedly lower than that of the original LRFM method with oversegmentation artifacts virtually eliminated. The importance of this work lies in the development of a stochastic-based segmentation, allowing an accurate quantification of the probability of false detection. Non visual quantification and misclassification in medical ultrasound speckled images is relatively new and is of interest to clinicians.

Keywords: Discriminant function, false alarm, segmentation, signal-to-noise ratio, skewness, speckle.

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2 An Enhanced SAR-Based Tsunami Detection System

Authors: Jean-Pierre Dubois, Jihad S. Daba, H. Karam, J. Abdallah

Abstract:

Tsunami early detection and warning systems have proved to be of ultimate importance, especially after the destructive tsunami that hit Japan in March 2012. Such systems are crucial to inform the authorities of any risk of a tsunami and of the degree of its danger in order to make the right decision and notify the public of the actions they need to take to save their lives. The purpose of this research is to enhance existing tsunami detection and warning systems. We first propose an automated and miniaturized model of an early tsunami detection and warning system. The model for the operation of a tsunami warning system is simulated using the data acquisition toolbox of Matlab and measurements acquired from specified internet pages due to the lack of the required real-life sensors, both seismic and hydrologic, and building a graphical user interface for the system. In the second phase of this work, we implement various satellite image filtering schemes to enhance the acquired synthetic aperture radar images of the tsunami affected region that are masked by speckle noise. This enables us to conduct a post-tsunami damage extent study and calculate the percentage damage. We conclude by proposing improvements to the existing telecommunication infrastructure of existing warning tsunami systems using a migration to IP-based networks and fiber optics links.

Keywords: Detection, GIS, GSN, GTS, GPS, speckle noise, synthetic aperture radar, tsunami, wiener filter.

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1 Denoising based on Wavelets and Deblurring via Self-Organizing Map for Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

This work deals with unsupervised image deblurring. We present a new deblurring procedure on images provided by lowresolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or simply by multimedia in presence of multiplicative (speckle) or additive noise, respectively. The method we propose is defined as a two-step process. First, we use an original technique for noise reduction in wavelet domain. Then, the learning of a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) is performed directly on the denoised image to take out it the blur. This technique has been successfully applied to real SAR images, and the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: Blur, Kohonen self-organizing map, noise, speckle, synthetic aperture radar.

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