Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2141

Search results for: partial ground structures

2141 Comparison of CPW Fed Microstrip Patch Antennas with Varied Ground Structures for Fixed Satellite Applications

Authors: Deepanshu Kaushal, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This paper draws a comparison between two microstrip patch antennas having different ground structures. The designs utilize 45 mm x 40 mm x 1.6 mm FR4 epoxy substrate (relative permittivity of 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.02) and CPW feeding technique. The design 1 uses conducting partial ground plates along the two sides of the radiating X’mas tree shaped patch. The design 2 utilizes an X’mas tree shaped slotted ground structure that features a circular radiating patch. A comparative analysis of results of both designs has been carried. The two designs are intended to serve the fixed satellite applications in X and Ku band respectively.

Keywords: CPW feed, partial ground structures, slotted ground structures, fixed satellite applications.

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2140 Compact Planar Antenna for UWB Applications

Authors: Rezaul Azim, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Norbahiah Misran

Abstract:

In this paper, a planar antenna for UWB applications has been proposed. The antenna consists of a square patch, a partial ground plane and a slot on the ground plane. The proposed antenna is easy to be integrated with microwave circuitry for low manufacturing cost. The flat type antenna has a compact structure and the total size is 14.5×14.5mm2. The result shows that the impedance bandwidth (VSWR≤ 2) of the proposed antenna is 12.49 GHz (2.95 to 15.44 GHz), which is equivalent to 135.8%. Details of the proposed compact planar UWB antenna design is presented and discussed.

Keywords: Planar antenna, partial ground plane, ultrawideband(UWB) antenna.

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2139 Performance of Ground Clay Bricks as Partial Cement Replacement in Grade 30 Concrete

Authors: Kartini, K., Rohaidah, M.N., Zuraini, ZA.

Abstract:

Demolitions of buildings have created a lot of waste and one of it is clay bricks. The waste clay bricks were ground to roughly cement fineness and used to partially replaced cement at 10%, 20% and 30% with w/b ratio of 0.6 and tested at 7, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days. The result shows that the compressive strength of GCB concrete increases over age however, decreases as the level of replacements increases. It was also found that 10% replacement of GCB gave the highest compressive strength, however for optimum replacement, 30% was chosen as it still attained strength of grade 30 concrete. In terms of durability performances, results show that GCB replacement up to 30% was found to be efficient in reducing water absorption as well as water permeability. These studies show that GCB has the potential to be used as partial cement replacement in making concrete.

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Ground Clay Bricks, Partial Cement Replacement, Water Absorption and Permeability

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2138 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: Wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data.

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2137 On the Seismic Response of Collided Structures

Authors: George D. Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

Abstract:

This study examines the inelastic behavior of adjacent planar reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames subjected to strong ground motions. The investigation focuses on the effects of vertical ground motion on the seismic pounding. The examined structures are modeled and analyzed by RUAUMOKO dynamic nonlinear analysis program using reliable hysteretic models for both structural members and contact elements. It is found that the vertical ground motion mildly affects the seismic response of adjacent buildings subjected to structural pounding and, for this reason, it can be ignored from the displacement and interstorey drifts assessment. However, the structural damage is moderately affected by the vertical component of earthquakes.

Keywords: Nonlinear seismic behavior, reinforced concrete structures, structural pounding, vertical ground motions.

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2136 Neural Network Evaluation of FRP Strengthened RC Buildings Subjected to Near-Fault Ground Motions having Fling Step

Authors: Alireza Mortezaei, Kimia Mortezaei

Abstract:

Recordings from recent earthquakes have provided evidence that ground motions in the near field of a rupturing fault differ from ordinary ground motions, as they can contain a large energy, or “directivity" pulse. This pulse can cause considerable damage during an earthquake, especially to structures with natural periods close to those of the pulse. Failures of modern engineered structures observed within the near-fault region in recent earthquakes have revealed the vulnerability of existing RC buildings against pulse-type ground motions. This may be due to the fact that these modern structures had been designed primarily using the design spectra of available standards, which have been developed using stochastic processes with relatively long duration that characterizes more distant ground motions. Many recently designed and constructed buildings may therefore require strengthening in order to perform well when subjected to near-fault ground motions. Fiber Reinforced Polymers are considered to be a viable alternative, due to their relatively easy and quick installation, low life cycle costs and zero maintenance requirements. The objective of this paper is to investigate the adequacy of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to determine the three dimensional dynamic response of FRP strengthened RC buildings under the near-fault ground motions. For this purpose, one ANN model is proposed to estimate the base shear force, base bending moments and roof displacement of buildings in two directions. A training set of 168 and a validation set of 21 buildings are produced from FEA analysis results of the dynamic response of RC buildings under the near-fault earthquakes. It is demonstrated that the neural network based approach is highly successful in determining the response.

Keywords: Seismic evaluation, FRP, neural network, near-fault ground motion

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2135 Early-Age Structural and Thermal Performance of GGBS Concrete

Authors: Kangkang Tang

Abstract:

A large amount of blast furnace slag is generated in China. Most ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) however ends up in low-grade applications. Blast furnace slag, ground to an appropriate fineness, can be used as a partial replacement of cementitious material in concrete. The potential for using GGBS in structural concrete, e.g. concrete beams and columns is investigated at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU). With 50% of CEM I cement replaced with GGBS, peak hydration temperatures determined in a suspended concrete slab reduced by 20%. This beneficiary effect has not been further improved with 70% of CEM I replaced with GGBS. Partial replacement of CEM I with GGBS has a retardation effect on the early-age strength of concrete. More GGBS concrete mixes will be conducted to identify an ‘optimum’ replacement level which will lead to a reduced thermal loading, without significantly compromising the early-age strength of concrete.

Keywords: GGBS, thermal effect, sustainable construction, CEM I.

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2134 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou

Abstract:

Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: Ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties.

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2133 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: WooYoung Jung, HoYoung Son

Abstract:

This study presented to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, hightech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: Composite material, GFRP, Infill Panel, Aftershock, Seismic Retrofitting.

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2132 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectlyplastic behavior was performed using RAM PERFORM-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and, consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: Inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component.

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2131 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using RAM PERFORM-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and, consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: Inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component.

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2130 Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements

Authors: Zsolt Szilvágyi, Jakub Panuska, Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Ákos Wolf, Péter Tildy, Richard P. Ray

Abstract:

Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.

Keywords: Bender element, ground response analysis, MASW, resonant column test, SCPT, torsional shear test.

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2129 Effect of Fill Material Density under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Khaled Z. Soliman

Abstract:

Due to limited areas and excessive cost of land for projects, backfilling process has become necessary. Also, backfilling will be done to overcome the un-leveling depths or raising levels of site construction, especially near the sea region. Therefore, backfilling soil materials used under the foundation of structures should be investigated regarding its effect on ground motion characteristics, especially at regions subjected to earthquakes. In this research, 60-meter thickness of sandy fill material was used above a fixed 240-meter of natural clayey soil underlying by rock formation to predict the modified ground motion characteristics effect at the foundation level. Comparison between the effect of using three different situations of fill material compaction on the recorded earthquake is studied, i.e. peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. The three different densities of the compacted fill material used in the study were very loose, medium dense and very dense sand deposits, respectively. Shake computer program was used to perform this study. Strong earthquake records, with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35 g, were used in the analysis. It was found that, higher compaction of fill material thickness has a significant effect on eliminating the earthquake ground motion properties at surface layer of fill material, near foundation level. It is recommended to consider the fill material characteristics in the design of foundations subjected to seismic motions. Future studies should be analyzed for different fill and natural soil deposits for different seismic conditions.

Keywords: Fill, material, density, compaction, earthquake, PGA.

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2128 A Ground Structure Method to Minimize the Total Installed Cost of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Filippo Ranalli, Forest Flager, Martin Fischer

Abstract:

This paper presents a ground structure method to optimize the topology and discrete member sizing of steel frame structures in order to minimize total installed cost, including material, fabrication and erection components. The proposed method improves upon existing cost-based ground structure methods by incorporating constructability considerations well as satisfying both strength and serviceability constraints. The architecture for the method is a bi-level Multidisciplinary Feasible (MDF) architecture in which the discrete member sizing optimization is nested within the topology optimization process. For each structural topology generated, the sizing optimization process seek to find a set of discrete member sizes that result in the lowest total installed cost while satisfying strength (member utilization) and serviceability (node deflection and story drift) criteria. To accurately assess cost, the connection details for the structure are generated automatically using accurate site-specific cost information obtained directly from fabricators and erectors. Member continuity rules are also applied to each node in the structure to improve constructability. The proposed optimization method is benchmarked against conventional weight-based ground structure optimization methods resulting in an average cost savings of up to 30% with comparable computational efficiency.

Keywords: Cost-based structural optimization, cost-based topology and sizing optimization, steel frame ground structure optimization, multidisciplinary optimization of steel structures.

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2127 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investigation

Authors: M. Elassaly

Abstract:

Damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story RC building.

Keywords: Damage, frequency content, ground motion, PGA, RC building, seismic.

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2126 SIPINA Induction Graph Method for Seismic Risk Prediction

Authors: B. Selma

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of SIPINA method to predict the harmfulness parameters controlling the seismic response. The approach developed takes into consideration both the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration. The parameter to determine is displacement. The data used for the learning of this method and analysis nonlinear seismic are described and applied to a class of models damaged to some typical structures of the existing urban infrastructure of Jassy, Romania. The results obtained indicate an influence of the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration on the displacement.

Keywords: SIPINA method, seism, focal depth, peak ground acceleration, displacement.

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2125 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: Isolated bridges, optimal design, near-fault motion, supplemental damping.

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2124 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

Abstract:

Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: Partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode.

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2123 Design of a Tuning Fork type UWB Patch Antenna

Authors: A. H. M. Zahirul Alam, Rafiqul Islam, Sheroz Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a tuning fork type structure of Ultra Wideband (UWB) antenna is proposed. The antenna offers excellent performance for UWB system, ranging from 3.7 GHz to 13.8 GHz. The antenna exhibits a 10 dB return loss bandwidth over the entire frequency band. The rectangular patch antenna is designed on FR4 substrate and fed with 50 ohms microstrip line by optimizing the width of partial ground, the width and position of the feedline to operate in UWB. The rectangular patch is then modified to tuning fork structure by maintaining UWB frequency range.

Keywords: Ultra wide band, antenna, microstrip, partial groundplane.

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2122 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system can reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation has been evaluated numerically in two cases; in the first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles were the parameters which varied in this study to find out how they affected the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity.

Keywords: Soft clay, Strip piled raft, Bearing capacity, Settlement.

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2121 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang

Abstract:

Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: Vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component.

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2120 Measurement of Small PD-S in Compressed SF6(10%) - N2(90%) Gas Mixture

Authors: B. Rajesh Kamath, J. Sundara Rajan

Abstract:

Partial Discharge measurement is a very important means of assessing the integrity of insulation systems in a High Voltage apparatus. In compressed gas insulation systems, floating particles can initiate partial discharge activities which adversely affect the working of insulation. Partial Discharges below the inception voltage also plays a crucial in damaging the integrity of insulation over a period of time. This paper discusses the effect of loose and fixed Copper and Nichrome wire particles on the PD characteristics in SF6-N2 (10:90) gas mixtures at a pressure of 0.4MPa. The Partial Discharge statistical parameters and their correlation to the observed results are discussed.

Keywords: Gas Insulated transmission Line, Sulphur HexaFlouride, metallic Particles, Partial Discharge (PD), InceptionVoltage (Vi), Extinction Voltage (Ve), PD Statistical parameters.

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2119 Estimation of Seismic Ground Motion and Shaking Parameters Based On Microtremor Measurements at Palu City, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Authors: P. S. Thein, S. Pramumijoyo, K. S. Brotopuspito, J. Kiyono, W. Wilopo, A. Furukawa, A. Setianto

Abstract:

In this study, we estimated the seismic ground motion parameters based on microtremor measurements atPalu City. Several earthquakes have struck along the Palu-Koro Fault during recent years. The USGS epicenter, magnitude Mw 6.3 event that occurred on January 23, 2005 caused several casualties. We conducted a microtremor survey to estimate the strong ground motion distribution during the earthquake. From this surveywe produced a map of the peak ground acceleration, velocity, seismic vulnerability index and ground shear strain maps in Palu City. We performed single observations of microtremor at 151 sites in Palu City. We also conducted8-site microtremors array investigation to gain a representative determination of the soil condition of subsurface structures in Palu City.From the array observations, Palu City corresponds to relatively soil condition with Vs ≤ 300m/s, the predominant periods due to horizontal vertical ratios (HVSRs) are in the range of 0.4 to 1.8 s and the frequency are in the range of 0.7 to 3.3 Hz. Strong ground motions of the Palu area were predicted based on the empirical stochastic green’s function method. Peak ground acceleration and velocity becomes more than 400 gal and 30 kine in some areas, which causes severe damage for buildings in high probability. Microtremor survey results showed that in hilly areas had low seismic vulnerability index and ground shear strain, whereas in coastal alluvium was composed of material having a high seismic vulnerability and ground shear strain indication.

Keywords: Palu-Koro Fault, Microtremor, Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity and Seismic Vulnerability Index.

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2118 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

Authors: Dursun Aydın

Abstract:

In this paper, estimation of the linear regression model is made by ordinary least squares method and the partially linear regression model is estimated by penalized least squares method using smoothing spline. Then, it is investigated that differences and similarity in the sum of squares related for linear regression and partial linear regression models (semi-parametric regression models). It is denoted that the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in partial linear regression models. Furthermore, we indicated that various sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to different deviance statements in partial linear regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the partial linear regression model. For this aim, it is made two different applications. A simulated and a real data set are considered to prove the claim mentioned here. In this way, this study is supported with a simulation and a real data example.

Keywords: Partial Linear Regression Model, Linear RegressionModel, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

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2117 Effect of Fine-Ground Ceramic Admixture on Early Age Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, P. Volfová, M. Keppert, R. Černý

Abstract:

Properties of cement pastes with fine-ground ceramics used as an alternative binder replacing Portland cement up to 20% of its mass are investigated. At first, the particle size distribution of cement and fine-ground ceramics is measured using laser analyser. Then, the material properties are studied in the early hardening period up to 28 days. The hydration process of studied materials is monitored by electrical conductivity measurement using TDR sensors. The changes of materials- structures within the hardening are observed using pore size distribution measurement. The compressive strength measurements are done as well. Experimental results show that the replacement of Portland cement by fine-ground ceramics in the amount of up to 20% by mass is acceptable solution from the mechanical point of view. One can also assume similar physical properties of designed materials to the reference material with only Portland cement as binder.

Keywords: Fine-ground ceramics, cement pastes, early age properties, mechanical properties, pore size distribution, electrical conductivity measurement.

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2116 Understanding the Discharge Activities in Transformer Oil under AC and DC Voltage Adopting UHF Technique

Authors: R. Sarathi, G. Koperundevi

Abstract:

Design of Converter transformer insulation is a major challenge. The insulation of these transformers is stressed by both AC and DC voltages. Particle contamination is one of the major problems in insulation structures, as they generate partial discharges leading it to major failure of insulation. Similarly corona discharges occur in transformer insulation. This partial discharge due to particle movement / corona formation in insulation structure under different voltage wave shapes, are different. In the present study, UHF technique is adopted to understand the discharge activity and could be realized that the characteristics of UHF signal generated under low and high fields are different. In the case of corona generated signal, the frequency content of the UHF sensor output lies in the range 0.3-1.2 GHz and is not much varied except for its increase in magnitude of discharge with the increase in applied voltage. It is realized that the current signal injected due to partial discharges/corona is about 4ns duration measured for first one half cycle. Wavelet technique is adopted in the present study. It allows one to identify the frequency content present in the signal at different instant of time. The STD-MRA analysis helps one to identify the frequency band in which the energy content of the UHF signal is maximum.

Keywords: Contamination, Insulation, Partial Discharges, Transformer oil, UHF sensors.

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2115 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: Partial discharges, condition monitoring, MPD 540, cavities/defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA.

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2114 Prediction of Seismic Damage Using Scalar Intensity Measures Based On Integration of Spectral Values

Authors: Konstantinos G. Kostinakis, Asimina M. Athanatopoulou

Abstract:

A key issue in seismic risk analysis within the context of Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering is the evaluation of the expected seismic damage of structures under a specific earthquake ground motion. The assessment of the seismic performance strongly depends on the choice of the seismic Intensity Measure (IM), which quantifies the characteristics of a ground motion that are important to the nonlinear structural response. Several conventional IMs of ground motion have been used to estimate their damage potential to structures. Yet, none of them has been proved to be able to predict adequately the seismic damage. Therefore, alternative, scalar intensity measures, which take into account not only ground motion characteristics but also structural information have been proposed. Some of these IMs are based on integration of spectral values over a range of periods, in an attempt to account for the information that the shape of the acceleration, velocity or displacement spectrum provides. The adequacy of a number of these IMs in predicting the structural damage of 3D R/C buildings is investigated in the present paper. The investigated IMs, some of which are structure specific and some are non structure-specific, are defined via integration of spectral values. To achieve this purpose three symmetric in plan R/C buildings are studied. The buildings are subjected to 59 bidirectional earthquake ground motions. The two horizontal accelerograms of each ground motion are applied along the structural axes. The response is determined by nonlinear time history analysis. The structural damage is expressed in terms of the maximum interstory drift as well as the overall structural damage index. The values of the aforementioned seismic damage measures are correlated with seven scalar ground motion IMs. The comparative assessment of the results revealed that the structure-specific IMs present higher correlation with the seismic damage of the three buildings. However, the adequacy of the IMs for estimation of the structural damage depends on the response parameter adopted. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the widely used spectral acceleration at the fundamental period of the structure is a good indicator of the expected earthquake damage level.

Keywords: Damage measures, Bidirectional excitation, Spectral based IMs, R/C buildings.

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2113 Adomian Decomposition Method Associated with Boole-s Integration Rule for Goursat Problem

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ros Fadilah Deraman, Siti Salmah Yasiran

Abstract:

The Goursat partial differential equation arises in linear and non linear partial differential equations with mixed derivatives. This equation is a second order hyperbolic partial differential equation which occurs in various fields of study such as in engineering, physics, and applied mathematics. There are many approaches that have been suggested to approximate the solution of the Goursat partial differential equation. However, all of the suggested methods traditionally focused on numerical differentiation approaches including forward and central differences in deriving the scheme. An innovation has been done in deriving the Goursat partial differential equation scheme which involves numerical integration techniques. In this paper we have developed a new scheme to solve the Goursat partial differential equation based on the Adomian decomposition (ADM) and associated with Boole-s integration rule to approximate the integration terms. The new scheme can easily be applied to many linear and non linear Goursat partial differential equations and is capable to reduce the size of computational work. The accuracy of the results reveals the advantage of this new scheme over existing numerical method.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, Adomian decomposition method, Boole's integration rule.

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2112 Completion Number of a Graph

Authors: Sudhakar G

Abstract:

In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.

Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary

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