Search results for: inverse filters
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 503

Search results for: inverse filters

503 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard

Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis

Abstract:

In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder [15] with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filters

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502 FILMS based ANC System – Evaluation and Practical Implementation

Authors: Branislav Vuksanović, Dragana Nikolić

Abstract:

This paper describes the implementation and testing of a multichannel active noise control system (ANCS) based on the filtered-inverse LMS (FILMS) algorithm. The FILMS algorithm is derived from the well-known filtered-x LMS (FXLMS) algorithm with the aim to improve the rate of convergence of the multichannel FXLMS algorithm and to reduce its computational load. Laboratory setup and techniques used to implement this system efficiently are described in this paper. Experiments performed in order to test the performance of the FILMS algorithm are discussed and the obtained results presented.

Keywords: Active noise control, adaptive filters, inverse filters, LMS algorithm, FILMS algorithm.

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501 An Iterative Algorithm to Compute the Generalized Inverse A(2) T,S Under the Restricted Inner Product

Authors: Xingping Sheng

Abstract:

Let T and S be a subspace of Cn and Cm, respectively. Then for A ∈ Cm×n satisfied AT ⊕ S = Cm, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S is given by A(2) T,S = (PS⊥APT )†. In this paper, a finite formulae is presented to compute generalized inverse A(2) T,S under the concept of restricted inner product, which defined as < A,B >T,S=< PS⊥APT,B > for the A,B ∈ Cm×n. By this iterative method, when taken the initial matrix X0 = PTA∗PS⊥, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S can be obtained within at most mn iteration steps in absence of roundoff errors. Finally given numerical example is shown that the iterative formulae is quite efficient.

Keywords: Generalized inverse A(2) T, S, Restricted inner product, Iterative method, Orthogonal projection.

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500 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT

Authors: G. Koukiou, V. Anastassopoulos

Abstract:

In this paper a bank of velocity filters is devised to be used for isolating a moving object with specific velocity in a sequence of frames. The approach used is a 3-D FFT based experimental procedure without applying any theoretical concept from velocity filters. Accordingly, velocity filters are built using the spectral signature of each separate moving object. Experimentation reveals the capabilities of the constructed filter bank to separate moving objects as far as the amplitude as well as the direction of the velocity are concerned.

Keywords: Velocity filters, filter banks, 3-D FFT.

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499 Connectivity Estimation from the Inverse Coherence Matrix in a Complex Chaotic Oscillator Network

Authors: Won Sup Kim, Xue-Mei Cui, Seung Kee Han

Abstract:

We present on the method of inverse coherence matrix for the estimation of network connectivity from multivariate time series of a complex system. In a model system of coupled chaotic oscillators, it is shown that the inverse coherence matrix defined as the inverse of cross coherence matrix is proportional to the network connectivity. Therefore the inverse coherence matrix could be used for the distinction between the directly connected links from indirectly connected links in a complex network. We compare the result of network estimation using the method of the inverse coherence matrix with the results obtained from the coherence matrix and the partial coherence matrix.

Keywords: Chaotic oscillator, complex network, inverse coherence matrix, network estimation.

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498 Uncontrollable Inaccuracy in Inverse Problems

Authors: Yu. Menshikov

Abstract:

In this paper the influence of errors of function derivatives in initial time which have been obtained by experiment (uncontrollable inaccuracy) to the results of inverse problem solution was investigated. It was shown that these errors distort the inverse problem solution as a rule near the beginning of interval where the solutions are analyzed. Several methods for removing the influence of uncontrollable inaccuracy have been suggested. 

Keywords: Inverse problems, uncontrollable inaccuracy, filtration.

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497 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.

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496 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamic Systems

Authors: R. Masarova, M. Juhas, B. Juhasova, Z. Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: Dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling.

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495 Optimal Convolutive Filters for Real-Time Detection and Arrival Time Estimation of Transient Signals

Authors: Michal Natora, Felix Franke, Klaus Obermayer

Abstract:

Linear convolutive filters are fast in calculation and in application, and thus, often used for real-time processing of continuous data streams. In the case of transient signals, a filter has not only to detect the presence of a specific waveform, but to estimate its arrival time as well. In this study, a measure is presented which indicates the performance of detectors in achieving both of these tasks simultaneously. Furthermore, a new sub-class of linear filters within the class of filters which minimize the quadratic response is proposed. The proposed filters are more flexible than the existing ones, like the adaptive matched filter or the minimum power distortionless response beamformer, and prove to be superior with respect to that measure in certain settings. Simulations of a real-time scenario confirm the advantage of these filters as well as the usefulness of the performance measure.

Keywords: Adaptive matched filter, minimum variance distortionless response, beam forming, Capon beam former, linear filters, performance measure.

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494 Base Change for Fisher Metrics: Case of the q−Gaussian Inverse Distribution

Authors: Gabriel I. Loaiza O., Carlos A. Cadavid M., Juan C. Arango P.

Abstract:

It is known that the Riemannian manifold determined by the family of inverse Gaussian distributions endowed with the Fisher metric has negative constant curvature κ = −1/2 , as does the family of usual Gaussian distributions. In the present paper, firstly we arrive at this result by following a different path, much simpler than the previous ones. We first put the family in exponential form, thus endowing the family with a new set of parameters, or coordinates, θ1, θ2; then we determine the matrix of the Fisher metric in terms of these parameters; and finally we compute this matrix in the original parameters. Secondly, we define the Inverse q−Gaussian distribution family (q < 3), as the family obtained by replacing the usual exponential function by the Tsallis q−exponential function in the expression for the Inverse Gaussian distribution, and observe that it supports two possible geometries, the Fisher and the q−Fisher geometry. And finally, we apply our strategy to obtain results about the Fisher and q−Fisher geometry of the Inverse q−Gaussian distribution family, similar to the ones obtained in the case of the Inverse Gaussian distribution family.

Keywords: Base of Changes, Information Geometry, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Inverse q-Gaussian distribution, Statistical Manifolds.

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493 Navigation and Self Alignment of Inertial Systems using Nonlinear H∞ Filters

Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) play a vital role along with global positioning devices in navigation of autonomous vehicles .These sensors are low cost ,easily available but depict colored noises and unpredictable discontinuities .Conventional filters like Kalman filters and Sigma point filters are not able to cope with nonwhite noises. This research has utilized H∞ filter in nonlinear frame work both with Kalman filter and Unscented filter for navigation and self alignment of an airborne vehicle. The system is simulated for colored noises and discontinuities and results are compared with not robust nonlinear filters. The results are found 40%-70% more robust against colored noises and discontinuities.

Keywords: filtering, integrated navigation, MEMS, nonlinearfiltering, self alignment

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492 A Weighted Least Square Algorithm for Low-Delay FIR Filters with Piecewise Variable Stopbands

Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Aikawa

Abstract:

Variable digital filters are useful for various signal processing and communication applications where the frequency characteristics, such as fractional delays and cutoff frequencies, can be varied. In this paper, we propose a design method of variable FIR digital filters with an approximate linear phase characteristic in the passband. The proposed variable FIR filters have some large attenuation in stopband and their large attenuation can be varied by spectrum parameters. In the proposed design method, a quasi-equiripple characteristic can be obtained by using an iterative weighted least square method. The usefulness of the proposed design method is verified through some examples.

Keywords: Weighted Least Squares Approximation, Variable FIR Filters, Low-Delay, Quasi-Equiripple

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491 Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform Using Chebyshev Polynomial

Authors: Vinod Mishra, Dimple Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical approximate Laplace transform inversion algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomial of second kind is developed using odd cosine series. The technique has been tested for three different functions to work efficiently. The illustrations show that the new developed numerical inverse Laplace transform is very much close to the classical analytic inverse Laplace transform.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, Numerical inverse Laplace transform, Odd cosine series.

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490 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: Pulse-shaping filters, jitter, inter-symbol interference, symmetric FIR filters, QAM

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489 A Microwave Bandstop Filter Using Defected Microstrip Structure

Authors: H. Elftouh, N. T. Amar, M. Aghoutane, M. Boussouis

Abstract:

In this paper, two bandstop filters resonating at 5.25 GHz and 7.3 GHz using Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) are discussed. These slots are incorporated in the feed lines of filters to perform a serious LC resonance property in certain frequency and suppress the spurious signals. Therefore, this method keeps the filter size unchanged and makes a resonance frequency that is due to the abrupt change of the current path of the filter. If the application requires elimination of this band of frequencies, additional filter elements are required, which can only be accomplished by adding this DMS element resonant at desired frequency band rejection. The filters are optimized and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) tool.

Keywords: Defected microstrip structure, microstrip filters, passive filter.

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488 Approximate Method of Calculation of Inviscid Hypersonic Flow

Authors: F. Sokhanvar, A. B. Khoshnevis

Abstract:

In the present work steady inviscid hypersonic flows are calculated by approximate Method. Maslens' inverse method is the chosen approximate method. For the inverse problem, parabolic shock shape is chosen for the two-dimensional flow, and the body shape and flow field are calculated using Maslen's method. For the axisymmetric inverse problem paraboloidal shock is chosen and the surface distribution of pressure is obtained.

Keywords: Hypersonic flow, Inverse problem method

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487 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: Melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, Levenberg–Marquardt Method.

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486 A Technique for Improving the Performance of Median Smoothers at the Corners Characterized by Low Order Polynomials

Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer

Abstract:

Median filters with larger windows offer greater smoothing and are more robust than the median filters of smaller windows. However, the larger median smoothers (the median filters with the larger windows) fail to track low order polynomial trends in the signals. Due to this, constant regions are produced at the signal corners, leading to the loss of fine details. In this paper, an algorithm, which combines the ability of the 3-point median smoother in preserving the low order polynomial trends and the superior noise filtering characteristics of the larger median smoother, is introduced. The proposed algorithm (called the combiner algorithm in this paper) is evaluated for its performance on a test image corrupted with different types of noise and the results obtained are included.

Keywords: Image filtering, detail preservation, median filters, nonlinear filters, order statistics filtering, Rank order filtering.

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485 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen

Abstract:

Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: Frequency transformation, Bilinear z-transformation, Pre-warping frequency, Digital filters, Analog filters, Pascal’s triangle.

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484 Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters

Authors: F. Castillo, J. Arellano, S. Sánchez

Abstract:

In this paper an alternative analysis in the time domain is described and the results of the interpolation process are presented by means of functions that are based on the rule of conditional mathematical expectation and the covariance function. A comparison between the interpolation error caused by low order filters and the classic sinc(t) truncated function is also presented. When fewer samples are used, low-order filters have less error. If the number of samples increases, the sinc(t) type functions are a better alternative. Generally speaking there is an optimal filter for each input signal which depends on the filter length and covariance function of the signal. A novel scheme of work for adaptive interpolation filters is also presented.

Keywords: Interpolation, basis function, over-sampling.

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483 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

Authors: R. K. Saxena, Ravi Saxena

Abstract:

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

Keywords: Fox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

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482 Different Approaches for the Design of IFIR Compaction Filter

Authors: Sheeba V.S, Elizabeth Elias

Abstract:

Optimization of filter banks based on the knowledge of input statistics has been of interest for a long time. Finite impulse response (FIR) Compaction filters are used in the design of optimal signal adapted orthonormal FIR filter banks. In this paper we discuss three different approaches for the design of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) compaction filters. In the first method, the magnitude squared response satisfies Nyquist constraint approximately. In the second and third methods Nyquist constraint is exactly satisfied. These methods yield FIR compaction filters whose response is comparable with that of the existing methods. At the same time, IFIR filters enjoy significant saving in the number of multipliers and can be implemented efficiently. Since eigenfilter approach is used here, the method is less complex. Design of IFIR filters in the least square sense is presented.

Keywords: Principal Component Filter Bank, InterpolatedFinite Impulse Response filter, Orthonormal Filter Bank, Eigen Filter.

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481 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti

Abstract:

In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: Harmonics, Harmonic compensation, Parallel active power filters, Power quality.

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480 Designing FIR Filters with Polynomial Approach

Authors: Sunil Bhooshan, Vinay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method for designing the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on polynomial approach.

Keywords: FIR filter, Polynomial.

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479 Confidence Interval for the Inverse of a Normal Mean with a Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Arunee Wongkha, Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose two new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation. One of new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation is constructed based on the pivotal statistic Z where Z is a standard normal distribution and another confidence interval is constructed based on the generalized confidence interval, presented by Weerahandi. We examine the performance of these confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities and average lengths via Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: The inverse of a normal mean, confidence interval, generalized confidence intervals, known coefficient of variation.

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478 Fusion Filters Weighted by Scalars and Matrices for Linear Systems

Authors: Seok Hyoung Lee, Vladimir Shin

Abstract:

An optimal mean-square fusion formulas with scalar and matrix weights are presented. The relationship between them is established. The fusion formulas are compared on the continuous-time filtering problem. The basic differential equation for cross-covariance of the local errors being the key quantity for distributed fusion is derived. It is shown that the fusion filters are effective for multi-sensor systems containing different types of sensors. An example demonstrating the reasonable good accuracy of the proposed filters is given.

Keywords: Kalman filtering, fusion formula, multi-sensor, mean-square error.

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477 On a Class of Inverse Problems for Degenerate Differential Equations

Authors: Fadi Awawdeh, H.M. Jaradat

Abstract:

In this paper, we establish existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of inverse problems of degenerate differential equations. The main tool is the perturbation theory for linear operators.

Keywords: Inverse Problem, Degenerate Differential Equations, Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators

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476 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: All-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, quincunx QMF bank.

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475 Interpolation of Geofield Parameters

Authors: A. Pashayev, C. Ardil, R. Sadiqov

Abstract:

Various methods of geofield parameters restoration (by algebraic polynoms; filters; rational fractions; interpolation splines; geostatistical methods – kriging; search methods of nearest points – inverse distance, minimum curvature, local – polynomial interpolation; neural networks) have been analyzed and some possible mistakes arising during geofield surface modeling have been presented.

Keywords: interpolation methods, geofield parameters, neural networks.

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474 An Iterative Algorithm for Inverse Kinematics of 5-DOF Manipulator with Offset Wrist

Authors: Juyi Park, Jung-Min Kim, Hee-Hwan Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Gye-Hyung Kang, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents an iterative algorithm to find a inverse kinematic solution of 5-DOF robot. The algorithm is to minimize the iteration number. Since the 5-DOF robot cannot give full orientation of tool. Only z-direction of tool is satisfied while rotation of tool is determined by kinematic constraint. This work therefore described how to specify the tool direction and let the tool rotation free. The simulation results show that this algorithm effectively worked. Using the proposed iteration algorithm, error due to inverse kinematics converged to zero rapidly in 5 iterations. This algorithm was applied in real welding robot and verified through various practical works.

Keywords: 5-DOF manipulator, Inverse kinematics, Iterative algorithm, Wrist offset.

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