Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1659

Search results for: short fiber reinforced composites.

1659 A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites

Authors: I. Ioannou, I. M. Gitman

Abstract:

This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.

Keywords: Effective properties, representative volume element, short fiber reinforced composites.

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1658 Effect of Alkali Treatment on Impact Behavior of Areca Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Srinivasa C. V., Bharath K. N.

Abstract:

Natural fibers are considered to have potential use as reinforcing agents in polymer composite materials because of their principal benefits: moderate strength and stiffness, low cost, and being an environmental friendly, degradable, and renewable material. A study has been carried out to evaluate impact properties of composites made by areca fibers reinforced urea formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde and epoxy resins. The extracted areca fibers from the areca husk were alkali treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix. Then composites were produced by means of compression molding technique with varying process parameters, such as fiber condition (untreated and alkali treated), and fiber loading percentages (50% and 60% by weight). The developed areca fiber reinforced composites were then characterized by impact test. The results show that, impact strength increase with increase in the loading percentage. It is observed that, treated areca fiber reinforcement increases impact strength when compared to untreated areca fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: Lignocellulosic Fibers Composites, Areca Fibers, Alkali Treatment, Impact Strength.

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1657 Shear Strengthening of RC T Beam using CFRP Laminate: A Review

Authors: M.B.S. Alferjani, A.A. Abdul Samad, N. Mohamad, M. Hilton, N. Ali

Abstract:

This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the shearstrengthening repair with FRP is undertaken. This paper will be limited to research of CFRP material externally bonded to the tensile face of concrete beams. In particular, research studying the effect of externally applied CFRP materials on the shear performance of reinforced concrete beams will be reported.

Keywords: CFRP, Concrete, Flexural, FRP, Shear, Strengthening.

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1656 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, K. Ramji, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: E-glass-epoxy composite laminates, fiber volume fraction, e-glass fiber, mechanical properties, delamination.

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1655 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Siong W. Lee, Kang H. Tan, En H. Yang

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: Bond stress, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, slip, strain.

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1654 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Jute-Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Salma Siddika, Fayeka Mansura, Mahbub Hasan

Abstract:

The term hybrid composite refers to the composite containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers. It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to filler loading variation. In the present work composites were manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural, impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite resulted the best set of mechanical properties.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties; Coir, Jute, Polypropylene, Hybrid Composite.

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1653 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, Carbon fiber, RC columns.

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1652 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100mm ×100mm ×400mmwith layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated.

Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber.

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1651 A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Sun Ho Ko, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated the reality. However, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is loaded from outside to supplement such demerit, three lamination methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations, presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method, it was approximately 0.78% higher.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Pre-Impregnation, Laminating Method, Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS).

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1650 A Simulation Study of E-Glass Reinforced Polyurethane Footbed and Investigation of Parameters Effecting Elastic Behaviour of Footbed Material

Authors: Berkay Ergene, Çağın Bolat

Abstract:

In this study, we mainly focused on a simulation study regarding composite footbed in order to contribute to shoe industry. As a footbed, e-glass fiber reinforced polyurethane was determined since polyurethane based materials are already used for footbed in shoe manufacturing frequently. Flat, elliptical and rectangular grooved shoe soles were modeled and analyzed separately as TPU, 10% glass fiber reinforced, 30% glass fiber reinforced and 50% glass fiber reinforced materials according to their properties under three point bending and compression situations to determine the relationship between model, material type and mechanical behaviours of composite model. ANSYS 14.0 APDL mechanical structural module is utilized in all simulations and analyzed stress and strain distributions for different footbed models and materials. Furthermore, materials constants like young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson ratio and density of the composites were calculated theoretically by using composite mixture rule and interpreted for mechanical aspects.

Keywords: Composite, elastic behaviour, footbed, simulation.

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1649 A Pull-out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites: The Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay

Abstract:

This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find that a molding temperature of 183◦C leads to better interfacial properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: Interface, pull-out, processing, temperature, hemp, polypropylene, composite.

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1648 Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Matrix Debonding in Unidirectional Composites

Authors: M. Palizvan, M. T. Abadi, M. H. Sadr

Abstract:

Due to variations in damage mechanisms in the microscale, the behavior of fiber-reinforced composites is nonlinear and difficult to model. To make use of computational advantages, homogenization method is applied to the micro-scale model in order to minimize the cost at the expense of detail of local microscale phenomena. In this paper, the effective stiffness is calculated using the homogenization of nonlinear behavior of a composite representative volume element (RVE) containing fiber-matrix debonding. The damage modes for the RVE are considered by using cohesive elements and contacts for the cohesive behavior of the interface between fiber and matrix. To predict more realistic responses of composite materials, different random distributions of fibers are proposed besides square and hexagonal arrays. It was shown that in some cases, there is quite different damage behavior in different fiber distributions. A comprehensive comparison has been made between different graphs.

Keywords: Homogenization, cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix debonding, RVE.

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1647 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib

Abstract:

Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: Cement composites, plant fibers, strength, mechanical properties.

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1646 Reinforcing Effects of Natural Micro-Particles on the Dynamic Impact Behaviour of Hybrid Bio-Composites Made of Short Kevlar Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Armor

Authors: Edison E. Haro, Akindele G. Odeshi, Jerzy A. Szpunar

Abstract:

Hybrid bio-composites are developed for use in protective armor through positive hybridization offered by reinforcement of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with Kevlar short fibers and palm wood micro-fillers. The manufacturing process involved a combination of extrusion and compression molding techniques. The mechanical behavior of Kevlar fiber reinforced HDPE with and without palm wood filler additions are compared. The effect of the weight fraction of the added palm wood micro-fillers is also determined. The Young modulus was found to increase as the weight fraction of organic micro-particles increased. However, the flexural strength decreased with increasing weight fraction of added micro-fillers. The interfacial interactions between the components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the size, random alignment and distribution of the natural micro-particles was evaluated. Ballistic impact and dynamic shock loading tests were performed to determine the optimum proportion of Kevlar short fibers and organic micro-fillers needed to improve impact strength of the HDPE. These results indicate a positive hybridization by deposition of organic micro-fillers on the surface of short Kevlar fibers used in reinforcing the thermoplastic matrix leading to enhancement of the mechanical strength and dynamic impact behavior of these materials. Therefore, these hybrid bio-composites can be promising materials for different applications against high velocity impacts.

Keywords: Hybrid bio-composites, organic nano-fillers, dynamic shocking loading, ballistic impacts, energy absorption.

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1645 Thermal Elastic Stress Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composites

Authors: M. R. Haboğlu, A. Kurşun, Ş. Aksoy, H. Aykul, N. B. Bektaş

Abstract:

Athermal elastic stress analysis of steel fiber reinforced aluminum laminated composite plate is investigated. Four sides of the composite plate are clamped and subjected to a uniform temperature load. The analysis is performed both analytically and numerically. Laminated composite is manufactured via hot pressing method. The investigation of the effects of the orientation angle is provided. Different orientation angles are used such as [0°/90°]s, [30°/-30°]s, [45°/-45°]s, and [60/-60]s. The analytical solution is obtained via classical laminated composite theory and the numerical solution is obtained by applying finite element method via ANSYS.

Keywords: Laminated Composites, Thermo Elastic Stress, Finite Element Method.

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1644 Ablation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fiber/Phenolic Matrix Composites

Authors: N. Winya, S. Chankapoe, C. Kiriratnikom

Abstract:

In this study, an ablation, mechanical and thermal properties of a rocket motor insulation from phenolic/ fiber matrix composites forming a laminate with different fiber between fiberglass and locally available synthetic fibers. The phenolic/ fiber matrix composites was mechanics and thermal properties by means of tensile strength, ablation, TGA and DSC. The design of thermal insulation involves several factors.Determined the mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768: Density >1.3 g/cm3, Tensile strength >103 MPa and Ablation <0.14 mm/s to optimization formulation of phenolic binder, fiber glass reinforcement and other ingredients were conducted after that the insulation prototype was formed and cured. It was found that the density of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 1.66 and 1.41 g/cm3 respectively. The ablative of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 0.13 and 0.06 mm/s respectively.

Keywords: Phenolic Resin, Ablation, Rocket Motor, Insulation

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1643 Minimizing the Drilling-Induced Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites

Authors: S. D. El Wakil, M. Pladsen

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are finding wide-spread industrial applications because of their exceptionally high specific strength and specific modulus of elasticity. Nevertheless, it is very seldom to get ready-for-use components or products made of FRP composites. Secondary processing by machining, particularly drilling, is almost always required to make holes for fastening components together to produce assemblies. That creates problems since the FRP composites are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. Some of the problems that are encountered include the subsequent damage in the region around the drilled hole and the drilling – induced delamination of the layer of ply, that occurs both at the entrance and the exit planes of the work piece. Evidently, the functionality of the work piece would be detrimentally affected. The current work was carried out with the aim of eliminating or at least minimizing the work piece damage associated with drilling of FPR composites. Each test specimen involves a woven reinforced graphite fiber/epoxy composite having a thickness of 12.5 mm (0.5 inch). A large number of test specimens were subjected to drilling operations with different combinations of feed rates and cutting speeds. The drilling induced damage was taken as the absolute value of the difference between the drilled hole diameter and the nominal one taken as a percentage of the nominal diameter. The later was determined for each combination of feed rate and cutting speed, and a matrix comprising those values was established, where the columns indicate varying feed rate while and rows indicate varying cutting speeds. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach was employed using Minitab software, in order to obtain the combination that would improve the drilling induced damage. Experimental results show that low feed rates coupled with low cutting speeds yielded the best results.

Keywords: Drilling of Composites, dimensional accuracy of holes drilled in composites, delamination and charring, graphite-epoxy composites.

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1642 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane C. Correia, Sergio F. Santos, Holmer Savastano Jr.

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: Carbonation, cement composites, nanofibrillated cellulose.

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1641 Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites

Authors: Priyankar Pratim Deka, Sutanu Samanta

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based rice husk filled jute reinforced composites. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylenetetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.

Keywords: Jute, mechanical characterization, natural fiber, rice husk.

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1640 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fiber under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat

Abstract:

Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and Young’s modulus of all soils examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimens’ demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: Flexural strength, Durabilty, Lime, Coir Fibers, Bending force, Ductility.

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1639 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering

Abstract:

Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is blended with glass fibers, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled fiber without sizing agent were identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste. 

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composite, recycling, short fiber composites

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1638 Bridging Stress Modeling of Composite Materials Reinforced by Fibers Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Kellem M. Soares, Luis E. Kosteski

Abstract:

The problem of toughening in brittle materials reinforced by fibers is complex, involving all of the mechanical properties of fibers, matrix and the fiber/matrix interface, as well as the geometry of the fiber. Development of new numerical methods appropriate to toughening simulation and analysis is necessary. In this work, we have performed simulations and analysis of toughening in brittle matrix reinforced by randomly distributed fibers by means of the discrete elements method. At first, we put forward a mechanical model of toughening contributed by random fibers. Then with a numerical program, we investigated the stress, damage and bridging force in the composite material when a crack appeared in the brittle matrix. From the results obtained, we conclude that: (i) fibers of high strength and low elasticity modulus are beneficial to toughening; (ii) fibers of relatively high elastic modulus compared to the matrix may result in substantial matrix damage due to spalling effect; (iii) employment of high-strength synthetic fibers is a good option for toughening. We expect that the combination of the discrete element method (DEM) with the finite element method (FEM) can increase the versatility and efficiency of the software developed. The present work can guide the design of ceramic composites of high performance through the optimization of the parameters.

Keywords: Bridging stress, discrete element method, fiber reinforced composites, toughening.

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1637 Fatigue Properties and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Pasquale Verde, Giuseppe Lamanna

Abstract:

A two-parameter fatigue model explicitly accounting for the cyclic as well as the mean stress was used to fit static and fatigue data available in literature concerning carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates subjected tension-tension fatigue. The model confirms the strength–life equal rank assumption and predicts reasonably the probability of failure under cyclic loading. The model parameters were found by best fitting procedures and required a minimum of experimental tests.

Keywords: Fatigue life, strength, composites, Weibull distribution.

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1636 Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, IR thermography, composite material, thermal stimulation.

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1635 Study of Mechanical Properties of Glutarylated Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: V. Manush Nandan, K. Lokdeep, R. Vimal, K. Hari Hara Subramanyan, C. Aswin, V. Logeswaran

Abstract:

Natural fibers have attained the potential market in the composite industry because of the huge environmental impact caused by synthetic fibers. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. Even though there is a good motive to utilize the natural supplement, the strength of the natural fiber composites is still a topic of discussion. In recent days, many researchers are showing interest in the chemical modification of the natural fibers to increase various mechanical and thermal properties. In the present study, jute fibers have been modified chemically using glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The glutaric anhydride solution is prepared by dissolving the different quantity of glutaric anhydride in benzene and dimethyl-sulfoxide using sodium formate catalyst. The jute fiber mats have been treated by the method of retting at various time intervals of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. The modification structure of the treated fibers has been confirmed with infrared spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with an increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure. The unmodified fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix under room temperature. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of unmodified fiber.

Keywords: Flexural properties, glutarylation, glutaric anhydride, tensile properties.

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1634 Behavioral Studies on Multi-Directionally Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations

Authors: Sriram Venkatesh, V. Murali Mohan, T. V. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

The main advantage of multidirectionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fiber types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However, a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D performs fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.

Keywords: Multidirectionally Reinforced Composites, 4-D Orthogonal Preform, Course weave, Fine weave.

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1633 Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite

Authors: Dattaji K. Shinde, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.

Keywords: Electrospun nanofibers, H-VARTM, Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), Matrix modification.

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1632 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-Tai Jung, Sung-Yong Choi, Young-Hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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1631 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Sung-yong Choi, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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1630 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: Bond stress, Compressive strength, Elevated temperatures, Fiber reinforced concrete, Modulus of rapture.

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