**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**4737

# Search results for: problem reduction

##### 4737 Modeling Language for Machine Learning

**Authors:**
Tsuyoshi Okita,
Tatsuya Niwa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Formal language,
statistical inference problem,
reduction.

##### 4736 The Multi-scenario Knapsack Problem: An Adaptive Search Algorithm

**Authors:**
Mhand Hifi,
Hedi Mhalla,
Mustapha Michaphy

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the multi-scenario knapsack problem, a variant of the well-known NP-Hard single knapsack problem. We investigate the use of an adaptive algorithm for solving heuristically the problem. The used method combines two complementary phases: a size reduction phase and a dynamic 2- opt procedure one. First, the reduction phase applies a polynomial reduction strategy; that is used for reducing the size problem. Second, the adaptive search procedure is applied in order to attain a feasible solution Finally, the performances of two versions of the proposed algorithm are evaluated on a set of randomly generated instances.

**Keywords:**
combinatorial optimization,
max-min optimization,
knapsack,
heuristics,
problem reduction

##### 4735 Modeling Language for Constructing Solvers in Machine Learning: Reductionist Perspectives

**Authors:**
Tsuyoshi Okita

**Abstract:**

For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach in order to make a solver quickly. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem. It is noted that our formal modeling language is not intend for providing an efficient notation for data mining application, but for facilitating a designer who develops solvers in machine learning.

**Keywords:**
Formal language,
statistical inference problem,
reduction.

##### 4734 Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming

**Authors:**
Michael Todinov,
Eberechi Weli

**Abstract:**

The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry.

**Keywords:**
Optimisation,
railway risk reduction,
budget
constraints,
dynamic programming.

##### 4733 The Knapsack Sharing Problem: A Tree Search Exact Algorithm

**Authors:**
Mhand Hifi,
Hedi Mhalla

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we study the knapsack sharing problem, a variant of the well-known NP-Hard single knapsack problem. We investigate the use of a tree search for optimally solving the problem. The used method combines two complementary phases: a reduction interval search phase and a branch and bound procedure one. First, the reduction phase applies a polynomial reduction strategy; that is used for decomposing the problem into a series of knapsack problems. Second, the tree search procedure is applied in order to attain a set of optimal capacities characterizing the knapsack problems. Finally, the performance of the proposed optimal algorithm is evaluated on a set of instances of the literature and its runtime is compared to the best exact algorithm of the literature.

**Keywords:**
Branch and bound,
combinatorial optimization,
knap¬sack,
knapsack sharing,
heuristics,
interval reduction.

##### 4732 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

**Authors:**
Gopi Ram,
Durbadal Mandal,
Rajib Kar,
Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

**Abstract:**

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on *x-y *plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

**Keywords:**
Circular arrays,
First null beam width,
Side lobe level,
FFA.

##### 4731 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

**Authors:**
Kenza Aida Amara,
Bachir Djebbar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bee colony optimization,
bin packing,
heuristic algorithm,
pretreatment.

##### 4730 GPS Signal Correction to Improve Vehicle Location during Experimental Campaign

**Authors:**
L. Della Ragione,
G. Meccariello

**Abstract:**

In recent years in Italy the progress of the automobile industry, in the field of reduction of emissions values, is very remarkable. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars.

**Keywords:**
Air pollution,
Driving cycles,
GPS signal.

##### 4729 Application of Particle Swarm Optimization for Economic Load Dispatch and Loss Reduction

**Authors:**
N. Phanthuna,
J. Jaturacherdchaiskul,
S. Lerdvanittip,
S. Auchariyamet

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique to solve the economic load dispatch (ELD) problems. For the ELD problem in this work, the objective function is to minimize the total fuel cost of all generator units for a given daily load pattern while the main constraints are power balance and generation output of each units. Case study in the test system of 40-generation units with 6 load patterns is presented to demonstrate the performance of PSO in solving the ELD problem. It can be seen that the optimal solution given by PSO provides the minimum total cost of generation while satisfying all the constraints and benefiting greatly from saving in power loss reduction.

**Keywords:**
Particle Swarm Optimization,
Economic Load Dispatch,
Loss Reduction.

##### 4728 Two-Stage Approach for Solving the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem on Combinatorial Configurations

**Authors:**
Liudmyla Koliechkina,
Olena Dvirna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Discrete set,
linear combinatorial optimization,
multi-objective optimization,
multipermutation,
Pareto solutions,
partial permutation set,
permutation,
structural graph.

##### 4727 Vibration Reduction Module with Flexure Springs for Personal Tools

**Authors:**
Donghyun Hwang,
Soo-Hun Lee,
Moon G. Lee

**Abstract:**

In the various working field, vibration may cause injurious to human body. Especially, in case of the vibration which is constantly and repeatedly transferred to the human. That gives serious physical problem, so called, Reynaud phenomenon. In this paper, we propose a vibration transmissibility reduction module with flexure mechanism for personal tools. At first, we select a target personal tool, grass cutter, and measure the level of vibration transmissibility on the hand. And then, we develop the concept design of the module that has stiffness for reduction the vibration transmissibility more than 20%, where the vibration transmissibility is measured with an accelerometer. In addition, the vibration reduction can be enhanced when the interior gap between inner and outer body is filled with silicone gel. This will be verified by the further experiment.

**Keywords:**
Flexure spring,
tool engineering,
vibration damping.

##### 4726 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of CO2 and WAG Injection on Permeability Reduction Induced by Asphaltene Precipitation in Light Oil

**Authors:**
Ali F. Alta'ee,
Ong S. Hun,
Sima Sh. Alian,
Ismail M. Saaid

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Asphaltene Precipitation,
Permeability Reduction,
CO2 Injection,
WAG Injection.

##### 4725 An efficient Activity Network Reduction Algorithm based on the Label Correcting Tracing Algorithm

**Authors:**
Weng Ming Chu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Series/Parallel network,
Stochastic network,
Network
reduction,
Interdictive Graph,
Complexity Index.

##### 4724 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

**Authors:**
Vishnu S. Prasad,
Preeti Aghalayam

**Abstract:**

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N_{2}O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O_{2}% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

**Keywords:**
Microkinetic modelling,
NOx,
Pt on alumina catalysts,
selective catalytic reduction.

##### 4723 Heterogeneous Attribute Reduction in Noisy System based on a Generalized Neighborhood Rough Sets Model

**Authors:**
Siyuan Jing,
Kun She

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
attribute reduction,
incomplete data,
inconsistent data,
tolerance neighborhood relation,
rough sets

##### 4722 Assessment of Pollution Reduction

**Authors:**
Katarzyna Strzała-Osuch

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Assessment of pollution reduction,
costs of
environmental protection,
efficiency of environmental investments.

##### 4721 An Alternative Proof for the NP-completeness of Top Right Access point-Minimum Length Corridor Problem

**Authors:**
Priyadarsini P.L.K,
Hemalatha T.

**Abstract:**

In the Top Right Access point Minimum Length Corridor (TRA-MLC) problem [1], a rectangular boundary partitioned into rectilinear polygons is given and the problem is to find a corridor of least total length and it must include the top right corner of the outer rectangular boundary. A corridor is a tree containing a set of line segments lying along the outer rectangular boundary and/or on the boundary of the rectilinear polygons. The corridor must contain at least one point from the boundaries of the outer rectangle and also the rectilinear polygons. Gutierrez and Gonzalez [1] proved that the MLC problem, along with some of its restricted versions and variants, are NP-complete. In this paper, we give a shorter proof of NP-Completeness of TRA-MLC by findig the reduction in the following way.

**Keywords:**
NP-complete,
2-connected planar graph,
Grid embedding of a plane graph.

##### 4720 Machine Learning Facing Behavioral Noise Problem in an Imbalanced Data Using One Side Behavioral Noise Reduction: Application to a Fraud Detection

**Authors:**
Salma El Hajjami,
Jamal Malki,
Alain Bouju,
Mohammed Berrada

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Machine learning,
Imbalanced data,
Data mining,
Big data.

##### 4719 On Problem of Parameters Identification of Dynamic Object

**Authors:**
Kamil Aida-zade,
C. Ardil

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
dynamic objects,
ordinary differential equations,
multipoint unshared edge conditions,
quadratic programming,
conditions shift

##### 4718 Connected Vertex Cover in 2-Connected Planar Graph with Maximum Degree 4 is NP-complete

**Authors:**
Priyadarsini P. L. K,
Hemalatha T.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
NP-complete,
2-Connected planar graph,
block,
cut vertex

##### 4717 Adaptive Square-Rooting Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

**Authors:**
Wisam F. Al-Azzo,
Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complementary cumulative distribution function(CCDF),
OFDM,
peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR),
adaptivesquare-rooting PAPR reduction technique.

##### 4716 Reduction of Search Space by Applying Controlled Genetic Operators for Weight Constrained Shortest Path Problem

**Authors:**
A.K.M. Khaled Ahsan Talukder,
Taibun Nessa,
Kaushik Roy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Genetic Algorithm,
Evolutionary Optimization,
Multi Objective Optimization,
Non-linear Schema Theorem,
WCSPP.

##### 4715 Gene Expression Data Classification Using Discriminatively Regularized Sparse Subspace Learning

**Authors:**
Chunming Xu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
sparse representation,
dimensionality reduction,
labelinformation,
sparse subspace learning,
gene-expression data classification.

##### 4714 Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions

**Authors:**
Shun Horikoshi,
Tohru Kawabe

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sliding mode control,
chattering function,
electric
vehicle,
slip suppression,
performance analysis.

##### 4713 A New Distribution Network Reconfiguration Approach using a Tree Model

**Authors:**
E. Dolatdar,
S. Soleymani,
B. Mozafari

**Abstract:**

Power loss reduction is one of the main targets in power industry and so in this paper, the problem of finding the optimal configuration of a radial distribution system for loss reduction is considered. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened ,one each from each loop, for reducing resistive line losses , and reliving overloads on feeders by shifting the load to adjacent feeders. However ,since there are many candidate switching combinations in the system ,the feeder reconfiguration is a complicated problem. In this paper a new approach is proposed based on a simple optimum loss calculation by determining optimal trees of the given network. From graph theory a distribution network can be represented with a graph that consists a set of nodes and branches. In fact this problem can be viewed as a problem of determining an optimal tree of the graph which simultaneously ensure radial structure of each candidate topology .In this method the refined genetic algorithm is also set up and some improvements of algorithm are made on chromosome coding. In this paper an implementation of the algorithm presented by [7] is applied by modifying in load flow program and a comparison of this method with the proposed method is employed. In [7] an algorithm is proposed that the choice of the switches to be opened is based on simple heuristic rules. This algorithm reduce the number of load flow runs and also reduce the switching combinations to a fewer number and gives the optimum solution. To demonstrate the validity of these methods computer simulations with PSAT and MATLAB programs are carried out on 33-bus test system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than [7] method and also other methods.

**Keywords:**
Distribution System,
Reconfiguration,
Loss Reduction ,
Graph Theory ,
Optimization ,
Genetic Algorithm

##### 4712 Characteristics of Wall Thickness Increase in Pipe Reduction Process using Planetary Rolls

**Authors:**
Yuji Kotani,
Shunsuke Kanai,
Hisaki Watari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Pipe-Forming,
Wall Thickness,
Finite-element-method

##### 4711 Fuzzy Population-Based Meta-Heuristic Approaches for Attribute Reduction in Rough Set Theory

**Authors:**
Mafarja Majdi,
Salwani Abdullah,
Najmeh S. Jaddi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Rough Set Theory,
Attribute Reduction,
Fuzzy
Logic,
Memetic Algorithms,
Record to Record Algorithm,
Great
Deluge Algorithm.

##### 4710 Iterative Methods for An Inverse Problem

**Authors:**
Minghui Wang,
Shanrui Hu

**Abstract:**

An inverse problem of doubly center matrices is discussed. By translating the constrained problem into unconstrained problem, two iterative methods are proposed. A numerical example illustrate our algorithms.

**Keywords:**
doubly center matrix,
electric network theory,
iterative methods,
least-square problem.

##### 4709 Evolutionary Search Techniques to Solve Set Covering Problems

**Authors:**
Darwin Gouwanda,
S. G. Ponnambalam

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Set covering problem,
genetic algorithm,
ant colony
optimization,
LINGO.

##### 4708 A Spatial Hypergraph Based Semi-Supervised Band Selection Method for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

**Authors:**
Akrem Sellami,
Imed Riadh Farah

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hyperspectral image,
spatial hypergraph,
dimensionality reduction,
semantic interpretation,
band selection,
feature extraction.