Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 970

Search results for: non-destructive testing

970 On Method of Fundamental Solution for Nondestructive Testing

Authors: Jieer Wu, Zheshu Ma

Abstract:

Nondestructive testing in engineering is an inverse Cauchy problem for Laplace equation. In this paper the problem of nondestructive testing is expressed by a Laplace-s equation with third-kind boundary conditions. In order to find unknown values on the boundary, the method of fundamental solution is introduced and realized. Because of the ill-posedness of studied problems, the TSVD regularization technique in combination with L-curve criteria and Generalized Cross Validation criteria is employed. Numerical results are shown that the TSVD method combined with L-curve criteria is more efficient than the TSVD method combined with GCV criteria. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: ill-posed, TSVD, Laplace's equation, inverse problem, L-curve, Generalized Cross Validation.

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969 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji

Abstract:

Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: Nondestructive testing, Pavement moduli backcalculation, Finite Element Method, FEM, concrete pavements.

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968 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang

Abstract:

Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: Remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded linux system, image processing.

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967 Research on Software Security Testing

Authors: Gu Tian-yang, Shi Yin-sheng, Fang You-yuan

Abstract:

Software security testing is an important means to ensure software security and trustiness. This paper first mainly discusses the definition and classification of software security testing, and investigates methods and tools of software security testing widely. Then it analyzes and concludes the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the scope of application, presents a taxonomy of security testing tools. Finally, the paper points out future focus and development directions of software security testing technology.

Keywords: security testing, security functional testing, securityvulnerability testing, testing method, testing tool

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966 Acoustic and Thermal Isolation Performance Comparison between Recycled and Ceramic Roof Tiles Using Digital Holographic Interferometry

Authors: A. Araceli Sánchez, I. Manuel H. De la Torre, S. Fernando Mendoza, R. Cesar Tavera, R. Manuel de J. Briones

Abstract:

Recycling, as part of any sustainable environment, is continuously evolving and impacting on new materials in manufacturing. One example of this is the recycled solid waste of Tetra Pak ™ packaging, which is a highly pollutant waste as it is not biodegradable since it is manufactured with different materials. The Tetra Pak ™ container consists of thermally joined layers of paper, aluminum and polyethylene. Once disposed, this packaging is recycled by completely separating the paperboard from the rest of the materials. The aluminum and the polyethylene remain together and are used to create the poly-aluminum, which is widely used to manufacture roof tiles. These recycled tiles have different thermal and acoustic properties compared with traditional manufactured ceramic and cement tiles. In this work, we compare a group of tiles using nondestructive optical testing to measure the superficial micro deformations of the tiles under well controlled experiments. The results of the acoustic and thermal tests show remarkable differences between the recycled tile and the traditional ones. These results help to determine which tile could be better suited to the specific environmental conditions in countries where extreme climates, ranging from tropical, desert-like, to very cold are experienced throughout the year.

Keywords: Digital holographic interferometry, nondestructive testing, recycled, sustainable, thermal study.

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965 Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ

Authors: Manish Jain, Dinesh Gopalani

Abstract:

Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.

Keywords: Aspect oriented programming, AspectJ, Aspects, JUnit, software testing.

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964 The Imaging Methods for Classifying Crispiness of Freeze-Dried Durian using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Sitthichon Kanitthakun, Pinit Kumhom, Kosin Chamnongthai

Abstract:

In quality control of freeze-dried durian, crispiness is a key quality index of the product. Generally, crispy testing has to be done by a destructive method. A nondestructive testing of the crispiness is required because the samples can be reused for other kinds of testing. This paper proposed a crispiness classification method of freeze-dried durians using fuzzy logic for decision making. The physical changes of a freeze-dried durian include the pores appearing in the images. Three physical features including (1) the diameters of pores, (2) the ratio of the pore area and the remaining area, and (3) the distribution of the pores are considered to contribute to the crispiness. The fuzzy logic is applied for making the decision. The experimental results comparing with food expert opinion showed that the accuracy of the proposed classification method is 83.33 percent.

Keywords: Durian, crispiness, freeze drying, pore, fuzzy logic.

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963 Performance Evaluation of an Aboveground LNG Storage Tank Cover using Nondestructive and Destructive Tests

Authors: Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park, Jieun Jeong, Jinwoong Choi

Abstract:

In this study, a new procedure for inspecting damages on LNG storage tanks was proposed with the use of structural diagnostic techniques: i.e., nondestructive inspection techniques such as macrography, the hammer sounding test, the Schmidt hammer test, and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test, and destructive inspection techniques such as the compressive strength test, the chloride penetration test, and the carbonation test. From the analysis of all the test results, it was concluded that the LNG storage tank cover was in good condition. Such results were also compared with the Korean concrete standard specifications and design values. In addition, the remaining life of the LNG storage tank was estimated by using existing models. Based on the results, an LNG storage tank cover performance evaluation procedure was suggested.

Keywords: Destructive test, LNG storage tank, Nondestructive test, Performance evaluation procedure, Remaining life.

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962 Evaluation of Heterogeneity of Paint Coating on Metal Substrate Using Laser Infrared Thermography and Eddy Current

Authors: S. Mezghani, E. Perrin, J. L Bodnar, J. Marthe, B. Cauwe, V. Vrabie

Abstract:

Non contact evaluation of the thickness of paint coatings can be attempted by different destructive and nondestructive methods such as cross-section microscopy, gravimetric mass measurement, magnetic gauges, Eddy current, ultrasound or terahertz. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive and non-invasive method that can be envisaged as a useful tool to measure the surface thickness variations by analyzing the temperature response. In this paper, the thermal quadrupole method for two layered samples heated up with a pulsed excitation is firstly used. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thicknesses of both layers, optimal parameters for the excitation source can be identified. Simulations show that a pulsed excitation with duration of ten milliseconds allows obtaining a substrate-independent thermal response. Based on this result, an experimental setup consisting of a near-infrared laser diode and an Infrared camera was next used to evaluate the variation of paint coating thickness between 60 μm and 130 μm on two samples. Results show that the parameters extracted for thermal images are correlated with the estimated thicknesses by the Eddy current methods. The laser pulsed thermography is thus an interesting alternative nondestructive method that can be moreover used for nonconductive substrates.

Keywords: Nondestructive, paint coating, thickness, infrared thermography, laser, heterogeneity.

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961 A New Type of Integration Error and its Influence on Integration Testing Techniques

Authors: P. Prema, B. Ramadoss

Abstract:

Testing is an activity that is required both in the development and maintenance of the software development life cycle in which Integration Testing is an important activity. Integration testing is based on the specification and functionality of the software and thus could be called black-box testing technique. The purpose of integration testing is testing integration between software components. In function or system testing, the concern is with overall behavior and whether the software meets its functional specifications or performance characteristics or how well the software and hardware work together. This explains the importance and necessity of IT for which the emphasis is on interactions between modules and their interfaces. Software errors should be discovered early during IT to reduce the costs of correction. This paper introduces a new type of integration error, presenting an overview of Integration Testing techniques with comparison of each technique and also identifying which technique detects what type of error.

Keywords: Integration Error, Integration Error Types, Integration Testing Techniques, Software Testing

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960 iDENTM Phones Automated Stress Testing

Authors: Wei Hoo Chong

Abstract:

System testing is actually done to the entire system against the Functional Requirement Specification and/or the System Requirement Specification. Moreover, it is an investigatory testing phase, where the focus is to have almost a destructive attitude and test not only the design, but also the behavior and even the believed expectations of the customer. It is also intended to test up to and beyond the bounds defined in the software/hardware requirements specifications. In Motorola®, Automated Testing is one of the testing methodologies uses by GSG-iSGT (Global Software Group - iDEN TM Subcriber Group-Test) to increase the testing volume, productivity and reduce test cycle-time in iDEN TM phones testing. Testing is able to produce more robust products before release to the market. In this paper, iHopper is proposed as a tool to perform stress test on iDEN TM phonse. We will discuss the value that automation has brought to iDEN TM Phone testing such as improving software quality in the iDEN TM phone together with some metrics. We will also look into the advantages of the proposed system and some discussion of the future work as well.

Keywords: Testing, automated testing, stress testing, software quality.

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959 Concurrent Testing of ADC for Embedded System

Authors: Y.B.Gandole

Abstract:

Compaction testing methods allow at-speed detecting of errors while possessing low cost of implementation. Owing to this distinctive feature, compaction methods have been widely used for built-in testing, as well as external testing. In the latter case, the bandwidth requirements to the automated test equipment employed are relaxed which reduces the overall cost of testing. Concurrent compaction testing methods use operational signals to detect misbehavior of the device under test and do not require input test stimuli. These methods have been employed for digital systems only. In the present work, we extend the use of compaction methods for concurrent testing of analog-to-digital converters. We estimate tolerance bounds for the result of compaction and evaluate the aliasing rate.

Keywords: Analog-to Digital Converter, Embedded system, Concurrent Testing

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958 Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

Tensile armour wires provide a flexible pipe's resistance to longitudinal stresses. Flexible pipe manufacturers need to know the effect of defects such as scratches and cracks, with dimensions less than 0.2mm which is the limit of the current nondestructive detection technology, on the fracture stress and fracture strain of the wire for quality assurance purposes. Recent research involving the determination of the fracture strength of cracked wires employed laboratory testing and classical fracture mechanics approach using non-standardised fracture mechanics specimens because standard test specimens could not be manufactured from the wires owing to their sizes. In this work, the effect of miniature cracks on the fracture properties of tensile armour wires was investigated using laboratory and finite element tensile testing simulations with the phenomenological shear fracture model. The investigation revealed that the presence of cracks shallower than 0.2mm is worse on the fracture strain of the wire.

Keywords: Cracks, Finite Element Simulations, Fracture Mechanics, Shear Fracture Model, Tensile Armour Wire

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957 Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Software Vulnerabilities Testing Techniques

Authors: Khalid Alnafjan, Tazar Hussain, Hanif Ullah, Zia ul haq Paracha

Abstract:

Software and applications are subjected to serious and damaging security threats, these threats are increasing as a result of increased number of potential vulnerabilities. Security testing is an indispensable process to validate software security requirements and to identify security related vulnerabilities. In this paper we analyze and compare different available vulnerabilities testing techniques based on a pre defined criteria using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). We have selected five testing techniques which includes Source code analysis, Fault code injection, Robustness, Stress and Penetration testing techniques. These testing techniques have been evaluated against five criteria which include cost, thoroughness, Ease of use, effectiveness and efficiency. The outcome of the study is helpful for researchers, testers and developers to understand effectiveness of each technique in its respective domain. Also the study helps to compare the inner working of testing techniques against a selected criterion to achieve optimum testing results.

Keywords: Software Security, Security Testing, Testing techniques, vulnerability, AHP.

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956 A New Approach for Assertions Processing during Assertion-Based Software Testing

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel

Abstract:

Assertion-Based software testing has been shown to be a promising tool for generating test cases that reveal program faults. Because the number of assertions may be very large for industry-size programs, one of the main concerns to the applicability of assertion-based testing is the amount of search time required to explore a large number of assertions. This paper presents a new approach for assertions exploration during the process of Assertion- Based software testing. Our initial exterminations with the proposed approach show that the performance of Assertion-Based testing may be improved, therefore, making this approach more efficient when applied on programs with large number of assertions.

Keywords: Software testing, assertion-based testing, program assertions.

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955 Manual Testing of Web Software Systems Supported by Direct Guidance of the Tester Based On Design Model

Authors: Karel Frajtak, Miroslav Bures, Ivan Jelinek

Abstract:

Software testing is important stage of software development cycle. Current testing process involves tester and electronic documents with test case scenarios. In this paper we focus on new approach to testing process using automated test case generation and tester guidance through the system based on the model of the system. Test case generation and model-based testing is not possible without proper system model. We aim on providing better feedback from the testing process thus eliminating the unnecessary paper work.

Keywords: Model based testing, test automation, test generating, tester support.

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954 Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry

Authors: A. Manallah, C. Meier

Abstract:

Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.

Keywords: Confocal spectral interferometry, Nondestructive testing, Optical metrology, Surface topography, Roughness.

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953 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

Authors: Tomoko Fukuyama, Osamu Senbu

Abstract:

Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

Keywords: Prestressed concrete, electric charge, impedance, phase shift.

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952 Software Test Data Generation using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Huaizhong Li, C.Peng Lam

Abstract:

State-based testing is frequently used in software testing. Test data generation is one of the key issues in software testing. A properly generated test suite may not only locate the errors in a software system, but also help in reducing the high cost associated with software testing. It is often desired that test data in the form of test sequences within a test suite can be automatically generated to achieve required test coverage. This paper proposes an Ant Colony Optimization approach to test data generation for the state-based software testing.

Keywords: Software testing, ant colony optimization, UML.

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951 Characterization of Adhesive Layers in Sandwich Composites by Nondestructive Technique

Authors: E. Barkanov, E. Skukis, M. Wesolowski, A. Chate

Abstract:

New nondestructive technique, namely an inverse technique based on vibration tests, to characterize nonlinear mechanical properties of adhesive layers in sandwich composites is developed. An adhesive layer is described as a viscoelastic isotropic material with storage and loss moduli which are both frequency dependent values in wide frequency range. An optimization based on the planning of experiments and response surface technique to minimize the error functional is applied to decrease considerably the computational expenses. The developed identification technique has been tested on aluminum panels and successfully applied to characterize viscoelastic material properties of 3M damping polymer ISD-112 used as a core material in sandwich panels.

Keywords: Adhesive layer, finite element method, inverse technique, sandwich panel, vibration test, viscoelastic material properties.

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950 Automating the Testing of Object Behaviour: A Statechart-Driven Approach

Authors: Dong He Nam, Eric C. Mousset, David C. Levy

Abstract:

The evolution of current modeling specifications gives rise to the problem of generating automated test cases from a variety of application tools. Past endeavours on behavioural testing of UML statecharts have not systematically leveraged the potential of existing graph theory for testing of objects. Therefore there exists a need for a simple, tool-independent, and effective method for automatic test generation. An architecture, codenamed ACUTE-J (Automated stateChart Unit Testing Engine for Java), for automating the unit test generation process is presented. A sequential approach for converting UML statechart diagrams to JUnit test classes is described, with the application of existing graph theory. Research byproducts such as a universal XML Schema and API for statechart-driven testing are also proposed. The result from a Java implementation of ACUTE-J is discussed in brief. The Chinese Postman algorithm is utilised as an illustration for a run-through of the ACUTE-J architecture.

Keywords: Automated testing, model based testing, statechart testing, UML, unit testing.

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949 Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.

Keywords: Open jet testing, aerodynamics, hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles, airships.

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948 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

Abstract:

This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: Experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning.

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947 Talent Selection for Present Conception of Women Sports Gymnastics and Practical Verification of the Test Battery

Authors: G. Bago, P. Hedbávný, M. Kalichová

Abstract:

The aim of the contribution is to project and consequently verify a testing battery which in practice would facilitate the selection of talented gymnasts for current concept of men´ s gymnastics. Based on study of professional literature a test array consisting of three parts projected – power testing, speed testing and flexibility testing– was projected. The evaluating scales used in the tests are standardized. This test array was applied to girls aged 6 - 7 during recruitment for Sokol Brno I. and SG Pelhrimov Gymnastic Club. After 6 months of training activity the projected set of tests was applied again. The results were evaluated through observation and questionnaire and they were consequently transformed into charts. Recommendation for practice was proposed based on these results.

Keywords: Talent selection, sports gymnastics, power testing, speed testing, flexibility testing.

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946 Data and Control Flow Analysis of VDMµ Specifications

Authors: Mubina Nazmeen, Iram Rubab

Abstract:

Formal Specification languages are being widely used for system specification and testing. Highly critical systems such as real time systems, avionics, and medical systems are represented using Formal specification languages. Formal specifications based testing is mostly performed using black box testing approaches thus testing only the set of inputs and outputs of the system. The formal specification language such as VDMµ can be used for white box testing as they provide enough constructs as any other high level programming language. In this work, we perform data and control flow analysis of VDMµ class specifications. The proposed work is discussed with an example of SavingAccount.

Keywords: VDM-SL, VDMµ, data flow graph, control flowgraph, testing, formal specification.

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945 TTCN-3 Based Conformance Testing of a Node Monitoring Protocol for MANETs

Authors: Mallikarjun B. Channappagoudar, Pallapa Venkataram

Abstract:

As a node monitoring protocol, which is a part of network management, operates in distributed manner, conformance testing of such protocols is more tedious than testing a peer-to-peer protocol. Various works carried out to give the methodology to do conformance testing of distributed protocol. In this paper, we have presented a formal approach for conformance testing of a Node Monitoring Protocol, which uses both static and mobile agents, for MANETs. First, we use SDL to obtain MSCs, which represent the scenario descriptions by sequence diagrams, which in turn generate test sequences and test cases. Later, Testing and Test Control Notation Version-3 (TTCN-3) is used to execute test cases with respect to generated test sequences to know the conformance of protocol against the given specification. This approach shows, the effective conformance testing of the distributed protocols for the network with varying node density and complex behavior. Experimental results for the protocol scenario represent the effectiveness of the method used.

Keywords: Conformance Testing, FSM, Mobile agent, TTCN, Test sequence.

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944 CT Reconstruction from a Limited Number of X-Ray Projections

Authors: Tao Quang Bang, Insu Jeon

Abstract:

Most CT reconstruction system x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. A large number of X-ray projections are needed to reconstruct CT images, so the collection and calculation of the projection data consume too much time and harmful for patient. For the purpose of solving the problem, in this study, we proposed a method for tomographic reconstruction of a sample from a limited number of x-ray projections by using linear interpolation method. In simulation, we presented reconstruction from an experimental x-ray CT scan of a Aluminum phantom that follows to two steps: X-ray projections will be interpolated using linear interpolation method and using it for CT reconstruction based upon Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method.

Keywords: CT reconstruction, X-ray projections, Interpolation technique, OSEM

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943 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann

Abstract:

In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.

 

Keywords: Defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography.

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942 A Combined Approach of a Sequential Life Testing and an Accelerated Life Testing Applied to a Low-Alloy High Strength Steel Component

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, G. P. Azevedo

Abstract:

Sometimes the amount of time available for testing could be considerably less than the expected lifetime of the component. To overcome such a problem, there is the accelerated life-testing alternative aimed at forcing components to fail by testing them at much higher-than-intended application conditions. These models are known as acceleration models. One possible way to translate test results obtained under accelerated conditions to normal using conditions could be through the application of the “Maxwell Distribution Law.” In this paper we will apply a combined approach of a sequential life testing and an accelerated life testing to a low alloy high-strength steel component used in the construction of overpasses in Brazil. The underlying sampling distribution will be three-parameter Inverse Weibull model. To estimate the three parameters of the Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. We will be assuming a linear acceleration condition. To evaluate the accuracy (significance) of the parameter values obtained under normal conditions for the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will apply to the expected normal failure times a sequential life testing using a truncation mechanism. An example will illustrate the application of this procedure.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Accelerated Life Testing, Underlying Three-Parameter Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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941 Development of Electric Performance Testing System for Ceramic Chips using PZT Actuator

Authors: Jin-Ho Bae, Yong-Tae Kim, S K Deb Nath, Seo-Ik Kang, Sung-Gaun Kim

Abstract:

Reno-pin contact test is a method that is controlled by DC motor used to characterize electronic chips. This method is used in electronic and telecommunication devices. A new electric performance testing system is developed in which the testing method is controlled by using Piezoelectric Transducer (PZT) instead of DC motor which reduces vibration and noise. The vertical displacement of the Reno-pin is very short in the Reno-pin contact testing system. Now using a flexible guide in the new Reno-pin contact system, the vertical movement of the Reno-pin is increased many times of the existing Reno-pin contact testing method using DC motor. Using the present electric performance testing system with a flexible hinge and PZT instead of DC motor, manufacturing of electronic chips are able to characterize chips with low cost and high speed.

Keywords: PZT Actuator, Chip test, Mechanical amplifier

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