Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: insulated antennas

28 Generation of Numerical Data for the Facilitation of the Personalized Hyperthermic Treatment of Cancer with An Interstital Antenna Array Using the Method of Symmetrical Components

Authors: Prodromos E. Atlamazoglou

Abstract:

The method of moments combined with the method of symmetrical components is used for the analysis of interstitial hyperthermia applicators. The basis and testing functions are both piecewise sinusoids, qualifying our technique as a Galerkin one. The dielectric coatings are modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents, which are simply related to the conduction current distribution, avoiding in that way the introduction of additional unknowns or numerical integrations. The results of our method for a four dipole circular array, are in agreement with those already published in literature for a same hyperthermia configuration. Apart from being accurate, our approach is more general, more computationally efficient and takes into account the coupling between the antennas.

Keywords: Hyperthermia, integral equations, insulated antennas, method of symmetrical components.

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27 Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized Microstrip Antenna Loaded by DNG Metamaterial

Authors: A. Ghaznavi Jahromi, F. Mohajeri

Abstract:

In this paper the design, fabrication, and testing of a miniaturized rectangular microstrip patch antenna loaded with DNG metamaterials is reported. The metamaterial is composed of two nested spiral strips and a single straight strip which are etched on two sides of a 5.7 mm×5.7 mm Rogers RT/duroid 5880 with 0.5 mm thickness and dielectric constant of 2.2. Two units of this structure as a double negative (DNG) medium in combination with air as a double positive (DPS) medium are used as substrate of the microstrip patch antenna. By placing these metamaterial structures under the patch, a sub-wavelength resonance occurs which leads to a smaller size patch antenna compared to the conventional antenna at that frequency. The total size of the proposed antenna is reduced 54.6%. The dimensions of the proposed patch antenna are significantly smaller than the wavelength of the operation frequency with respect to the conventional patch antenna. Simulation result and test result for the proposed patch antenna are given and compared.

Keywords: Antennas, Metamaterials, Microstrip Antennas, Miniaturization.

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26 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

Abstract:

Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: Thermal deposition, wearable antennas, Bluetooth technology, flexible electronics.

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25 Application of the Neural Network to the Synthesis of Multibeam Antennas Arrays

Authors: Ridha Ghayoula, Mbarek Traii, Ali Gharsallah

Abstract:

In this paper, we intend to study the synthesis of the multibeam arrays. The synthesis implementation-s method for this type of arrays permits to approach the appropriated radiance-s diagram. The used approach is based on neural network that are capable to model the multibeam arrays, consider predetermined general criteria-s, and finally it permits to predict the appropriated diagram from the neural model. Our main contribution in this paper is the extension of a synthesis model of these multibeam arrays.

Keywords: Multibeam, modelling, neural networks, synthesis, antennas.

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24 Analysis and Design of Dual-Polarization Antennas for Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Vladimir Veremey

Abstract:

The paper describes the design and simulation of dual-polarization antennas that use the resonance and radiating properties of the H00 mode of metal open waveguides. The proposed antennas are formed by two orthogonal slots in a finite conducting ground plane. The slots are backed by metal screens connected to the ground plane forming open waveguides. It has been shown that the antenna designs can be efficiently used in mm-wave bands. The antenna single mode operational bandwidth is higher than 10%. The antenna designs are very simple and low-cost. They allow flush installation and can be efficiently used in various communication and remote sensing devices on fast moving carriers. Mutual coupling between antennas of the proposed design is very low. Thus, multiple antenna structures with proposed antennas can be efficiently employed in multi-band and in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

Keywords: Antenna, antenna arrays, multiple-input-multiple-output, MIMO, millimeter wave bands, slot antenna, flush installation, directivity, open waveguide, conformal antennas.

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23 Measurement of Small PD-S in Compressed SF6(10%) - N2(90%) Gas Mixture

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan

Abstract:

Partial Discharge measurement is a very important means of assessing the integrity of insulation systems in a High Voltage apparatus. In compressed gas insulation systems, floating particles can initiate partial discharge activities which adversely affect the working of insulation. Partial Discharges below the inception voltage also plays a crucial in damaging the integrity of insulation over a period of time. This paper discusses the effect of loose and fixed Copper and Nichrome wire particles on the PD characteristics in SF6-N2 (10:90) gas mixtures at a pressure of 0.4MPa. The Partial Discharge statistical parameters and their correlation to the observed results are discussed.

Keywords: Gas Insulated transmission Line, Sulphur HexaFlouride, metallic Particles, Partial Discharge (PD), InceptionVoltage (Vi), Extinction Voltage (Ve), PD Statistical parameters.

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22 Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Networks using Directional Antennas

Authors: Sedat Atmaca, Celal Ceken, Ismail Erturk

Abstract:

One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably. SDMA technique which entails using directional antennas allows to increase the capacity of a wireless network by separating users in the medium. In this paper, it has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced while the mean delay is reduced by using directional antennas in wireless networks employing TDMA/FDD MAC. Computer modeling and simulation of the wireless system studied are realized using OPNET Modeler. Preliminary simulation results are presented and the performance of the model using directional antennas is evaluated and compared consistently with the one using omnidirectional antennas.

Keywords: Directional Antenna, TDMA, SDMA,

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21 Issues in Deploying Smart Antennas in Mobile Radio Networks

Authors: Rameshwar Kawitkar

Abstract:

With the exponentially increasing demand for wireless communications the capacity of current cellular systems will soon become incapable of handling the growing traffic. Since radio frequencies are diminishing natural resources, there seems to be a fundamental barrier to further capacity increase. The solution can be found in smart antenna systems. Smart or adaptive antenna arrays consist of an array of antenna elements with signal processing capability, that optimize the radiation and reception of a desired signal, dynamically. Smart antennas can place nulls in the direction of interferers via adaptive updating of weights linked to each antenna element. They thus cancel out most of the co-channel interference resulting in better quality of reception and lower dropped calls. Smart antennas can also track the user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. This implies that they are more advantageous than other antenna systems. This paper focuses on few issues about the smart antennas in mobile radio networks.

Keywords: Smart/Adaptive Antenna, Multipath fading, Beamforming, Radio propagation.

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20 Performance Evaluation of 2×2 Switched Beam Antennas with Null Locating for Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: S. Pradittara, M. Uthansakul, P. Uthansakul

Abstract:

A concept of switched beam antennas consisting of 2×2 rectangular array spaced by λ/4 accompanied with a null locating has been proposed in the previous work. In this letter, the performance evaluations of its prototype are presented. The benefits of using proposed system have been clearly measured in term of signal quality, throughput and delays. Also, the impact of position shift which mesh router is not located on the expected beam direction has also been investigated.

Keywords: Antenna array, Beamforming, Null steering, WMNs.

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19 High-Frequency Spectrum Analysis of VFTO Generated inside Gas Insulated Substations

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, A. Said, Ebrahim A. Badran

Abstract:

Worldwide many electrical equipment insulation failures have been reported caused by switching operations, while those equipments had previously passed all the standard tests and complied with all quality requirements. The problem is mostly associated with high-frequency overvoltages generated during opening or closing of a switching device. The transients generated during switching operations in a Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) are associated with high frequency components in the order of few tens of MHz. The frequency spectrum of the VFTO generated in the 220/66 kV Wadi-Hoff GIS is analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform technique. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of disconnector (DS5) is 5 to 10 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 9 MHz. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of circuit breaker (CB5) is 1 to 25 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 2 MHz. Mitigating techniques damped the oscillating frequencies effectively. The using of cable terminal reduced the frequency oscillation effectively than that of OHTL terminal. The using of a shunt capacitance results in vanishing the high frequency components. Ferrite rings reduces the high frequency components effectively especially in the range 2 to 7 MHz. The using of RC and RL filters results in vanishing the high frequency components.

Keywords: GIS, VFTO, Mitigation Techniques, Frequency spectrum, FFT, EMTP/ATP.

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18 Hygrothermal Assessment of Internally Insulated Prefabricated Concrete Wall in Polish Climatic Condition

Authors: D. Kaczorek

Abstract:

Internal insulation of external walls is often problematic due to increased moisture content in the wall and interstitial or surface condensation risk. In this paper, the hygrothermal performance of prefabricated, concrete, large panel, external wall typical for WK70 system, commonly used in Poland in the 70’s, with inside, additional insulation was investigated. Thermal insulation board made out of hygroscopic, natural materials with moisture buffer capacity and extruded polystyrene (EPS) board was used as interior insulation. Experience with this natural insulation is rare in Poland. The analysis was performed using WUFI software. First of all, the impact of various standard boundary conditions on the behavior of the different wall assemblies was tested. The comparison of results showed that the moisture class according to the EN ISO 13788 leads to too high values of total moisture content in the wall since the boundary condition according to the EN 15026 should be usually applied. Then, hygrothermal 1D-simulations were conducted by WUFI Pro for analysis of internally added insulation, and the weak point like the joint of the wall with the concrete ceiling was verified using 2D simulations. Results showed that, in the Warsaw climate and the indoor conditions adopted in accordance with EN 15026, in the tested wall assemblies, regardless of the type of interior insulation, there would not be any problems with moisture - inside the structure and on the interior surface.

Keywords: Concrete large panel wall, hygrothermal simulation, internal insulation, moisture related issues.

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17 12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.

Keywords: IOT, LTE, MIMO, terminal antenna, WiFi.

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16 Performance Analysis of Adaptive OFDM Pre and Post-FTT Beamforming System

Authors: S. Elnobi, Iman El-Zahaby, Amr M. Mahros

Abstract:

In mobile communication systems, performance and capacity are affected by multi-path fading, delay spread and Co-Channel Interference (CCI). For this reason Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and adaptive antenna array are used is required. The goal of the OFDM is to improve the system performance against Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). An array of adaptive antennas has been employed to suppress CCI by spatial technique. To suppress CCI in OFDM systems two main schemes the pre-FFT and the post-FFT have been proposed. In this paper, through a system level simulation, the behavior of the pre-FFT and post-FFT beamformers for OFDM system has been investigated based on two algorithms namely, Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The performance of the system is also discussed in multipath fading channel system specified by 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

Keywords: OFDM, Beamforming, Adaptive Antennas Array.

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15 Free Convective Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with Porous Media with and without Insulated Moving Wall

Authors: Laith Jaafer Habeeb

Abstract:

The present work is concerned with the free convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, in isotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure with differentially heated walls for steady state incompressible flow have been investigated for non- Darcy flow model. Effects of Darcy number (0.0001 £Da£ 10), Rayleigh number (10 £Ra£ 5000), and aspect ratio (0.25 £AR£ 4), for a range of porosity (0.4 £e£ 0.9) with and without moving lower wall have been studied. The cavity was insulated at the lower and upper surfaces. The right and left heated surfaces allows convective transport through the porous medium, generating a thermal stratification and flow circulations. It was found that the Darcy number, Rayleigh number, aspect ratio, and porosity considerably influenced characteristics of flow and heat transfer mechanisms. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number, vectors, contours, and isotherms.

Keywords: Numerical study, moving-wall cavity flow, saturated porous medium, different Darcy and Rayleigh numbers.

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14 Long Term Stability of an Experimental Insulated-Model Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond

Authors: N. W. K. Jayatissa, R. Attalage, Prabath Hewageegana, P. A. A. Perera, M. A. Punyasena

Abstract:

Per capita energy usage in any country is exponentially increasing with their development. As a result, the country’s dependence on the fossil fuels for energy generation is also increasing tremendously creating economic and environmental concerns. Tropical countries receive considerable amount of solar radiation throughout the year, use of solar energy with different energy storage and conversion methodologies is a viable solution to minimize the ever increasing demand for the depleting fossil fuels. Salinity gradient solar pond is one such solar energy application. This paper reports the characteristics and performance of a thermally insulated, experimental salinity-gradient solar pond, built at the premises of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Particular stress is given to the behavior of the evolution of the three layer structure exist at the stable state of a salinity gradient solar pond over a long period of time, under different environmental conditions. The operational procedures required to maintain the long term thermal stability are also reported in this article.

Keywords: Salt-gradient, solar pond, solar radiation, renewable energy.

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13 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center.

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12 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: High voltage, IGBT, Solid states switch.

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11 Effect of Channel Estimation on Capacity of MIMO System Employing Circular or Linear Receiving Array Antennas

Authors: Xia Liu, Marek E. Bialkowski

Abstract:

This paper reports on investigations into capacity of a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication system employing a uniform linear array (ULA) at the transmitter and either a uniform linear array (ULA) or a uniform circular array (UCA) antenna at the receiver. The transmitter is assumed to be surrounded by scattering objects while the receiver is postulated to be free from scattering objects. The Laplacian distribution of angle of arrival (AOA) of a signal reaching the receiver is postulated. Calculations of the MIMO system capacity are performed for two cases without and with the channel estimation errors. For estimating the MIMO channel, the scaled least square (SLS) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) methods are considered.

Keywords: MIMO, channel capacity, channel estimation, ULA, UCA, spatial correlation

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10 Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Chun-Fong Wu

Abstract:

It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.

Keywords: Mini UAV, reconnaissance, wireless transmission, ZigBee modulus.

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9 A Hygrothermal Analysis and Structural Performance of Wood-Frame Wall Systems with Low-Permeance Exterior Insulation

Authors: Marko Spasojevic, Ying Hei Chui, Yuxiang Chen

Abstract:

Increasing the level of exterior insulation in residential buildings is a popular way for improving the thermal characteristic of building enclosure and reducing heat loss. However, the layout and properties of materials composing the wall have a great effect on moisture accumulation within the wall cavity, long-term durability of a wall as well as the structural performance. A one-dimensional hygrothermal modeling has been performed to investigate moisture condensation risks and the drying capacity of standard 2×4 and 2×6 light wood-frame wall assemblies including exterior low-permeance extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation. The analysis considered two different wall configurations whereby the rigid insulation board was placed either between Oriented Strand Board (OSB) sheathing and the stud or outboard to the structural sheathing. The thickness of the insulation varied between 0 mm and 50 mm and the analysis has been conducted for eight different locations in Canada, covering climate zone 4 through zone 8. Results show that the wall configuration with low-permeance insulation inserted between the stud and OSB sheathing accumulates more moisture within the stud cavity, compared to the assembly with the same insulation placed exterior to the sheathing. On the other hand, OSB moisture contents of the latter configuration were markedly higher. Consequently, the analysis of hygrothermal performance investigated and compared moisture accumulation in both the OSB and stud cavity. To investigate the structural performance of the wall and the effect of soft insulation layer inserted between the sheathing and framing, forty nail connection specimens were tested. Results have shown that both the connection strength and stiffness experience a significant reduction as the insulation thickness increases. These results will be compared with results from a full-scale shear wall tests in order to investigate if the capacity of shear walls with insulated sheathing would experience a similar reduction in structural capacities.

Keywords: Hygrothermal analysis, insulated sheathing, moisture performance, nail joints, wood shear wall.

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8 Proposed Geometric Printed Patch Shapes for Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Antennas

Authors: Rashid A. Fayadh, F. Malek, Hilal A. Fadhil, Norshafinash Saudin

Abstract:

In this paper, a design of ultra wideband (UWB) printed microstrip antennas that fed by microstrip transmission line were presented and printed on a substrate Taconic TLY-5 material with relative dielectric constant of 2.2. The proposed antennas were designed to cover the frequency range of 3.5 to 12 GHz. The antennas of printed patch shapes are rectangular, triangle/rectangular, hexagonal, and circular with the same dimensions of feeder and ground plane. The proposed antennas were simulated using a package of CST microwave studio in the 2 to 12 GHz operating frequency range. Simulation results and comparison for return loss (S11), radiation patterns, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) were presented and discussed over the UWB frequency.

Keywords: Microstrip patch antenna, ultra-wideband frequency, wireless communication systems, return loss and radiation patterns.

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7 A Comparative Study on ANN, ANFIS and SVM Methods for Computing Resonant Frequency of A-Shaped Compact Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Ahmet Kayabasi, Ali Akdagli

Abstract:

In this study, three robust predicting methods, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for computing the resonant frequency of A-shaped compact microstrip antennas (ACMAs) operating at UHF band. Firstly, the resonant frequencies of 144 ACMAs with various dimensions and electrical parameters were simulated with the help of IE3D™ based on method of moment (MoM). The ANN, ANFIS and SVM models for computing the resonant frequency were then built by considering the simulation data. 124 simulated ACMAs were utilized for training and the remaining 20 ACMAs were used for testing the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models are compared in the training and test process. The average percentage errors (APE) regarding the computed resonant frequencies for training of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM were obtained as 0.457%, 0.399% and 0.600%, respectively. The constructed models were then tested and APE values as 0.601% for ANN, 0.744% for ANFIS and 0.623% for SVM were achieved. The results obtained here show that ANN, ANFIS and SVM methods can be successfully applied to compute the resonant frequency of ACMAs, since they are useful and versatile methods that yield accurate results.

Keywords: A-shaped compact microstrip antenna, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Support Vector Machine (SVM).

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6 Performance Analysis of a Single-Phase Thermosyphon Solar Water Heating System

Authors: S. Sadhishkumar, T. Balusamy

Abstract:

A single-phase closed thermosyphon has been fabricated and experimented to utilize solar energy for water heating. The working fluid of the closed thermosyphon is heated at the flatplate collector and the hot water goes to the water tank due to density gradient caused by temperature differences. This experimental work was done using insulated water tank and insulated connecting pipe between the tank and the flat-plate collector. From the collected data, performance parameters such as instantaneous collector efficiency and heat removal factor are calculated. In this study, the effects of glazing were also observed. The water temperature rise and the maximum instantaneous efficiency obtained from this experiment with glazing using insulated water tank and insulated connecting pipe are 17°C in a period of 5 hours and 60% respectively. Whereas the water temperature rise and the maximum instantaneous efficiency obtained from this experiment with glazing using non-insulated water tank and non-insulated connecting pipe are 14°C in a period of 5 hours and 39% respectively.

Keywords: Solar water heating systems, Single-phase thermosyphon, Flat-plate collector, Insulated tank and pipe.

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5 Space Charge Distribution in 22 kV XLPE Insulated Cable by Using Pulse Electroacoustic Measurement Technique

Authors: N. Ruangkajonmathee, R. Thiamsri, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on space charge distribution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulating material for 22 kV power distribution system cable by using pulse electroacoustic measurement technique (PEA). Numbers of XLPE insulating material ribbon having thickness 60 μm taken from unused 22 kV high voltage cable were used as specimen in this study. DC electric field stress was applied to test specimen at room temperature (25°C). Four levels of electric field stress, 25 kV/mm, 50 kV/mm, 75 kV/mm and 100 kV/mm, were used. In order to investigate space charge distribution characteristic, space charge distribution characteristics were measured after applying electric field stress 15 min, 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The results show that applied time and magnitude of dc electric field stress play an important role to the formation of space charge.

Keywords: Space charge distribution, pulsed electroacoustic(PEA) technique, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), DC electrical fields stress.

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4 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran

Abstract:

Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflectarray antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflectarray aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflectarray designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflectarray antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflectarrays constructed on 0.508mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Progressive phase distribution, Reflectarray antenna, Reflection phase.

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3 Reliable One-Dimensional Model of Two-Dimensional Insulated Oval Duct Considering Heat Radiation

Authors: King-Leung Wong, Wen-Lih Chen, Yu-feng Chang

Abstract:

The reliable results of an insulated oval duct considering heat radiation are obtained basing on accurate oval perimeter obtained by integral method as well as one-dimensional Plane Wedge Thermal Resistance (PWTR) model. This is an extension study of former paper of insulated oval duct neglecting heat radiation. It is found that in the practical situations with long-short-axes ratio a/b <= 5/1, heat transfer rate errors are within 1.2 % by comparing with accurate two-dimensional numerical solutions for most practical dimensionless insulated thickness (t/R2 <= 0.5). On the contrary, neglecting the heat radiation effect is likely to produce very big heat transfer rate errors of non-insulated (E>43% at t/R2=0) and thin-insulated (E>4.5% while t/R2<= 0.1) oval ducts in situations of ambient air with lower external convection heat coefficients and larger surface emissivity.

Keywords: Heat convection, heat radiation, oval duct, PWTR model.

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2 Comparison of CPW Fed Microstrip Patch Antennas with Varied Ground Structures for Fixed Satellite Applications

Authors: Deepanshu Kaushal, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This paper draws a comparison between two microstrip patch antennas having different ground structures. The designs utilize 45 mm x 40 mm x 1.6 mm FR4 epoxy substrate (relative permittivity of 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.02) and CPW feeding technique. The design 1 uses conducting partial ground plates along the two sides of the radiating X’mas tree shaped patch. The design 2 utilizes an X’mas tree shaped slotted ground structure that features a circular radiating patch. A comparative analysis of results of both designs has been carried. The two designs are intended to serve the fixed satellite applications in X and Ku band respectively.

Keywords: CPW feed, partial ground structures, slotted ground structures, fixed satellite applications.

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1 Effect of Applied Voltage Frequency on Electrical Treeing in 22 kV Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Cable

Authors: R. Thiamsri, N. Ruangkajonmathee, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on effect of applied voltage stress frequency to the occurrence of electrical treeing in 22 kV cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable.Hallow disk of XLPE insulating material with thickness 5 mm taken from unused high voltage cable was used as the specimen in this study. Stainless steel needle was inserted gradually into the specimen to give a tip to earth plane electrode separation of 2.50.2 mm at elevated temperature 105-110°C. The specimen was then annealed for 5 minute to minimize any mechanical stress build up around the needle-plane region before it was cooled down to room temperature. Each specimen were subjected to the same applied voltage stress level at 8 kV AC rms, with various frequency, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz. Initiation time, propagation speed and pattern of electrical treeing were examined in order to study the effect of applied voltage stress frequency. By the experimental results, initial time of visible treeing decreases with increasing in applied voltage frequency. Also, obviously, propagation speed of electrical treeing increases with increasing in applied voltage frequency.Furthermore, two types of electrical treeing, bush-like and branch-like treeing were observed.The experimental results confirmed the effect of voltage stress frequency as well.

Keywords: Voltage stress frequency, cross-linked polyethylene, electrical treeing, treeing propagation, treeing pattern

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