Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 483

Search results for: reality distortion

483 Study on the Relations between One's Personality Dimensions and his Personality Judgment about Friend based on Reality Distortion

Authors: Bahareh Babaei, Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Reza Reza-zadeh, Hossien Kaviani

Abstract:

Judgment is affected by many agents and distortion in this assessment is unpreventable. Personality dimensions are among those factors that interfere with the distortion. In this research, the relations between personality dimensions of subject and his judgment on friends- personality dimensions is investigated. One-hundred friend couples completed both NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEOFFI) and Ahvaz Reality Distortion Inventory (ARDI) to make judgments about themselves and their friends. Observations show that judge-s Agreement and Neuroticism dimensions are impressed by reality distortion. On the other hand, this reality distortion interferes with one-s evaluation of his friend-s Agreement, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness dimensions. Conscientiousness with suppressive effect on judge-s other dimensions plays the irrelevant role on personality judgment. Therefore, observer-rating tools which are used as a conventional criterion seem to be not valid because of the reality distortion due to judge-s personality dimensions.

Keywords: Personality dimensions, reality distortion, judgmental accuracy.

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482 Effect of Butt Joint Distortion and Comparison Study on Ti/Al Dissimilar Metal Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

In general, it is desirable to finish the weld quickly, before a large volume of surrounding metal heats up and expands. The welding process used, type, welding current and speed of travel, thus, affect the degree of shrinkage and distortion of a weldment. The use of mechanized welding equipment reduces welding time, metal affected zone and consequently distortion. This article helps to define what weld distortion is and then provide a practical understanding of the causes of distortion, effects of shrinkage in butt joint welded assemblies using TI6AL4VA and Aluminium AA2024 alloy sheet. The beam offset position to the joint interface towards titanium and aluminium side. The factors affecting distortion during welding is also given. Test results reveal that welding speed is the significant parameter to decide the extent of distortion. Also welding from Al side reduces the distortion while Ti side increases the distortion.

Keywords: Nd:YAG Pulsed laser welding, Titanium/Aluminium thin sheet butt joint, distortion.

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481 Ultra-Precise Hybrid Lens Distortion Correction

Authors: Christian Bräuer-Burchardt, Peter Kühmstedt, Gunther Notni

Abstract:

A new hybrid method to realise high-precision distortion determination for optical ultra-precision 3D measurement systems based on stereo cameras using active light projection is introduced. It consists of two phases: the basic distortion determination and the refinement. The refinement phase of the procedure uses a plane surface and projected fringe patterns as calibration tools to determine simultaneously the distortion of both cameras within an iterative procedure. The new technique may be performed in the state of the device “ready for measurement" which avoids errors by a later adjustment. A considerable reduction of distortion errors is achieved and leads to considerable improvements of the accuracy of 3D measurements, especially in the precise measurement of smooth surfaces.

Keywords: 3D Surface Measurement, Fringe Projection, Lens Distortion, Stereo.

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480 Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion

Authors: A. Alghanim, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker

Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Keywords: Low Frequency Memory, IntermodulationDistortion (IMD).

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479 Virtual Reality Design Platform to Easily Create Virtual Reality Experiences

Authors: J. Casteleiro- Pitrez

Abstract:

The interest in Virtual Reality (VR) keeps increasing among the community of designers. To develop this type of immersive experience, the understanding of new processes and methodologies is as fundamental as its complex implementation which usually implies hiring a specialized team. In this paper, we introduce a case study, a platform that allows designers to easily create complex VR experiences, present its features, and its development process. We conclude that this platform provides a complete solution for the design and development of VR experiences, no-code needed.

Keywords: Designers, virtual reality, virtual reality design platform, virtual reality system, no-coding.

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478 Augmented Reality on Android

Authors: Chunghan Li, Chang-Shyh Peng, Daisy F. Sang

Abstract:

Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Android.

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477 Multi-VSS Scheme by Shifting Random Grids

Authors: Joy Jo-Yi Chang, Justie Su-Tzu Juan

Abstract:

Visual secret sharing (VSS) was proposed by Naor and Shamir in 1995. Visual secret sharing schemes encode a secret image into two or more share images, and single share image can’t obtain any information about the secret image. When superimposes the shares, it can restore the secret by human vision. Due to the traditional VSS have some problems like pixel expansion and the cost of sophisticated. And this method only can encode one secret image. The schemes of encrypting more secret images by random grids into two shares were proposed by Chen et al. in 2008. But when those restored secret images have much distortion, those schemes are almost limited in decoding. In the other words, if there is too much distortion, we can’t encrypt too much information. So, if we can adjust distortion to very small, we can encrypt more secret images. In this paper, four new algorithms which based on Chang et al.’s scheme be held in 2010 are proposed. First algorithm can adjust distortion to very small. Second algorithm distributes the distortion into two restored secret images. Third algorithm achieves no distortion for special secret images. Fourth algorithm encrypts three secret images, which not only retain the advantage of VSS but also improve on the problems of decoding.

Keywords: Visual cryptography, visual secret sharing, random grids, multiple, secret image sharing

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476 Studies on Distortion of Dissimilar Thin Sheet Weld Joints Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

To achieve reliable welds with minimum distortion for the fabrication of components in aerospace industry laser beam welding is attempted. Laser welding can provide a significant benefit for the welding of Titanium and Aluminium thin sheet alloys of its precision and rapid processing capability. For laser welding, pulse shape, energy, duration, repetition rate and peak power are the most important parameters that influence directly the quality of welds. In this experimental work for joining 1mm thick TI6AL4V and AA2024 alloy and JK600 Nd:YAG pulsed laser units used. The distortions at different welding power and speed of titanium and aluminium thin sheet alloys are investigated. Test results reveal that increase in welding speed increases distortion in weldment

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding, Titanium, Aluminium alloy sheets and distortion.

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475 Transform-Domain Rate-Distortion Optimization Accelerator for H.264/AVC Video Encoding

Authors: Mohammed Golam Sarwer, Lai Man Po, Kai Guo, Q.M. Jonathan Wu

Abstract:

In H.264/AVC video encoding, rate-distortion optimization for mode selection plays a significant role to achieve outstanding performance in compression efficiency and video quality. However, this mode selection process also makes the encoding process extremely complex, especially in the computation of the ratedistortion cost function, which includes the computations of the sum of squared difference (SSD) between the original and reconstructed image blocks and context-based entropy coding of the block. In this paper, a transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator based on fast SSD (FSSD) and VLC-based rate estimation algorithm is proposed. This algorithm could significantly simplify the hardware architecture for the rate-distortion cost computation with only ignorable performance degradation. An efficient hardware structure for implementing the proposed transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator is also proposed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduces about 47% of total encoding time with negligible degradation of coding performance. The proposed method can be easily applied to many mobile video application areas such as a digital camera and a DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) phone.

Keywords: Context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC), H.264/AVC, rate-distortion optimization (RDO), sum of squareddifference (SSD).

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474 Audio Watermarking Based on Compression-expansion Technique

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

A novel robust audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme, the host audio signals are segmented into frames. Two consecutive frames are assessed if they are suitable to represent a watermark bit. If so, frequency transform is performed on these two frames. The compressionexpansion technique is adopted to generate distortion over the two frames. The distortion is used to represent one watermark bit. Psychoacoustic model is applied to calculate local auditory mask to ensure that the distortion is not audible. The watermarking schemes using mono and stereo audio signals are designed differently. The correlation-based detection method is used to detect the distortion and extract embedded watermark bits. The experimental results show that the quality degradation caused by the embedded watermarks is perceptually transparent and the proposed schemes are very robust against different types of attacks.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, Compression-expansion, Stereo signals, Robustness.

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473 ML Detection with Symbol Estimation for Nonlinear Distortion of OFDM Signal

Authors: Somkiat Lerkvaranyu, Yoshikazu Miyanaga

Abstract:

In this paper, a new technique of signal detection has been proposed for detecting the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the presence of nonlinear distortion.There are several advantages of OFDM communications system.However, one of the existing problems is remain considered as the nonlinear distortion generated by high-power-amplifier at the transmitter end due to the large dynamic range of an OFDM signal. The proposed method is the maximum likelihood detection with the symbol estimation. When the training data are available, the neural network has been used to learn the characteristic of received signal and to estimate the new positions of the transmitted symbol which are provided to the maximum likelihood detector. Resulting in the system performance, the nonlinear distortions of a traveling wave tube amplifier with OFDM signal are considered in this paper.Simulation results of the bit-error-rate performance are obtained with 16-QAM OFDM systems.

Keywords: OFDM, TWTA, nonlinear distortion, detection.

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472 Distortion Estimation in Digital Image Watermarking using Genetic Programming

Authors: Labiba Gilani, Asifullah Khan, Anwar M. Mirza

Abstract:

This paper introduces a technique of distortion estimation in image watermarking using Genetic Programming (GP). The distortion is estimated by considering the problem of obtaining a distorted watermarked signal from the original watermarked signal as a function regression problem. This function regression problem is solved using GP, where the original watermarked signal is considered as an independent variable. GP-based distortion estimation scheme is checked for Gaussian attack and Jpeg compression attack. We have used Gaussian attacks of different strengths by changing the standard deviation. JPEG compression attack is also varied by adding various distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is able to detect the watermark even in the case of strong distortions and is more robust against attacks.

Keywords: Blind Watermarking, Genetic Programming (GP), Fitness Function, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).

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471 3D Spatial Interaction with the Wii Remote for Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality

Authors: Yang-Wai Chow

Abstract:

This research investigates the design of a low-cost 3D spatial interaction approach using the Wii Remote for immersive Head-Mounted Display (HMD) virtual reality. Current virtual reality applications that incorporate the Wii Remote are either desktop virtual reality applications or systems that use large screen displays. However, the requirements for an HMD virtual reality system differ from such systems. This is mainly because in HMD virtual reality, the display screen does not remain at a fixed location. The user views the virtual environment through display screens that are in front of the user-s eyes and when the user moves his/her head, these screens move as well. This means that the display has to be updated in realtime based on where the user is currently looking. Normal usage of the Wii Remote requires the controller to be pointed in a certain direction, typically towards the display. This is too restrictive for HMD virtual reality systems that ideally require the user to be able to turn around in the virtual environment. Previous work proposed a design to achieve this, however it suffered from a number of drawbacks. The aim of this study is to look into a suitable method of using the Wii Remote for 3D interaction in a space around the user for HMD virtual reality. This paper presents an overview of issues that had to be considered, the system design as well as experimental results.

Keywords: 3D interaction, head-mounted display, virtual reality, Wii remote

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470 Application of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language for Design of Automated Workplaces

Authors: Jozef Novak-Marcincin

Abstract:

Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) is description language, which belongs to a field Window on World virtual reality system. The file, which is in VRML format, can be interpreted by VRML explorer in three-dimensional scene. VRML was created with aim to represent virtual reality on Internet easier. Development of 3D graphic is connected with Silicon Graphic Corporation. VRML 2.0 is the file format for describing interactive 3D scenes and objects. It can be used in collaboration with www, can be used for 3D complex representations creating of scenes, products or VR applications VRML 2.0 enables represent static and animated objects too. Interesting application of VRML is in area of manufacturing systems presentation.

Keywords: Virtual reality, virtual reality modelling language, design of workplaces, technological workplaces.

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469 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.

Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learning

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468 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

Authors: Ibrahim El rube'

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion.

Keywords: Image matching, key point detection, affine invariant, triangle-shaped segments.

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467 Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity

Authors: J. Novak-Marcincin, J. Barna, M. Janak

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.

Keywords: Augmented reality, simulation, workcell design.

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466 Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Sandeep N. Kundu, Farha Sattar

Abstract:

Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.

Keywords: Augmented Reality Sandbox, constructivism, deep learning, geoscience.

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465 Extremal Properties of Generalized Class of Close-to-convex Functions

Authors: Norlyda Mohamed, Daud Mohamad, Shaharuddin Cik Soh

Abstract:

Let Gα ,β (γ ,δ ) denote the class of function f (z), f (0) = f ′(0)−1= 0 which satisfied e δ {αf ′(z)+ βzf ′′(z)}> γ i Re in the open unit disk D = {z ∈ı : z < 1} for some α ∈ı (α ≠ 0) , β ∈ı and γ ∈ı (0 ≤γ <α ) where δ ≤ π and α cosδ −γ > 0 . In this paper, we determine some extremal properties including distortion theorem and argument of f ′( z ) .

Keywords: Argument of f ′(z) , Carathéodory Function, Closeto- convex Function, Distortion Theorem, Extremal Properties

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464 Virtual Scene based on VRML and Java

Authors: Hui-jun Ren, Da-kun ZHang

Abstract:

VRML( The virtual reality modeling language) is a standard language used to build up 3D virtualized models. The quick development of internet technology and computer manipulation has promoted the commercialization of reality virtualization. VRML, thereof, is expected to be the most effective framework of building up virtual reality. This article has studied plans to build virtualized scenes based on the technology of virtual reality and Java programe, and introduced how to execute real-time data transactions of VRML file and Java programe by applying Script Node, in doing so we have the VRML interactivity being strengthened.

Keywords: VRML, Java, Virtual scene, Script.

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463 Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment

Authors: Sunhyoung Lee, Askar Akshabayev, Beisenbek Baisakov, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, depth map, hand recognition, kinect, marker, YCbCr color model.

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462 Distortion of Flow Measurement and Cavitation Occurs Due to Orifice Inlet Velocity Profiles

Authors: Byung-Soo Shin, Nam-Seok Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, O-Hyun Keum

Abstract:

This analysis investigates the distortion of flow measurement and the increase of cavitation along orifice flowmeter. The analysis using the numerical method (CFD) validated the distortion of flow measurement through the inlet velocity profile considering the convergence and grid dependency. Realizable k-e model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this numerical analysis. This analysis also estimated the vulnerability of cavitation effect due to inlet velocity profile. The investigation concludes that inclined inlet velocity profile could vary the pressure which was measured at pressure tab near pipe wall and it led to distort the pressure values ranged from -3.8% to 5.3% near the orifice plate and to make the increase of cavitation. The investigation recommends that the fully developed inlet velocity flow is beneficial to accurate flow measurement in orifice flowmeter.

Keywords: Orifice, k-e model, CFD

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461 Selection of a Tower Crane Using Augmented Reality in Smart Devices

Authors: Myunghoun Jang, Yongkyu Yi

Abstract:

Appropriate selection of lifting equipments for a high-rise building construction project is one of the important factors to the project’s success. Proper position of a tower crane on a construction site is so important to be determined by an expert or an experienced construction manager who draws working range of a tower crane and moves it over a 2D (dimensional) site layout plan. But it is not usual to use 3D CAD, BIM or virtual reality for temporary facility planning or selection of a tower crane. This study proposes a method to use augmented reality to select proper position of tower cranes. An augmented reality prototype is implemented on a smart device to verify the practicability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Construction Planning, Site Layout, Temporary Facility Management, Tower Crane

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460 Effects of Capacitor Bank Defects on Harmonic Distortion and Park's Pattern Analysis in Induction Motors

Authors: G. Das, S. Das, P. Purkait, A. Dasgupta, M. Kumar

Abstract:

Properly sized capacitor banks are connected across induction motors for several reasons including power factor correction, reducing distortions, increasing capacity, etc. Total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are used in such cases to quantify the improvements obtained through connection of the external capacitor banks. On the other hand, one of the methods for assessing the motor internal condition is by the use of Park-s pattern analysis. In spite of taking adequate precautionary measures, the capacitor banks may sometimes malfunction. Such a minor fault in the capacitor bank is often not apparently discernible. This may however, give rise to substantial degradation of power factor correction performance and may also damage the supply profile. The case is more severe with the fact that the Park-s pattern gets distorted due to such external capacitor faults, and can give anomalous results about motor internal fault analyses. The aim of this paper is to present simulation and hardware laboratory test results to have an understanding of the anomalies in harmonic distortion and Park-s pattern analyses in induction motors due to capacitor bank defects.

Keywords: Capacitor bank, harmonic distortion, induction motor, Park's pattern, PSCAD simulation.

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459 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Architectural distortions, masses and microcalcifications are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support vector machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and an accuracy of 96% for mammogram images collected from digital database for screening mammography database.

Keywords: Architecture Distortion, GLCM Texture features, GLRLM Texture Features, Mammograms, Support Vector Machine.

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458 Classification of the Latin Alphabet as Pattern on ARToolkit Markers for Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Mohamed Badeche, Mohamed Benmohammed

Abstract:

augmented reality is a technique used to insert virtual objects in real scenes. One of the most used libraries in the area is the ARToolkit library. It is based on the recognition of the markers that are in the form of squares with a pattern inside. This pattern which is mostly textual is source of confusing. In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Latin characters as a pattern on the ARToolkit markers to know the most distinguishable among them.

Keywords: ARToolkit library, augmented reality, K-means, patterns

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457 Calibration Method for an Augmented Reality System

Authors: S. Malek, N. Zenati-Henda, M. Belhocine, S. Benbelkacem

Abstract:

In geometrical camera calibration, the objective is to determine a set of camera parameters that describe the mapping between 3D references coordinates and 2D image coordinates. In this paper, a technique of calibration and tracking based on both a least squares method is presented and a correlation technique developed as part of an augmented reality system. This approach is fast and it can be used for a real time system

Keywords: Camera calibration, pinhole model, least squares method, augmented reality, strong calibration.

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456 Building Virtual Reality Environments for Distance Education on the Web: A Case Study in Medical Education

Authors: Kosmas Dimitropoulos, Athanasios Manitsaris, Ioannis Mavridis

Abstract:

The paper presents an investigation into the role of virtual reality and web technologies in the field of distance education. Within this frame, special emphasis is given on the building of web-based virtual learning environments so as to successfully fulfill their educational objectives. In particular, basic pedagogical methods are studied, focusing mainly on the efficient preparation, approach and presentation of learning content, and specific designing rules are presented considering the hypermedia, virtual and educational nature of this kind of applications. The paper also aims to highlight the educational benefits arising from the use of virtual reality technology in medicine and study the emerging area of web-based medical simulations. Finally, an innovative virtual reality environment for distance education in medicine is demonstrated. The proposed environment reproduces conditions of the real learning process and enhances learning through a real-time interactive simulator.

Keywords: Distance education, medicine, virtual reality, web.

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455 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding (FSW), micro-hardness, underwater.

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454 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

Abstract:

Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: Framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills.

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