Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1337

Search results for: home user

1337 Role-based Access Control Model in Home Network Environments

Authors: Do-Woo Kim, Geon Woo Kim, Jun-Ho Lee, Jong-Wook Han

Abstract:

The home in these days has not one computer connected to the Internet but rather a network of many devices within the home, and that network might be connected to the Internet. In such an environment, the potential for attacks is greatly increased. The general security technology can not apply because of the use of various wired and wireless network, middleware and protocol in digital home environment and a restricted system resource of home information appliances. To offer secure home services home network environments have need of access control for various home devices and information when users want to access. Therefore home network access control for user authorization is a very important issue. In this paper we propose access control model using RBAC in home network environments to provide home users with secure home services.

Keywords: Home network, access control, RBAC, security.

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1336 Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware for Ubiquitous Home Networking Environments

Authors: Minwoo Son, Seung-Hun Lee, Dongkyoo Shin, Dongil Shin

Abstract:

The next stage of the home networking environment is supposed to be ubiquitous, where each piece of material is equipped with an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. To fully support the ubiquitous environment, home networking middleware should be able to recommend home services based on a user-s interests and efficiently manage information on service usage profiles for the users. Therefore, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) technology, which recognizes and manages a appliance-s state-information (location, capabilities, and so on) by connecting RFID tags is considered. The Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware (IMAM) architecture was proposed to intelligently manage the mobile RFID-based home networking and to automatically supply information about home services that match a user-s interests. Evaluation results for personalization services for IMAM using Bayesian-Net and Decision Trees are presented.

Keywords: Intelligent Agents, Home Network, Mobile RFID, Intelligent Middleware.

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1335 How to Connect User Research and not so Forthcoming Technology Scenarios – The Extended Home Environment Case Study

Authors: E. Guercio, A. Marcengo, A. Rapp

Abstract:

This paper draws a methodological framework adopted within an internal Telecomitalia project aimed to identify, on a user centred base, the potential interest towards a technological scenario aimed to extend on a personal bubble the typical communication and media fruition home environment. The problem is that involving user in the early stage of the development of such disruptive technology scenario asking users opinions on something that users actually do not manage even in a rough manner could lead to wrong or distorted results. For that reason we chose an approach that indirectly aim to understand users hidden needs in order to obtain a meaningful picture of the possible interest for a technological proposition non yet easily understandable.

Keywords: Personas, focus groups, scenarios, extended home environment, telecommunication, media.

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1334 ConductHome: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

Abstract:

This paper presents the interface ConductHome which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using “invariant gesture protocols”. This interface is meant to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development of a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: Automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability, leap motion, invariant.

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1333 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: A. Karaali

Abstract:

This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: Alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology.

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1332 Performance Comparison of Situation-Aware Models for Activating Robot Vacuum Cleaner in a Smart Home

Authors: Seongcheol Kwon, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

We assume an IoT-based smart-home environment where the on-off status of each of the electrical appliances including the room lights can be recognized in a real time by monitoring and analyzing the smart meter data. At any moment in such an environment, we can recognize what the household or the user is doing by referring to the status data of the appliances. In this paper, we focus on a smart-home service that is to activate a robot vacuum cleaner at right time by recognizing the user situation, which requires a situation-aware model that can distinguish the situations that allow vacuum cleaning (Yes) from those that do not (No). We learn as our candidate models a few classifiers such as naïve Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression that can map the appliance-status data into Yes and No situations. Our training and test data are obtained from simulations of user behaviors, in which a sequence of user situations such as cooking, eating, dish washing, and so on is generated with the status of the relevant appliances changed in accordance with the situation changes. During the simulation, both the situation transition and the resulting appliance status are determined stochastically. To compare the performances of the aforementioned classifiers we obtain their learning curves for different types of users through simulations. The result of our empirical study reveals that naïve Bayes achieves a slightly better classification accuracy than the other compared classifiers.

Keywords: Situation-awareness, Smart home, IoT, Machine learning, Classifier.

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1331 Application of Neural Network in User Authentication for Smart Home System

Authors: A. Joseph, D.B.L. Bong, D.A.A. Mat

Abstract:

Security has been an important issue and concern in the smart home systems. Smart home networks consist of a wide range of wired or wireless devices, there is possibility that illegal access to some restricted data or devices may happen. Password-based authentication is widely used to identify authorize users, because this method is cheap, easy and quite accurate. In this paper, a neural network is trained to store the passwords instead of using verification table. This method is useful in solving security problems that happened in some authentication system. The conventional way to train the network using Backpropagation (BPN) requires a long training time. Hence, a faster training algorithm, Resilient Backpropagation (RPROP) is embedded to the MLPs Neural Network to accelerate the training process. For the Data Part, 200 sets of UserID and Passwords were created and encoded into binary as the input. The simulation had been carried out to evaluate the performance for different number of hidden neurons and combination of transfer functions. Mean Square Error (MSE), training time and number of epochs are used to determine the network performance. From the results obtained, using Tansig and Purelin in hidden and output layer and 250 hidden neurons gave the better performance. As a result, a password-based user authentication system for smart home by using neural network had been developed successfully.

Keywords: Neural Network, User Authentication, Smart Home, Security

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1330 Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

Abstract:

It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such technologies would help. Knowledge of how cyber-attacks operate and protective steps that can be taken to reduce chances of its occurrence are key to increasing these security measures. The purpose of this paper is to inform home users on the importance of identifying and taking preventive steps to avoid cyberattacks. Throughout this paper, many aspects of cyber-attacks will be discuss: what a cyber-attack is, the affects of cyber-attack for home users, different types of cyber-attacks, methodology to prevent such attacks; home users can take to fortify security of their computer.

Keywords: Cyber-attacks, home user, prevention, security, technology.

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1329 Intelligent Home: SMS Based Home Security System with Immediate Feedback

Authors: Sheikh I. Azid, Bibhya Sharma

Abstract:

A low cost Short Message System (SMS) based Home security system equipped with motion, smoke, temperature, humidity and light sensors has been studied and tested. The sensors are controlled by a microprocessor PIC 18F4520 through the SMS having password protection code for the secure operation. The user is able to switch light and the appliances and get instant feedback. Also in cases of emergencies such as fire or robbery the system will send alert message to occupant and relevant civil authorities. The operation of the home security has been tested on Vodafone- Fiji network and Digicel Fiji Network for emergency and feedback responses for 25 samples. The experiment showed that it takes about 8-10s for the security system to respond in case of emergency. It takes about 18-22s for the occupant to switch and monitor lights and appliances and then get feedback depending upon the network traffic.

Keywords: Smart Home, SMS, Sensors, Microprocessor.

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1328 Scheduling Method for Electric Heater in HEMS Considering User’s Comfort

Authors: Yong-Sung Kim, Je-Seok Shin, Ho-Jun Jo Jin-O Kim

Abstract:

Home Energy Management System (HEMS), which makes the residential consumers, contribute to the demand response is attracting attention in recent years. An aim of HEMS is to minimize their electricity cost by controlling the use of their appliances according to electricity price. The use of appliances in HEMS may be affected by some conditions such as external temperature and electricity price. Therefore, the user’s usage pattern of appliances should be modeled according to the external conditions, and the resultant usage pattern is related to the user’s comfortability on use of each appliances. This paper proposes a methodology to model the usage pattern based on the historical data with the copula function. Through copula function, the usage range of each appliance can be obtained and is able to satisfy the appropriate user’s comfort according to the external conditions for next day. Within the usage range, an optimal scheduling for appliances would be conducted so as to minimize an electricity cost with considering user’s comfort. Among the home appliance, electric heater (EH) is a representative appliance, which is affected by the external temperature. In this paper, an optimal scheduling algorithm for an electric heater (EH) is addressed based on the method of branch and bound. As a result, scenarios for the EH usage are obtained according to user’s comfort levels and then the residential consumer would select the best scenario. The case study shows the effects of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional operation of the EH, and it represents impacts of the comfort level on the scheduling result.

Keywords: Load scheduling, usage pattern, user’s comfort, copula function, branch, bound, electric heater.

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1327 A Study on User Authentication Method Using Haptic Actuator and Security Evaluation

Authors: YoHan Choi, HeeSuk Seo, SeungHwan Ju, SungHyu Han

Abstract:

As currently various portable devices were launched, smart business conducted using them became common. Since smart business can use company-internal resources in an exlternal remote place, user authentication that can identify authentic users is an important factor. Commonly used user authentication is a method of using user ID and Password. In the user authentication using ID and Password, the user should see and enter authentication information him or her. In this user authentication system depending on the user’s vision, there is the threat of password leaks through snooping in the process which the user enters his or her authentication information. This study designed and produced a user authentication module using an actuator to respond to the snooping threat.

Keywords: Actuator, User Authentication, Security Evaluation.

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1326 Home Network-Specific RBAC Model

Authors: Geon-Woo Kim, Do-Woo Kim, Jun-Ho Lee, Jin-Beon Hwang, Jong-Wook Han

Abstract:

As various mobile sensing technologies, remote control and ubiquitous infrastructure are developing and expectations on quality of life are increasing, a lot of researches and developments on home network technologies and services are actively on going, Until now, we have focused on how to provide users with high-level home network services, while not many researches on home network security for guaranteeing safety are progressing. So, in this paper, we propose an access control model specific to home network that provides various kinds of users with home network services up one-s characteristics and features, and protects home network systems from illegal/unnecessary accesses or intrusions.

Keywords: Home network security, RBAC, access control, authentication.

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1325 Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application

Authors: Lochan Basyal

Abstract:

Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address “[email protected]” with subject heading “Device Control” with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.

Keywords: Control circuit, email, global automation, internet of things, Raspberry Pi.

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1324 Personalization and the Universal Communications Identifier Concept

Authors: Françoise Petersen, Mike Pluke, Tatiana Kovacikova, Giovanni Bartolomeo

Abstract:

As communications systems and technology become more advanced and complex, it will be increasingly important to focus on users- individual needs. Personalization and effective user profile management will be necessary to ensure the uptake and success of new services and devices and it is therefore important to focus on the users- requirements in this area and define solutions that meet these requirements. The work on personalization and user profiles emerged from earlier ETSI work on a Universal Communications Identifier (UCI) which is a unique identifier of the user rather than a range of identifiers of the many of communication devices or services (e.g. numbers of fixed phone at home/work, mobile phones, fax and email addresses). This paper describes work on personalization including standardized information and preferences and an architectural framework providing a description of how personalization can be integrated in Next Generation Networks, together with the UCI concept.

Keywords: Interoperability, Next Generation Network (NGN), Personalization, Universal Communications Identifier (UCI), User Profile Management (UPM)

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1323 Adoption of Lean Thinking and Service Improvement for Care Home Service

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

Ageing population is a global trend; therefore the need of care service has been increasing dramatically. There are three basic forms of service delivered to the elderly: institution, community, and home. Particularly, the institutional service can be seen as an extension of medical service. The nursing home or so-called care home which is equipped with professional staff and facilities can provide a variety of service including rehabilitation service, short-term care, and long term care. Similar to hospital and other health care service, care home service do need to provide quality and cost-effective service to satisfy the dwellers. The main purpose of this paper is to show how lean thinking and service innovation can be applied to care home operation. The issues and key factors of implementing lean practice are discussed.

Keywords: Lean, Service improvement, SERVQUAL, Care home service.

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1322 On Adaptive, Auto-Configurable Apps

Authors: Prisa Damrongsiri, Kittinan Pongpianskul, Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

Abstract:

Apps are today the most important possibility to adapt mobile phones and computers to fulfill the special needs of their users. Location- and context-sensitive programs are hereby the key to support the interaction of the user with his/her environment and also to avoid an overload with a plenty of dispensable information. The contribution shows, how a trusted, secure and really bi-directional communication and interaction among users and their environment can be established and used, e.g. in the field of home automation.

Keywords: Apps, context-sensitive, location-sensitive, selfconfiguration, mobile computing, smart home.

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1321 Ontology and CDSS Based Intelligent Health Data Management in Health Care Server

Authors: Eun-Jung Ko, Hyung-Jik Lee, Jeun-Woo Lee

Abstract:

In ubiqutious healthcare environment, user's health data are transfered to the remote healthcare server by the user's wearable system or mobile phone. These collected user's health data should be managed and analyzed in the healthcare server, so that care giver or user can monitor user's physiological state. In this paper, we designed and developed the intelligent Healthcare Server to manage the user's health data using CDSS and ontology. Our system can analyze user's health data semantically using CDSS and ontology, and report the result of user's physiological raw data to the user and care giver.

Keywords: u-healthcare, CDSS, healthcare server, health data, ontology.

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1320 Web-Based Control and Notification for Home Automation Alarm Systems

Authors: Helder Adão, Rui Antunes, Frederico Grilo

Abstract:

This paper describes the project and development of a very low-cost and small electronic prototype, especially designed for monitoring and controlling existing home automation alarm systems (intruder, smoke, gas, flood, etc.), via TCP/IP, with a typical web browser. Its use will allow home owners to be immediately alerted and aware when an alarm event occurs, and being also able to interact with their home automation alarm system, disarming, arming and watching event alerts, with a personal wireless Wi-Fi PDA or smartphone logged on to a dedicated predefined web page, and using also a PC or Laptop.

Keywords: Alarm Systems, Home Automation, Web-Server, TCP/IP.

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1319 Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams

Authors: Ebitisam K. Elberkawi, Mohamed M. Elammari

Abstract:

Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through Activity Diagrams (AD).

Keywords: Activity Diagram, Graphical User Interface.

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1318 Video Mining for Creative Rendering

Authors: Mei Chen

Abstract:

More and more home videos are being generated with the ever growing popularity of digital cameras and camcorders. For many home videos, a photo rendering, whether capturing a moment or a scene within the video, provides a complementary representation to the video. In this paper, a video motion mining framework for creative rendering is presented. The user-s capture intent is derived by analyzing video motions, and respective metadata is generated for each capture type. The metadata can be used in a number of applications, such as creating video thumbnail, generating panorama posters, and producing slideshows of video.

Keywords: Motion mining, semantic abstraction, video mining, video representation.

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1317 Home-Network Security Model in Ubiquitous Environment

Authors: Dong-Young Yoo, Jong-Whoi Shin, Jin-Young Choi

Abstract:

Social interest and demand on Home-Network has been increasing greatly. Although various services are being introduced to respond to such demands, they can cause serious security problems when linked to the open network such as Internet. This paper reviews the security requirements to protect the service users with assumption that the Home-Network environment is connected to Internet and then proposes the security model based on the requirement. The proposed security model can satisfy most of the requirements and further can be dynamically applied to the future ubiquitous Home-Networks.

Keywords: Home-Network, Security, Vulnerability, Response, Countermeasure.

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1316 Wireless Power Transfer Application in GSM Controlled Robot for Home Automation

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Nirakar Behera, Kamal Lochan Biswal

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to combine the concept of wireless power transfer and GSM controlled robot for the application of home automation. The wireless power transfer concept can be well utilized to charge battery of the GSM controlled robot. When the robot has completed its task, it can come to the origin where it can charge itself. Robot can be charged wirelessly, when it is not performing any task. Combination of GSM controlled robot and wireless power transfer provides greater advantage such as; no wastage of charge stored in the battery when the robot is not doing any task. This provides greater reliability that at any instant, robot can do its work once it receives a message through GSM module. GSM module of the robot and user mobile phone must be interfaced properly, so that robot can do task when it receives message from same user mobile phone, not from any other phone. This paper approaches a robotic movement control through the smart phone and control of GSM robot is done by programming in Arduino environment. The commands used in controlling the robot movement are also explained.

Keywords: Arduino, automation, GSM controlled robot, GSM module, wireless power transfer.

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1315 A Proposal for Federation Technology for Authenticated Information between Terminals

Authors: Katsuyuki Umezawa, Takashi Tashiro, Satoru Tezuka

Abstract:

Recently, various services such as television and the Internet have come to be received through various terminals. However, we could gain greater convenience by receiving these services through cellular phone terminals when we go out and then continuing to receive the same services through a large screen digital television after we have come home. However, it is necessary to go through the same authentication processing again when using TVs after we have come home. In this study, we have developed an authentication method that enables users to switch terminals in environments in which the user receives service from a server through a terminal. Specifically, the method simplifies the authentication of the server side when switching from one terminal to another terminal by using previously authenticated information.

Keywords: Authentication, Cookie, Federation, GBA, IPSec

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1314 User Behavior Based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP) for Secure Near Field Communication

Authors: Vinay Gautam, Vivek Gautam

Abstract:

With increase in the unauthorized users access, it is required to increase the security in the Near Field Communication (NFC). In the paper we propose a user behavior based enhanced protocol entitled ‘User Behavior based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP)’ to increase the security in NFC enabled devices. The UBEP works on the history of interaction of a user with system.The propose protocol considers four different factors (touch, time and distance & angle) of user behavior to know the authenticity or authorization of the users. These factors can be same for a user during interaction with the system. The UBEP uses two phase user verification system to authenticate a user. Firstly the acquisition phase is used to acquire and store the user interaction with NFC device and the same information is used in future to detect the authenticity of the user. The second phase (recognition) uses analysis of current and previous scenario of user interaction and digital signature verification system to finally authenticate user. The analysis of user based input makes a NFC transaction more advance and secure. This security is very tactical because it is completely depends on usage of the device.

Keywords: Security, Network Field communication, NFC Protocol.

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1313 Design and Implementation of a WiFi Based Home Automation System

Authors: Ahmed ElShafee, Karim Alaa Hamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and prototype implementation of new home automation system that uses WiFi technology as a network infrastructure connecting its parts. The proposed system consists of two main components; the first part is the server (web server), which presents system core that manages, controls, and monitors users- home. Users and system administrator can locally (LAN) or remotely (internet) manage and control system code. Second part is hardware interface module, which provides appropriate interface to sensors and actuator of home automation system. Unlike most of available home automation system in the market the proposed system is scalable that one server can manage many hardware interface modules as long as it exists on WiFi network coverage. System supports a wide range of home automation devices like power management components, and security components. The proposed system is better from the scalability and flexibility point of view than the commercially available home automation systems.

Keywords: Home automation, Wireless LAN, WiFi, MicroControllers

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1312 Efficient Web Usage Mining Based on K-Medoids Clustering Technique

Authors: P. Sengottuvelan, T. Gopalakrishnan

Abstract:

Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to find usage patterns from web log data, so as to grasp required patterns and serve the requirements of Web-based applications. User’s expertise on the internet may be improved by minimizing user’s web access latency. This may be done by predicting the future search page earlier and the same may be prefetched and cached. Therefore, to enhance the standard of web services, it is needed topic to research the user web navigation behavior. Analysis of user’s web navigation behavior is achieved through modeling web navigation history. We propose this technique which cluster’s the user sessions, based on the K-medoids technique.

Keywords: Clustering, K-medoids, Recommendation, User Session, Web Usage Mining.

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1311 Resident-Aware Green Home

Authors: Ahlam Elkilani, Bayan Elsheikh Ali, Rasha Abu Romman, Amjed Al-mousa, Belal Sababha

Abstract:

The amount of energy the world uses doubles every 20 years. Green homes play an important role in reducing the residential energy demand. This paper presents a platform that is intended to learn the behavior of home residents and build a profile about their habits and actions. The proposed resident aware home controller intervenes in the operation of home appliances in order to save energy without compromising the convenience of the residents. The presented platform can be used to simulate the actions and movements happening inside a home. The paper includes several optimization techniques that are meant to save energy in the home. In addition, several test scenarios are presented that show how the controller works. Moreover, this paper shows the computed actual savings when each of the presented techniques is implemented in a typical home. The test scenarios have validated that the techniques developed are capable of effectively saving energy at homes.

Keywords: Green Home, Resident Aware, Resident Profile, Activity Learning, Machine Learning.

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1310 A Security Analysis for Home Gateway Architectures

Authors: Pierre Parrend, Stephane Frenot

Abstract:

Providing Services at Home has become over the last few years a very dynamic and promising technological domain. It is likely to enable wide dissemination of secure and automated living environments. We propose a methodology for identifying threats to Services at Home Delivery systems, as well as a threat analysis of a multi-provider Home Gateway architecture. This methodology is based on a dichotomous positive/preventive study of the target system: it aims at identifying both what the system must do, and what it must not do. This approach completes existing methods with a synthetic view of potential security flaws, thus enabling suitable measures to be taken into account. Security implications of the evolution of a given system become easier to deal with. A prototype is built based on the conclusions of this analysis.

Keywords: Security requirements, Connected Home, OSGi, Sofware Components.

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1309 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media - A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continues to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users’ preferences may be influenced by their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey, investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic version of the user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Culture, Facebook, Saudi Arabia, Social media, User Interface Design.

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1308 Towards an Extended SQLf: Bipolar Query Language with Preferences

Authors: L. Ludovic, R. Daniel, S-E Tbahriti

Abstract:

Database management systems that integrate user preferences promise better solution for personalization, greater flexibility and higher quality of query responses. This paper presents a tentative work that studies and investigates approaches to express user preferences in queries. We sketch an extend capabilities of SQLf language that uses the fuzzy set theory in order to define the user preferences. For that, two essential points are considered: the first concerns the expression of user preferences in SQLf by so-called fuzzy commensurable predicates set. The second concerns the bipolar way in which these user preferences are expressed on mandatory and/or optional preferences.

Keywords: Flexible query language, relational database, userpreference.

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